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Tainan
Tainan
( Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ: Tâi-lâm), officially Tainan
Tainan
City, is a special municipality of Taiwan, facing the Formosan Strait or Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait in the west and south. Tainan
Tainan
is the oldest city on the island of Taiwan and also commonly known as the "Capital City" (府城; Fǔchéng; Hú-siâⁿ) for its over 200 years of history as the capital of Taiwan
Taiwan
under Koxinga
Koxinga
and later Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
rule. Tainan's complex history of comebacks, redefinitions and renewals inspired its popular nickname "the Phoenix City".[8] As Taiwan's oldest urban area, Tainan
Tainan
was initially established by the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(VOC) as a ruling and trading base called Fort Zeelandia during the period of Dutch rule on the island. After Dutch colonists were defeated by Koxinga
Koxinga
in 1661, Tainan
Tainan
remained as the capital of the Tungning Kingdom until 1683 and afterwards the capital of Taiwan
Taiwan
Prefecture under Qing Dynasty rule until 1887, when the new provincial capital was moved to Taipei. Tainan
Tainan
has been historically regarded as one of the oldest cities in Taiwan, and its former name, Tayouan, has been claimed to be the origin of the name "Taiwan". It is also one of Taiwan's cultural capitals, for its rich folk cultures including the famous local street food and traditional cuisine, extensively preserved Taoist
Taoist
rites and other living local traditions covering everything from child birth to funerals. The city houses the first Confucian school–temple in Taiwan, built in 1665,[9] the remains of the Eastern and Southern gates of the old city, and countless other historical monuments. Tainan
Tainan
claims more Buddhist
Buddhist
and Taoist
Taoist
temples than any other city in Taiwan.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 Dutch Colony 1.3 Kingdom of Tungning 1.4 Qing dynasty 1.5 Empire of Japan 1.6 Republic of China

2 Culture

2.1 Folk cultures 2.2 Tainan
Tainan
cuisine 2.3 Temples 2.4 Music 2.5 Museums and parks

3 Tourism

3.1 Taiwan
Taiwan
Confucian Temple 3.2 National Museum of Taiwan
Taiwan
History 3.3 National Museum of Taiwan
Taiwan
Literature 3.4 Fort Provintia 3.5 Shopping and Recreation 3.6 Bee hives

4 Climate 5 Cityscape

5.1 The Great Cross Street 5.2 Japanese Redevelopment Program 5.3 Three Ring Belts 5.4 The River South Region 5.5 The River North Region

6 Government and Politics

6.1 City mayor 6.2 Presidential elections

6.2.1 1996 Presidential election 6.2.2 2000 Presidential election 6.2.3 2004 Presidential election 6.2.4 2008 Presidential election 6.2.5 2012 Presidential election

7 Administrative districts 8 Economy

8.1 Industry 8.2 Agriculture 8.3 Tourism 8.4 Retail

9 Transportation

9.1 Rail 9.2 Public Transport 9.3 Road 9.4 Air

10 Education

10.1 Senior high schools

11 Notable natives 12 Sports 13 International relations

13.1 Twin towns — Sister cities

13.1.1 Friendship cities 13.1.2 Domestic

14 Relative location 15 See also 16 References 17 External links

History[edit] Early history[edit] Archaeological excavations in the township of Zuozhen suggest that the Tainan
Tainan
region has been inhabited for at least 20,000 to 31,000 years. The indigenous Siraya tribe dominated the region by the 16th century. The Sakam people of the Sinkan sub-tribe inhabited the area of the present-day city.[10] Other Sirayan sub-tribes, including the Soelangh, Mattauw and Baccloangh inhabited the surrounding area. By the late 16th century, Chinese merchants and fishermen had set up several bases along the west coast of the island, including a sandbar across the Taikang Inner Sea (Chinese: 臺江內海; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-kang lāi-hái) off the bay of Sakam village (modern-day Fort Provintia). The Chinese adopted Taioan (zh) (modern-day Anping) as the name of the sandbar.[10][11][12] Slightly north of Taioan, along the shoreline near Bassemboy (北線尾; Pak-siàn-bóe), Japanese traders established bases for trade with China.[11] The early Chinese and Japanese also traded with the Sirayan people. Salt and food was exchanged for deer hides and dried deer meat. The Siraya people were influenced by both Chinese and Japanese cultures and lifestyles. They started to use Chinese words in their language, use Japanese tantō in ritual events, and also migrated inland due to the influx of newcomers. By the time the Europeans arrived, the influence of Chinese and Japanese traders and fishermen was already prominent.[11][13] Dutch Colony[edit]

Anping Fort (site of the Fort Zeelandia)

Main article: Dutch Formosa Early Dutch colonists had attempted but failed to control Macau
Macau
and the Penghu
Penghu
islands. In July 1622, the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
textile merchant Cornelis Reyersz sailed to Taiwan
Taiwan
in search of a suitable location to build a trading post. In 1624 he established a small fort named 'Orange' on the sandy peninsula they called Tayouan (modern-day Anping). The fort was then expanded and renamed Fort Zeelandia. The settlement was initially designed as a base to attack their Spanish rivals and as a trading post between China
China
and Batavia in Indonesia. Later the post became the center of Dutch trade between China, Japan and Europe.[11][13] During the governorship of Pieter Nuyts (1627–29), there was hostility between the Dutch and Japanese merchants, leading at one point to Nuyts being held hostage by a Japanese trader, Hamada Yahee.[12][13] The Dutch pacification campaign on Formosa
Dutch pacification campaign on Formosa
was a series of military actions and diplomatic moves undertaken in 1635 and 1636. They aimed at subduing hostile aboriginal villages in the south-western region of the island. In 1642 the Dutch seized the Spanish garrison at Santisima Trinidad in Keelung. The Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
became the first authority to claim control of the whole of Formosa, with Fort Zeelandia as the seat of government.[14] Tensions arose between the Dutch and the Chinese inhabitants of Taiwan due to heavy Dutch taxation and Dutch participation in plunder during the collapse of the Ming dynasty. Eventually, this led to the brief, but bloody, Guo Huaiyi Rebellion
Guo Huaiyi Rebellion
in 1652.[13] The Dutch crushed the revolt only with the help of the local Sinkanese. The settlements near to Fort Zeelandia expanded as a result of the Dutch trading post in the area. In 1653, the Dutch built a new fort, Fort Provintia, in the Sakam area as a center for an agricultural colony. The Dutch encouraged Chinese farmers to migrate to Taiwan
Taiwan
to grow rice and sugar cane. The Dutch settlement in southern Taiwan
Taiwan
was so successful that, by the 1650s, it had overtaken Batavia.[11] Kingdom of Tungning[edit]

Statue of Koxinga
Koxinga
in Koxinga's Shrine

Main article: Kingdom of Tungning Koxinga
Koxinga
(also known as Zheng Chenggong) was a Ming loyalist and chief commander of the Ming troops on the maritime front for the later emperors of the withering dynasty. In 1661, Koxinga
Koxinga
attacked the Dutch colonists in Taiwan. After a nine-month siege, the Dutch Governor of Taiwan, Frederik Coyett, surrendered Fort Zeelandia to Koxinga
Koxinga
on 1 February 1662.[11] This effectively ended 38 years of Dutch rule on Taiwan. Koxinga
Koxinga
then devoted himself to transforming Taiwan
Taiwan
into a military base for loyalists who wanted to restore the Ming Dynasty. Koxinga
Koxinga
set about making Taiwan
Taiwan
a base for the Ming loyalist movement. Fort Provintia
Fort Provintia
was renamed Tungtu, and Fort Zeelandia became Anping. Koxinga
Koxinga
set up military colonies on the surrounding plains to help feed his forces.[15] Many suburbs surrounding Tainan
Tainan
City today include in their names "Ying", "Jia", and "Tian", all derived from this event. After the death of Koxinga
Koxinga
in 1662, his son, Zheng Jing, changed the name of Dongdu to Dong Ning. His chief minister, Chen Yonghua (zh), introduced Chinese bureaucracy, built the first Confucius temple on the island, and introduced the method of salt production to coastal areas. The British were invited to set up a trading post in Anping to continue trade between Taiwan, Japan, and South East Asia. This helped to maintain the region as a center of trade. Qing dynasty[edit]

Jieguanting (接官亭) in Go-tiau-kang, Tainan
Tainan
gateway to the sea during Qing dynasty

Main article: Taiwan
Taiwan
under Qing rule The death of Zheng Jing
Zheng Jing
in 1681 was followed by a struggle for succession. Seizing the advantage presented by the infighting, on July 17, 1683, Qing naval commander Shi Lang
Shi Lang
defeated the Tungning fleet in the Battle of Penghu. Two days later, Qing troops landed at Tungning and encountered little resistance. In 1684 the kingdom was incorporated into the Qing Empire as part of Fujian
Fujian
province, ending two decades of rule by the Zheng family.[13] Taiwan
Taiwan
Prefecture was established, with its prefectural seat Taiwan-fu at modern-day Tainan. In 1721, Chinese peasants and indigenous tribes rose in rebellion against Qing misrule. The rebels, led by Zhu Yigui, captured Tainan without a fight. Turmoil ensued as the rebels soon fought amongst themselves. It was only after a Qing army was dispatched from mainland China
China
that order was restored. Zhu was captured and executed. As Qing law prohibited the building of city walls in Taiwan, Qing authorities decided to create a defensive boundary around the city by growing bamboo around the perimeter. After several further uprisings across the island, work on a city wall began in the late 1780s.[10] A flood in 1823 brought rich silt from nearby rivers, which formed a widespread new fertile plain across the Taijiang bay area between Tainan
Tainan
and Anping. A canal system called Go-tiau-kang (五條港; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Gō͘-tiâu-káng) was built to keep the port in Tainan functioning but prevented large ships from entering the bay.[10] After 174 years of restrictions on trade with the Europeans, the Qing reopened Anping port as part of the Tianjin treaty following the Second Opium War
Second Opium War
in 1858. The Anping Customs house was established in 1864. Western merchants built trading posts near the remains of Fort Zeelandia. Following the murder of 54 Japanese sailors by Paiwan aborigines near the southwestern tip of Taiwan
Taiwan
in 1871, the punitive Japanese Expedition of 1874 to Taiwan
Taiwan
revealed the fragility of the Qing dynasty's hold on Taiwan. As a result, the Qing sent the imperial commissioner Shen Baozhen
Shen Baozhen
to Taiwan
Taiwan
to strengthen its defense. In Tainan, Shen made several efforts to modernize the defenses including inviting French engineers to design the Eternal Golden Castle
Eternal Golden Castle
in Erkunshen. He also recommended setting up a telegraph cable link between Tainan
Tainan
and Amoy.[10][13] Some parts of the castle were built using bricks taken from Fort Zeelandia.[16] After over 200 years of development, Tainan, known as Taiwan-fu, had become the largest city in Taiwan
Taiwan
and a Chinese city with foreign influence. The following is a description of the city by the Scottish missionary William Campbell upon his first arrival to the island in 1871:

As to Taiwan-fu itself, I may say that the brick wall which surrounds it is about fifteen feet in thickness, twenty-five in height, and some five miles in circumference. Lofty watch-towers are built over the four main gateways, and large spaces within the city are given to the principal temples and yamens—or quarters occupied by the civil and military mandarins. There is much need in Taiwan-fu for the carrying out of a City Improvement Scheme. Pleasant walks, no doubt, there are, and some of the shops have an appearance which is decidedly attractive; but, as a rule, the streets are narrow, winding, ill-paved, and odorous.[17]

In 1885, the Qing government commenced work to develop the island into Taiwan
Taiwan
Province. The capital of the island, or "Taiwan-fu", was moved to Toatun (modern-day Taichung), and therefore the old Taiwan-fu was renamed to the name it bears today – Tainan(-fu), the seat of Tainan Prefecture. Empire of Japan[edit]

Tainan
Tainan
Butokuden (Martial Arts Hall)

Tainan
Tainan
Prefecture

As a consequence of the Chinese losing the First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
in 1895, Taiwan
Taiwan
and the Penghu
Penghu
Islands were ceded to Japan
Japan
by the Treaty of Shimonoseki. The Republic of Formosa
Republic of Formosa
was proclaimed in Tainan
Tainan
in May 1895, in an effort to pre-empt the Japanese occupation. A Japanese army arrived at Tainan
Tainan
in October 1895. Liu Yongfu
Liu Yongfu
and the other Republican leaders fled, leaving the city in disarray. A Scottish missionary, Thomas Barclay, was chosen by local elites and foreign merchants to negotiate the Japanese entry into the city. As a result, Tainan
Tainan
was taken without resistance. Under Japanese rule, Tainan
Tainan
was initially administered under Tainan
Tainan
Ken (臺南縣).[10] With a population of about 50,000 in 1904, Tainan
Tainan
was Taiwan's most populous city.[18] The anti-Japanese uprising known as the Tapani Incident
Tapani Incident
began in Ta-pa-ni (modern-day Yujing) on April 9, 1915. The revolt, led by Yu Qingfang (zh), spread quickly across the whole island and was supported by both Chinese and indigenous Taiwanese. The Japanese crushed the uprising. Many villages were destroyed and thousands of people were killed during the repression which followed. Yu Qingfang was captured on August 22, 1915. More than 800 people were sentenced to death in Tainan. Over 100 of them were executed while the rest were pardoned by the new Taishō Emperor. The place where the rebellion began, Xilai Temple in Tainan
Tainan
(臺南西來庵), was demolished.[10] The event marked a turning point in Japanese policy, from forced pacification to modernisation and integration of Taiwan
Taiwan
into the Japanese Empire. The Japanese renamed the city to Tainan
Tainan
Chō (臺南廳) in 1901, and then Tainan
Tainan
Shū (臺南州) in 1920. Tainan Prefecture
Tainan Prefecture
included modern-day Yunlin, Chiayi, and the wider region of Tainan. Tainan served as the capital city. The Japanese transformed Tainan
Tainan
by building modern infrastructure, including schools, a courthouse, city hall, new telecommunication facilities, an extensive freight and passenger rail network, a new Anping canal replacing the Go-tiau-kang, an airport, and an irrigation system across the Tainan
Tainan
and Chiayi regions. Modern urban designs were introduced; old narrow streets and city walls were demolished and replaced with wide streets that form the cityscape of the modern-day Tainan
Tainan
city center.[12] They also introduced much needed sanitary reforms.[19] Republic of China[edit]

Tainan
Tainan
City in 1945-2010

The Republic of China
Republic of China
(ROC) took over Taiwan
Taiwan
on 25 October 1945 after World War II. Tainan
Tainan
City and Tainan County
Tainan County
were established and became separate local entities under Taiwan
Taiwan
Province in 1946. There was civil unrest in Tainan
Tainan
as part of the February 28 Incident
February 28 Incident
in 1947. Tang De-Jhang, a Japanese mixed blood and Japanese educated lawyer, was a member of government which set up "The February 28 Incident Commission" and a popular candidate for city mayor, was accused of being a separatist and arrested by the ROC army on March 11. He was tortured and executed the next day in the park in front of Tainan
Tainan
City Hall (now named Tang De-jhang Memorial Park (zh)). Tang was posthumously pronounced not guilty by court later in March.[20] Like other regions in Taiwan, many people in Tainan suffered for their real or perceived opposition to the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party) during the autocratic era. The city held its first councilor and mayoral elections in 1950. In the 1960s, Tainan
Tainan
was overtaken by Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
as the economic center of southern Taiwan
Taiwan
due to the redevelopment of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
port. While Tainan
Tainan
City struggled through the second half of twentieth century, the county, especially the river south region, benefited from national priority development programmes. The completion of the National Highway No. 1 was followed by the building of many industrial parks and other road improvements. As a result, the city sprawled inland into North, East and then the Yongkang and Rende districts. In 1992, a redevelopment plan in the West district, to widen Haian Rd and build an underground plaza proved a failure as lack of geological surveying and overall planning meant that the works ran into a layer of groundwater. The development destroyed part of the historic Go-tiau-kang area. As a consequence, the Zhongzheng Road district, previously the most popular shopping precinct in Tainan
Tainan
since Japanese rule, went into decline due to the poor quality of the environment. By the mid-1990s, there was a growing awareness of the need to protect Tainan's historical and cultural treasures. Since then, the government and civil societies have worked to protect Tainan's heritage. It is an ongoing issue for Tainan
Tainan
to protect its past while reviving its old business center. Following the establishment of the Southern Taiwan
Taiwan
Science Park in 1995, the outskirt of the city saw a rapid growth in population through the 2000s. The city became more prosperous after the completion of several major transport infrastructure plans. The city center shifted eastward in the mid-1990s, closer to the densely populated Yongkang, East and North districts. There are several redevelopment plans to transform these districts into the new business centers of the city. On March 19, 2004, President Chen Shui-bian
Chen Shui-bian
was shot whilst campaigning for re-election in Tainan. The city has been a major center for the pro-independent movement since the end of Japanese rule. On October 21, 2008, Chinese ARATS Vice President Zhang Mingqing was injured when he encountered protesters in Tainan
Tainan
Confucius Temple.[21] On 25 December 2010, Tainan County
Tainan County
and Tainan
Tainan
City merged to become Tainan
Tainan
special municipality. On February 6, 2016, the area was hit by a 6.4 magnitude earthquake, causing 116 fatalities[22] and major damage, including building collapses (see 2016 Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
earthquake). Culture[edit]

Ritual adulthood celebration for all 16-year-olds

Ba-wan
Ba-wan
served with sweet sauce

Datianhou Gong, built in 1664

Tainan
Tainan
claims its name as one of the Taiwanese cultural capitals for its abundant historic monument and citizen lifestyle. The city is dotted by Taoist
Taoist
temples, Buddhist
Buddhist
temples and churches. Many of them are among the oldest in Taiwan. The city also has its own unique traditions and cuisines developed by Chinese frontiers over its long history. Folk cultures[edit] The lives of Tainan
Tainan
citizens are closely related to many Chinese gods and temples. Parents bring their children to the "Weaving Maid goddess" (Chinese: 七娘媽; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Chhit-niû-má), the children’s goddess, to wish for good will. Traditionally Chinese people step into adulthood when they are 16. In Tainan, there is a large ritual celebration for all 16-year-olds on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month, the goddess's birthday. This extended celebration is unique to Tainan: In the past, families with children working in the harbor took the advantage of this ceremony to show the employers that their children should be paid in adult rate after this day. Before any form of exam people visit a temple of Wenchangdijun, the literacy god, to pray for good luck. One of the Wenchang temples is on the top floor of the Fort Provintia. Many final year high school students preparing for university exams visit the temple in June, before the exam. Those asking for marriage visit Yuelao, the god for marriages. People also visit temples for many reasons, from simply praying for good luck to celebrating god’s birthday to even consulting with the other world.[23] A wedding ceremony in Tainan
Tainan
is a series of complex processes that are very exact and detailed. Both groom and bride need to prepare 12 specific gifts representing different meanings during their engagement ceremony with more to come in the wedding. People believe this complexity is a sign of being civilized.[23] Anping residents use a special symbol called Sword Lion to keep bad spirits away. During Zheng’s regime, Anping was one of Koxinga's main naval stations. When returning home from military drills, soldiers would put lion-face shields on the main gates of their houses and insert their swords crosswise in the lion’s mouth. Locals incorporate this symbol into the design of their houses as a symbol of security.[24] Tainan
Tainan
cuisine[edit] Many well-known Taiwanese food dishes originated in Tainan. Since Tainan
Tainan
was a center of sugar production, Tainan
Tainan
cuisine tends to be sweeter than other Taiwanese cuisines. For example, eel noodle soup has a distinctive sweet and sour taste. Milkfish
Milkfish
dishes are very popular in Tainan, where locals also call it "Koxinga's fish" (Chinese: 國姓魚; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: kok-sèng-hî). People believe the Chinese name of the fish (虱目魚; sat-ba̍k-hî) was given by Koxinga, and this name has been loaned into Japanese as sabahī (サバヒー). The fish are bred in farms located in the coastal outskirts of the city. Many Tainan
Tainan
restaurants and snack stands have histories that trace back to the Qing or Japanese eras.[23] On Guo Hua Street (國華街), a lot of restaurants and street vendors sell local cuisine, including such dishes as "savory rich pudding" (碗粿), oyster omelette, gua bao, and popiah. Local people tend to have these dishes either in the morning or at noon.[citation needed] Temples[edit]

Zhuxi Temple

Tainan
Tainan
is famous for its diversity and density of temples and shrines. Some of them are the only of its kind on Taiwan
Taiwan
Island. In all, there are officially listed seven Buddhist
Buddhist
temples and eight Taoist
Taoist
shrines (七寺八廟).[10] As of 2015[update], Tainan
Tainan
has the most numbers of registered temples among other municipalities, cities or counties in Taiwan, reaching 1,613 temples.[25] The seven Buddhist
Buddhist
temples are:

Kaiyuen Temple, originally the royal gardens of the Tungning Kingdom, became a Buddhist
Buddhist
temple in 1690. Zhuxi Temple, founded in the Tungning Kingdom period. Fahua Temple, founded in the Tungning Kingdom period. Mituo Temple, founded in the Tungning Kingdom period. Longshan Temple, founded in the Qing Dynasty. Chongqing Temple, founded in the Qing Dynasty. Huangbo Temple, founded in the Qing Dynasty but demolished by the Japanese. The worshiped statues were migrated to the Altar of Heaven temple.

The eight Taoist
Taoist
shrines are:

Grand Matsu Temple
Grand Matsu Temple
(大天后宮), in honor of the sea goddess Mazu. Originally the residence of the King Ningjing
King Ningjing
of the Tungning Kingdom. Sidian Wumiao
Sidian Wumiao
(祀典武廟), the Official God of War temple, built in 1665. Dongyue Dian (東嶽殿), the God of Hell temple, built in 1673. Fuchenghuang Miao (府城隍廟), the temple of the Prefecture City God, built in 1669. Longwang Miao (龍王廟), the shrine of the East Sea Dragon God, built in 1716 but demolished by the Japanese. Fengshen Miao (風神廟), the Wind God temple, built in 1739. It is the only Wind God temple on Taiwan
Taiwan
Island.[10] Yaowang Miao (藥王廟), the Medicine God temple, built in 1685. Shuixian Gong (水仙宮), the Water Gods temple, built in Qing Dynasty after Go-tiau-kang was constructed.

There are many other well-known temples and shrines not on this list, such as Anping District's Tianhou Temple (supposedly the oldest on Taiwan
Taiwan
proper), the Altar of Heaven temple (天壇), and the re-built Xilai temple (西來庵) etc. They are all the centers of religion in Tainan. Due to its abundant numbers of temples and shrines, the traditional temple decoration crafters and their business flourishes in Tainan. There are masters still passing their knowledge to maintain the temples in the traditional way.[23] Music[edit]

Taijiang National Park, Sicao green tunnel of Manggroves

Nanyin and Shisanyin were the first types of Chinese music introduced to Tainan; Nanyin is performed mostly for entertainment while Shisanyin is performed in the Confucius worship ceremony. There are two Nanyin clubs in Tainan: Zhenshengshe, a 200-year-old club once dissolved in the 1980s for ten years which then returned with the support from younger generation musicians and Nanshengshe, a 95-year-old club performing globally.[23] Music performance is being promoted in Tainan. Tainan
Tainan
City has its own Chinese orchestra[26] and symphony orchestra. There are also private performance groups such as Chimei Mandolin
Mandolin
Performance Group, Chimei Philharmonic Orchestra[27] and Chang Jung Christianity University Symphony Orchestra.[28] Ten Drum Art Percussion Group (十鼓擊樂團) is a percussion performance group established in the year 2000. The group is dedicated in producing percussion performances that highlights the history, the culture and the image of Taiwan. The group first performed internationally in the festivals during the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games. Following this event, the group has performed in many occasions both internationally and domestically. The group has its own campus located in an old sugar factory in Rende District. The campus provides education on percussion performances at all levels and regular performances to general public.[29] Museums and parks[edit] On top of its plentiful living culture, Tainan
Tainan
host several museums and parks. The National Museum of Taiwan
Taiwan
Literature is in the former city hall; National Museum of Taiwan
Taiwan
History is in the Annan district; Chimei Museum
Chimei Museum
is in the Rende district; Taijiang National Park
Taijiang National Park
follows the coast; Anping Historic Scenic Park includes the entire old Anping town and the north ward of Anping harbor; and Siraya National Scenic Area includes the Wusanto Reservoir
Wusanto Reservoir
built by Yoichi Hatta. In the city center, many historic monuments from Zheng’s regime, Qing dynasty, and the Japanese colonial era are preserved including the Confucius temple, two major city gates and former city hall. Tourism[edit] Tainan
Tainan
has a tangible sense of history and is a pleasing city, the site of several spectacular religious festivals. As well as its string of forts, the first capital of Taiwan
Taiwan
has some 300 ancient sanctuaries, from the island's first Confucian temple to its first Taoist
Taoist
temple.

Tainan's Taiwan
Taiwan
Confucian Temple

National Museum of Taiwan
Taiwan
Literature

Fort Provintia
Fort Provintia
is located at West Central District.

Bee hives shoot out rapidly in the downtown of Yanshui District.

Taiwan
Taiwan
Confucian Temple[edit] The Taiwan
Taiwan
Confucian Temple (or the Scholarly Temple) was built in 1665 by Cheng Ching, son of Koxinga, to offer lectures and cultivate intellectuals. It was the first learning institute for children when Taiwan
Taiwan
was ruled by the Qing Dynasty. As a result, it is also called the First Academy of Taiwan. The temple is a popular tourist attraction and preserves ancient Confucian ceremonies, which are conducted regularly. The grounds include storerooms for the ritual implements and musical instruments that are used in these ceremonies. National Museum of Taiwan
Taiwan
History[edit] The National Museum of Taiwan
Taiwan
History is located in the Annan District. The construction of the Exhibition and Education Building began in 2005, and opened on 29 October 2011.The main objectives of this museum include collection, categorization, preservation, research, exhibition, education and promotion of artifacts related to Taiwan's history and culture for both locals and visitors. National Museum of Taiwan
Taiwan
Literature[edit] The National Museum of Taiwan
Taiwan
Literature researches, catalogs, preserves, and exhibits local literary artifacts as part of its multilingual, multi-ethnic focus. The museum is housed in the former Tainan
Tainan
City Hall, constructed in 1916 and famous for its historical significance. Fort Provintia[edit] Fort Provintia
Fort Provintia
was built in 1653 by the Dutch during their colonization of Taiwan
Taiwan
and was eventually surrendered to Koxinga. Since 1945, the site has been known as "Chihkan Tower", a phonetic derivation from "Sakam" (also spelled "Chakam" or "Sakkam"). In addition to the site's architectural and artistic significance, its library of dictionaries and business transactions documents the Siraya language spoken by the native inhabitants of the region during Dutch rule. Shopping and Recreation[edit] As Tainan
Tainan
is the one of the larger metropolitan areas in Taiwan, it has many department stores, shopping malls and prestigious boutiques. Several of the best-known luxury brands have branches or counters in Tainan. Flower Night Market is a good place to enjoy the Taiwanese lifestyle. It is one of the most famous night markets and it is often considered to be the largest night market of Taiwan; however, unlike the others, this night market is open for business three days a week - Thursday, Saturday, and Sunday. Bee hives[edit] In Yanshui District, the most important and prominent fireworks in Lantern Festival
Lantern Festival
are the so-called "bee hives", essentially multiple launchers of bottle rockets. These rocket forts are actually thousands of bottle rockets arranged row atop row in an iron-and-wooden framework. The setup looks like a beehive full of unleashed gunpowder. When the contraption is ignited, rockets shoot out rapidly in all directions. Dazzling explosives whiz and whirl across the sky and often into the crowd itself, both thrilling and intimidating the spectators.[citation needed] Climate[edit] Tainan
Tainan
has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa). The city is characterized by year-round high relative humidity and temperatures (although temperatures do dip somewhat in the winter months), with a rainy season (April to September) and a dry season (October to March).

Climate data for Tainan

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 32.4 (90.3) 32.8 (91) 36.1 (97) 35.4 (95.7) 37.2 (99) 37.8 (100) 37.2 (99) 37.2 (99) 36.6 (97.9) 36.0 (96.8) 35.2 (95.4) 32.9 (91.2) 37.8 (100)

Average high °C (°F) 23.9 (75) 24.5 (76.1) 26.4 (79.5) 29.1 (84.4) 31.3 (88.3) 32.1 (89.8) 32.9 (91.2) 32.5 (90.5) 32.0 (89.6) 30.7 (87.3) 27.7 (81.9) 24.6 (76.3) 28.8 (83.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 17.6 (63.7) 18.6 (65.5) 21.2 (70.2) 24.5 (76.1) 27.2 (81) 28.5 (83.3) 29.2 (84.6) 28.8 (83.8) 28.1 (82.6) 26.1 (79) 22.8 (73) 19.1 (66.4) 24.3 (75.7)

Average low °C (°F) 14.1 (57.4) 15.1 (59.2) 17.5 (63.5) 21.2 (70.2) 24.1 (75.4) 25.7 (78.3) 26.4 (79.5) 26.0 (78.8) 25.3 (77.5) 23.0 (73.4) 19.6 (67.3) 15.6 (60.1) 21.1 (70)

Record low °C (°F) 2.6 (36.7) 2.4 (36.3) 5.1 (41.2) 8.9 (48) 14.7 (58.5) 18.9 (66) 21.1 (70) 19.3 (66.7) 15.4 (59.7) 12.6 (54.7) 2.9 (37.2) 4.3 (39.7) 2.4 (36.3)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 17.3 (0.681) 28.1 (1.106) 38.5 (1.516) 79.5 (3.13) 173.6 (6.835) 371.5 (14.626) 357.7 (14.083) 395.1 (15.555) 178.0 (7.008) 27.8 (1.094) 16.7 (0.657) 14.4 (0.567) 1,698.2 (66.858)

Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.7 4.7 5.0 7.2 9.2 13.1 12.2 15.3 9.5 2.5 2.2 2.8 87.4

Average relative humidity (%) 76.9 78.1 76.3 76.8 78.9 77.5 78.8 79.7 78.2 75.8 76.0 75.5 77.2

Mean monthly sunshine hours 179.4 158.3 178.8 172.8 186.9 181.7 210.8 189.1 179.2 196.2 172.6 175.0 2,180.8

Source: Central Weather Bureau[30]

Cityscape[edit]

Map of Tainan
Tainan
during Qing Dynasty

Tainan
Tainan
city center during WWII

Downtown Tainan

A typical scene of River North Region

The Great Cross Street[edit] The earliest plan of the city was designed by Dutch colonist, Cornelis Jansz. Plockhoy, the designer of this new settlement, laid a 25-30m wide main street (on today’s Minquan Rd Sec. 2) across the settlement and radial roads than ran deep into agricultural developments .[11] The Han Chinese settlement “Heliaogang Jie” (today’s Zhongyi Rd) later crossed the main street of Provintia and formed the so-called Shizi Dajie (十字大街) or The Great Cross Street.[10] With the fall of the Ming dynasty, new migrants flooded into the settlement. Chinese population boomed from 5,000 to 35,000 between 1640 and 1661. As a result, farmers, deer hunters, traders and craftsmen each formed a colony on the cross street.[31] Due to the Chinese tradition where different trades and regions worship different Taoist
Taoist
gods, the city later developed into neighborhoods, each with own center temple.[31] Now, after 300 years of Chinese migration, the city has become a showcase of both Taoist and Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
temples. Although the city has transformed dramatically since the late 19th century, the temples remain because of their importance to the locals. Some of the early administration centers have also been transformed into temples for political and social reasons. An administrative building of the Tungning Kingdom became temple of the sea goddess, and the location where Tungning Kingdom performed annual ceremonies of prayer to Heaven is now the Altar of Heaven Temple. Castle Provintia, one of two Dutch forts in Tainan, now has a sea god temple and a literacy god temple built on top of it, creating East-West fusion architecture. Many Han Chinese religious and historic monuments can be found near the old cross street centered by the Castle Provintia. Japanese Redevelopment Program[edit] The cityscape of modern Tainan
Tainan
was founded under the urban redevelopment programs carried out by Japanese colonial government. The city center adopted a Baroque design similar to the Paris renovation in mid 19th century, the plan connected major facilities via a system of wide streets and five square-roundabouts. Among the five squares, Taishō Park (大正公園, modern-day Tang De-jhang Memorial Park) at the center is the most important crossing point. The square is surrounded by the city hall, the fire brigade and the weather bureau. It is connected by a number of avenues heading towards the train station, the airport, military bases and the dock at the end of the Anping cannel. With the police station and the court nearby, this area demonstrated the power of the colonial government within the city.[31] The financial district was located in Shirokanechō (白金町) and Ōmiyachō (大宮町) between Taishō park and Anping cannel along Ginzadōri (銀座通り),[12] the modern day Zhongzheng Rd. It was the busiest street of the city from Japanese rule to the mid-1990s. Many Colonial Baroque style historic buildings from Japanese era can be found in this part of the city. Three Ring Belts[edit] A three-belt system was adopted by the provincial city official:[32] the green boulevard ring, the blue belt Anping cannel and the Zhonghua road system. The green boulevard ring and Zhonghua road system first appeared on the 1937 city redevelopment plan proposed by the Japanese colonial government. The green boulevard was a Japanese response to the garden city trend of early 20th century urban planning.[31] This system connects the Shuipingwen Park to the west, Tainan
Tainan
Park to the north, NCKU to the east and the Athletic park complex to the south. Zhonghua Rd system is an arterial road system, the system now connects major new development areas surrounding old city center. The Anping cannel blue belt was created after the completion of the Fifth redevelopment area. The project of Fifth redevelopment area filled the floodplain of old Taijiang lagoon and extended the Japanese Anping cannel into Kunshen lagoon to form an artificial island, this area is also known as New Anping. In contrast to the low rise old city center, many high rise buildings are built along these three rings. The River South Region[edit] Beyond the city center, Tainan
Tainan
city can be divided into two regions: the River South Region and the River North Region, bounded by the Zengwen River. River South Region belongs to the Tainan
Tainan
metropolitan area. Satellite towns spread across the region in a radial pattern from the city center. Southern Taiwan
Taiwan
Science Park Tainan
Tainan
campus is located at the north of the region. According to the Council for Economic Planning and Development, this region is designated to grow further into suburban sprawl.[33] The River North Region[edit] This region is one of the major agricultural centers in Taiwan. There are several regional centers; some of them are as old as Tainan
Tainan
city. These centers are: Xinying, Yujing, Jiali and Madou. Xinying was the seat of the former Tainan County
Tainan County
Government and currently serves as the administration center for the region. Yujing is a regional center for the hilly districts east of the city; it is famous for its mango and was the scene of the Tapani incident. Jiali is the regional center of the coastal Tainan. It was the base of the Soelangh sub-tribe. Near the bank of the Zengwen River, Madou is the regional center of the lower plain area that bears the name of the river. The town was home to the Mattauw sub-tribe. Government and Politics[edit] Main articles: Tainan City Government
Tainan City Government
and Tainan
Tainan
City Council See also: List of mayors of Tainan and Republic of China
Republic of China
municipal elections, 2010 § Tainan Tainan
Tainan
City is a special municipality, which is the highest level local government under Local Government Law of Republic of China. Technically it is at the same level as Province, although Province is being streamlined. The city is led by the elected city mayor and supervised by the city council. Its subdivisions qu or districts do not have the autonomy power, instead they are administration units only. Further to the citywide election, there are urban villages (里 li) and neighborhood (鄰 lin) functioning as primary local autonomy entity. Currently there are two administration centers, one in Anping District and another in Xinying District. They are former Provincial Tainan city government and Tainan
Tainan
county government respectively. Administration centers manages citywide affairs and developments such as education and city planning. Apart from administration centers, there are district offices functioning as local access point to the governmental services. The city has generally been seen as a powerbase for the Democratic Progressive Party, especially in nationwide elections. Although before the merger, the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) have always had more seats in the provincial Tainan
Tainan
city council and KMT won the presidential elections (2008) by a narrow margin in the city. On the other hand, Democratic Progressive Party always dominated former Tainan
Tainan
county. In the first municipal election, after the merger, DPP dominated the political demographics of the city. William Lai, a former member of the Legislative Yuan from the DPP won the first mayoral election in 2010.

Tainan City Government
Tainan City Government
- Yonghua Civic Center

Tainan City Government
Tainan City Government
- Minjhih Civic Center

Tainan
Tainan
City Council

Tainan
Tainan
District Court

Taiwan
Taiwan
High Court Tainan
Tainan
Branch Court

City mayor[edit] In 2001, Hsu Tain-Tsair
Hsu Tain-Tsair
of the Democratic Progressive Party
Democratic Progressive Party
was elected with 43% of the vote. His closest rival was the Kuomintang legislator Chen Rong-sheng, who garnered 37%. In 2005. Mayor Hsu was re-elected, polling 46% to Chen Rong-sheng's 41%. In 2010, William Lai of the DPP was elected mayor. However, due to Lai's appointment as Premier of the Republic of China
Republic of China
in September 2017, the mayor position was replaced by Lee Meng-yen as acting mayor. Presidential elections[edit] A majority of city residents have voted for the winning candidates in many presidential elections since the position was first chosen by popular vote in 1996. 1996 Presidential election[edit] Main article: Republic of China
Republic of China
presidential election, 1996 In common with every other city and county in the Republic of China, with the exception of Nantou, a majority of Tainan
Tainan
residents voted for eventual winner Lee Teng-hui
Lee Teng-hui
and vice-president Lien Chan. 2000 Presidential election[edit]

Main article: Republic of China
Republic of China
presidential election, 2000

Party Candidate Votes Percentage

President Vice president

Independent James Soong Chang Chau-hsiung 114,299 27.53%

Kuomintang Lien Chan Vincent Siew 107,679 25.93%

New Party Li Ao Elmer Fung 580 0.14%

Independent Hsu Hsin-liang Josephine Chu 1,408 0.34%

Democratic Progressive Party Chen Shui-bian Annette Lu 191,261 45.06%

2004 Presidential election[edit]

Main article: Republic of China
Republic of China
presidential election, 2004

Party Candidate Votes Percentage

President Vice president

Democratic Progressive Party Chen Shui-bian Annette Lu 251,397 57.77%

Kuomintang Lien Chan James Soong 183,786 42.23%

2008 Presidential election[edit]

Main article: Republic of China
Republic of China
presidential election, 2008

Party Candidate Votes Percentage

President Vice president

Democratic Progressive Party Frank Hsieh Su Tseng-chang 216,815 49.29%

Kuomintang Ma Ying-jeou Vincent Siew 223,034 50.71%

2012 Presidential election[edit]

Main article: Republic of China
Republic of China
presidential election, 2012

Party Candidate Votes Percentage

President Vice president

Kuomintang Ma Ying-jeou Wu Den-yih 435,274 39.80%

Democratic Progressive Party Tsai Ing-wen Su Jia-chyuan 631,232 57.72%

People First James Soong
James Soong
Chu-yu Lin Ruey-shiung 8,090 2.48%

Administrative districts[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1985 1,640,669 —    

1990 1,710,234 +4.2%

1995 1,788,612 +4.6%

2000 1,842,337 +3.0%

2005 1,866,727 +1.3%

2010 1,873,794 +0.4%

2015 1,885,541 +0.6%

Source:"Populations by city and country in Taiwan". Ministry of the Interior Population Census. 

Tainan
Tainan
City with its districts before merger with Tainan County
Tainan County
in 2010

Population density map of Tainan.

Tainan
Tainan
has a total of 37 districts, the second most districts after Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City.

Map of Tainan

Anding Annan Anping Baihe Beimen Danei Dongshan East Guanmiao Guantian Guiren Houbi Jiali Jiangjun Liujia Liuying Longqi Madou Nanhua Nanxi North Qigu Rende Shanhua Shanshang South West Cen. Xiaying Xigang Xinhua Xinshi Xinying Xuejia Yanshui Yongkang Yujing Zuozhen Chiayi
Chiayi
County Chiayi City Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City Pingtung County

Name Hanzi Population (2016) Area (km2)

Downtown Tainan
Tainan
(former Tainan
Tainan
City before 2010)

Anping 安平區 65,430 11.0663

Annan 安南區 189,724 107.2016

East 東區 188,797 14.4281

West Central 中西區 77,472 6.2600

South 南區 125,734 27.2681

North 北區 132,713 10.4340

Hai-xian Region

Jiali 佳里區 59,544 38.9422

Syuejia 學甲區 26,621 53.9919

Beimen 北門區 11,517 44.1003

Jiangjyun 將軍區 20,286 41.9796

Cigu 七股區 23,378 110.1492

Sigang 西港區 24,898 33.7666

River North Region

Xinying[note 1] 新營區 78,185 38.5386

Baihe 白河區 29,236 126.4046

Madou 麻豆區 44,963 53.9744

Yanshuei 鹽水區 26,087 52.2455

Danei 大內區 10,057 70.3125

Dongshan 東山區 21,568 124.91

Guantian 官田區 21,659 70.7953

Houbi 後壁區 24,279 71.2189

Lioujia 六甲區 22,582 64.5471

Liouying 柳營區 21,601 61.2929

Xiaying[note 1] 下營區 24,755 33.5291

River South Region

Yongkang 永康區 230,957 40.275

Shanhua 善化區 46,931 55.309

Sinhua 新化區 43,830 62.0579

Anding 安定區 30,327 31.2700

Guanmiao 關廟區 34,693 53.6413

Gueiren 歸仁區 67,922 55.7913

Longci 龍崎區 4,195 64.0814

Nanhua 南化區 8,881 171.5198

Nansi 楠西區 10,020 109.6316

Rende 仁德區 73,951 50.7664

Shanshang 山上區 7,422 27.8780

Sinshih 新市區 35,883 47.8096

Yujing 玉井區 14,387 76.366

Zuojhen 左鎮區 5,065 74.9025

Annan District
Annan District
was originally the An-Shun township of Tainan
Tainan
County, but was merged into Tainan
Tainan
City in 1946. In 2004, Central District and West District were merged into the new West Central district.

Economy[edit]

TSMC
TSMC
in Tainan
Tainan
Science Park

Industry[edit] Once reliant on traditional manufacturing industries, the region became a major high-tech industrial hub after the establishment of Southern Taiwan
Taiwan
Science Park in 1995. Optoelectronics, integrated circuits, green energy and biotechnology are the park's dominant industries. Prominent companies are Chimei-Innolux, United Microelectronics and TSMC. With the establishment of Tainan
Tainan
Technology Park, Shugu (Tree Valley) LCD Park and Yonkang Technology Park, the city became a major center for the optoelectronics industry in Taiwan with a complete supply chain.[34] Tainan
Tainan
still plays an important role in auto parts, food processing, textiles, plastics and other traditional manufacturing. Notable companies include Uni-President, Chi Mei and Tainan
Tainan
Spinning, which have headquarters in the city. Overall, industrial production accounted for 62.6% of the gross city product in 2010.[35] Agriculture[edit] Agriculture is important to the city especially the River North Region. While fishery and fish farming signify the coastal districts, rice and fruit farms shaped the landscape of the inland agriculture region. The city is famous for its milkfish, oyster, rice, mango, sugar cane, pomelo (文旦), pineapple and lotus seed. A state-funded agricultural research center was established in Xinhua District to ensure the market competitiveness of the crop.[36] The headquarters of the World Vegetable Center, a NPO that aims to improve crop quality in poorer countries, is in Shanhua District.[37] Once a dominant industry, salt and sugar production are declining to almost non-existence. Taiyen ( Taiwan
Taiwan
salt) co. and Taiwan
Taiwan
Sugar Corp., both headquartered in Tainan, transformed to businesses in biotechnology, quality agriculture, retail and tourism. Orchid growing is one of the most symbolic agriculture industry for its well-known brand name in the floristry world. A nationally founded special plantation district with R&D resources is established in Houbi District.[38] Tourism[edit] Tourism is an industry with increasing importance. As the first capital of Taiwan, the wealth resource of cultural heritage and its potential is under exploration. In the first half of 2013, there were over 7 million tourist visited attractions in the city.[39] There are high=end hotels in the city, including the Shangri-la Hotel near Tainan
Tainan
train station. Retail[edit] Retail and services is the largest employment sector in Tainan, margined at 52% in 2010.[35] The city center hosts five department stores including two Shin Kong-Mitsukoshi, two FE21s and Focus square. Apart from the city center, there are shopping precincts around the city, with the strongest presence in East, North and Yongkang districts. 'Dream Mall' is a joint development project between Uni-President Corp. and Tainan
Tainan
Spinning Ltd. It was the largest shopping center in the city when it opened Feb 12, 2015 and the precinct will host the new headquarters of Tainan
Tainan
Spinning and a new five-star hotel. The precinct is in the designated East Tainan
Tainan
second CBD near the border of the East and Yongkang districts. Transportation[edit]

THSR Tainan
Tainan
Station

TRA Tainan
Tainan
train station

Tainan
Tainan
Airport

Tainan
Tainan
Canal, Anping

Rail[edit] Tainan Station
Tainan Station
is a major stop on the Taiwan
Taiwan
Railways Administration (TRA) Western Line, with direct connections to Taipei, Kaohsiung, Taichung, Hsinchu, and Keelung. There are also local trains to reach closer destinations. Taiwan
Taiwan
High Speed Rail Tainan Station
Tainan Station
is located just outside the city center, in Gueiren district. The service is accessible to the city center via TRA Shalun Line
Shalun Line
and two THSR Shuttle Bus Lines.[40] Using the High Speed Rail system passengers can reach Taipei
Taipei
in under ninety minutes. Public Transport[edit] Original plan for Tainan
Tainan
MRT system is muted due to the construction cost and the question of insufficient ridership.[41] Upgrading current railway and buses are now considered as alternative citywide modern public transport options. Tainan
Tainan
has three major bus operators. They are Singing Bus Co., Shinan Buses and Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Buses operating in river north region, intercity routes and metropolitan routes respectively. In 2012, the city government called to restructure Singing Bus and Shinan Buses route to form a Tainan
Tainan
City Bus System. This new system, which set to start operation in 2013, has six main routes connecting the city and eight main interchanges. From the main routes 66 branch routes then spread out to service local communities. City government hope this new system will boost the public transports ridership and progress into metro-bus system in the future.[42][43] A project to transform the railway in the city center into underground is underway as part of the National wide TRA Rapid Transit Systematization in the Metropolitan Areas Project. This project will help increase service frequency by eliminate potential disruption between road and rail traffic. Further to underground transformation, two new stations are planned to serve East district commuters.[44] Together with the Shalun HSR link, this section of TRA corridor will become the backbone of the rail transit system in Tainan.[43] Road[edit] National Highway Nos. 1 and 3 run close by and connect via local highways to the city itself. Tainan
Tainan
City has a total of 142.9 kilometres (88.8 mi) of highways, including national, local, and rural highways.[45] Air[edit] Tainan Airport
Tainan Airport
(TNN) is located in the South District is close center city only six kilometers. As a regional airport, it currently operate both domestic and international flights to Hong Kong, Ho Chi Minh City, Kinmen, Magong
Magong
and Osaka.[46] Previously there were also services to Taipei's Songshan Airport (TSA), but these were dropped in light of falling revenues (generally agreed to be a result of the High Speed Rail commencing operation in 2007).[47] Education[edit]

Chengkung University

Campus of University of Tainan

National Tainan
Tainan
First Senior High School

National Cheng Kung University (國立成功大學), is famous for its engineering programs. Founded in the Japanese era in 1931 as Tainan Technical College, it has a total area of 183,000 square metres. As the number of colleges expanded, it was upgraded to a provincial university in 1956, then national university in 1971.[48] Today, National Cheng Kung University serves nearly 21,000 students through 9 colleges, 39 departments, and 49 graduate institutes.[49] National University of Tainan
National University of Tainan
(國立臺南大學) NUTN used to be the Institute of Teachers' In-service Education in 1988, promoted and renamed National Tainan
Tainan
Teachers College in 1991. In 2004, it was established as National University of Tainan
National University of Tainan
until now. The motto of NUTN includes benevolence, intelligence, sincerity and uprightness. Tainan National University of the Arts
Tainan National University of the Arts
(國立臺南藝術大學) TNNUA exists to prepare talented individuals for careers in visual and performing arts, sound and image design, building arts, conservation arts, and art history and critique. The university emphasizes learning through individual attention and independent work creation. It is a public institution first established in 1996. Tainan Theological College and Seminary
Tainan Theological College and Seminary
(臺南神學院) was established in 1876 by Thomas Barclay.[50] Chang Jung Christian University
Chang Jung Christian University
is a private university affiliated with the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan. CJU offers masters and doctoral degree programs and aims to promote fraternity, justice, and service for Taiwan. It is located south of the city, in Gueiren. Southern Taiwan
Taiwan
University of Science and Technology (南台科技大學), founded in 1969, is located near the northeastern border of Tainan
Tainan
City, within a 30-minute driving distance from the Tainan
Tainan
Airport. The Tainan University of Technology
Tainan University of Technology
(臺南應用科技大學) is a private university founded in 1964. The university offers graduate degrees in music, visual art, and applied sciences.

Senior high schools[edit] Public

National Tainan
Tainan
First Senior High School National Tainan
Tainan
Second Senior High School National Tainan
Tainan
Girls' Senior High School National Hsin Hua Senior High School National Chia-Chi Girls' Senior High School National Tainan
Tainan
Commercial Vocational School National Tainan
Tainan
Industrial Vocational School The Affiliated Senior Industrial Vocational Continuing Education High School of National Cheng Kung University National Tainan
Tainan
Marine & Fishery Vocational School Municipal Tainan
Tainan
Nan-Ning Senior High School Municipal Tainan
Tainan
Tu-Cheng High School

Private

Feng-Ho Senior High School Chang Jung High School Sheng Kung Girls' High School Nan Ying Vocational High School of Business & Technology Salesian Technical School Chang Jung Girls' Senior High School Deguang Catholic High School [1] Kuang Hua Girls' Senior High School Tainan
Tainan
Liuhsin Senior High School Kuen-Shan Senior High School Ying-Hai High School

Notable natives[edit]

Koxinga
Koxinga
Temple

The following is a non-exhaustive list of famous people born in Tainan, educated there, prominent in the life of the city, or otherwise associated with the city.

Shone An (安钧璨) (1983–2015), singer, actor and television host. Momofuku Ando
Momofuku Ando
(安藤百福) (1910–2007), founder of Nissin Foods and inventor of instant noodles[51] Thomas Barclay (1849–1935), Christian missionary, lived in the city from 1875 to 1935 William Campbell (1841–1921), Christian missionary, lived in the city from 1871 to 1917 George Chang (張燦鍙) (born 1936), politician, former mayor of Tainan
Tainan
(1997–2001) Chin-Feng Chen
Chin-Feng Chen
(陳金鋒) (born 1977), first Taiwanese-born player to play Major League Baseball Chen Wei-Ling (陳葦綾), 2008 Olympic bronze medal-winning weightlifter Mao Gao-wen (毛高文) (born 1936), chemist, former president of National Tsinghua University
National Tsinghua University
(1981–1987) and Minister of Education (1987–1993) Hsu Shih-Hsien
Hsu Shih-Hsien
(許世賢) (1908–1983), first female Taiwanese PhD Chin-Lung Hu
Chin-Lung Hu
(胡金龍), MLB
MLB
infielder for the New York Mets Jutoupi (born 1966), recording artist Kao Ching-yuen (高清愿) (born 1929), businessman, founder and chairman of Uni-president Hong-Chih Kuo
Hong-Chih Kuo
(郭泓志), MLB
MLB
pitcher for the Los Angeles Dodgers Tai-Yuan Kuo
Tai-Yuan Kuo
(郭泰源), retired pitcher for the Seibu Lions, foreign player with the most wins in Nippon Professional Baseball
Nippon Professional Baseball
history Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(李安) (born 1954), Academy Award–winning film director Chen-Yuan Lee (李鎮源) (1915–2001), pharmacologist and political activist, famous for research on snake venom Chou Tzu-yu
Chou Tzu-yu
(周子瑜) (born 1999), singer, member of Twice Lien Heng
Lien Heng
(連橫) (1878–1936), historian, writer of The General History of Taiwan En-Yu Lin
En-Yu Lin
(林恩宇), baseball pitcher currently playing for Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles Lin Hsin-i
Lin Hsin-i
(林信義) (born 1946), businessman and politician, Minister of Economic Affairs (2000–2002), Vice Premier (2002–2004) Lin Mosei (林茂生) (1887–1947?), first Taiwanese philosophy PhD, academic, educator and calligrapher thought to have been killed following the February 28 Incident. Ong Iok-tek (王育德) (1924–1985), scholar and authority of the Taiwanese Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects Judy Ongg
Judy Ongg
(翁倩玉) (born 1950), actress, singer, author and artist Shi Wen-long (許文龍) (born 1928), businessman, founder of Chi Mei Corporation Lisa Su
Lisa Su
(born 1969), Chief Executive Officer of Advanced Micro Devices Su Nan-cheng (蘇南成) (born 1936), politician, former mayor of Tainan
Tainan
(1977–1985) and advisor to Chen Shui-bian Szuyu Rachel Su
Szuyu Rachel Su
(蘇思羽) (born 1998), pianist. Robert Swinhoe
Robert Swinhoe
(1836–1877), first British consul sent to Tainan 1861; ornithologist, highly regarded researcher writer on the natural history and zoology of Taiwan
Taiwan
and China. Shen Che-Tsai (沈哲哉) (1926-2017), oil painter Chien-Ming Wang
Chien-Ming Wang
(王建民), MLB
MLB
pitcher for the Toronto Blue Jays Wu Hui Ju (吳蕙如), archer and also a member of the team that won the bronze medal for Chinese Taipei
Taipei
in 2004 Summer Olympics in the women's team archery competition Jacky Wu
Jacky Wu
(吳宗憲) (born 1962), entertainer and talk-show host

Sports[edit]

Uni-President Lions
Uni-President Lions
have been playing their home games at Tainan Municipal Baseball Stadium since 1999.

Tainan
Tainan
is home to the Uni-President Lions, who play their home games at the Tainan
Tainan
Municipal Baseball Stadium.[52] It is also the birthplace of Chien-Ming Wang, Hong-Chih Kuo, Tai-Yuan Kuo, En-Yu Lin, and many other prominent Taiwanese baseball players. International relations[edit] Twin towns — Sister cities[edit] The following municipals are sister cities to Tainan
Tainan
City:[53]

Monterey, California, United States
United States
(1965) Gwangju, South Korea
South Korea
(1968)[54] San Jose, California
San Jose, California
United States
United States
(1977) Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City, Missouri
United States
United States
(1978) Pasay City, Philippines
Philippines
(1980) Cavite City, Philippines
Philippines
(1980) Tagaytay City, Philippines
Philippines
(1980) Trece Martires City, Philippines
Philippines
(1980) Columbus, Ohio
Columbus, Ohio
United States
United States
(1980) Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia
Bolivia
(1981) Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa
South Africa
(1982) Orlando, Florida
Orlando, Florida
United States
United States
(1982) Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
Australia
(1982) Fairbanks, Alaska
Fairbanks, Alaska
United States
United States
(1983) Laredo, Texas
Laredo, Texas
United States
United States
(1985) Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
United States
(1986) Huntsville, Alabama
Huntsville, Alabama
United States(1986) Carbondale, Illinois
Carbondale, Illinois
United States(1991) Leuven, Belgium
Belgium
(1993) Snohomish County, Washington
Snohomish County, Washington
United States
United States
(1998) Ra'anana, Israel
Israel
(1999)[55] Zacapa, Guatemala
Guatemala
(2003) Elbląg, Poland
Poland
(2004)[56][57] Keçiören, Turkey
Turkey
(2005) Cagayan de Oro, Philippines
Philippines
(2005)

Friendship cities[edit] Tainan
Tainan
City also celebrates friendly relationships with four other municipalities, although they are not considered official sister cities.

Sendai, Japan
Japan
(2006) Nikkō, Tochigi, Japan
Japan
(2009) Almere, Netherlands
Netherlands
(2009)

Domestic[edit]

Kinmen, Fujian
Fujian
(1981) Penghu
Penghu
County, Taiwan
Taiwan
(2004) (Friendship city)

Relative location[edit]

Places adjacent to Tainan

Chiayi
Chiayi
County

Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait (South China
China
Sea) Fujian,  China

Tainan
Tainan
city

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City

See also[edit]

Taiwan
Taiwan
portal

List of cities in Taiwan

References[edit]

^ Tainan University of Technology
Tainan University of Technology
official site[dead link] ^ "臺南市政府全球資訊網". Tainan.gov.tw. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-23.  ^ Shih, Hsiu-chuan (14 Feb 2014). "Jiang backs curriculum changes". Taipei
Taipei
Times. p. 3. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  ^ "《中華民國統計資訊網》縣市重要統計指標查詢系統網" (in Chinese). Retrieved 13 June 2016.  ^ "Demographia World Urban Areas PDF (April 2016)" (PDF). Demographia. Retrieved 13 June 2016.  ^ "台南市統計月報" (PDF) (in Chinese). Retrieved 13 June 2016.  ^ "Demographia World Urban Areas PDF (April 2016)" (PDF). Demographia. Retrieved 13 June 2016.  ^ Chang, Winnie (April 1994). "Rise of the Phoenix?". Taiwan
Taiwan
Today. Retrieved 2012-01-10.  ^ " Tainan
Tainan
Confucian Temple". Council for Cultural Affairs. Archived from the original on 2008-05-01. Retrieved 2008-08-19.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j 蔡玉仙; et al., eds. (2007). 府城文史 (in Chinese). Tainan
Tainan
City Government. ISBN 9789860094343.  ^ a b c d e f g Shih Shou-chien, ed. (2003). 福爾摩沙 : 十七世紀的臺灣、荷蘭與東亞 [Ilha Formosa: the Emergence of Taiwan
Taiwan
on the World Scene in the 17th Century] (in Chinese). National Palace Museum. ISBN 9789575624415.  ^ a b c d Kato, Mitsutaka (2007) [1940]. 昨日府城 明星台南: 發現日治下的老臺南 (in Chinese). Translated by 黃秉珩. 臺南市文化資產保護協會. ISBN 9789572807996.  ^ a b c d e f Rubinstein, Murry A., ed. (2007). Taiwan: A New History (expanded ed.). New York: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 9780765614940.  ^ "Anping Harbor National Historical Park". Tainan
Tainan
City Government. Retrieved 2010-03-31.  ^ Shih (2003). ^ "Anping Harbor National Historical Park". Tainan
Tainan
City Government. Retrieved 2010-03-25.  ^ Campbell, William (1915). Sketches from Formosa. London: Marshall Brothers. pp. 16–17. OL 7051071M.  ^ Takekoshi, Yosaburō (1907). "Chapter XIII: Population and future development of the island resources". Japanese rule in Formosa. London, New York, Bombay and Calcutta: Longmans, Green, and co. p. 200. OCLC 753129. OL 6986981M.  ^ Chamberlain, B.; Mason, W.B. (1903). A Handbook for Travellers in Japan
Japan
(7th ed.). London: J. Murray. p. 553. OL 25302448M.  ^ "湯德章". Archived from the original on January 21, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-17.  ^ 張銘清訪台遇襲事件 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2010-04-18.  ^ Kuo-fang, Huang; Hsu, Elizabeth (13 February 2016). "Remains of last unaccounted-for quake victim found". Focus Taiwan. The Central News Agency. Retrieved 18 February 2016.  ^ a b c d e "台南市文資導讀". Tainan
Tainan
City Government. Retrieved 2011-05-12.  ^ "Sword Lion". Anping Harbor National Historical Park. Retrieved 2011-05-12.  ^ Lee Hsin-fang; Chung, Jake (15 Jul 2015). " Tainan
Tainan
has most of nation's 12,106 temples". Taipei
Taipei
Times. p. 5.  ^ " Tainan
Tainan
Traditional Orchestra". Tainan
Tainan
Traditional Orchestra. Retrieved 6 November 2011.  ^ "Chimei Orchestra (Chinese)". Chimei Museum. Archived from the original on November 1, 2011. Retrieved 6 November 2011.  ^ "Chang Jung University Orchestra". Chang Jung University. Archived from the original on December 27, 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2011.  ^ "Ten Drum Official Website (Chinese)". Ten Drum Art Percussion Group. Ten Drum Art Percussion Group. Retrieved 6 November 2011.  ^ 中央氣象局 (in Chinese). Cwb.gov.tw. 2011-01-31. Retrieved 2014-01-22.  ^ a b c d 金山, 翁 (2002). 台南市都市設計規劃綱要之研究 1 都市空間的溯源與演化. 財團法人成大建築文教基金會.  ^ "Green and blue belts reference" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 25, 2012. Retrieved 2011-11-02.  ^ "CEPD". Retrieved 2011-11-02.  ^ "LCD manufacturing in Tainan". Tainan
Tainan
City Government. Archived from the original on May 20, 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2011.  ^ a b "Report on the economic structure to CPED". Tainan
Tainan
City Government. Retrieved 20 November 2011.  ^ " Tainan
Tainan
District Agricultural Research & Extension Station, COA". COA. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2013.  ^ "AVRDC". Retrieved 18 May 2013.  ^ " Taiwan
Taiwan
Orchid Plantation". Taiwan
Taiwan
Orchid Plantation. Retrieved 20 November 2011.  ^ "臺南市觀光遊憩景點遊客人次統計" (PDF). Tainan
Tainan
City Government Tourism Bureau Official Website. Tainan
Tainan
City Government Tourism Bureau. Retrieved 14 September 2013.  ^ "Transfer Information". Taiwan
Taiwan
High Speed Rail. Retrieved 2012-12-06.  ^ "MRT Plans" (in Chinese). Bureau of High Speed Rail. Retrieved 2008-08-20.  ^ " Tainan
Tainan
City Bus System". Retrieved 24 March 2013.  ^ a b " Tainan
Tainan
Public Transport Plan". Tainan
Tainan
City Government. Tainan City Government. Retrieved 23 March 2013.  ^ "The Tainan
Tainan
Urban District Railway Underground Project". Retrieved 24 March 2013.  ^ "2005 statistics" (PDF). Tainan
Tainan
City Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-19.  ^ " Tainan Airport
Tainan Airport
Departure Flight Status (Monthly)". TAINAN AIRPORT. Retrieved 2017-12-25.  ^ Lin, Judy (1 Mar 2008). "FAT to sell investments to cover costs". Taipei
Taipei
Times. p. 12. Retrieved 2008-08-20.  ^ "Brief History". National Cheng Kung University. Retrieved 2008-08-20.  ^ "Organization". National Cheng Kung University. Retrieved 2008-08-20.  ^ "Introduction". Tainan
Tainan
Theological College and Seminary. Archived from the original on May 22, 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-20.  ^ "Inventor of the Week: Momofuku Ando". MIT. Archived from the original on August 3, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-19.  ^ "Parking near the Municipal Stadium" (in Chinese). Uni-President Lions. Retrieved 2008-08-20.  ^ "姊妹市暨友誼市". Tainan City Government
Tainan City Government
(in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2013-07-01. Retrieved 2013-08-01.  ^ Gwangju
Gwangju
Sister Cities ^ "Ra'anana: Twin towns & Sister cities
Sister cities
- Friends around the World". raanana.muni.il. Archived from the original on February 28, 2010. Retrieved 24 March 2010.  ^ " Elbląg
Elbląg
- Podstrony / Miasta partnerskie". Elbląski Dziennik Internetowy (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2011-03-15. Retrieved 2013-08-01.  ^ " Elbląg
Elbląg
- Miasta partnerskie". Elbląg.net (in Polish). Retrieved 2013-08-01. 

^ a b Officially spelled by Hanyu Pinyin.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutTainanat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata

Tainan
Tainan
travel guide from Wikivoyage Geographic data related to Tainan
Tainan
at OpenStreetMap Tainan City Government
Tainan City Government
Official Website Tainan
Tainan
City Travel Information Tainan
Tainan
City Dynamic Bus Information System The Confucian temple in Tainan

v t e

Cities in Taiwan

Special
Special
municipalities

Kaohsiung New Taipei Taichung Tainan Taipei Taoyuan

Provincial cities

Chiayi Hsinchu Keelung

County-controlled cities

Changhua Douliu Hualien Magong Miaoli Nantou Pingtung PuziA Taibao Taitung ToufenA Yilan YuanlinA Zhubei

County and province seats

Jincheng Nangan Zhongxing

Note: A: not the county seat.

v t e

Districts of Tainan

City seat: Anping and Xinying

Districts

Anding Annan Anping Baihe Beimen Danei Dongshan East Guanmiao Guantian Gueiren Houbi Jiali Jiangjyun Lioujia Liouying Longci Madou Nanhua Nansi North Cigu Rende Shanhua Shanshang South West Central Xiaying Sigang Sinhua Sinshih Xinying Syuejia Yanshuei Yongkang Yujing Zuojhen

Note: Although Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
is the national standard, Tainan
Tainan
names most of its districts by Tongyong Pinyin. East, South, West Central, and North district uses English instead.

v t e

Administrative divisions of Taiwan

Special
Special
municipalities (6)

Kaohsiung New Taipei Taichung Tainan Taipei Taoyuan

Provincial cities (3)

Chiayi Hsinchu Keelung

Counties (13)

Changhua Chiayi Hsinchu Hualien Kinmen Lienchiang Miaoli Nantou Penghu Pingtung Taitung Yilan Yunlin

Free area of the Republic of China Streamlined Provinces

Taiwan Fujian

List of administrative divisions of Taiwan

v t e

Metropolitan areas in Taiwan

Taipei– Keelung
Keelung
(incl. New Taipei) metro area Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
metro area Taichung– Changhua
Changhua
metro area Taoyuan–Zhongli metro area Tainan
Tainan
metro area Hsinchu
Hsinchu
metro area Chiayi
Chiayi
metro area

v t e

County-level divisions of Taiwan
Taiwan
Province, People's Republic of China

Prefecture level

Prefecture-level cities

Taibei

Caoshan Management Bureau

Gaoxiong Jiayi Jilong Pingdong Tainan Taizhong Xinzhu Zhanghua

County level

Below are the county-level divisions directly under the province, with no intermediate prefecture level

Counties

Gaoxiong Hualian Penghu Taibei Taidong Tainan Taizhong Xinzhu

County-level cities

Hualian Yilan

Note: PRC-claimed official borders and divisions of the Taiwan Province of People's Republic of China
Republic of China
mirror those of the ROC Taiwan Province before 1949

Coordinates: 22°59′N 120°11′E / 22.983°N 120.183°E

.