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The SRI LANKA ARMY (Sinhala : ශ්‍රී ලංකා යුද්ධ හමුදාව Shri Lanka Yuddha Hamudawa)(Tamil : இலங்கை இராணுவம் Ilankai iraṇuvam) is the oldest and largest of the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Armed Forces and is the nation's army . Established as the CEYLON ARMY in 1949, it was renamed when Sri Lanka became a republic in 1972. In 2010, the Army
Army
had approximately 200,000 regular personnel, between 20,000–40,000 reserve personnel and 18,000 National Guardsmen and comprises 13 operational divisions , one air-mobile brigade , one commando brigade, one special forces brigade, one independent armored brigade, three mechanized infantry brigades and over 40 infantry brigades. From the 1980s to 2009 the army was engaged in the Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lankan Civil War
.

The professional head of the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
is the Commander of the Army
Army
, currently Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Mahesh Senanayake . The Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the Sri Lankan Military is the President of Sri Lanka , who heads the National Security Council through the Ministry of Defence , which is the highest level of military command charged with formulating, executing defence policy and procurements for the armed forces. However operations of the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
are coordinated by the Joint Operations Command, with other two armed forces.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Ancient and pre-colonial times

* 1.2 Colonial era

* 1.2.1 Portuguese and Dutch rule (1505–1796 AD) * 1.2.2 British rule (1798–1948 AD)

* 1.3 Post-independence

* 1.4 1970–Present

* 1.4.1 Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping

* 1.4.1.1 Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Sex Scandal

* 2 Current deployments

* 2.1 Domestic * 2.2 Foreign

* 3 Organisation Structure

* 3.1 Administrative

* 3.1.1 Regiments & Corps

* 3.2 Operational Command

* 3.2.1 Force formations

* 4 Training

* 4.1 Training establishments

* 5 Personnel

* 5.1 Parama Weera Vibhushanaya recipients * 5.2 Notable fallen members * 5.3 Directorate Of Rehabilitation * 5.4 Women in the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army

* 6 Equipment

* 6.1 Armour * 6.2 Artillery
Artillery
* 6.3 Infantry
Infantry
weapons

* 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 Further reading * 10 References * 11 External links

HISTORY

ANCIENT AND PRE-COLONIAL TIMES

The first military engagements in Sri Lankan history were marked by the advent of King Vijaya , a Bengal
Bengal
prince who landed along with his followers on the beaches of northwestern Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
around 543 BC. Prince Vijaya and his followers occupied the lands of the native Veddah
Veddah
people. Repeated incursions by South Indians, particularly the Cholas , into Sri Lankan territory occurred throughout the next few centuries and led to the engagement of the rival forces in battle. In one famous encounter, Sinhalese King Dutugemunu (200 BC) raised an army of eleven thousand inhabitants in his battle against the Chola invader King Elara , whom he eventually defeated. King Dutugemunu's organisational skills, bravery and chivalry are famous and his battles have gone down in history as outstanding offensive operations.

Other Sri Lankan rulers whose military achievements stand out include King Gajabâhu (113 AD), who sailed to India
India
to bring back his captured soldiers, and King Dhatusena (433) who is credited with repulsing numerous Indian invasions and for organising a naval build-up to deter seaborne attacks. He also had the foresight to cover his defences with artillery . Vijayabâhu I (1001) was another warrior king who dislodged Indian invaders and united the country. Parakramabahu the Great
Parakramabahu the Great
(1153) was an outstanding monarch of the Polonnaruwa
Polonnaruwa
period of Sri Lankan history, and his accomplishments as a military leader and a great administrator are noteworthy. His reign included a military expedition to Burma
Burma
(Myanmar) in retaliation for indignities inflicted on his envoys and Burmese interference in the elephant trade. This marked the first overseas expedition in Sri Lankan military history. It is also reported that Parakramabahu's fame was such that his assistance was sought by South Indian rulers who were involved in internecine struggles. Another strong ruler in the pre-colonial era was Parâkramabâhu VI, who defeated Indian invaders, united the island and ruled it from capital Sri Jayawardhanapura, Kotte . Although the known epigraphical records do not indicate that the Sri Lankan rulers had a full-time standing army at their disposal, there is evidence supported by legend, designation, name, place and tradition that prove there were 'stand-by' equestrian , elephant , and infantry divisions to ensure royal authority at all times. Militias were raised as the necessity arose, and the soldiers returned to their pursuits, mainly for farming, after their spell of military duty.

COLONIAL ERA

Parts of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
came under the control of three colonial European powers, namely the Portuguese in the 16th century, the Dutch in the 17th century and the British in the 18th century. Yet, until the entire island was ceded to the British in 1815, regional kingdoms maintained most of their independent defence forces and were able to successfully repulse repeated thrusts by the European armies. However the British, unlike their counterparts, were not primarily restricted to maritime power, and thus had the capability to bring the entire island under their control and to integrate locals into the British defence forces.

Portuguese And Dutch Rule (1505–1796 AD)

In the beginning of the 16th century, modern Europe
Europe
first came in contact with Sri Lanka, which was then referred to as Ceylon. In 1505 a Portuguese fleet, while operating in the Indian seas against Arab traders, was blown off course and landed at Galle
Galle
, on the southern coast of the island. In 1517 the Portuguese re-appeared, and with the consent of the Sinhalese King established a trading post in Colombo
Colombo
. Having initiated contact with Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
as traders, the Portuguese soon made themselves political masters of the western seaboard. Numerous forts were soon established, and features of European civilisation were introduced.

The Portuguese are credited with the introduction of European-style fortresses to Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
during this era. Although some locals already possessed military training and fighting experience, there is no evidence that the Portuguese employed local inhabitants into their own forces. Thus the Portuguese were forced to restrict their presence in the island due to their small numbers and their efforts were more focused toward projecting maritime power.

In 1602 Dutch explorers first landed in Sri Lanka, which was then under Portuguese control. By 1658 they had completely ousted the Portuguese from the coastal regions of the island. Much like the Portuguese , they did not employ locals in their military, and preferred to live in isolation, pursuing their interests in trade and commerce. Like the Portuguese, they defended their forts with their own forces, but unlike the Portuguese, Dutch forces employed Swiss and Malay mercenaries . The Dutch Forts
Forts
in Jaffna
Jaffna
, Galle
Galle
, Matara , Batticaloa
Batticaloa
and Trincomalee
Trincomalee
were sturdily built and are considered a tribute to their military engineering skills. Also, like the Portuguese, the Dutch focussed on maritime power and although they had the capability to develop and use local forces, they chose to isolate themselves from the local population.

British Rule (1798–1948 AD)

The British Empire
British Empire
then ousted the Dutch from the coastal areas of the country, and sought to conquer the independent Kandyan Kingdom . In the face of repeated British assaults, the Kandyans were forced into a degree of guerilla warfare and fared well against their superior British adversaries.

Initially the British stationed their forces, which included naval vessels, artillery troops and infantry, to defend the island nation from other foreign powers, using the natural harbour of Trincomalee
Trincomalee
as their headquarters in Sri Lanka. In 1796, the Swiss and Malay mercenaries who were previously in the service of the Dutch were transferred to the British East India
India
Company . While the Swiss Regiment de Meuron left in 1806 and was eventually disbanded in Canada in 1822, the Malays, who initially formed a Malay Corps , were converted into the 1st Ceylon Regiment
Regiment
in 1802 and placed under a British commanding officer. In the same year, the British became the first foreign power to raise a Sinhalese unit, which was named the 2nd Ceylon Regiment
Regiment
, also known as the Sepoy
Sepoy
Corps .

In 1803 the 3rd Ceylon Regiment
Regiment
was created with Moluccans and recruits from Penang
Penang
. All these regiments fought alongside British troops in the Kandyan wars which began in 1803. Throughout the following years, more Sinhalese and Malays were recruited to these regiments, and in 1814 the 4th Regiment
Regiment
was raised, which was composed entirely of African troops. It was later renamed as the Ceylon Rifle Regiment
Regiment
. Eventually, the Kandyan Kingdom was ceded to the British in 1815, and with that they gained control over the whole island. Resistance to British occupation cropped up almost instantly. During the first half-century of occupation, the British faced a number of uprisings, and were forced to maintain a sizable army in order to guarantee their control over the island. After the Matale Rebellion led by Puran Appu in 1848, in which a number of Sinhalese recruits defected to the side of the rebels, the recruitment of Sinhalese to the British forces was temporarily halted. Ceylon Light Infantry Volunteers

The second phase in the employment of non-British personnel commenced in 1881 after the enactment of an ordinance designed to authorise the creation of a Volunteer Corps in the island. It was designated the Ceylon Light Infantry
Infantry
Volunteers (CLIV). This move compensated for the disbandment of the Ceylon Rifle Regiment in 1874. The Ceylon Light Infantry
Infantry
Volunteers was originally administered as a single unit. However, over the years various sections of the volunteers grew large enough to become independent from their parent unit. The different units that emerged from the Volunteer Force were the

* Cadet
Cadet
Battalion
Battalion
Ceylon Light Infantry
Infantry
* Ceylon Artillery
Artillery
Volunteers * Ceylon Engineers * Ceylon Mounted Infantry
Infantry
(CMI) * Ceylon Planters Rifle Corps (CPRC). * Ceylon Supply "> First Prime Minister of Independent Sri Lanka Hon. D.S.Senanayaka visiting the 1st battalion of the CLI at the Echelon Square and watching volunteers being trained to handle light machine guns .

In 1910 the name of the military was formally changed to the Ceylon Defence Force (CDF). It continued to grow throughout the early period of the 20th century. The CDF saw active service when a contingent of the Ceylon Mounted Infantry
Infantry
(CMI) in 1900, and a contingent of the Ceylon Planters Rifle Corps (CPRC) in 1902, took part in the Second Boer War in South Africa
South Africa
. Their services were recognised by the presentation in 1902 of a colour to the CMI, and a presentation in 1904 of a banner to the CPRC. In 1922, the CDF was honoured by the presentation of the King\'s and Regimental colours to the Ceylon Light Infantry
Infantry
(CLI).

During the First World War
First World War
, many volunteers from the Defence Force travelled to Great Britain
Great Britain
and joined the British Army
Army
, and many of them were killed in action. One of them mentioned by Sir
Sir
Arthur Conan Doyle was Private Jacotine of the CLI, who was the last man left alive in his unit at the Battle of Lys , and who continued to fight for 20 minutes before he was killed.

In 1939, the CDF was mobilised and an enormous expansion took place which required the raising of new units such as the Ceylon Signals Corps , the Auxiliary Territorial Service
Auxiliary Territorial Service
(Ceylon) and also the Colombo
Colombo
Town Guard , which had been previously disbanded, but was later re-formed to meet military requirements. During the Second World War , Britain assumed direct control over the Armed Forces of Ceylon.

POST-INDEPENDENCE

Brigadier
Brigadier
James Sinclair , Earl of Caithness inspecting a guard of honour wearing khaki drill .

At the end of World War II
World War II
, CDF which had increased in size during the war began demobilisation.In 1948 Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
gained independence from Britain, becoming a Dominion within the commonwealth and a year earlier Ceylon entered into the bi-lateral Anglo-Ceylonese Defence Agreement of 1947. This followed by the Army
Army
Act No. 17 of 1949 which was passed by Parliament on April 11, 1949 and formalised in Gazette Extraordinary No. 10028 of October 10, 1949 marked the creation of the Ceylon Army, consisting of a regular and a volunteer force, the later being the successor of the disbanded CDF. Therefor October 10, 1949 is considered the Ceylon Army
Army
was raised, and October 10 is celebrated annually as Army
Army
day. The Defence Agreement of 1947 provided the assurance that British would come to the aid of Ceylon in the event it was attacked by a foreign power and provided British military advisers to build up the country's military. Brigadier
Brigadier
James Sinclair , Earl of Caithness was appointed as general officer commanding Ceylon Army, as such becoming the first commander of the Ceylon Army.

The initial requirement was to raise an artillery regiment, an engineer squadron, an infantry battalion, a medical unit, and a service corps company. For much of the 1950s the army was preoccupied with the task of building itself and training existing and new personal. To this aim the British Army
Army
Training Team (BATT) advisory group carried out training for ex-members of the CDF within the Ceylon Army, senior officers were sent to the British Army
Army
Staff College, Camberley and some attached to units of the British Army
Army
of the Rhine to gain field experience. New officers were sent for training at Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst which continued until the 1960s and both officers and other ranks were sent to specialist training courses in Britain, India, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Malaya. There were no formations and all units were structured to directly function under the Army Headquarters. However temporary field headquarters were to be formed at the time requirement arose.

Due to a lack of any major external threats the growth of the army was slow, and the primary duties of the army quickly moved towards internal security by the mid-1950s, the same time as the first Ceylonese Commander Major General
Major General
Anton Muttukumaru took command of the army. The first internal security operation of the Ceylon Army began in 1952, code named Operation Monty to counter the influx of illegal South Indian immigrants brought in by smugglers on the north-western coast, in support of Royal Ceylon Navy coastal patrols and police operations. This was expanded and renamed as Task Force Anti-Illicit Immigration (TaFII) in 1963 and continued up to 1981 when it was disbanded. The Army
Army
was mobilised to help the police to restore peace under provincial emergency regulations during the 1953 hartal , the 1956 Gal Oya Valley riots and in 1958 it was deployed for the first time under emergency regulations throughout the island during the 1958 Riots .

During the 1950s and 1960s the army was called apron to carry to essential services when the workers went on strike which were organised by the left-wing parties and trade unions for various reasons, the most notable was the 1961 Colombo
Colombo
Port strike, during which ships threatened to bypass Colombo
Colombo
port and the country almost starved. To counter these common strikes several units were formed, who were employed in development work when there were no strikes.

In 1962 several volunteer officers attempted a military coup , which was stopped hours before it was launched. This attempted coup affected the military to a great extent, since the government mistrusted the military, it reduced the size and growth of the army, especially the volunteer force, with several units being disbanded. In May 1972, when Ceylon was proclaimed a republic and changed its name to from the Dominion of Ceylon to the Republic
Republic
of Sri Lanka, all Army
Army
units were renamed accordingly.

1970–PRESENT

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
Flags

After successfully defeating the insurgency led by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) in 1971, the army was confronted with a new conflict, this time with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
(LTTE) and other Tamil militant groups . The war escalated to the point where India
India
was asked to intervene as a peacekeeping force. This was later seen as a tactical error, as the Indian Peace Keeping Force united nationalist elements such as the JVP to politically support the LTTE in their call to evict the IPKF. The war with the LTTE was halted following the signing of a ceasefire agreement in 2002 with the help of international mediation. However, renewed violence broke out in December 2005 and following the collapse of peace talks, the Army
Army
has been involved in the heavy fighting that has resumed in the north and east of the country. Main article: Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lankan Civil War

Since 1980 the army has undertaken many operations against the LTTE rebels. The major operations conducted by the army eventually led to the recapture of Jaffna
Jaffna
and other rebel strongholds. On 19 May 2009 Sri Lankan army declare the victory of war as they found the dead body of LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran
Velupillai Prabhakaran
. This marked the end of the war, with the LTTE ceasing to exist in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
as a result of prolonged military offensives conducted by Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
army. The Sri Lankan Armed Forces, including the army, have been accused of committing war crimes during the war, particularly during the final stages. A panel of experts appointed by UN Secretary-General
UN Secretary-General
Ban Ki-moon to advise him on the issue of accountability with regard to any alleged violations of international human rights and humanitarian law during the final stages of the civil war found "credible allegations" which, if proven, indicated that war crimes and crimes against humanity were committed by the Sri Lankan Armed Forces and the Tamil Tigers. Major
Major
combat operations

* First JVP Insurrection (1971–1972)

* Eelam War I (1976–1987)

* Operation Liberation

* Second JVP Insurrection (1987–1990)

* Eelam War II (1990–1995)

* Operation Sea Breeze * Operation Thrividha Balaya * Operation Balavegaya I, II

* Eelam War III (1995–2002)

* Operation Riviresa * Operation Jayasikuru * Operation Rivibala * Operation Ranagosa * Operation Rivikirana * Operation Kinihira I, II, III/IV, V/VI, VII, VIII, IX

* Eelam War IV (2006–2009)

* Eastern Theater

* Operations in Thoppigala

* Northern Theater

* Battle of the Forward Defence Lines

Peacekeeping

The Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
has taken part in two peacekeeping missions with United Nations
United Nations
over the course of its history. First assignment was in the Congo (ONUC ) (1960–1963). Most recently, following the signing of a ceasefire agreement was signed between the government and the LTTE in 2002, Sri Lankan forces were invited by the United Nations
United Nations
to be part of the UN peacekeeping force in Haiti
Haiti
. In the process of the peacekeeping operations, two soldiers were killed in a raid in Petit-Goave. After over 6 months of service, the first contingent of the peacekeeping force returned to Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
on May 17, 2005. In December 2007, 7th rotation of the Sri Lankan contingent had been deployed with a force of 991 officers and other ranks, many of those deployed have been awarded the United Nations
United Nations
Medal for their services.

Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Sex Scandal

Main article: Haiti
Haiti
Sex abuse See also: Child sexual abuse by UN peacekeepers

In November 2007, 114 members of the 950 member Sri Lankan Army peacekeeping mission in Haiti
Haiti
were accused of sexual misconduct and abuse. 108 members, including 3 officers of the 950-member-strong Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
peacekeeping contingent is being sent back after being implicated in alleged misconduct and sexual abuse where sex was exchanged for money, food, and mobile phones and it could be considered rape as it involves under 18 minors.

CURRENT DEPLOYMENTS

Military gathering on Galle
Galle
Face Green in Colombo
Colombo
.

As of present, the bulk of the Sri Lankan Army
Army
is deployed for domestic defensive and combat operations, while a sizable foreign deployment is maintained.

DOMESTIC

Due to the Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lankan Civil War
the army has been on a constant mobilized (including reservist ) state since the 1980s (except for a brief period from 2002–2005). The majority of the army as been deployed in the North and Eastern provinces of the country, which includes 14 Divisions coming under six operational headquarters and 2 independent Divisions and several independent Brigades . The army is also based in other parts of the island for internal security including a Division for the defence of the capital.

FOREIGN

The Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
currently participates in several major overseas deployments:

* Haiti
Haiti
– an infantry battalion with support personal totaling around 1000 personal in Haiti
Haiti
as part of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti
Haiti
since 2004. * Chad
Chad
– a contingent of engineers joined the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic
Republic
and Chad
Chad
on May 25, 2010. * Lebanon
Lebanon
– a mechanized infantry company with combat support personal in the United Nations
United Nations
Interim Force in Lebanon
Lebanon
since November 2010. * South Sudan
South Sudan
- Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army’s entry into South Sudan
South Sudan
in 2014 as the newest member in the UN peace keeping family, marks a milestone in the Army
Army
history. Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
became the first country to deploy a surge contingent in South Sudan. Army
Army
maintaines a SRIMED Level 2 Hospital, manned entirely by Sri Lanka’s Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
Medical Corps personnel. * Mali
Mali
- an infantry battalion with support personal will be deployed as part of the United Nations
United Nations
Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali
Mali
in 2016

ORGANISATION STRUCTURE

The professional head of the army is the Commander of the Army
Army
, at present Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Mahesh Senanayake . He is assisted by the Chief of Staff of the Army. The Commandant of the Volunteer Force is head of the Army
Army
Volunteer Force and is responsible for the administration and recruitment of all reserve units and personal. The Army
Army
Headquarters
Headquarters
, situated in Colombo
Colombo
is the main administrative and the operational headquarters of the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army.

ADMINISTRATIVE

The Army
Army
Headquarters
Headquarters
is divided into a number of branches, namely the General Staff
General Staff
(GS) branch responsible for coordination of operations and training and the Adjutant General 's (AGs) branch responsible for personal administration, welfare, medical services and rehabilitation. The Quarter Master General 's (QMGs) branch is responsible for feeding, transport, movement and construction and maintenance. The Master General of Ordnance 's (MGOs) branch is responsible for procurement and maintenance of vehicles and special equipment. The Military Secretary 's Branch is responsible for handling all matters pertaining to officers such as promotions , postings and discipline . Each branch is headed by an officer in the rank of Major General
Major General
who is directly responsible to the Commander of the Army
Army
for the smooth functioning of the Branch. Under each Branch, there are several Directorates, each headed by a Brigadier
Brigadier
.

The headquarters of field formations each have its own staff. For instance a divisional headquarters is divided into a GS branch as an AQ branch, each headed by a Colonel
Colonel
and is responsible for operations & training and administration & logistics respectively. Similarly, a Brigade
Brigade
Major
Major
and Major
Major
AQ is responsible for operations and administration in a brigade .

Like the Indian Army
Army
, the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
has largely retained the British -style regimental system that it inherited upon independence. The individual regiments (such as the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Light Infantry
Infantry
and the Sinha Regiment) operate independently and recruit their own members. Officers tend to remain in a single battalion throughout their careers. The infantry battalion, the basic unit of organization in field operations, includes five companies of four platoons each. Typical platoon have three squads (sections) of ten personnel each. In addition to the basic infantry forces, a commando regiment was also established in 1986. Support for the infantry is provided by an armoured regiment, five reconnaissance regiments, three mechanized infantry regiments, five field artillery regiments, a rocket artillery regiment, three commando regiments, three special forces regiments, six field engineering regiments, five signals battalions, a medical corps , and a variety of logistics units.

Regiments & Corps

Main article: List of current Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
regiments and corps

NAME HEADQUARTERS SUBUNITS

ARMOURED CORPS Rock House Army
Army
Camp , Colombo
Colombo
Eight regular regiments and a volunteer regiment.

ARTILLERY Panagoda Cantonment , Panagoda Seven regular regiments and two volunteer regiments.

ENGINEERS Army
Army
Headquarters
Headquarters
, Colombo
Colombo
Six regular regiments and one volunteer regiment.

SIGNALS CORPS Panagoda Cantonment , Panagoda Ten regular regiments( Two IT regiments, one Cyber security Unit and One CT regiment) and one volunteer regiment.

LIGHT INFANTRY Panagoda Cantonment , Panagoda Seventeen regular battalions, Nine volunteer battalions.

SINHA REGIMENT Ambepussa Camp , Ambepussa Seven regular battalions, five volunteer battalions and a headquarters battalion.

GEMUNU WATCH Kuruwita Army
Army
Camp , Ratnapura
Ratnapura
Nine regular units, four volunteer units.

GAJABA REGIMENT Saliyapura Camp , Anuradhapura
Anuradhapura
Twelve regular battalions and five volunteer battalions.

VIJAYABAHU INFANTRY REGIMENT Boyagane Camp , Kurunegala
Kurunegala
Eight regular battalions and four volunteer battalions.

MECHANIZED INFANTRY REGIMENT N/A four regular battalions and one volunteer battalion.

COMMANDO REGIMENT Ganemulla , Gampaha Four regular regiments.

SPECIAL FORCES REGIMENT Seeduwa
Seeduwa
, Negombo
Negombo
Three regular regiments.

MILITARY INTELLIGENCE CORPS Polhengoda , Colombo
Colombo
Two regular battalions.

ENGINEER SERVICES REGIMENT Panagoda Cantonment , Panagoda Three regular regiments and a volunteer regiment.

SERVICE CORPS Panagoda Cantonment , Panagoda six regular units and one volunteer unit.

MEDICAL CORPS Panagoda Cantonment , Panagoda Four regular units and one volunteer unit.

ORDNANCE CORPS Panagoda Cantonment , Panagoda Three regular ordnance battalions and one volunteer ordnance battalion.

ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS Slave Island
Slave Island
, Colombo
Colombo
Seven regular regiments and one volunteer regiment.

CORPS OF MILITARY POLICE Polhengoda , Colombo
Colombo
Six regular regiments.

GENERAL SERVICE CORPS Panagoda Cantonment , Panagoda Three regular unit and a volunteer unit. With 3 & 4 SLAGSC (Pay & Recored)

WOMEN\\'S CORPS Regtl Centre , Borella Two regular units and 5 volunteer units.

RIFLE CORPS Army
Army
Headquarters
Headquarters
, Colombo
Colombo
Two volunteer battalions.

PIONEER CORPS Headquarters, Battharamulla, Pelawattha. One volunteer unit.

NATIONAL GUARD Kurunegala
Kurunegala
32 volunteer battalions.

OPERATIONAL COMMAND

Organised and controlled by the Army
Army
General Staff
General Staff
at Army
Army
HQ, various formations are raised from time to time to suit various security requirements and operation in the country and overs seas. The Army
Army
at present has deployed 12 Divisions , 7 task forces and several independent brigades . Except for the 11 Division based at the Panagoda Cantonment which is responsible for the maintenance of capability for the defence of the capital, all other divisions, task forces and brigades are deployed for operations in the Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka, coming under six regional commands known as Security Forces Headquarters, which are the Security Forces Headquarters
Headquarters
Jaffna
Jaffna
(SFHQ-J ), Wanni (SFHQ-W ), East (SFHQ-E ), Kilinochchi (SFHQ-KLN ), Mullaittivu (SFHQ-MLT ) Armored Brigade, Artillery
Artillery
Brigade
Brigade
and so on.

Force Formations

Main article: List of current Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
formations

Security Forces Headquarters
Headquarters
- Jaffna
Jaffna
(SFHQ-J)

* 51 Division , based in Jaffna
Jaffna
* 52 Division , based in the Jaffna
Jaffna
Peninsula * 55 Division , based in Elephant
Elephant
Pass Military Base , Jaffna Peninsula

Security Forces Headquarters
Headquarters
- Wanni (SFHQ-W)

* Area Headquarters
Headquarters
Mannar, Mannar * 56 Division , operating in the Vavuniya District
Vavuniya District
* 61 Division , operating in the Vavuniya District
Vavuniya District
* 21 Division * 54 Division * 62 Division

Security Forces Headquarters
Headquarters
- East (SFHQ-E)

* 22 Division , based in Trincomalee
Trincomalee
* 23 Division , based in Poonani, Batticaloa
Batticaloa
District * 24 Division

Security Forces Headquarters
Headquarters
- Kilinochchi (SFHQ-KLN)

* 57 Division , operating in the Kilinochchi District
Kilinochchi District
* 66 Division, operating in the Kilinochchi District
Kilinochchi District
* 68 Division, operating in the Kilinochchi District
Kilinochchi District
* Affiliated Units * FMA Units

Security Forces Headquarters
Headquarters
- Mullaittivu (SFHQ-MLT)

* 59 Division , operating in the Mullaittivu District * 64 Division, operating in the Mullaittivu District * 68 Division, Kombavil, Mullaittivu District * Task Force 2, operating in the Mullaittivu District

Security Forces Headquarters
Headquarters
- South (SFHQ-S)

* Area Headquarters
Headquarters
Diyatalawa, Diyatalawa * Area Headquarters
Headquarters
Galle, Galle
Galle
* Area Headquarters
Headquarters
Hambantota, Hambantota

* 11 Division , based at the Panagoda Cantonment , Western Province

* 111 "Kandy" Brigade
Brigade

* Operation Command Colombo, Colombo
Colombo
* Sub Area Headquarters
Headquarters
Kurunegala, Kurunegala
Kurunegala
* Sub Area Headquarters
Headquarters
Ratnapura, Ratnapura
Ratnapura

Independent Divisions

* 53 Division , based at Mankulam * 58 Division , based at Paranthan (formally referred to as the Task Force 1)

Independent Brigades

* Air Mobile Brigade
Brigade
* Armored Brigade * Artillery
Artillery
Brigade * Commando
Commando
Brigade * Engineer Brigade * Mechanized Infantry
Infantry
Brigade
Brigade
* Signals Brigade * Special
Special
Forces Brigade

Disbanded

* 2 Division * 3 Division * 54 Division , based at Elephant
Elephant
Pass

TRAINING

GENERAL SIR JOHN KOTELAWALA DEFENCE UNIVERSITY (KDU) formed in 1981 and situated in Ratmalana, fourteen kilometers south of Colombo
Colombo
, is Sri Lanka's only university specializing in defence studies. Each year, approximately fifty cadets from all three services are admitted to the university (aged 18–22) to participate in a three-year programme of academic work and basic training.

Junior field officers of the army and their counterparts in the Navy and Air Force are given advanced training and education at the DEFENCE SERVICES COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE (DSCSC) at Batalanda, Makola which was established in 1997 as the Army
Army
Command and Staff College.

Basic officer training is carried out at the SRI LANKA MILITARY ACADEMY (SLMA) (formally the ARMY TRAINING CENTRE) situated in Diyatalawa , in the Badulla District
Badulla District
. The officer cadets graduating from the academy are commissioned as officers in the regular and volunteer forces. The course for officer cadets runs for ninety weeks and includes training in tactics and administration which helps prepare the cadets to take up the positions of platoon commanders. The course consisted of military and academic subjects and also trained the cadets physically . The course helps to promote leadership qualities and the understanding of each one’s role as an officer and a servant of the state. Due to the lack of officers within the lower levels, the training process was sped up in the 1980s by developing a short commission course. The cadets were given a training of fifty-six weeks and devoted themselves to continue their careers in the military with the ten years of service for regular army officers and five years of service for volunteer officers.

Training for the new recruits are carried out by the ARMY TRAINING SCHOOL in Maduru Oya at several locations followed by additional training (both officers and other ranks) at the INFANTRY TRAINING CENTRE in Minneriya, the COMBAT TRAINING SCHOOL in Ampara, while non-commissioned officers receive training at the NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS TRAINING SCHOOL at Kala Oya. All these establishments come under the control of the Directorate of Training, Army
Army
Headquarters. Specialist and additional training is given by specialist training schools, regimental training centres and individual field units.

As the armed forces of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
have a limited indigenous training facilities, especially in advanced roles, they have depended greatly on military training provided by foreign countries. The United Kingdom played a major role in the early years following independence and have continued to be an important source of military expertise to the Sri Lankan military. Other sources include India
India
, Australia
Australia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, and the United States
United States
. Additionally, in an agreement reached in 1984, Israeli security personnel (reportedly from Shin Bet , the Israeli counterespionage and internal security organisation) trained army officers in counterinsurgency techniques.

The Sri Lankan Army
Army
has also provided special training to the United States Army
Army
on their request as well as many other countries in military education regarding civilian rescue, jungle combat, and guerilla warfare etc.

TRAINING ESTABLISHMENTS

TRAINING CENTRES

* Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Military Academy (SLMA) * Army
Army
Training School (ATS) * Infantry
Infantry
Training Centre (ITC) * Combat Training School (CTS) * Army
Army
Physical Education Centre (APEC) * Volunteer Force Training School (VFTS) * Marksman Sniper Training School (MSTS) * Non-Commission Officer Training School (NCOTS) * Language Training School (LTS) * Institute of Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Support Operations Training Sri Lanka (IPSOT-SL)

REGIMENTAL TRAINING CENTERS

* Armoured Cops Training Centre * School Of Artillery * Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
School of Military Engineering * School Of Mechanical Engineers * School Of Signals * Commando
Commando
Regiment
Regiment
Training School * Special
Special
Forces Training School * Engineer Service School * Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
Service Corps. School * Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
Military School Of Nursing * Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
Ordnance School * Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Electrical And Mechanical Engineers School * Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Corps of Military Police School * Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
General Service Corps. School

PERSONNEL

The Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
presently stands at 200,000 strong including 2,960 women plus and 58,000 reservists.

In late 1987, the army had a total estimated strength of up to 40,000 troops, about evenly divided between regular army personnel and reservists on active duty. The approximately 20,000 regular army troops represented a significant increase over the 1983 strength of only 12,000. Aggressive recruitment campaigns following the 1983 riots raised this number to 16,000 by early 1985. By 1990 the army had expanded to over 90,000 personnel and by 2007, it had expanded to over 120,000.

Since the Sri Lankan armed forces are all volunteer services, all personal in the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
have volunteered as regular personnel or reservists. This should not be confused with the traditional term volunteers used for reservists or reservist units. Recruitment of the personal are carried island wide with a restrictions in the northern and eastern provinces during the civil war in those areas. The Rifle Corps is the only territorial unit that carries out recruitment from a specific area. In June 2009, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
announced plans to create a "Tamil regiment" to promote integration in the army.

PARAMA WEERA VIBHUSHANAYA RECIPIENTS

The Parama Weera Vibhushanaya is the highest award for valour awarded in the Sri Lankan armed forces. Army
Army
recipients include;

* Colonel
Colonel
A.F. Lafir † * Lieutenant- Colonel
Colonel
Lalith Jayasinghe † * Major
Major
G. S. Jayanath † * Major
Major
K. A. Gamage † * Captain Saliya Upul Aladeniya † * Captain H. G. M. H. I. Megawarna † * Lieutenant
Lieutenant
U. G. A. S. Samaranayake † * Second Lieutenant
Lieutenant
K.W.T. Nissanka † * Warrant Officer
Warrant Officer
2nd Class Pasan Gunasekera † * Staff Sergeant H. G. S. Bandara † * Sergeant
Sergeant
D. M. S. Chandrasiri Bandara † * Sergeant
Sergeant
P.N. Suranga † * Corporal
Corporal
Gamini Kularatne † * Corporal
Corporal
K. Chandana † * Corporal
Corporal
P. M. Nilantha Pushpa Kumara † * Corporal
Corporal
A. M. N. P. Abesinghe † * Lance Corporal
Corporal
W. I. M. Seneviratne † * Lance- Corporal
Corporal
T. G. D. R. Dayananda † * Lance- Corporal
Corporal
R. M. D. M. Rathnayake † * Lance- Corporal
Corporal
A. M. B. H. G. Abeyrathnebanda

NOTABLE FALLEN MEMBERS

Over 23,790 Sri Lankan armed forces personnel were killed since begin of the civil war in 1981 to its end in 2009, this includes 12 general officers killed in active duty or assassinated. 659 service personnel were killed due to the second JVP insurrection from 1987 to 1990. 53 service personnel were killed and 323 were wounded in the first JVP insurrection from 1971 to 1972. Notable fallen members includes;

* Lt. General
Lt. General
Denzil Kobbekaduwa † – One of the greatest generals in modern Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Overall Operations Commander, Northern Sector . * Lt. General
Lt. General
Parami Kulatunga † – Former Deputy Chief of Staff of the Army. * Lt. General
Lt. General
Nalin Angammana † – Former GOC 3 Division. * Maj. General Vijaya Wimalaratne † – Jaffna
Jaffna
Brigade
Brigade
Commander & One of the greatest generals in modern Sri Lanka. * Maj. General Lakshman \'Lucky\' Wijayaratne † – Former brigade commander, 22 Brigade. * Maj. General Percy Fernando † – Former deputy GOC 54 Division.

* Maj. General Larry Wijeratne † – Former brigade commander, 51-4 Brigade. * Maj. General Susantha Mendis † – Former brigade commander, 51-2 Brigade. * Maj. General Ananda Hamangoda † – Former brigade commander, 51-2 Brigade. * Brigadier
Brigadier
Ariyasinghe Ariyapperuma † – Former Commander, Northern Command * Brigadier
Brigadier
Bhathiya Jayatilleka † – former Brigade
Brigade
commander, 54-1 brigade * Brigadier
Brigadier
Rohitha Neil Akmeemana † – former Brigade
Brigade
commander, Elephant
Elephant
pass. * Colonel
Colonel
Tuan Nizam Muthaliff † – Former commanding officer 1st Battalion
Battalion
Military Intelligence Corps.

DIRECTORATE OF REHABILITATION

Directorate of Rehabilitation was established with the intention and focus towards rehabilitation of Officers and Other Ranks Wounded in Action. However with the increase of number of casualties due to the operations, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
proceeded to utilize the services of battle casualties with the view of obtaining a productive service from these individuals. As a result, under mentioned institutes had been established.

* Ranaviru Sevana. * Ranaviru Apparels. * Abimansala Wellness Resort 1 (Anuradahapuru). * Abimansala Wellness Resort 2 (Kamburupitiya). * Abimansala Wellness Resort 3 (Pangolla) * Ranaviru Resources Centre. * Mihindu Seth Medura.

WOMEN IN THE SRI LANKA ARMY

Main article: Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
Women\'s Corps

The Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
Women\'s Corps (SLAWC) was formed on September 1, 1979 as an unarmed, noncombatant support unit . Set up with the assistance of the Women\'s Royal Army
Army
Corps , it was identical in structure to its parent organization, and its first generation of officer cadets was trained in Britain. Soldier Candidates were required to be between eighteen and twenty years old and to have passed the General Common Entrance (Ordinary level) examinations, while the Officer candidates must have passed the Advanced Level . Enlistment entailed a five-year service commitment (the same as for men), and recruits were not allowed to marry during this period. In the sixteen-week training course at the Army
Army
Training Centre at the Diyatalawa Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Military Academy, cadets were put through a programme of drill and physical training similar to the men's programme, with the exception of weapons and battle craft training. Female recruits were paid according to the same scale as the men, but were limited to service in nursing , communications , and clerical work . In late 1987, the first class of women graduates from the Viyanini Army
Army
Training Centre were certified to serve as army instructors. But, from late 1987 – after hostilities began, the first batch of women graduates from the British Army's Women's Corps Centre certified to serve as Army
Army
Instructors.

Women soldiers and officers serve in varied specialized fields in the Service, such as control tower operators , electronic warfare technicians , radio material teletypists, automotive mechanics , aviation supply personnel , cryptographers , doctors , combat medic , lawyers , engineers and even aerial photographers .

To meet the operational requirements in the field areas, the 2nd Volunteer Battalion
Battalion
of the Women’s Corps was also raised. A few officers from the regular counterpart were attached to this unit to organize the command structure. They are currently employed in active combat duties in the northern and eastern parts of the island.

Many officers commencing with Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Colonel
Colonel
A.W. Thambiraja were appointed to command this unit from time to time. The first women’s corps officer to command the unit was Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Colonel
Colonel
Kumudini Weerasekara in 1992 and as of 2007 there were three female officers of the rank of Major General
Major General
. At present there is 2 regular regiments and 5 volunteer regiments in the Women’s Corps.

EQUIPMENT

In the 1980s, the army expanded its range of weapons from the original stock of World War II
World War II
-era British Lee–Enfield rifles , Sten
Sten
Submachine guns , Vickers machine guns , Bren machine guns , 6-inch coastal guns , Daimler Armoured Cars , Bren Gun Carriers , 40 mm anti-aircraft guns , 3.7 inch heavy anti-aircraft guns and 4.2-inch heavy mortars as well as post war Alvis Saladins , Alvis Saracen
Alvis Saracen
, Ferrets and Shorland S55s . New sources of weaponry in the mid-to-late 1970s included the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
, and China
China
– countries with which the leftist Bandaranaike government had close ties. China continued to be an important source of arms well into the 1990s.

To meet the threat posed by predominantly the LTTE, Army
Army
purchased modern military hardware including 50-caliber heavy machine guns , rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) launchers, Night Vision Devices , 106 mm recoilless rifles , 60 mm and 81 mm mortars , 40 mm grenade launchers and some sniper rifles . Refurbished armored personnel carriers were added to the 'A' vehicle fleet of the 1st Reconnaissance Regiment, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Armoured Corps . These APCs enabled the Armoured Corps to have their own assault troops to provide close contact protection to their Alvis Saladin
Alvis Saladin
and Ferret Scout Cars which were vulnerable to anti-tank weapons. The capability of the Sri Lanka Artillery
Artillery
was enhanced with the introduction of Ordnance QF 25 pounders . Chinese-made 122 mm, 130 mm and 152 mm howitzers were introduced to the Sri Lankan Army
Army
in 1995 and 1998 whilst 122 mm Multi Barrel Rocket Launchers (MBRL), were first used in 2000 by the Sri Lanka Army.

Though the weapons were obsolete at the time of purchase, security forces found them to be successful in combat. Land mines proved to be the most lethal threat to personnel, as a number of mines were deployed against unprotected trucks and buses by the LTTE in the northern and eastern Provinces. These land mines weighed approximately 50 – 100 kg, against which no armoured vehicle that the SLA possessed was able to withstand the blast effect. Consequently, Armscor Buffels - South African armoured personnel carriers constructed on a Unimog
Unimog
chassis - were imported in quantity. By 1987 Sri Lanka's indigenous Unicorn APC
Unicorn APC
had been engineered from the Buffel, followed by the improved Unibuffel class. Both the Unicorn and the Unibuffel are assembled by the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Electrical "> Sri Lanka Army
Army
WZ551
WZ551
APC Unibuffel MK II Armored Personnel Carrier - Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
Type 89 (YW534) Armored Fighting Vehicles Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
BTR80 Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army
MT-55A Armored Vehicle-launched Bridge pulled by Tatra T815 Truck

TYPE ORIGIN QUANTITY NOTES

MAIN BATTLE TANKS

T-55
T-55
/T-55AM2 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
62

Type 69
Type 69
China
China
20+

Type 59 China
China
80+

LIGHT TANKS

Type 63 China
China
N/A Amphibious

INFANTRY FIGHTING VEHICLES

BMP-3
BMP-3
Soviet Union
Soviet Union
45

BMP-2
BMP-2
Soviet Union
Soviet Union
49

BMP-1
BMP-1
Soviet Union
Soviet Union
13

ARMOURED PERSONNEL CARRIERS

Norinco Type 89 (YW534) China
China
N/A Tracked

Type 85 (YW531H) China
China
30 Tracked, Amphibious

Type 63 (YW531) China
China
N/A Tracked

BTR-80
BTR-80
Soviet Union
Soviet Union
25 wheeled

Type 92 (WZ551) China
China
200 wheeled

Unibuffel Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
53+ Locally manufactured, Mine-protected APC

Unicorn Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
60+ Locally manufactured, Mine-protected APC

Buffel
Buffel
South Africa
South Africa
31 Mine-protected APC

ENGINEERING SUPPORT VEHICLES

V T-55
T-55
Soviet Union
Soviet Union
16 Armoured recovery vehicle
Armoured recovery vehicle

MT-55A Soviet Union
Soviet Union
8 Armoured vehicle-launched bridge
Armoured vehicle-launched bridge

ARTILLERY

RM-70 Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher - Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army

TYPE ORIGIN QUANTITY NOTES

ROCKET ARTILLERY

RM-70 Multiple rocket launcher
Multiple rocket launcher
Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
22 122.4 mm Multiple rocket launcher

BM-21 Multiple rocket launcher
Multiple rocket launcher
Soviet Union
Soviet Union
5 122.4 mm Multiple rocket launcher

TOWED ARTILLERY

Type 56 85 mm field gun China
China
N/A 85 mm field gun

Type 66 152 mm gun-howitzer China
China
40 152 mm gun-howitzer

Type 59 130mm field gun China
China
40 130 mm field gun

Type 60 122mm howitzer China
China
74 122 mm howitzer

Ordnance QF 25 pounder United Kingdom
United Kingdom
N/A field guns – Ceremonial Gun Troop

76 mm mountain gun M48 Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
N/A field guns – Ceremonial Gun Troop

MORTARS

M-43 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
55 160 mm heavy mortar

Type 86 ( W86 ) China
China
55 120 mm towed mortar

Type 84 ( W84 ) China
China
N/A 82 mm mortar

Type 89 ( W89 ) China
China
N/A 60 mm light mortar

WEAPON LOCATING RADAR

AN/TPQ-36 Firefinder Radar United States
United States
N/A Weapon Locating and Counter-battery Radar

SLC-2 Radar China
China
N/A Weapon Locating and Counter-battery Radar

INFANTRY WEAPONS

HANDGUNS

Beretta
Beretta
M9 Pistol

Glock 17
Glock 17

Browning Hi-Power
Browning Hi-Power

Enfield revolver
Enfield revolver

ASSAULT RIFLES

AK-47
AK-47
Assault rifles

Sa 58
Sa 58
Assault rifles

Type 56 Assault rifles
Assault rifles

Type 81 Assault rifles
Assault rifles

Heckler & Koch G3 Assault rifles
Assault rifles

FN FNC Assault rifles
Assault rifles
(replaced the FN FAL
FN FAL
as far back as in 1981)

M16 Assault rifles
Assault rifles

M4 Carbine
M4 Carbine

SAR-80 Assault rifles
Assault rifles

Type 95 Assault rifles

SUB-MACHINE GUNS

H text-align:left; vertical-align:top;">

SNIPER RIFLES

Accuracy International L96A1 Sniper Rifles

Heckler ">

SLA HJ-8
HJ-8
. *

BMP-2
BMP-2
Infantry
Infantry
Fighting Vehicle *

T-55AM2 . *

SLA Unibuffel . *

SLA MIR weapons *

SLA Bomb Disposel Units on Victory Day Parade. *

WZ551
WZ551
(Type 92) Armoured Personnel Carriers. *

Combat Rider Teams, Special
Special
Forces Regiment
Regiment
*

Artillery
Artillery
Units *

Artillery
Artillery
Units

SEE ALSO

* Awards and decorations of the military of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
* Directorate of Rehabilitation, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army
Army

FURTHER READING

* Army, Sri Lanka. (1st Edition – October 1999). Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
army: 50 years on, 1949–1999 ISBN 978-955-8089-02-6

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* http://www.spur.asn.au/extra/Curr10.htm

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