The Original Series films
The Motion Picture (1979)
II: The Wrath of Khan (1982)
III: The Search for
IV: The Voyage Home (1986)
V: The Final Frontier (1989)
VI: The Undiscovered Country (1991)
The Next Generation films
First Contact (1996)
Star Trek (2009)
Into Darkness (2013)
The Original Series (1966–1969)
Sequels to The Original Series
The Animated Series (1973–74)
The Next Generation (1987–1994)
Deep Space Nine (1993–1999)
Prequels to The Original Series
List of games
Star Trek Adventure
Star Trek: The Experience
Star Trek: The Exhibition
Star Trek: Exploring New Worlds
Star Trek is an American media franchise based on the science fiction
television series created by Gene Roddenberry. The first television
series, simply called
Star Trek and now referred to as "The Original
Series", debuted in 1966 and aired for three seasons on the television
network NBC. It followed the interstellar adventures of Captain James
T. Kirk (William Shatner) and his crew aboard the starship USS
Enterprise, a space exploration vessel, built by the United Federation
of Planets in the twenty-third century. The
Star Trek canon of the
franchise includes The Original Series, an animated series, five
spin-off television series, the film franchise, and further
adaptations in several media.
In creating Star Trek, Roddenberry was inspired by the Horatio
Hornblower novels, the satirical book Gulliver's Travels, and by works
of western genre such as the television series Wagon Train. These
adventures continued in the 22-episode Star Trek: The Animated Series
and six feature films. Four spin-off television series were eventually
produced: Star Trek: The Next Generation followed the crew of a new
starship Enterprise set a century after the original series; Star
Trek: Deep Space Nine and Star Trek: Voyager set contemporaneously
with The Next Generation; and Star Trek: Enterprise set before the
original series in the early days of human interstellar travel. The
Star Trek TV series, entitled Star Trek: Discovery,
CBS and later made available exclusively on the digital
CBS All Access. The adventures of The Next Generation crew
continued in four additional feature films. In 2009, the film
franchise underwent a "reboot" set in an alternate timeline, or
"Kelvin Timeline," entitled simply Star Trek. This film featured a new
cast portraying younger versions of the crew from the original show;
their adventures were continued in the sequel film,
Star Trek Into
Darkness (2013). The thirteenth film feature and sequel, Star Trek
Beyond (2016), was released to coincide with the franchise's 50th
Star Trek has been a cult phenomenon for decades. Fans of the
franchise are called Trekkies or Trekkers. The franchise spans a wide
range of spin-offs including games, figurines, novels, toys, and
Star Trek had a themed attraction in Las Vegas that opened in
1998 and closed in September 2008. At least two museum exhibits of
props travel the world. The series has its own full-fledged
constructed language, Klingon. Several parodies have been made of Star
Trek. In addition, viewers have produced several fan productions. As
of July 2016, the franchise had generated $10 billion in
Star Trek one of the highest-grossing media
franchises of all time.
Star Trek is noted for its cultural influence beyond works of science
fiction. The franchise is also noted for its progressive civil
rights stances. The Original Series included one of television's
first multiracial casts.
Star Trek references may be found throughout
popular culture from movies such as the submarine thriller Crimson
Tide to the animated series South Park.
1.1 Conception and setting
2 History and production
2.3 After Roddenberry
3 Television series
3.1 The Original Series (1966–69)
3.2 The Animated Series (1973–74)
3.3 The Next Generation (1987–94)
3.4 Deep Space Nine (1993–99)
3.5 Voyager (1995–2001)
3.6 Enterprise (2001–05)
3.7 Discovery (2017–present)
4 Feature films
5 Cast (Series only)
7 Cultural impact
7.2 Notable fan fiction
8 Awards and honors
9 Corporate ownership
10 See also
14 External links
Conception and setting
Starfleet emblem as seen in the franchise.
As early as 1964,
Gene Roddenberry drafted a proposal for the
science-fiction series that would become Star Trek. Although he
publicly marketed it as a Western in outer space—a so-called "Wagon
Train to the Stars"—he privately told friends that he was
modeling it on Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, intending each
episode to act on two levels: as a suspenseful adventure story and as
a morality tale.
Star Trek stories depict the adventures of humans[Note 1] and
aliens who serve in Starfleet, the space-borne humanitarian and
peacekeeping armada of the United Federation of Planets. The
protagonists have altruistic values, and must apply these ideals to
Many of the conflicts and political dimensions of
Star Trek represent
allegories of contemporary cultural realities. Star Trek: The Original
Series addressed issues of the 1960s, just as later spin-offs have
reflected issues of their respective decades. Issues depicted in the
various series include war and peace, the value of personal loyalty,
authoritarianism, imperialism, class warfare, economics, racism,
religion, human rights, sexism, feminism, and the role of
technology. Roddenberry stated: "[By creating] a new world with new
rules, I could make statements about sex, religion, Vietnam, politics,
and intercontinental missiles. Indeed, we did make them on Star Trek:
we were sending messages and fortunately they all got by the
network." "If you talked about purple people on a far off planet,
they (the TV network) never really caught on. They were more concerned
about cleavage. They actually would send a censor down to the set to
measure a woman's cleavage to make sure too much of her breast wasn't
Roddenberry intended the show to have a progressive political agenda
reflective of the emerging counter-culture of the youth movement,
though he was not fully forthcoming to the networks about this. He
Star Trek to show humanity what it might develop into, if it
would learn from the lessons of the past, most specifically by ending
violence. An extreme example is the alien species, the Vulcans, who
had a violent past but learned to control their emotions. Roddenberry
Star Trek an anti-war message and depicted the United
Federation of Planets as an ideal, optimistic version of the United
Nations. His efforts were opposed by the network because of
concerns over marketability, e.g., they opposed Roddenberry's
insistence that Enterprise have a racially diverse crew.
The central trio of Kirk, Spock, and McCoy from Star Trek: The
Original Series was modeled on classical mythological
William Shatner said: "There is a mythological component [to pop
culture], especially with science fiction. It's people looking for
answers – and science fiction offers to explain the inexplicable,
the same as religion tends to do... If we accept the premise that it
has a mythological element, then all the stuff about going out into
space and meeting new life – trying to explain it and put a human
element to it – it's a hopeful vision. All these things offer hope
and imaginative solutions for the future."
Richard Lutz wrote: "The enduring popularity of
Star Trek is due to
the underlying mythology which binds fans together by virtue of their
shared love of stories involving exploration, discovery, adventure and
friendship that promote an egalitarian and peace loving society where
technology and diversity are valued rather than feared and citizens
work together for the greater good. Thus
Star Trek offers a hopeful
vision of the future and a template for our lives and our society that
we can aspire to."
History and production
Star Trek creator, producer and writer Gene Roddenberry.
Spock and Captain James T. Kirk, played by
Leonard Nimoy and
William Shatner, pictured here in The Original Series.
In early 1964, Roddenberry presented a brief treatment for a proposed
Star Trek TV series to
Desilu Productions comparing it to Wagon Train,
Wagon Train to the stars."
Desilu worked with Roddenberry to
develop the treatment into a script, which was then pitched to
NBC paid to make a pilot, "The Cage", starring
Jeffrey Hunter as
Enterprise Captain Christopher Pike.
NBC rejected The Cage, but the
executives were still impressed with the concept, and made the unusual
decision to commission a second pilot: "Where No Man Has Gone
The first regular episode ("The Man Trap") of Star Trek: The Original
Series aired on Thursday, September 8, 1966 in the US.[Note 2]
While the show initially enjoyed high ratings, the average rating of
the show at the end of its first season dropped to 52nd out of 94
programs. Unhappy with the show's ratings,
NBC threatened to cancel
the show during its second season. The show's fan base, led by Bjo
Trimble, conducted an unprecedented letter-writing campaign,
petitioning the network to keep the show on the air. NBC
renewed the show, but moved it from primetime to the "Friday night
death slot", and substantially reduced its budget. In protest
Roddenberry resigned as producer and reduced his direct involvement in
Star Trek, which led to
Fred Freiberger becoming producer for the
show's third and final season.[Note 3] Despite another letter-writing
NBC cancelled the series after three seasons and 79
After the original series was cancelled, Paramount Studios, which had
bought the series from Desilu, licensed the broadcast syndication
rights to help recoup the production losses. Reruns began in the fall
of 1969 and by the late 1970s the series aired in over 150 domestic
and 60 international markets. This helped
Star Trek develop a cult
following greater than its popularity during its original run.
One sign of the series' growing popularity was the first Star Trek
convention which occurred on January 21–23, 1972 in New York City.
Although the original estimate of attendees was only a few hundred,
several thousand fans turned up.
Star Trek fans continue to attend
similar conventions worldwide.
The series' newfound success led to the idea of reviving the
Paramount Television produced the first
post original series show, Star Trek: The Animated Series. It ran on
NBC for 22 half-hour episodes over two seasons on Saturday mornings
from 1973 to 1974. Although short-lived, typical for animated
productions in that time slot during that period, the series garnered
the franchise's only "Best Series"
Emmy Award as opposed to the
franchise's later technical ones.
Paramount Pictures and Roddenberry
began developing a new series, Star Trek: Phase II, in May 1975 in
response to the franchise's newfound popularity. Work on the series
ended, however, when the proposed
Paramount Television Service folded.
Following the success of the science fiction movies
Star Wars and
Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Paramount adapted the planned
pilot episode of Phase II into the feature film Star Trek: The Motion
Picture. The film opened in North America on December 7, 1979, with
mixed reviews from critics. The film earned $139 million worldwide,
below expectations but enough for Paramount to create a sequel. The
studio forced Roddenberry to relinquish creative control of future
The success of the critically acclaimed sequel,
Star Trek II: The
Wrath of Khan, reversed the fortunes of the franchise. While the
sequel grossed less than the first movie, The Wrath of Khan's lower
production costs made it net more profit. Paramount produced six Star
Trek feature films between 1979 and 1991. In response to the
Star Trek feature films, the franchise returned to
television with Star Trek: The Next Generation (TNG) in 1987.
Paramount chose to distribute it as a first-run syndication show
rather than a network show.
Following Star Trek: The Motion Picture, Roddenberry's role was
changed from producer to creative consultant with minimal input to the
films while being heavily involved with the creation of Star Trek: The
Next Generation. Roddenberry died on October 24, 1991, giving
Rick Berman control of the franchise. Star
Trek had become known to those within Paramount as "the franchise",
because of its great success and recurring role as a tent pole for the
studio when other projects failed. TNG had the highest ratings of
Star Trek series and became the #1 syndicated show during the last
years of its original seven-season run. In response to TNG's
success, Paramount released a spin-off series Deep Space Nine in 1993.
While never as popular as TNG, the series had sufficient ratings for
it to last seven seasons.
In January 1995, a few months after TNG ended, Paramount released a
fourth TV series, Voyager.
Star Trek saturation reached a peak in the
mid-1990s with DS9 and Voyager airing concurrently and three of the
four TNG-based feature films released in 1994, 1996, and 1998. By
Star Trek was Paramount's most important property; the enormous
profits of "the franchise" funded much of the rest of the studio's
operations.:49–50,54 Voyager became the flagship show of the new
United Paramount Network (UPN) and thus the first major network Star
Trek series since the original.
After Voyager ended,
UPN produced Enterprise, a prequel TV series to
the original show. Enterprise did not enjoy the high ratings of its
UPN threatened to cancel it after the series' third
season. Fans launched a campaign reminiscent of the one that saved the
third season of the Original Series. Paramount renewed Enterprise for
a fourth season, but moved it to the Friday night death slot.
Like the Original Series, Enterprise ratings dropped during this time
UPN cancelled Enterprise at the end of its fourth season.
Enterprise aired its final episode on May 13, 2005. Fan groups,
"Save Enterprise", attempted to save the series and tried to raise
$30 million to privately finance a fifth season of Enterprise.
Though the effort garnered considerable press, the fan drive failed to
save the series. The cancellation of Enterprise ended an eighteen-year
continuous production run of
Star Trek programming on television. The
poor box office performance in 2002 of the film Nemesis, cast an
uncertain light upon the future of the franchise. Paramount relieved
Berman, the franchise producer, of control of Star Trek.
Paramount turned down several proposals in the mid-2000s to restart
the franchise. These included pitches from film director Bryan
Babylon 5 creator J. Michael Straczynski, and Trek
Jonathan Frakes and William Shatner. The studio also turned
down an animated web series. Instead, Paramount hired a new
creative team to reinvigorate the franchise in 2007. Writers Roberto
Alex Kurtzman and Lost producer, J. J. Abrams, had the
freedom to reinvent the feel of Trek.
The team created the franchise's eleventh film, entitled simply Star
Trek, releasing it in May 2009. The film featured a new cast
portraying the crew of the original show.
Star Trek was a prequel of
the original series set in an alternate timeline, known as the "Kelvin
Timeline". This gave the film and future sequels to it freedom from
the need to conform to the franchise's canonical timeline. The
Star Trek film's marketing campaign targeted non-fans, even
stating in the film's advertisements that "this is not your father's
The film earned considerable critical and financial success, grossing
(in inflation-adjusted dollars) more box office sales than any
Star Trek film. The plaudits include the franchise's
Academy Award (for makeup). The film's major cast members are
contracted for two sequels. Paramount's sequel to the 2009 film,
Star Trek Into Darkness, premiered in Sydney, Australia, on April 23,
2013, but the film did not release in the United States until May 17,
2013. While the film was not as successful in the North American
box office as its predecessor, internationally, in terms of box office
receipts, Into Darkness was the most successful of the franchise.
A thirteenth film entitled
Star Trek Beyond was released on July 22,
The franchise returned to the small screen in the show Star Trek:
CBS announced a new premiere date of September 24,
2017, and that the season would be split into two chapters, with the
first chapter consisting of eight episodes and being released through
November 2017, and the second comprising the remaining seven episodes
and beginning streaming in January 2018. This break gave more time to
complete post-production on the second half of the season.
Seven television series make up the bulk of the
Star Trek mythos: The
Original Series, The Animated Series, The Next Generation, Deep Space
Nine, Voyager, Enterprise, and Discovery. All the different versions
in total amount to 741
Star Trek episodes across the 31 seasons of the
TV series.[Note 4]
The Original Series (1966–69)
The Original Series logo, common throughout the franchise
William Shatner played the unflappable Captain
James T. Kirk
James T. Kirk in The
Original Series, The Animated Series, and seven films, helping to
create the standard for all subsequent fictional
Main article: Star Trek: The Original Series
Star Trek: The Original Series or "TOS"[Note 5] debuted in the United
NBC on September 8, 1966. The show tells the tale of the
crew of the starship Enterprise and its five-year mission "to boldly
go where no man has gone before." The original 1966–69 television
William Shatner as Captain James T. Kirk, Leonard
Nimoy as Spock,
DeForest Kelley as Dr. Leonard "Bones" McCoy, James
Doohan as Montgomery "Scotty" Scott,
Nichelle Nichols as Uhura, George
Takei as Hikaru Sulu, and
Walter Koenig as Pavel Chekov. During
the series' original run, it earned several nominations for the Hugo
Award for Best Dramatic Presentation and won twice: for the two-parter
"The Menagerie" and the Harlan Ellison-written episode "The City on
the Edge of Forever".
NBC canceled the show after three seasons; the last original episode
aired on June 3, 1969. The petition near the end of the second
season to save the show signed by many
Caltech students and its
multiple Hugo nominations would, however, indicate that despite low
Nielsen ratings, it was highly popular with science fiction fans and
engineering students. The series later became popular in reruns
and found a cult following.
The Animated Series (1973–74)
The Animated Series logo
Main article: Star Trek: The Animated Series
Star Trek: The Animated Series, produced by Filmation, ran for two
seasons from 1973 to 1974. Most of the original cast performed the
voices of their characters from The Original Series, and many of the
writers who worked on The Original Series, D. C. Fontana, David
Gerrold, and Paul Schneider, wrote for the series. While the animated
format allowed the producers to create more exotic alien landscapes
and life forms, animation errors and liberal reuse of shots and
musical cues have tarnished the series' reputation. Although it
was originally sanctioned by Paramount, which owned the Star Trek
franchise following its acquisition of
Desilu in 1967, Gene
Roddenberry often spoke of TAS as non-canon.
Star Trek writers
have used elements of the animated series in later live-action series
and films, and as of June 2007[update], TAS has references in the
library section of the official Startrek.com web site officially
bringing the series into the franchise's main canon.
The Animated Series won Star Trek's first
Emmy Award on May 15,
1975. Star Trek: TAS briefly returned to television in the
mid-1980s on the children's cable network Nickelodeon. Nickelodeon's
Evan McGuire greatly admired the show and used its various creative
components as inspiration for his short series called Piggly Wiggly
Hears a Sound which never aired. Nickelodeon parent
purchase Paramount in 1994. In the early 1990s, the Sci-Fi Channel
also began rerunning TAS. The complete TAS was also released on
Laserdisc format during the 1980s. The complete series was first
released in the U.S. on eleven volumes of VHS tapes in 1989. All 22
episodes were released on DVD in 2006.
The Next Generation (1987–94)
The Next Generation logo
Sir Patrick Stewart, who played Captain
Jean-Luc Picard in The Next
Generation and subsequent films.
Main article: Star Trek: The Next Generation
Star Trek: The Next Generation, also known as "TNG", takes place about
a century after The Original Series (2364–2370). It features a new
starship, Enterprise-D, and a new crew led by Captain Jean-Luc Picard
(Patrick Stewart) and Commander
William Riker (Jonathan Frakes). Some
crewmembers represent new alien races, including Deanna Troi, a
Betazoid counselor played by Marina Sirtis.
Michael Dorn plays
Worf, the first
Klingon officer in Starfleet, alongside Gates McFadden
as Dr. Beverly Crusher,
LeVar Burton as chief engineer Geordi La
Forge, the android Data portrayed by Brent Spiner, and Dr. Crusher's
Wesley Crusher played by Wil Wheaton. The show premiered on
September 28, 1987, and ran for seven seasons, ending on May 23,
1994. It had the highest ratings of any of the
Star Trek series
and became the #1 syndicated show during the last few years of its
original run, allowing it to act as a springboard for ideas in other
series. Many relationships and races introduced in TNG became the
basis of episodes in Deep Space 9 and Voyager. During its run it
Emmy awards and nominations—including a nomination
for Best Dramatic Series during its final season—two Hugo Awards and
Peabody Award for Outstanding Television Programming for the episode
"The Big Goodbye".
Deep Space Nine (1993–99)
The Deep Space Nine logo
Avery Brooks played Captain
Benjamin Sisko in Deep Space Nine,
commander of the titular space station and Emissary of the Prophets.
Main article: Star Trek: Deep Space Nine
Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, also known as "DS9", takes place during
the last years and the immediate post-years of The Next Generation
(2369–2375) and aired for seven seasons, debuting the week of
January 3, 1993. Like Star Trek: The Next Generation, it aired in
syndication in the United States and Canada. Unlike the other Star
Trek series, DS9 takes place primarily on a space station rather than
aboard a starship.
The show begins after the brutal
Cardassian occupation of the planet
Bajor. The liberated
Bajoran people ask the United Federation of
Planets to help run a
Cardassian built space station, Deep Space Nine,
near Bajor. After the Federation takes control of the station, the
protagonists of the show discover a uniquely stable wormhole that
provides immediate access to the distant Gamma Quadrant making Bajor
and the station one of the most strategically important locations in
the galaxy. The show chronicles the events of the station's crew,
led by Commander (later Captain) Benjamin Sisko, played by Avery
Brooks, and Major (later Colonel) Kira Nerys, played by Nana Visitor.
Recurring plot elements include the repercussions of the Cardassian
occupation of Bajor, Sisko's spiritual role for the Bajorans as the
Emissary of the Prophets, and in later seasons a war with the
Deep Space Nine stands apart from earlier Trek series for its lengthy
serialized storytelling, conflict within the crew, and religious
themes—all elements that critics and audiences praised but
Roddenberry forbade in the original series and The Next
Generation. Nevertheless, he was informed before his death of DS9,
making this the last
Star Trek series connected to Gene
Kate Mulgrew, who played Captain Kathryn Janeway, the lead character
in Voyager, and the first female commanding officer in a leading role
Star Trek series.
Main article: Star Trek: Voyager
Star Trek: Voyager ran for seven seasons, airing from January 16,
1995, to May 23, 2001, launching a new Paramount-owned television
network, UPN. It features
Kate Mulgrew as Captain Kathryn Janeway,
the first female commanding officer in a leading role of a Star Trek
series, and Commander Chakotay, played by Robert Beltran.
Voyager takes place at about the same time period as Deep Space Nine
and the years following that show's end (2371–2378). The premiere
episode has the USS Voyager and its crew pursue a Maquis (Federation
rebels) ship. Both ships become stranded in the Delta Quadrant about
70,000 light-years from Earth. Faced with a 75-year voyage to
Earth, the crew must learn to work together to overcome challenges on
their long and perilous journey home while also seeking ways to
shorten the voyage. Like Deep Space Nine, early seasons of Voyager
feature more conflict between its crewmembers than seen in later
episodes. Such conflict often arises from friction between
Starfleet crew and rebellious Maquis fugitives forced by
circumstance to work together on Voyager. Eventually, though, they
settle their differences, after which the overall tone becomes more
reminiscent of The Original Series. The starship Voyager, isolated
from its home, faces new cultures and dilemmas not possible in shows
based in the Alpha Quadrant. Later seasons, however, brought an influx
of characters and cultures from prior shows, the Borg, Q, the Ferengi,
Romulans, Klingons, Cardassians and cast members of The Next
Enterprise logo. The show originally did not include "Star Trek" in
its name and logo, adding it later on in the show's run.
Science fiction veteran
Scott Bakula played Captain Jonathan Archer,
the lead character in Enterprise, a prequel to the original show.
Main article: Star Trek: Enterprise
Star Trek: Enterprise, originally entitled Enterprise, is a prequel to
Star Trek series. It aired from September 26, 2001 to May
13, 2005. Enterprise takes place in the 2150s, some 90 years after
the events of Zefram Cochrane's first warp flight and about a decade
before the founding of the Federation. The show centers on the voyages
of Earth's first warp 5 capable starship, Enterprise, commanded by
Jonathan Archer (played by Scott Bakula), and the Vulcan
T'Pol (played by Jolene Blalock).
During the show's first two seasons, Enterprise featured
self-contained episodes, like The Original Series, The Next Generation
and Voyager. The third season consisted of one arc, "Xindi mission",
which had a darker tone and serialized nature similar to that of Deep
Space 9. Season 4 consisted of several mini-arcs composed of two to
three episodes. The final season showed the origins of elements seen
in earlier series, and it rectified and resolved some core continuity
problems between the various
Star Trek series. Ratings for Enterprise
started strong but declined rapidly. Although critics received the
fourth season well, both fans and the cast reviled the series finale,
partly because of the episode's focus on the guest appearance of
members of The Next Generation cast. The cancellation of
Enterprise ended an 18-year run of back-to-back new
Star Trek shows
beginning with The Next Generation in 1987.
Sonequa Martin-Green plays Commander Michael Burnham, the lead
character in Discovery.
Main article: Star Trek: Discovery
Star Trek: Discovery is a direct prequel to Star Trek: The Original
Series, set roughly ten years beforehand. It premiered September
24, 2017 in the United States and Canada on
CBS before moving to CBS
All Access, while Netflix streams the show outside the United
States and is also providing most of the show's funding.
The show centers on the voyages of the Discovery, commanded by Captain
Gabriel Lorca (played by Jason Isaacs), and Lieutenant Commander
Michael Burnham (played by Sonequa Martin-Green), with Burnham being
the lead character of the series. This marks the first Star Trek
series to feature a First Officer as the lead character. The show is
to feature the
Klingon T'Kuvma attempting to unite the 24 great
Klingon houses, leading to a war between his race and the United
Federation of Planets that involves the crew of the Discovery.
The reboot film series logo
Star Trek (film series)
Paramount Pictures has produced thirteen
Star Trek feature films, the
most recent being released in July 2016. The first six films
continue the adventures of the cast of The Original Series; the
seventh film, Generations was designed as a transition from that cast
to The Next Generation television series; the next three films,
8–10, focused completely on the Next Generation cast.[Note 6]
Starting with the eleventh film, the movies take place in an alternate
timeline with a new cast playing the original series characters.
Leonard Nimoy portrays an elderly
Spock in these films, providing a
physical link to the original timeline. This alternate timeline has
been named by CBS, for the computer game
Star Trek Online, the Kelvin
U.S. release date
The Original Series
Star Trek: The Motion Picture
December 7, 1979
Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan
June 4, 1982
Star Trek III: The Search for Spock
June 1, 1984
Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home
November 26, 1986
Star Trek V: The Final Frontier
June 9, 1989
Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country
December 6, 1991
The Next Generation[Note 7]
Star Trek Generations
November 18, 1994
Star Trek: First Contact
November 22, 1996
Star Trek: Insurrection
December 11, 1998
Star Trek: Nemesis
December 13, 2002
"Reboot" [Note 8]
May 8, 2009[Note 9]
J. J. Abrams
Star Trek Into Darkness
May 16, 2013[Note 10]
Star Trek Beyond
July 22, 2016
Star Trek film
Cast (Series only)
For cast of the film franchise, see
Star Trek (film series)
James T. Kirk
Geordi La Forge
Nicole de Boer
Robert Duncan McNeill
Seven of Nine
Ash Tyler / Voq
^ a b c d e f Appears in "Trials and Tribble-ations" via archive
^ a b Appears in "These Are the Voyages..." via archive sound
DeForest Kelley was billed as a co-star for the first season of the
Walter Koenig became a co-star in season two of the original series.
Denise Crosby left The Next Generation in "Skin of Evil", but made
guest appearances in "Yesterday's Enterprise" and "All Good
Michael Dorn joined the cast of Deep Space Nine in "The Way of the
^ During season two of The Next Generation,
Gates McFadden was
replaced by Diana Muldaur, who was billed as a "special guest star".
Brent Spiner makes an uncredited voice cameo in "These Are the
Wil Wheaton left The Next Generation in "Final Mission", but made
guest appearances in "The Game", "The First Duty", "Parallels" and
Nicole de Boer
Nicole de Boer joined Deep Space Nine in "Image in the Sand".
^ Terry Farrell left Deep Space Nine in "Tears of the Prophets".
Alexander Siddig was credited Siddig El Fadil for the first three
seasons of Deep Space Nine and his guest appearance on The Next
Jennifer Lien left Voyager in "The Gift", but made a guest
appearance in "Fury"
Robert Picardo appears in "Doctor Bashir, I Presume?" as the Deep
Space Nine Emergency Medical Hologram.
Tim Russ appears in "Through the Looking Glass" as the mirror
version of Tuvok.
Jeri Ryan joined Voyager in "Scorpion, Part II".
Star Trek spin-off fiction
Many licensed products are based on the
Star Trek franchise.
Merchandising is very lucrative for both studio and actors; by 1986
Nimoy had earned more than $500,000 from royalties. Products
include novels, comic books, video games, and other materials, which
are generally considered non-canon.
Star Trek merchandise generated $4
billion for Paramount by 2002.
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Main article: List of
Star Trek novels
Since 1967, hundreds of original novels, short stories, and television
and movie adaptations have been published. The first original Star
Trek novel was
Mission to Horatius
Mission to Horatius by Mack Reynolds, which was
published in hardcover by Whitman Books in 1968.
The first publisher of
Star Trek fiction aimed at adult readers was
Bantam Books. In 1970,
James Blish wrote the first original Star Trek
novel published by Bantam,
Spock Must Die!
Pocket Books is the
Star Trek novels.
Star Trek novelists include Peter David, Diane Carey, Keith
R. A. DeCandido, J. M. Dillard, Diane Duane, Michael Jan Friedman, and
Judith and Garfield Reeves-Stevens. Several actors from the television
series have also written or co-written books featuring their
respective characters: William Shatner, John de Lancie, Andrew J.
J. G. Hertzler
J. G. Hertzler and Armin Shimerman. Voyager producer Jeri
Taylor wrote two novels featuring back story for Voyager
characters, and screen authors David Gerrold, D. C. Fontana, and
Melinda Snodgrass have penned books, as well.
A scholarly book published by Springer Science+Business Media in 2014
discusses the actualization of Star Trek's holodeck in the future by
making extensive use of artificial intelligence and cyborgs.
Star Trek (comics)
Star Trek-based comics have been almost continuously published since
1967. They have been offered by several companies, including Marvel,
DC, Malibu, Wildstorm, and Gold Key.
Tokyopop is publishing an
anthology of Next Generation-based stories presented in the style of
Japanese manga. As of 2006[update],
IDW Publishing secured
publishing rights to
Star Trek comics and published a prequel to
the 2009 film, Star Trek: Countdown. In 2012, they published Volume I
Star Trek – The Newspaper Strip featuring the work of Thomas
Main article: History of
Star Trek games
Star Trek franchise has numerous games in many formats. Beginning
in 1967 with a board game based on the original series and continuing
through today with online and DVD games,
Star Trek games continue to
be popular among fans.
Video games of the series include Star Trek: Legacy and Star Trek:
Conquest. An MMORPG based on
Star Trek called
Star Trek Online was
Cryptic Studios and published by Perfect World. It is set
in the TNG universe about 30 years after the events of Star Trek:
Nemesis. The most recent video game, set in the new timeline
debuted in J. J. Abrams's film, was entitled Star Trek.
On June 8, 2010, Wiz Kids Games, which is owned by NECA, announced
that they are developing a
Star Trek collectible miniatures game using
the HeroClix game system.
Star Trek has led directly or indirectly to the creation of a number
of magazines which focus either on science fiction or specifically on
Starlog was a magazine which was founded in the 1970s.
Initially, its focus was on
Star Trek actors, but then it began to
expand its scope.
Star Trek Magazine was a significant publication from the
U.K. which was sold at newsstands and also via subscription. Other
magazines through the years included professional magazines as well as
magazines produced by fans, referred to as "fanzines". Star Trek: The
Magazine was a magazine published in the U.S. which ceased publication
Main article: Cultural influence of Star Trek
Prototype space shuttle Enterprise named after the fictional starship
Star Trek television cast members and creator Gene Roddenberry.
Star Trek media franchise is a multibillion-dollar industry, owned
Gene Roddenberry sold
Star Trek to
NBC as a classic
adventure drama; he pitched the show as "
Wagon Train to the Stars" and
Horatio Hornblower in Space. The opening line, "to boldly go
where no man has gone before," was taken almost verbatim from a U.S.
White House booklet on space produced after the
Sputnik flight in
1957. The central trio of Kirk, Spock, and McCoy was modeled on
classical mythological storytelling.
Star Trek and its spin-offs have proven highly popular in syndication
and are shown on TV stations worldwide. The show's cultural impact
goes far beyond its longevity and profitability.
Star Trek conventions
have become popular among its fans, who call themselves "trekkies" or
"trekkers". An entire subculture has grown up around the show
which was documented in the film Trekkies.
Star Trek was the
highest-ranked cult show by TV Guide. The franchise has also
garnered many comparisons of the
Star Wars franchise being rivals in
the science fiction genre with many fans and scholars.
Star Trek franchise inspired some designers of technologies, the
Palm PDA and the handheld mobile phone. Michael Jones, Chief
technologist of Google Earth, has cited the tricorder's mapping
capability as one inspiration in the development of Keyhole/Google
Tricorder X Prize, a contest to build a medical
tricorder device was announced in 2012. Ten finalists were selected in
2014, and the winner was to be selected in January 2016. However, no
team managed to reach the required criteria.
Star Trek also brought
teleportation to popular attention with its depiction of
"matter-energy transport", with the famously misquoted phrase "Beam me
up, Scotty" entering the vernacular. The
Star Trek replicator is
credited in the scientific literature with inspiring the field of
diatom nanotechnology. In 1976, following a letter-writing
NASA named its prototype space shuttle Enterprise, after the
fictional starship. Later, the introductory sequence to Star
Trek: Enterprise included footage of this shuttle which, along with
images of a naval sailing vessel called Enterprise, depicted the
advancement of human transportation technology. Additionally, some
contend that the
Star Trek society resembles communism.
Beyond Star Trek's fictional innovations, its contributions to TV
history included a multicultural and multiracial cast. While more
common in subsequent years, in the 1960s it was controversial to
feature an Enterprise crew that included a Japanese helmsman, a
Russian navigator, a black female communications officer, and a
human–Vulcan first officer. Captain Kirk's and Lt. Uhura's kiss, in
the episode "Plato's Stepchildren", was also daring, and is often
mis-cited as being American television's first scripted, interracial
kiss, even though several other interracial kisses predated this
one. In an interview Nichelle Nichols, who played the
black female communications officer, said that the day after she told
Roddenberry she planned to leave the show, she was at a fund-raiser at
the NAACP and was told there was a big fan who wanted to meet her.
I thought it was a Trekkie, and so I said, 'Sure.' I looked across the
room, and there was Dr.
Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King walking towards me with
this big grin on his face. He reached out to me and said, 'Yes, Ms.
Nichols, I am your greatest fan.' He said that
Star Trek was the only
show that he, and his wife Coretta, would allow their three little
children to stay up and watch. [She told King about her plans to leave
the series.] I never got to tell him why, because he said, 'You can't.
You're part of history.'
When she told Roddenberry what King had said, he cried.
Computer engineer and entrepreneur
Steve Wozniak credited watching
Star Trek and attending
Star Trek conventions while in his youth as a
source of inspiration for him co-founding
Apple Inc. in 1976, which
would later become the world's largest information technology company
by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone
Early TV comedy sketch parodies of
Star Trek included a famous sketch
Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live entitled "The Last Voyage of the Starship
John Belushi as Kirk,
Chevy Chase as
Spock and Dan
Aykroyd as McCoy. In the 1980s,
Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live did a sketch
William Shatner reprising his Captain Kirk role in The Restaurant
Enterprise, preceded by a sketch in which he played himself at a Trek
convention angrily telling fans to "Get a Life", a phrase that has
become part of Trek folklore.
In Living Color
In Living Color continued the
tradition in a sketch where Captain Kirk is played by a fellow
Canadian Jim Carrey.
A feature-length film that indirectly parodies
Star Trek is Galaxy
Quest. This film is based on the premise that aliens monitoring the
broadcast of an Earth-based TV series called Galaxy Quest, modeled
heavily on Star Trek, believe that what they are seeing is real.
Star Trek actors have been quoted saying that
Galaxy Quest was a
Star Trek has been blended with
Gilbert and Sullivan
Gilbert and Sullivan at least twice.
North Toronto Players presented a
Star Trek adaptation of Gilbert
& Sullivan entitled H.M.S.
Starship Pinafore: The Next Generation
in 1991 and an adaptation by
Jon Mullich of Gilbert & Sullivan's
H.M.S. Pinafore that sets the operetta in the world of
Star Trek has
played in Los Angeles and was attended by series luminaries Nichelle
D.C. Fontana and David Gerrold. A
similar blend of
Gilbert and Sullivan
Gilbert and Sullivan and
Star Trek was presented as a
benefit concert in San Francisco by the Lamplighters in 2009. The show
was entitled Star Drek: The Generation After That. It presented an
original story with
Gilbert and Sullivan
Gilbert and Sullivan melodies.
The Simpsons and
Futurama television series and others have had
many individual episodes parodying
Star Trek or with Trek
allusions. An entire series of films and novels from Finland
Star Wreck also parodies Star Trek.
In August 2010, the members of the
Internal Revenue Service
Internal Revenue Service created a
Star Trek themed training video for a conference. Revealed to the
public in 2013, the spoof along with parodies of other media
franchises was cited as an example of the misuse of taxpayer funds in
a congressional investigation.
Star Trek has been parodied in several non-English movies, including
Traumschiff Surprise - Periode 1
Traumschiff Surprise - Periode 1 which features a gay
version of The Original Series bridge crew and a Turkish film that
spoofs that same series' episode "The Man Trap" in one of the series
of films based on the character Turist Ömer.
The Orville is a comedy-drama science fiction television series that
is currently airing on Fox, with the same look and feel as the Star
Trek universe, created by noted
Seth MacFarlane that premiered
on September 10, 2017. MacFarlane has made references to Star
Trek on his animated series Family Guy, where the Next Generation cast
guest-starred in the episode "Not All Dogs Go to Heaven".
Notable fan fiction
Star Trek fan productions
Star Trek has been off the air since 2005,
CBS and Paramount
pictures have allowed fan-produced shows to be created. While not
officially part of the
Star Trek universe, several veteran Star Trek
actors, actresses, and writers have contributed their talents to many
of these productions. While none of these films have been created for
profit, several fan productions have turned to crowdfunding from
sites, such as
Kickstarter to help with production costs.
Two series set during the TOS time period are
Star Trek Continues and
the Hugo award nominated Star Trek: Phase II. Another series, Star
Trek: Hidden Frontier, takes place on the Briar Patch, a region of
space introduced in
Star Trek Insurrection. It has had over 50
episodes produced, and has two spin-off series, Star Trek: Odyssey and
Star Trek: The Helena Chronicles. Several standalone fan films have
been created including Star Trek: Of Gods and Men. Future fan films
include Star Trek: Axanar. Audio only fan productions includes
Star Trek: The Continuing Mission. Several fan film parodies have also
Star Trek series is also notable for giving rise to slash
fiction, a genre of fan-produced in-universe fiction where normally
non-romantic same-sex characters are portrayed as being a romantic
couple, notably "Kirk/Spock" stories. These began appearing in the
early 1970s, generally written by female fans of the show.
Over the intervening decades, especially with the advent of the
internet, slash fanfiction has become its own thriving
In 2016, Paramount and
CBS instituted strict fan guidelines on fan
films. Notable guidelines include a maximum length of 15 minutes, a
maximum fund limit of $50,000, and a ban on using individuals
previously associated with
Star Trek productions. This has shut
down all of the highly publicized fan film productions ending what has
been called a "golden age of amateur
Star Trek films".
Awards and honors
Of the various science fiction awards for drama, only the Hugo Award
dates back as far as the original series.[Note 11] In 1968, all five
nominees for a
Hugo Award were individual episodes of Star Trek, as
were three of the five nominees in 1967.[Note 12] The only Star
Trek series not even to get a Hugo nomination are the animated series
and Voyager, though only the original series and Next Generation ever
won the award. No
Star Trek feature film has ever won a Hugo, though a
few were nominated. In 2008, the fan-made episode of Star Trek: New
Voyages entitled "World Enough and Time" was nominated for the Hugo
for Best Short Drama.
TV Guide picked the following as the ten best Star Trek
episodes for the franchise's 30th anniversary.
"The City on the Edge of Forever" (Original Series, April 6, 1967)
"Amok Time" (Original Series, September 15, 1967)
"Mirror, Mirror" (Original Series, October 6, 1967)
"The Doomsday Machine" (Original Series, October 20, 1967)
"Journey to Babel" (Original Series, November 17, 1967)
"11001001" (The Next Generation, February 1, 1988)
"Yesterday's Enterprise" (The Next Generation, February 19, 1990)
"The Best of Both Worlds" (Part I) (The Next Generation, June 18,
"Tapestry" (The Next Generation, February 15, 1993)
"The Visitor" (Deep Space Nine, October 9, 1995)
Star Trek series to win multiple
Saturn awards during their
run were The Next Generation (twice winning for best television
series) and Voyager (twice winning for best actress – Kate Mulgrew
and Jeri Ryan).[Note 13] The original series retroactively won a
Saturn Award for best DVD release. Several
Star Trek films have won
Saturns including categories best actor, actress, director, costume
design, and special effects. However,
Star Trek has never won a Saturn
for best make-up.
As for non science fiction specific awards, the
Star Trek series have
Emmy Awards. The eleventh
Star Trek film won the 2009
Academy Award for Best Makeup and Hairstyling, the franchise's first
At Star Trek's creation, Norway Productions, Roddenberry's production
company, shared ownership with
Desilu Productions and, after
Desilu in 1967, with Paramount Pictures, the
conglomerate's film studio. Paramount did not want to own the
unsuccessful show; net profit was to be shared between Norway,
Desilu/Paramount, Shatner, and
Star Trek lost money, and the
studio did not expect to syndicate it. In 1970 Paramount offered to
sell all rights to
Star Trek to Roddenberry, but he could not afford
the $150,000 cost (equivalent to $945,244 in 2017).
Gulf+Western renamed itself as Paramount Communications, and
in 1994 merged with Viacom. In 2005,
Viacom divided into CBS
CBS Television Studios subsidiary retained the Star
Trek brand, and Viacom, whose
Paramount Pictures subsidiary retained
Star Trek film library and rights to make additional films, along
with video distribution rights to the TV series on behalf of
Science Fiction portal
Star Trek portal
Outline of Star Trek
Timeline of science fiction
List of space science fiction franchises
^ Members of the human species are occasionally called "Terrans" in
Star Trek, although usage has been inconsistent.
^ However, the show had been first telecast two days earlier in Canada
CTV Television Network
CTV Television Network at 7:30 p.m. Eastern Time. "Today's TV
Previews", Montreal Gazette, September 6, 1966, p36
^ Roddenberry did, however, co-author two scripts for the third
^ This count includes all planned episodes of
Star Trek Discovery
through season one. it also includes the animated series, and the
original pilot, "The Cage". Two-part episodes that were not originally
aired at the same time are considered two separate episodes. Ten
feature-length episodes were originally aired as two-hour
presentations and are sometimes considered single episodes, however,
in this count, they too are seen as two individual episodes. The Star
Memory Alpha differs from the count listed because it
includes the feature films in its total and it uses the method that
counts feature-length episodes as single episodes. This makes that
wiki's total release count 744.
^ Originally entitled Star Trek, it has in recent years become known
as Star Trek: The Original Series or as "Classic Star
Trek"—retronyms that distinguish it from its sequels and the
franchise as a whole.
^ Film titles of the North American and UK releases of the films no
longer contained the number of the film following the sixth film (the
Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country but the seventh was
Star Trek Generations). However, European releases continued using
numbers in the film titles until Nemesis.
^ Several characters from the original series have cameos in Star Trek
William Shatner plays a major role in that film. A few
Star Trek: Voyager characters play cameos in First Contact and
Star Trek (2009), Into Darkness, and Beyond are often considered to
be, and referred to as, a "reboot". They are also a continuation of
the franchise that establishes an alternate reality from the previous
films. This was done to free the new films from the restrictions of
continuity without completely discarding it. This new reality was
informally referred to by several names, including the "Abramsverse",
"JJ Trek", the "alternate timeline" and "NuTrek". It was named the
"Kelvin Timeline", as opposed to the "Prime Timeline" of the original
series and films, by Michael and Denise Okuda for use in reference
guides and encyclopedias. The name Kelvin comes from the USS Kelvin, a
starship involved in the event that creates the new reality in 2009's
Leonard Nimoy plays an older version of
Spock in the film
Star Trek to help link the two timelines.
^ While the official release date of the eleventh
Star Trek was May 8,
2009, the film premiered internationally in Buda, Texas on April 6,
^ While the official release date of
Star Trek Into Darkness was May
16, 2013, the film premiered internationally in Sydney, Australia on
April 23, 2013.
^ Although the
Hugo Award is mainly given for print-media science
fiction, its "best drama" award is usually given to film or television
presentations. The Hugo does not give out awards for best actor,
director, or other aspects of film production. Before 2002, films and
television series competed for the same Hugo, before the split of the
drama award into short drama and long drama.
^ The other two films nominated for the Hugo in 1967 were the films
Fahrenheit 451 and Fantastic Voyage.
^ The science fiction
Saturn Awards did not exist during broadcasting
of the original series. Unlike the Hugo, the Saturn Award gives out
prizes for best actor, special effects and music, and also unlike the
Hugo (until 2002) movies and television shows have never competed
against each other for Saturns.
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