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SURAKARTA ( Hanacaraka
Hanacaraka
: ꦯꦸꦫꦏꦂꦠ, often called SOLO or less common spelling SALA) is a city in Central Java
Central Java
. The 46 km2 city adjoins Karanganyar Regency and Boyolali Regency to the north, Karanganyar Regency and Sukoharjo Regency to the east and west, and Sukoharjo Regency to the south. On the eastern side of Solo lies Solo River (Bengawan Solo). Its built-up (or metro) area made of Surakarta Municipality and 59 districts spread on 7 regencies was home to 3,649,254 inhabitants as of 2010 census.

Surakarta
Surakarta
is the birthplace of the current President of Indonesia, Joko Widodo
Joko Widodo
. He served as Mayor of Surakarta
Surakarta
from 2005 to 2012.

CONTENTS

* 1 Hydrogeology * 2 Climate * 3 Administrative division * 4 Greater Surakarta
Surakarta

* 5 Demography

* 5.1 Education * 5.2 Economy

* 6 Sports

* 7 Transportation

* 7.1 Air * 7.2 Train * 7.3 Road

* 8 Tourism * 9 People from Surakarta
Surakarta
* 10 Sister cities * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 Further reading * 14 External links

HYDROGEOLOGY

The water sources for Surakarta
Surakarta
are in the valley of Merapi, a total of 19 locations, with a capacity of 3,404 l/second. The average source water height is 800–1,200 m above sea level. In 1890–1927 there were only 12 wells in Surakarta. Today, underground water wells in 23 locations produce about 45 l/second.

In March 2006, Surakarta's state water company (PDAM) had a production capacity of 865.02 l/second: from Cokrotulung , Klaten , 27 km from Solo, 387 l/s; and from 26 deep wells, with a total capacity of 478,02 l/second. The total reservoir capacity is 9,140 m3 and can serve 55,22% of the population.

CLIMATE

Under the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
, Surakarta
Surakarta
features a tropical monsoon climate . The city has a lengthy wet season spanning from October through June, and a relatively short dry season covering the remaining three months (July through September). On average Surakarta
Surakarta
receives just under 2200 mm of rainfall annually, with its wettest months being December, January, and February. As is common in areas featuring a tropical monsoon climate, temperatures are relatively consistent throughout the year. Surakarta's average temperature is roughly 30 degrees Celsius every month.

CLIMATE DATA FOR SURAKARTA, CENTRAL JAVA , INDONESIA

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 30.1 (86.2) 30.2 (86.4) 30.5 (86.9) 31.4 (88.5) 31.1 (88) 31.1 (88) 30.9 (87.6) 31.6 (88.9) 32.4 (90.3) 32.9 (91.2) 31.7 (89.1) 30.9 (87.6) 31.23 (88.23)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 26.2 (79.2) 26.3 (79.3) 26.4 (79.5) 26.9 (80.4) 26.5 (79.7) 25.9 (78.6) 25.4 (77.7) 25.7 (78.3) 26.6 (79.9) 27.4 (81.3) 26.9 (80.4) 26.6 (79.9) 26.4 (79.52)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 22.3 (72.1) 22.4 (72.3) 22.3 (72.1) 22.4 (72.3) 21.9 (71.4) 20.8 (69.4) 20.0 (68) 19.9 (67.8) 20.9 (69.6) 21.9 (71.4) 22.2 (72) 22.3 (72.1) 21.61 (70.87)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 324 (12.76) 318 (12.52) 306 (12.05) 214 (8.43) 145 (5.71) 86 (3.39) 52 (2.05) 42 (1.65) 51 (2.01) 120 (4.72) 212 (8.35) 260 (10.24) 2,130 (83.88)

Source: climate-data.org

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION

Surakarta
Surakarta
City Hall.

Surakarta
Surakarta
City and its surrounding regencies, Karanganyar , Sragen , Wonogiri , Sukoharjo , Klaten , and Boyolali , are collectively called the ex- Surakarta
Surakarta
Residency (Dutch: Residentie Soerakarta). After Surakarta
Surakarta
became a city, it was divided into five districts (kecamatan), each led by a camat, and subdivided into 51 kelurahan, each led by a lurah. The districts of Surakarta
Surakarta
are:

* Kecamatan Pasar Kliwon (Postal code: 57110): 9 kelurahan * Kecamatan Jebres (Postal code: 57120): 11 kelurahan * Kecamatan Banjarsari (Postal code: 57130): 13 kelurahan * Kecamatan Laweyan (also spelled Lawiyan, Postal code: 57140): 11 kelurahan * Kecamatan Serengan (Postal code: 57150): 7 kelurahan

GREATER SURAKARTA

Surakarta
Surakarta
as a dense core city in Central Java, and its second city, spills considerably into neighboring regencies. Though a traffic study quotes the population as 1,158,000 as of 2008, this reflects only the very core, as the city affects entire neighboring regencies by significantly driving up overall population densities in Sukoharjo Regency and Klaten Regency over the already dense countryside. Furthermore, the government of Indonesia
Indonesia
officially defines a broader region as Surakarta's extended metropolitan zone, with the acronym SUBOSUKAWONOSRATEN as the city and 6 surrounding regencies., though obviously not a core metropolitan area as some of its regencies are not particularly suburbanized, it reflects a broader planning region. Both the metropolitan area and extended areas border Yogyakarta's metropolitan area, while only the extended metropolitan area borders Kedungsapur or Greater Semarang .

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION AREA (KM²) POPULATION (2010 CENSUS) POPULATION DENSITY (/KM²)

Surakarta
Surakarta
Municipality 44.03 499,337 11,340

Sukoharjo Regency 466.66 824,238 1,766

Klaten Regency 655.56 1,130,047 1,723

Boyolali Regency 1,015.1 930,531 916

Sragen Regency 946.49 858,266 906

Karanganyar Regency 800.28 813,196 1,016

Wonogiri Regency 1,822.37 928,904 509

GREATER SURAKARTA (SUBOSUKAWONOSRATEN) 5,750.49 5,984,519 1,040

DEMOGRAPHY

One of the earliest censuses held in Surakarta
Surakarta
Residency (Residentie Soerakarta) was in 1885. At that time, with an area of about 5,677 km², there were 1,053,985 people in Surakarta
Surakarta
Residency, including 2,694 Europeans and 7,543 Indonesian-Chinese. The area, 130 times the current area of Surakarta, had a population density of 186 people/km². The capital of the residency itself (roughly the size of the City of Solo proper) in 1880 had 124,041 people living in it.

According to the 2009 census, there were 245,043 males and 283,159 females (a sex ratio of 86.54) in Surakarta. 119,951 of the population were 14 years or younger, 376,180 were between 15 and 64, and 32,071 were above 65. The number of households was 142,627 and the average number of household members was 3.7. The population growth in the last 10 years was about 0.565% per year.

The labor force of Solo in 2009 was 275,546, of whom 246,768 were working, while 28,778 were seeking work. Another 148,254 people aged 15 and above were not in the labor force. Based on employment numbers, the most common work in Solo was worker/paid employee (112,336), followed by self-employee (56,112), self-employee assisted by temporary employee (32,769), unpaid employee (20,193), self-employee assisted by permanent employee (14,880), freelance employee in non-agricultural work (10,241), and freelance employee in agricultural work (237). Based on the industry, most people in Solo worked in trade (106,426), services (59,780), manufacturing (42,065), communication (16,815), construction (9,217), financing (9,157), or agriculture (2,608), and the rest in mining, electricity, gas, and water companies (700).

The mean working week in Solo was 47.04 hours (47.74 for men and 46.13 for women), and 212,262 people worked more than 35 hours per week compared to 34,506 who worked less than that.

EDUCATION

According to 2009 statistics, 242,070 people above 15 in the city had finished high school, while 86,890 had only finished junior high school, and 94,840 were still in school or had only finished elementary school. The percentage of high-school graduates was the highest of the cities and regencies in Central Java.

According to the statistics of Data Pokok Pendidikan (Dapodik), in the 2010/2011 school year, there were 68,153 students and 853 schools in Surakarta. There are two big universities possessing more than 20.000 students: Sebelas Maret University (UNS) and Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta
Surakarta
(UMS), both are recognised as among Indonesia's 50 best universities according to the Directorate of Higher Education, Ministry of Education RI. There is also arts concentrated university Art Institute of Surakarta
Surakarta
(ISI), religious studies State Islamic Institute (IAIN Surakarta
Surakarta
). There are around 52 private universities and colleges such as STIKES Muhammadiyah, Universitas Tunas Pembangunan, Universitas Slamet Riyadi, Universitas Surakarta, Universitas Setia Budi etc.

ECONOMY

Pasar Klewer and Gapura Keraton (Klewer Textile Market and Keraton Gate).

The Domestic brutto Income of Surakarta
Surakarta
in 2009 was 16,813,058.62 IDR, the fourth highest in Central Java
Central Java
after Kudus, Cilacap, and Semarang. The living standard in 2009 was 723,000 IDR. The Consumer price index in January 2011 was 119.44.

SPORTS

Surakarta
Surakarta
has a long sport history and tradition. In 1923 Solo already had a football club , one of the earliest clubs in Indonesia (at that time still the Dutch Indies), called Persis Solo . Persis Solo was a giant club in the Dutch Indies and still exists, but is past its heyday. During the Perserikatan tournament, Persis became seven-time champion. Currently it plays in the Premier Division . Other than Persis, several clubs have existed in Solo: Arseto , Pelita Solo , Persijatim Solo FC , and lastly Solo FC , that plays in the Indonesian Premier League since 2011. Both clubs that still exist, Persis and Solo FC, have made Manahan Stadium their home ground. Manahan Stadium is one of the best sport stadiums in Central Java, with more than 25,000 seats, and has several times hosted national and international matches. It was recently the venue for the AFC Champions Cup 2007 , the final venue of the Indonesian Cup 2010, and the opening venue for the Indonesian Premiere League on January 15, 2011.

TRANSPORTATION

AIR

Adi Sumarmo International Airport.

Adisumarmo International Airport ( IATA code: SOC) has direct flights to Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
by AirAsia and during the haji season, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, as well as regular flights to Jakarta
Jakarta
by Garuda Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sriwijaya Air , Lion Air and Citilink . The airport is located 14 km north of the city. Since May 2011, BST ( Batik Solo Trans) buses connect the airport to the city. There is also taxicab service. In 2009 Adisumarmo had 2,060 outbound domestic flights and 616 outbound international flights.

TRAIN

Surakarta
Surakarta
has four train stations, Solo Balapan , Purwosari , Solo Jebres , and Solo Kota (Sangkrah). Solo Balapan is the largest station in Surakarta, and is the junction between Yogyakarta (westward), Semarang (northward), and Surabaya (eastward), while Purwosari is the junction located west of Solo Balapan, and has a connection to Wonogiri (southward). There are several direct lines to other cities, such as Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, Semarang, Madiun, and Malang. For regional traffic, a special train connects Surakarta
Surakarta
and Yogyakarta, the Prameks (Prambanan Ekspres) train.

In July 26, 2011 the Railbus has been launched to serve Surakarta/Solo– Wonogiri route, but for the moment only Solo-Sukoharjo trackage was ready due to there are 99 bridges should be strengthen between Sukoharjo-Wonogiri. Until April 2012, Surakarta- Wonogiri railbus is still in a big question mark due to the 12 tons railbuses are considered too heavy for existing railroad track that only has the capacity of accommodating 10-ton vehicles, furthermore PT KAI have proposed a fare between Rp30,000 ($3.27) and Rp40,000 ($4.36) per passenger, while Surakarta
Surakarta
administration wants tickets to be priced much lower between Rp5,000 ($0.54) and Rp7,000 ($0,76).

ROAD

Batik Solo Trans.

Tirtonadi Terminal is the largest bus terminal in Surakarta. Surakarta
Surakarta
is situated on Indonesian National Route 15 , which connects it to Yogyakarta and Waru ( Sidoarjo ). A Semarang–Solo Toll Road
Semarang–Solo Toll Road
is currently under construction. In 2009 the total extent of roadways in the city was 705.34 km: 13.15 km state road, 16.33 km province road, and 675.86 km local road. The number of bus companies was 23, and the total number of buses operating was 1,115 intra-provincial buses and 1,107 inter-provincial.

In 2010, the government of Surakarta
Surakarta
launched a new bus route named Batik Solo Trans (BST), which resembles Trans Jakarta
Jakarta
bus rapid transit service. It has only two routes, the Departure Route (Adisumarmo Airport–Kartasura–Palur) and the Return Route (Palur–Kartasura–Adisumarmo Airport). A single trip costs Rp.3000, Rp.1500 for students. A special ticket for the trip from or to the airport costs Rp.7000.

TOURISM

The National Press Monument

One main tourist attraction of Surakarta
Surakarta
is the Keraton Surakarta
Surakarta
, the palace of Susuhunan Pakubuwono, also the Princely Javanese court of Mangkunegaran . Pasar Gede market is often visited by tourists, mostly for its unique architecture and fame as the biggest traditional market in the Solo area. The Pasar Klewer is famous for its batiks in all prices and qualities, while the Pasar Triwindhu located near Mangkunegaran palace specialises in antiques. Taman Sriwedari is a popular local entertainment park featuring a children's playground, dangdut music performance and Wayang Wong traditional Javanese dance performance almost every night. Near the park is Radyapustaka Museum, one of the oldest museums in Indonesia, with a collection of Javanese cultural artefacts. The traditional batik village of Laweyan and Kampung Batik Kauman, located in the southwest part of the city and the city centre respectively, are famous for producing fine quality Javanese batik.

Within Surakarta
Surakarta
tourists can also use the Jaladara old steam train which was launched on in September 2009 for 5.6 km connecting Purwosari Station and City (Sangkrah) Station. In 2011 there were 60 trips and in 2012 will be 80 trips.

PEOPLE FROM SURAKARTA

Portrait of Pakubuwono X , wearing the uniform of a KNIL major-general .

* Agung Setyabudi , football player * Basuki , actor and comedian * Diah Permatasari , actress and model * F.X. Hadi Rudyatmo , current mayor of Surakarta * Gesang , singer-songwriter * Icuk Sugiarto , former badminton player * Joko Suprianto , former badminton player * Joko Widodo
Joko Widodo
, former Mayor of Surakarta, Governor of Jakarta
Jakarta
and the current President of Indonesia
Indonesia
* Pakubuwono X , 9th monarch of Surakarta Sunanate , one of National Hero of Indonesia
Indonesia
* A Iskandar Zulkarnain , Pioner of Islamic Banking Of Surakarta * Rio Haryanto , Indonesia's first Formula One driver * Rudy Gunawan , former badminton player * Sapardi Djoko Damono , poet * Siti Hartinah , wife of the second Indonesian president, Suharto
Suharto
* Suryo Agung Wibowo , sprinter * Waldjinah , singer * Widji Thukul , poet

SISTER CITIES

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Indonesia
Indonesia

* MONTANA , Bulgaria. * BILBAO , Spain * ALGIERS , Algeria
Algeria

SEE ALSO

* Indonesia
Indonesia
portal

* List of metropolitan areas in Indonesia
Indonesia
* Transition to the New Order

NOTES

* ^ (in Indonesian) Badan Pusat Statistik: Luas Daerah menurut Kabupaten/Kota di Provinsi Jawa Tengah Tahun 2009 * ^ (in Indonesian) Map of Surakarta * ^ "Indonesia: Java (Regencies, Cities and Districts) - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". www.citypopulation.de. * ^ PDAM Solo: The Greater Surakarta * ^ (in Indonesian) Produksi air * ^ "Climate Surakarta: Temperature, Climate graph, Climate table for Surakarta
Surakarta
- Climate-Data.org". en.climate-data.org. * ^ (in Indonesian) Kecamatan dan Desa/Kelurahan menurut Kabupaten/Kota di Provinsi Jawa Tengah Tahun 2005, 2008 dan 2009 * ^ http://www.cdia.asia/sharedfiles/PFS%20Training%20for%20NPOs%20presentations/Day%203/Surakarta%20Transport%20PFS%20Executive%20Summary.pdf * ^ http://jurnal.pdii.lipi.go.id/admin/jurnal/131102025_1410-9409.pdf * ^ http://www.bappenas.go.id/get-file-server/node/7642/ * ^ (in German) Seite aus Meyers Konversationslexikon: Suppeditieren – Surate: Surakarta * ^ "Population of Jawa Tengah by Regency/City and Sex 2009". * ^ "Population of Jawa Tengah by Regency/City and Age Group 2009".

* ^ "Number of Households and Average of Household Member by Regency/City in Jawa Tengah 2009". * ^ (in Indonesian) PDAM Solo: Profil * ^ "Population Aged 15 Years and Over by Regency/City and Type of Activity during The Previous Week and Sex in Jawa Tengah 2009". * ^ "Population Aged 15 Years and Over who Worked during for The Previous Week by Regency/City and Employment Status in Jawa Tengah 2009". * ^ "Population Aged 15 Years and Over who Worked by Regency/City and Main Industry in Jawa Tengah 2009". * ^ "Working Hours Rate during the Previous Week by Regency/City and by Sex in Jawa Tengah 2009". * ^ "Population Aged 15 Years and Over who Worked during a Week by Regency/City and Time of Work in Jawa Tengah 2009". * ^ "Population Aged 15 Years and Over by Regency/City by Education Attainment in Jawa Tengah 2009". * ^ http://surakarta.dapodik.org/ * ^ (in Indonesian) Daftar universitas swasta di Surakarta * ^ (in Indonesian) PDRB PERKAPITA ATAS DASAR HARGA BERLAKU MENURUT KABUPATEN/KOTA JAWA TENGAH TAHUN 2005–2009 (RUPIAH) * ^ "Value of Worker Proper Life Requirement and Regency/City Minimum Wage by Regency/City in Jawa Tengah 2007 – 209 (Rupiahs)". * ^ (in Indonesian) Indeks Harga Konsumen dan Inflasi Di 66 Kota ( 2007=100 ) 2011 * ^ Post, The Jakarta. "Editorial: Welcome LPI". * ^ Adi sumarmo International Airport Solo, Asiarooms.com, Retrieved July 25, 2010 * ^ (in Indonesian) Arus Lalu Lintas Pesawat Udara Komersial Menurut Bandar Udara di Jawa Tengah Tahun 2009 (Trip) * ^ "Solo- Wonogiri Railbus". * ^ "Surakarta’s ‘railbuses’ are too heavy for tracks: KAI". April 13, 2012. * ^ (in Indonesian) Panjang Jalan Negara, Jalan Propinsi dan Kabupaten/Kota di Jawa Tengah Tahun 2009 (Km) * ^ (in Indonesian) Banyaknya Perusahaan Bus Umum AKDP/AKAP menurut Kabupaten/Kota di Jawa Tengah Tahun 2009 * ^ Batik Solo Trans. Portal
Portal
Informasi Kota Surakarta * ^ "Asyiknya Menikmati Kota Solo dengan Kereta Uap Jaladara". April 10, 2012. * ^ " Surakarta
Surakarta
dan Montana, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Menjadi Kota Kembar". Portal Nasional Republik Indonesia. October 21, 2007. Retrieved 2010-01-25.

FURTHER READING

* Majeed, Rushda. "The City With a Short Fuse." Foreign Policy. September 2012. * Majeed, Rushda. "Defusing a Volatile City, Igniting Reforms: Joko Widodo and Surakarta, Indonesia, 2005-2011." Innovations for Successful Societies. Princeton University. Published July 2012. * Miksic, John (general ed.), et al. (2006) Karaton Surakarta. A look into the court of Surakarta
Surakarta
Hadiningrat, central Java (First published: 'By the will of His Serene Highness Paku Buwono XII'. Surakarta: Yayasan Pawiyatan Kabudayan Karaton Surakarta, 2004) Marshall Cavendish Editions Singapore ISBN 981-261-226-2 * Soeharto, G. Dwipayana dan Ramadhan K.H. "Ucapan, Pikiran dan Tindakan Saya". 1988. PT Citra Lamtoro Gung. * Miksic, John (general ed.), et al. (2006) Karaton Surakarta. A look into the court of Surakarta
Surakarta
Hadiningrat, central Java (First published: 'By the will of His Serene Highness Paku Buwono XII'. Surakarta: Yayasan Pawiyatan Kabudayan Karaton Surakarta, 2004) Marshall Cavendish Editions Singapore ISBN 981-261-226-2 * Soeharto, G. Dwipayana dan Ramadhan K.H. "Ucapan, Pikiran dan Tindakan Saya". 1988. PT Citra Lamtoro Gung. * Paku Buwono XII (Sunan of Surakarta), A. Mutholi'in, "Karaton Surakarta", Yayasan Pawiyatan Kabudayan Karaton Surakarta, 2004 * Nancy K. Florida, Javanese literature in Surakarta
Surakarta
manuscripts / Vol. 1 Introduction and manuscripts of the Karaton Surakarta, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. Southeast Asia Program (SEAP), 1993. * Nancy K. Florida, Javanese literature in Surakarta
Surakarta
manuscripts / Vol. 2 Manuscripts of the Mangkunagaran Palace, Cornell University Ithaca, NY : Southeast Asia Program (SEAP), 2000. * Nancy K. Florida, "Writing the past, inscribing the future: history as prophesy in colonial Java", Duke University Press, 1995 * Richard Anderson Sutton, "Traditions of gamelan music in Java: musical pluralism and regional identity", CUP Archive, 1991 * Clara Brakel-Papenhuijzen, "Classical Javanese dance: the Surakarta
Surakarta
tradition and its terminology", KITLV Press, 1995 * The domestication of desire: Women, wealth, and modernity in Java (1998) Brenner, Suzanne April. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. * Keraton and Kumpeni: Surakarta
Surakarta
and Yogyakarta, 1830–1870 (1994) Houben, V. J. H.. Leiden: KITLV Press. * Prelude to revolution: Palaces and politics in Surakarta, 1912–1942 (1987) Larson, George D.. Dordrecht, Holland and Providence, R.I., U.S.A.: Foris Publications. * Solo in the new order: Language and hierarchy in an Indonesian city (1986) Siegel, James T.. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. * Pakubuwono's keraton of Surakarta: Short guide to Surakarta's grandeur : the palace of the Susuhunans Pakubuwono (1980) No contributors listed. Jakarta: Proyek Pengembangan Sarana Wisata Budaya Jakarta. * Miftah Sanaji, "Wisata Kuliner Makanan Daerah Khas Solo", Gramedia 2009, ISBN 978-979-22-5209-5 * "Ekspedisi Bengawan Solo", Laporan Jurnalistik Kompas, Kompas 2009, ISBN 978-979-709-390-7 * Linda Carolina Brotodjojo, "Jajanan Kaki Lima Khas Solo", Gramedia 2008, ISBN 978-979-22-4143-3 * Izharry Agusjaya Moenzir, "Gesang", Gramedia 2010, ISBN 978-979-22-5911-7

EXTERNAL LINKS

Solo travel guide from Wikivoyage

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