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The South Island
South Island
or Te Waipounamu (in Māori) is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the smaller but more populous North Island. It is bordered to the north by Cook Strait, to the west by the Tasman Sea, and to the south and east by the Pacific Ocean. The South Island
South Island
covers 150,437 square kilometres (58,084 sq mi),[1] making it the world's 12th-largest island. It has a temperate climate. It has a 32 percent larger landmass than the North Island
North Island
so is sometimes referred to as the "mainland" of New Zealand, especially by South Island
South Island
residents, but only 23 percent of New Zealand's 4.8 million inhabitants live there. In the early stages of European (Pākehā) settlement of the country, the South Island
South Island
had the majority of the European population and wealth due to the 1860s gold rushes. The North Island
North Island
population overtook the South in the early 20th century, with 56 percent of the population living in the North in 1911, and the drift north of people and businesses continued throughout the century.[2]

Contents

1 Naming and usage 2 History

2.1 Pre-history 2.2 Classical Māori period 2.3 European discovery 2.4 European settlement 2.5 2010–2011 earthquakes

2.5.1 September 2010 2.5.2 February 2011 2.5.3 June 2011

3 Government and politics

3.1 Administrative divisions 3.2 Political parties 3.3 Law enforcement

3.3.1 Police 3.3.2 Correctional facilities 3.3.3 Customs service

4 People

4.1 Population 4.2 Urbanisation

5 Economy

5.1 Energy 5.2 Stock exchanges 5.3 Trade unions

6 Tourism

6.1 Ski areas and resorts

7 Transport

7.1 Road transport 7.2 Rail transport 7.3 Water transport

7.3.1 Ports and harbours

7.4 Air transport

7.4.1 Airports

8 Geography

8.1 Geology 8.2 Climate 8.3 Natural geographic features

8.3.1 Fiords 8.3.2 Glaciers 8.3.3 Lakes 8.3.4 Volcanoes 8.3.5 Te Wāhipounamu World Heritage site

8.4 Protected areas

8.4.1 Forest
Forest
parks 8.4.2 National parks

9 Natural history

9.1 Birds

10 Education 11 Healthcare

11.1 Emergency medical services

12 Culture

12.1 Art 12.2 Language 12.3 Media

12.3.1 Newspapers 12.3.2 Television 12.3.3 Radio stations

12.4 Museums 12.5 Religion 12.6 Sport

13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Naming and usage[edit]

South Island
South Island
(political geography), in relation to North Island; includes South Island
South Island
and smaller surrounding islands

In the 19th century, some maps named the South Island
South Island
as Middle Island or New Munster, and the name South Island
South Island
or New Leinster
New Leinster
was used for today's Stewart Island/Rakiura. In 1907 the Minister for Lands gave instructions to the Land and Survey Department that the name Middle Island was not to be used in future. " South Island
South Island
will be adhered to in all cases".[3] Although the island had been known as the South Island
South Island
for many years, in 2009 the New Zealand
New Zealand
Geographic Board found that, along with the North Island, the South Island
South Island
had no official name.[4] After a public consultation, the board officially named the island South Island
South Island
or Te Waipounamu in October 2013.[5] Said to mean "the Water(s) of Greenstone", this name possibly evolved from Te Wāhi Pounamu
Pounamu
"the Place Of Greenstone". The island is also known as Te Waka a Māui which means "Māui's Canoe". In some Māori legends, the South Island
South Island
existed first, as the boat of Maui, while the North Island
North Island
was the fish that he caught. In prose, the two main islands of New Zealand
New Zealand
are called the North Island and the South Island, with the definite article. It is normal to use the preposition in rather than on.[6] Maps, headings, tables and adjectival expressions use South Island
South Island
without "the". History[edit] Further information: History of New Zealand

Charcoal rock drawing at Carters rockpool on the Opihi River

First European impression of Māori, at Murderers' Bay, 1642.

Ships in what is likely to be Akaroa Harbour
Akaroa Harbour
some time in the early 19th century.

Gabriel's Gully
Gabriel's Gully
during the Central Otago
Central Otago
Gold Rush, 1862.

Benmore Dam
Benmore Dam
is the largest of eight dams within the Waitaki power scheme and was commissioned in 1965.

Pre-history[edit] Charcoal drawings can be found on limestone rock shelters in the centre of the South Island, with over 500 sites[7] stretching from Kaikoura
Kaikoura
to North Otago. The drawings are estimated to be between 500 and 800 years old, and portray animals, people and fantastic creatures, possibly stylised reptiles.[8] Some of the birds pictured are long extinct, including moa and Haast's eagles. They were drawn by early Māori, but by the time Europeans arrived, local Māori did not know the origins of the drawings.[9] Classical Māori period[edit] Early inhabitants of the South Island
South Island
were the Waitaha. They were largely absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Kāti Mamoe in the 16th century.[citation needed] Kāti Mamoe were in turn largely absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Kāi Tahu
Kāi Tahu
who migrated south in the 17th century.[10] While today there is no distinct Kāti Mamoe organisation, many Kāi Tahu
Kāi Tahu
have Kāti Mamoe links in their whakapapa and, especially in the far south of the island. Around the same time a group of Māori migrated to Rekohu (the Chatham Islands), where, in adapting to the local climate and the availability of resources, they eventually evolved into a separate people known as the Moriori with its own distinct language — closely related to the parent culture and language in mainland New Zealand. One notable feature of the Moriori culture, an emphasis on pacifism, proved disadvantageous when Māori warriors arrived in the 1830s aboard a chartered European ship.[11] In the early 18th century, Kāi Tahu, a Māori tribe who originated on the east coast of the North Island, began migrating to the northern part of the South Island. There they and Kāti Mamoe fought Ngāi Tara and Rangitāne
Rangitāne
in the Wairau Valley. Ngāti Māmoe then ceded the east coast regions north of the Clarence River to Kāi Tahu. Kāi Tahu continued to push south, conquering Kaikoura. By the 1730s, Kāi Tahu had settled in Canterbury, including Banks Peninsula. From there they spread further south and into the West Coast.[12] In 1827-1828 Ngāti Toa
Ngāti Toa
under the leadership of Te Rauparaha successfully attacked Kāi Tahu
Kāi Tahu
at Kaikoura. Ngāti Toa
Ngāti Toa
then visited Kaiapoi, ostensibly to trade. When they attacked their hosts, the well-prepared Kāi Tahu
Kāi Tahu
killed all the leading Ngāti Toa
Ngāti Toa
chiefs except Te Rauparaha. Te Rauparaha
Te Rauparaha
returned to his Kapiti Island stronghold. In November 1830 Te Rauparaha
Te Rauparaha
persuaded Captain John Stewart of the brig Elizabeth to carry him and his warriors in secret to Akaroa, where by subterfuge they captured the leading Kāi Tahu chief, Te Maiharanui, and his wife and daughter. After destroying Te Maiharanui's village they took their captives to Kapiti and killed them. John Stewart, though arrested and sent to trial in Sydney as an accomplice to murder, nevertheless escaped conviction.[12] In the summer of 1831–32 Te Rauparaha
Te Rauparaha
attacked the Kaiapoi
Kaiapoi
pā (fortified village). Kaiapoi
Kaiapoi
was engaged in a three-month siege by Te Rauparaha, during which his men successfully sapped the pā. They then attacked Kāi Tahu
Kāi Tahu
on Banks Peninsula
Banks Peninsula
and took the pā at Onawe. In 1832-33 Kāi Tahu
Kāi Tahu
retaliated under the leadership of Tūhawaiki and others, attacking Ngāti Toa
Ngāti Toa
at Lake
Lake
Grassmere. Kāi Tahu
Kāi Tahu
prevailed, and killed many Ngāti Toa, although Te Rauparaha
Te Rauparaha
again escaped. Fighting continued for a year or so, with Kāi Tahu
Kāi Tahu
maintaining the upper hand. Ngāti Toa
Ngāti Toa
never again made a major incursion into Kāi Tahu territory.[12] By 1839 Kāi Tahu
Kāi Tahu
and Ngāti Toa
Ngāti Toa
established peace and Te Rauparaha
Te Rauparaha
released the Kāi Tahu
Kāi Tahu
captives he held. Formal marriages between the leading families in the two tribes sealed the peace. European discovery[edit] The first Europeans known to reach the South Island
South Island
were the crew of Dutch explorer Abel Tasman
Abel Tasman
who arrived in his ships Heemskerck and Zeehaen. In December 1642, Tasman anchored at the northern end of the island in Golden Bay
Golden Bay
which he named Moordenaar's Bay (Murderers Bay) before sailing northward to Tonga
Tonga
following a clash with Māori. Tasman sketched sections of the two main islands' west coasts. Tasman called them Staten Landt, after the States General of the Netherlands, and that name appeared on his first maps of the country. Dutch cartographers changed the name to Nova Zeelandia in Latin, from Nieuw Zeeland, after the Dutch province of Zeeland. It was subsequently Anglicised as New Zealand
New Zealand
by British naval captain James Cook
James Cook
of HM Bark Endeavour who visited the islands more than 100 years after Tasman during (1769–1770). The first European settlement in the South Island
South Island
was founded at Bluff in 1823 by James Spencer, a veteran of the Battle of Waterloo.[13] In January 1827, the French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville
Jules Dumont d'Urville
arrived in Tasman Bay
Tasman Bay
on the corvette Astrolabe. A number of landmarks around Tasman Bay
Tasman Bay
were named by d'Urville and his crew including d'Urville Island, French Pass
French Pass
and Torrent Bay.[14] European settlement[edit] When Britain annexed New Zealand
New Zealand
in 1840, the South Island
South Island
briefly became a part of the Colony of New South Wales.[15] This annexation was in response to France’s attempts to colonise the South Island
South Island
at Akaroa[16] and the New Zealand
New Zealand
Company attempts to establish a separate colony in Wellington, and so Lieutenant-Governor William Hobson declared British sovereignty over all of New Zealand
New Zealand
on 21 May 1840 (the North Island
North Island
by treaty and the South by discovery).[17] On 17 June 1843, Māori natives and the British settlers clashed at Wairau in what became known as the Wairau Affray. Also known as the Wairau Massacre in most older texts, it was the first serious clash of arms between the two parties after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi and the only one to take place in the South Island. Four Māori died and three were wounded in the incident, while among the Europeans the toll was 22 dead and five wounded. Twelve of the Europeans were shot dead or clubbed to death after surrendering to Māori who were pursuing them.[18] The Otago
Otago
Settlement, sponsored by the Free Church of Scotland, took concrete form in Otago
Otago
in March 1848 with the arrival of the first two immigrant ships from Greenock
Greenock
(on the Firth of Clyde) — the John Wickliffe and the Philip Laing. Captain William Cargill, a veteran of the Peninsular War, served as the colony's first leader: Otago citizens subsequently elected him to the office of Superintendent of the Province of Otago. While the North Island
North Island
was convulsed by the Land Wars of the 1860s and 1870s, the South Island, with its low Māori population, was generally peaceful. In 1861 gold was discovered at Gabriel's Gully
Gabriel's Gully
in Central Otago, sparking a gold rush. Dunedin
Dunedin
became the wealthiest city in the country and many in the South Island
South Island
resented financing the North Island’s wars. In 1865 Parliament voted on a Bill to make the South Island independent: it was defeated 17 to 31. In the 1860s, several thousand Chinese men, mostly from the Guangdong province, migrated to New Zealand
New Zealand
to work on the South Island goldfields. Although the first Chinese migrants had been invited by the Otago
Otago
Provincial government they quickly became the target of hostility from white settlers and laws were enacted specifically to discourage them from coming to New Zealand.[19] 2010–2011 earthquakes[edit] September 2010[edit] Main article: 2010 Canterbury earthquake An earthquake with magnitude 7.1 occurred in the South Island
South Island
of New Zealand at Saturday 04:35 am local time, 4 September 2010 (16:35 UTC, 3 September 2010).[20] The earthquake occurred at a depth of 10 kilometres (6.2 mi), and there were no fatalities. The epicentre was located 40 kilometres (25 mi) west of Christchurch; 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) south-east of Darfield;[21] 190 kilometres (120 mi) south-southeast of Westport; 295 kilometres (183 mi) south-west of Wellington; and 320 kilometres (200 mi) north-northeast of Dunedin.

Building damage in Worcester Street, corner Manchester Street, with ChristChurch Cathedral in the background. (September 2010)

Sewers were damaged,[22] gas and water lines were broken, and power to up to 75% of the city was disrupted.[23] Among the facilities impacted by lack of power was the Christchurch
Christchurch
Hospital, which was forced to use emergency generators in the immediate aftermath of the quake.[23] A local state of emergency was declared at 10:16 am on 4 September for the city, and evacuations of parts were planned to begin later in the day.[24] People inside the Christchurch
Christchurch
city centre were evacuated, and the city's central business district remained closed until 5 September.[25] A curfew from 7 pm on 4 September to 7 am on 5 September was put in place.[26] The New Zealand
New Zealand
Army was also deployed to assist police and enforce the curfew. All schools were closed until 8 September so they could be checked. Christchurch
Christchurch
International Airport was closed following the earthquake and flights in and out of it cancelled. It reopened at 1:30 pm following inspection of the main runway.[27] The earthquake was reported to have caused widespread damage and power outages. 63 aftershocks were also reported in the first 48 hours with three registering 5.2 magnitude. Christchurch
Christchurch
residents reported chimneys falling in through roofs, cracked ceilings and collapsed brick walls.[28] The total insurance costs of this event were estimated to reach up to $11 billion according to the New Zealand Treasury.[29][30] February 2011[edit] Main article: February 2011 Christchurch
Christchurch
earthquake

A store damaged in the February 2011 earthquake.

Pyne Gould Building, 24 February 2011

A large aftershock of magnitude 6.3 occurred on 22 February 2011 at 12:51 pm. It was centred just to the north of Lyttelton, 10 kilometres south east of Christchurch, at a depth of 5 km.[31] Although lower on the moment magnitude scale than the quake of September 2010, the intensity and violence of the ground shaking was measured to be VIII on the MMI and among the strongest ever recorded globally in an urban area due to the shallowness and proximity of the epicentre.[32] Early assessments indicated that about a third of the buildings in the Central Business District would have to be demolished. In contrast to the September 2010 quake, the February 2011 earthquake struck on a busy weekday afternoon. This, along with the strength of the quakes, and the proximity to the city centre resulted in 181 deaths.[33] This event promptly resulted in the declaration of New Zealand's first National State of Emergency. Many buildings and landmarks were severely damaged, including the iconic 'Shag Rock' and Christchurch Cathedral. International bodies quickly offered assistance. Contingents of Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) soon arrived. Teams were provided by Australia, United States, Singapore, Britain, Taiwan, Japan and China. The Royal New Zealand
New Zealand
Navy was involved immediately. The HMNZS Canterbury, which was docked at Lyttelton when the quake struck, was involved in providing local community assistance, in particular by providing hot meals. After inspection, the runway at Christchurch
Christchurch
Airport was found to be in good order. Due to the demand of citizens wishing to leave the city, the national airline Air New Zealand, offered a $50 Domestic Standby airfare. The Air New Zealand
New Zealand
CEO increased the domestic airline traffic from Christchurch
Christchurch
to Wellington
Wellington
and Auckland. Thousands of people took up this offer to relocate temporarily in the wake of the event. On 1 March at 12:51, a week after the tragedy, New Zealand
New Zealand
observed a two-minute silence. June 2011[edit] Main article: June 2011 Christchurch
Christchurch
earthquake On 13 June 2011 at about 1:00 pm New Zealand
New Zealand
time, Christchurch was again rocked by a magnitude 5.7 quake, followed by a magnitude 6.3 quake (initially thought to be 6.0) at 2:20 pm, centred in a similar location to that of the February quake with a depth of 6.0 kilometres. Dozens of aftershocks occurred over the following days, including several over magnitude 4. Phone lines and power were lost in some suburbs, and liquefaction surfaced mainly in the eastern areas of the city which were worst affected following the aftershocks.[34] Many residents in and around the hillside suburb of Sumner self-evacuated.[35] Further damage was reported to buildings inside the cordoned central business district, with an estimate of 75 additional buildings needing demolition.[36] Among the buildings further damaged was the Christchurch
Christchurch
Cathedral, which lost its iconic rose window,[37] a factor reducing the likelihood of the cathedral being restored.[38] There was only one death recorded following the quake; however there were many injuries. Government and politics[edit]

The Canterbury Provincial Council Buildings
Canterbury Provincial Council Buildings
in Christchurch, designed by Benjamin Mountfort.

Edward John Eyre, the Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster.

The South Island
South Island
has no separately represented country subdivision, but is guaranteed 16 of the electorates in the New Zealand
New Zealand
House of Representatives. A two-tier structure constituted under the Local Government Act 2002 gives the South Island
South Island
(and its adjacent islands) seven regional councils for the administration of regional environmental and transport matters and 25 territorial authorities that administer roads, sewerage, building consents, and other local matters. Four of the territorial councils (one city and three districts) also perform the functions of a regional council and are known as unitary authorities. When New Zealand
New Zealand
was separated from the colony of New South Wales
New South Wales
in 1841 and established as a Crown colony in its own right, the Royal Charter effecting this provided that "the principal Islands, heretofore known as, or commonly called, the 'Northern Island', the 'Middle Island', and 'Stewart's Island', shall henceforward be designated and known respectively as 'New Ulster', 'New Munster', and 'New Leinster'". These divisions were at first of geographical significance only, not used as a basis for the government of the colony, which was centralised in Auckland. New Munster
Munster
consisted of the South Island
South Island
and the southern portion of the North Island, up to the mouth of the Patea River. The name New Munster
Munster
was given by the Governor of New Zealand, Captain William Hobson, in honour of Munster, the Irish province in which he was born. The situation was altered in 1846 when the New Zealand
New Zealand
Constitution Act 1846.[39] divided the colony into two provinces: New Ulster Province (the North Island), and New Munster Province
New Munster Province
(the South Island and Stewart Island). Each province had a Governor and Legislative and Executive Council, in addition to the Governor-in-Chief and Legislative and Executive Council for the whole colony. However, the 1846 Constitution Act was later suspended, and only the Provincial government provisions were implemented. Early in 1848 Edward John Eyre
Edward John Eyre
was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster. In 1851 the Provincial Legislative Councils were permitted to be partially elective. The Provincial Council of New Munster
Munster
had only one legislative session, in 1849, before it succumbed to the virulent attacks of settlers from Wellington. Governor Sir George Grey, sensible to the pressures, inspired an ordinance of the General Legislative Council under which new Legislative Councils would be established in each province with two-thirds of their members elected on a generous franchise. Grey implemented the ordinance with such deliberation that neither Council met before advice was received that the United Kingdom Parliament had passed the New Zealand
New Zealand
Constitution Act 1852. This act dissolved these provinces in 1853, after only seven years' existence, and New Munster
Munster
was divided into the provinces of Canterbury, Nelson, and Otago. Each province had its own legislature known as a Provincial Council that elected its own Speaker and Superintendent. Secession movements have surfaced several times in the South Island. A Premier of New Zealand, Sir Julius Vogel, was amongst the first people to make this call, which was voted on by the New Zealand
New Zealand
Parliament as early as 1865. The desire for the South Island
South Island
to form a separate colony was one of the main factors in moving the capital of New Zealand from Auckland
Auckland
to Wellington
Wellington
that year. Several South Island
South Island
nationalist groups have emerged over recent years including the South Island
South Island
Party with a pro-South agenda, fielded candidates in the 1999 General Election. Today, several internet based groups advocate their support for greater self determination.[40] On 13 October 2010, South Island
South Island
Mayors led by Bob Parker of Christchurch
Christchurch
displayed united support for a Southern Mayoral Council. Supported by Waitaki Mayor Alex Familton and Invercargill
Invercargill
Mayor Tim Shadbolt, Bob Parker said that increased cooperation and the forming of a new South Island-wide mayoral forum were essential to representing the island's interests in Wellington
Wellington
and countering the new Auckland
Auckland
Council.[41] In February 2012, the South Island
South Island
Strategic Alliance (SISA) involving nearly all the Councils of the South Island
South Island
was formed. This group is made up of elected representatives and senior management from 12 councils and the Department of Internal Affairs. It will examine potential projects where there are real and achievable benefits, for example in roads, information technology and library services and then allocate the project to a group of willing council CEOs for progression.[42] Administrative divisions[edit]

Territorial authorities
Territorial authorities
of the South Island

There are 23 territorial authorities within the South Island: 4 city councils and 19 district councils. Three territorial authorities (Nelson City Council, and the Tasman and Marlborough District Councils) also perform the functions of a regional council and thus are known as unitary authorities.

Name Seat Area (km2)[43] Population[4] Density (per km2) Region(s)

Ashburton District Ashburton 7003620800000000000♠6,208 7004341000000000000♠34,100 7000549000000000000♠5.49 Canterbury

Buller District Westport 7003795000000000000♠7,950 7004101500000000000♠10,150 7000128000000000000♠1.28 West Coast

Central Otago
Central Otago
District Alexandra 7003996600000000000♠9,966 7004203000000000000♠20,300 7000204000000000000♠2.04 Otago

Christchurch
Christchurch
City Christchurch 7003161000000000000♠1,610[5] 7005381500000000000♠381,500 7002236960000000000♠236.96 Canterbury

Clutha District Balclutha 7003640600000000000♠6,406 7004175500000000000♠17,550 7000274000000000000♠2.74 Otago

Dunedin
Dunedin
City Dunedin 7003334000000000000♠3,340 7005128800000000000♠128,800 7001385600000000000♠38.56 Otago

Gore District Gore 7003125100000000000♠1,251 7004124500000000000♠12,450 7000995000000099999♠9.95 Southland

Grey District Greymouth 7003351600000000000♠3,516 7004135000000000000♠13,500 7000384000000000000♠3.84 West Coast

Hurunui District Amberley 7003866100000000000♠8,661 7004128000000000000♠12,800 7000148000000000000♠1.48 Canterbury

Invercargill
Invercargill
City Invercargill 491 7004548000000000000♠54,800 7002111610000000000♠111.61 Southland

Kaikoura
Kaikoura
District Kaikoura 7003205000000000000♠2,050 7003371000000000000♠3,710 7000181000000000000♠1.81 Canterbury

Mackenzie District Fairlie 7003744200000000000♠7,442 7003460000000000000♠4,600 6999620000000000000♠0.62 Canterbury

Marlborough District Blenheim 7004124840000000000♠12,484 7004462000000000000♠46,200 7000370000000000000♠3.70 unitary authority

Nelson City Nelson 445 7004514000000000000♠51,400 7002115510000000000♠115.51 unitary authority

Queenstown-Lakes District Queenstown 7003936800000000000♠9,368 7004371000000000000♠37,100 7000396000000000000♠3.96 Otago

Selwyn District Rolleston 7003655700000000000♠6,557 7004593000000000000♠59,300 7000903990000099999♠9.04 Canterbury

Southland District Invercargill 7004326050000000000♠32,605[6] 7004311000000000000♠31,100 6999950000000000000♠0.95 Southland

Tasman District Richmond 7003978600000000000♠9,786 7004511000000000000♠51,100 7000522000000000000♠5.22 unitary authority

Timaru
Timaru
District Timaru 7003272600000000000♠2,726 7004471000000000000♠47,100 7001172800000000000♠17.28 Canterbury

Waimakariri District Rangiora 7003221600000000000♠2,216 7004592000000000000♠59,200 7001267100000000000♠26.71 Canterbury

Waimate
Waimate
District Waimate 7003357700000000000♠3,577 7003789000000000000♠7,890 7000221000000000000♠2.21 Canterbury

Waitaki District Oamaru 7003721200000000000♠7,212 7004222000000000000♠22,200 7000308000000000000♠3.08 Canterbury (59.61%) Otago
Otago
(40.39%)

Westland District Hokitika 7004118700000000000♠11,870 7003881000000000000♠8,810 6999740000000000000♠0.74 West Coast

^ Population as of June 2017. ^ Total of Christchurch
Christchurch
City and Banks Peninsula
Banks Peninsula
areas. ^ Includes Stewart Island
Stewart Island
and Solander Islands.

Political parties[edit] This is a list of political parties, past and present, who have their headquarters in the South Island.

Aotearoa Legalise Cannabis Party Imperial British Conservative Party National Democrats Party New Munster
Munster
Party New Zealand
New Zealand
Democratic Party New Zealand
New Zealand
Progressive Party South Island
South Island
Party

Law enforcement[edit] Police[edit]

Dunedin
Dunedin
Central Police station.

NZ Police Mitsubishi Diamante
Mitsubishi Diamante
in Dunedin.

The New Zealand
New Zealand
Police is the primary law enforcement agency of New Zealand including the South Island. Three decentralised Police Districts cover the entire South Island
South Island
with each being commanded by a Superintendent and having a central station from which subsidiary and suburban stations are managed.[44] The Christchurch
Christchurch
Police Communications Centre handles all emergency and general calls within the South Island. The Tasman Police District covers 70,000 kilometres of territory, encompassing the northern and most of the western portion of the South Island. The West Coast alone spans the distance between Wellington
Wellington
and Auckland. There are 22 police stations in the Tasman District, with 6 being sole-charge - or one-person - stations. The Tasman Police District has a total of 302 sworn police officers and 57 civilian or nonsworn staff. Organisationally, the district has its headquarters in Nelson and has three distinct Areas each headed by an Inspector
Inspector
as its commander. The areas are Nelson Bays, West Coast and Marlborough. The Canterbury Police District is based in Christchurch
Christchurch
the largest city in the South Island
South Island
and covers an area extending from the Conway River, (just south of Kaikoura), to the Waitaki River, south of Timaru. The Southern Police District with its headquarters in Dunedin
Dunedin
spans from Oamaru
Oamaru
in the North through to Stewart Island
Stewart Island
in the far South covers the largest geographical area of any of the 12 police districts in New Zealand. The Southern District has three distinct Areas headed by Inspectors; Otago
Otago
Rural, Southland and Dunedin. Correctional facilities[edit] Correctional facilities in the South Island
South Island
are operated by the Department of Corrections as part of the South Island
South Island
Prison Region. Christchurch
Christchurch
Prison, also known as Paparua, is located in Templeton a satellite town of Christchurch. It accommodates up to 780 minimum, medium and high security male prisoners. It was built in 1925, and also includes a youth unit, a self-care unit and the Paparua Remand Centre (PRC), built in 1999 to replace the old Addington Prison. Christchurch
Christchurch
Women's Prison, also located in Templeton, is a facility for women of all security classifications. It has the only maximum/medium security accommodation for women prisoners in New Zealand. It can accommodate up to 98 prisoners. Rolleston prison is located in Rolleston, another satellite town of Christchurch. It accommodates around 320 male prisoners of minimum to low-medium security classifications and includes Kia Marama a sixty-bed unit that provides an intensive 9-month treatment programme for male child sex offenders. Invercargill
Invercargill
Prison, in Invercargill, accommodates up to 172 minimum to low-medium security prisoners. Otago Corrections Facility is located near Milton and houses up to 335 minimum to high-medium security male prisoners. Customs service[edit] The New Zealand
New Zealand
Customs Service whose role is to provide border control and protect the community from potential risks arising from international trade and travel, as well as collecting duties and taxes on imports to the country has offices at Christchurch
Christchurch
International Airport, Dunedin, Invercargill, Lyttelton and Nelson.[45] People[edit] Further information: Cities and Towns of the South Island, Cities and towns of the South Island
South Island
by population, and List of famous South Islanders Population[edit] Compared to the more populated and multi-ethnic North Island, the South Island
South Island
has a smaller, more homogeneous resident population of 1,115,800 (June 2017).[46] According to the Statistics New Zealand Subnational Population Projections: 2006–2031; the South Island's population will increase by an average of 0.6 percent a year to 1,047,100 in 2011, 1,080,900 in 2016, 1,107,900 in 2021, 1,130,900 in 2026 and 1,149,400 in 2031.[47] At the 2013 Census of Population and Dwellings, 88.2 percent of South Islanders identified as of European ethnicity, 8.7 percent as Māori, 5.6 percent as Asian, 2.2 percent as Pacific Peoples, 0.8 percent as Middle Eastern/Latin American/African, and 2.1 percent as another ethnicity (mainly 'New Zealander').[48] Eighteen percent of the South Island's population was born overseas, compared to 27.5 percent in the North Island. The British Isles
British Isles
is the largest region of origin, accounting for 37.9 percent of the overseas-born population in the South Island.[48] Around 48.6 percent of South Islanders affiliate with Christianity and 3.1 percent affiliate with non-Christian religions, while 45.8 percent are irreligious. Anglicanism
Anglicanism
is the largest Christian denomination in the South Island
South Island
with 12.7 percent affiliating, closely followed by Catholicism
Catholicism
at 12.1 percent and Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
at 11.7 percent.[48] Urbanisation[edit]

Cities and towns of the South Island
South Island
by population

City/Town Region Population (June 2017)

City/Town Region Population (June 2017)

1 Christchurch Canterbury 7005396700000000000♠396,700   11 Oamaru Otago 7004139000000000000♠13,900

2 Dunedin Otago 7005120200000000000♠120,200   12 Gore Southland 7003986000000000000♠9,860

3 Nelson Nelson 7004667000000000000♠66,700   13 Greymouth West Coast 7003969000000000000♠9,690

4 Invercargill Southland 7004508000000000000♠50,800   14 Wanaka Otago 7003846000000000000♠8,460

5 Blenheim Marlborough 7004313000000000000♠31,300   15 Motueka Tasman 7003834000000000000♠8,340

6 Timaru Canterbury 7004290000000000000♠29,000   16 Lincoln Canterbury 7003564000000000000♠5,640

7 Ashburton Canterbury 7004200000000000000♠20,000   17 Alexandra Otago 7003544000000000000♠5,440

8 Rangiora Canterbury 7004181000000000000♠18,100   18 Cromwell Otago 7003488000000000000♠4,880

9 Queenstown Otago 7004153000000000000♠15,300   19 Picton Marlborough 7003436000000000000♠4,360

10 Rolleston Canterbury 7004146500000000000♠14,650   20 Temuka Canterbury 7003435000000000000♠4,350

Economy[edit]

The Aviemore Dam, the penultimate hydro station on the Waitaki River hydro scheme.

The Tiwai Point Aluminium Smelter near Bluff

Further information: List of South Island
South Island
companies The South Island
South Island
economy is strongly focused on tourism and primary industries like agriculture. The other main industry groups are manufacturing, mining, construction, energy supply, education, health and community services. Energy[edit] The South Island
South Island
is a major centre for electricity generation, especially in the southern half of the island and especially from hydroelectricity. In 2010, the island generated 18,010 GWh of electricity, 41.5% of New Zealand's total electricity generation. Nearly all (98.7%) of the island's electricity is generated by hydroelectricity, with most of the remainder coming from wind generation.[49] The three large hydro schemes in the South Island: Waitaki, Clutha, and Manapouri, together produce nearly 92% of the island's electricity. The Waitaki River
Waitaki River
is the largest at 1738 MW of installed capacity. The Waitaki River
Waitaki River
is the largest hydroelectric scheme, consisting of nine powerhouses commissioned between 1936 and 1985, and generating about 7600 GWh annually, around 18% of New Zealand's electricity generation[50] and more than 30% of all its hydroelectricity.[51] The Clutha River
Clutha River
has two major stations generating electricity: Clyde Dam
Clyde Dam
(432 MW, commissioned 1992) and Roxburgh Dam
Roxburgh Dam
(360 MW, commissioned 1962). Manapouri Power Station
Manapouri Power Station
is an isolated station located in Southland, generating 730 MW of electricity and producing 4800 GWh annually - the largest single hydroelectric power station in the country. While most of the electricity generated in the South Island
South Island
is transported via the 220 kV grid (plus 110 kV and 66 kV connectors) to major demand centres, including Christchurch, Dunedin, and Tiwai Point Aluminium Smelter, around one-sixth of it is exported to the North Island
North Island
to meet its large (and increasing) power demands via the HVDC Inter-Island
HVDC Inter-Island
link. The 611 km HVDC Inter-Island
HVDC Inter-Island
was commissioned in 1965, linking Benmore Dam
Benmore Dam
on the Waitaki River
Waitaki River
in Southern Canterbury, with Haywards substation in Lower Hutt
Lower Hutt
in the North island, with cables crossing Cook Strait
Cook Strait
between Fighting Bay and Oteranga Bay. While the majority of the time the South Island exports electricity to the North Island
North Island
via the link, it is also used to import thermally-generated North Island
North Island
electricity in years of low hydro levels. Offshore oil and gas is likely to become an increasing important part of the South Island
South Island
economy into the future. Origin Energy
Origin Energy
has formed a joint venture with Anadarko Petroleum, the second-largest independent US natural gas producer to begin drilling for oil in the Canterbury Basin off the coast of Dunedin. The 390 km2, Carrack/Caravel prospect has the potential to deliver more than the equivalent of 500,000,000 barrels (79,000,000 m3) of oil and gas. Market analyst, Greg Easton from Craigs Investment Partners commented that such a substantial find it could well turn Dunedin
Dunedin
from the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
of the south to the Aberdeen
Aberdeen
of the south.[52]

Approximate location of the Great South Basin
Great South Basin
with approximate location of allocated Oil Exploration Blocks

The Great South Basin
Great South Basin
off the coast of Otago
Otago
and Southland at over 500,000 km2 (covering an area 1.5 times New Zealand’s land mass) is one of New Zealand’s largest undeveloped offshore petroleum basins with prospects for both oil and gas. In July 2007 the New Zealand Government awarded oil and gas exploration permits for four areas of the Great South Basin, situated in the volatile waters off the Southern Coast of New Zealand. The three successful permit holders are:[53]

a consortium led by ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil
New Zealand
New Zealand
(Exploration) Limited (United States) which includes local company Todd Exploration Limited (New Zealand); a consortium led by OMV
OMV
New Zealand
New Zealand
Limited (Austria) which includes PTTEP Offshore Investment Company Ltd (Thailand), Mitsui
Mitsui
Exploration and Production Australia Pty Ltd (Japan); and Greymouth
Greymouth
Petroleum Limited (New Zealand)

The sub-national GDP of the South Island
South Island
was estimated at US$27.8 billion in 2003, 21% of New Zealand's national GDP.[54] Stock exchanges[edit] Due to the gold rushes of the 1860s, the South Island
South Island
had regional stock exchanges in Christchurch, Dunedin
Dunedin
and Invercargill
Invercargill
– all of which were affiliated in the Stock Exchange Association of New Zealand. However, in 1974 these regional exchanges were amalgamated to form one national stock exchange, the New Zealand
New Zealand
Stock Exchange (NZSE). Separate trading floors operated in both Christchurch
Christchurch
and Dunedin
Dunedin
until the late 1980s. On 30 May 2003, New Zealand
New Zealand
Stock Exchange Limited formally changed its name to New Zealand
New Zealand
Exchange Limited, trading as NZX. Today, the Deloitte
Deloitte
South Island
South Island
Index[55] is compiled quarterly from publicly available information provided by NZX, Unlisted and Bloomberg. It is a summary of the movements in market capitalisation of each South Island
South Island
based listed company. A company is included in the Index where either its registered office and/or a substantial portion of its operations are focused on the South Island. Trade unions[edit] There are several South Island
South Island
based trade union organisations. They are:

Furniture, Manufacturing & Associated Workers Union New Zealand
New Zealand
Building Trades Union New Zealand
New Zealand
Meat & Related Trades Workers Union Southern Amalgamated Workers' Union

Tourism[edit]

Whale
Whale
watching in Kaikoura

Tourism is a huge earner for the South Island. Popular tourist activities include sightseeing, adventure tourism, such as glacier climbing and Bungee jumping, tramping (hiking), kayaking, and camping. Numerous walking and hiking paths such as the Milford Track, have huge international recognition. An increase in direct international flights to Christchurch, Dunedin and Queenstown has boosted the number of overseas tourists. Fiordland
Fiordland
National Park, Abel Tasman
Abel Tasman
National Park, Westland National Park, Aoraki/Mount Cook
Aoraki/Mount Cook
National Park, Queenstown, Kaikoura
Kaikoura
and the Marlborough Sounds
Marlborough Sounds
are regarded as the main tourism destinations in the South Island
South Island
and amongst the Top 10 destinations in New Zealand.[56] Ski areas and resorts[edit]

Bungy jumping
Bungy jumping
in Queenstown

Cardrona Alpine Resort

Lake
Lake
Pukaki, with Mount Cook in the background.

This is a list of ski areas and resorts in the South Island.

Name Location Notes

Awakino ski area Otago Club Skifield

Broken River Canterbury Club Skifield

Cardrona Alpine Resort Otago

Coronet Peak Otago

Craigieburn Valley Canterbury Club Skifield

Fox Peak Canterbury Club Skifield

Hanmer Springs Ski Area Canterbury Club Skifield

Invincible Snowfields Otago Helicopter access only

Mount Cheeseman Canterbury Club Skifield

Mount Dobson Canterbury

Mount Hutt Canterbury

Mount Olympus Canterbury Club Skifield

Mount Potts Canterbury Heliskiing
Heliskiing
and snowcatting only

Mount Robert Tasman Club Skifield

Ohau Canterbury

Porter Ski Area Canterbury

Rainbow Tasman

The Remarkables Otago

Round Hill Canterbury

Snow Farm Otago cross-country skiing

Snow Park Otago

Tasman Glacier Canterbury Heliskiing

Temple Basin Canterbury Club Skifield

Treble Cone Otago

Transport[edit]

Map showing the route of State Highway 6

Main article: Transport in New Zealand Road transport[edit] Further information: List of New Zealand
New Zealand
state highways § South Island, and New Zealand
New Zealand
State Highway 1 §  South Island
South Island
(SH1S) The South Island
South Island
has a State Highway network of 4,921 km. Rail transport[edit] See also: List of New Zealand
New Zealand
railway lines and Rail transport in New Zealand

South Island
South Island
Rail Network Map.

The South Island's railway network has two main lines, two secondary lines, and a few branch lines. The Main North Line from Picton to Christchurch
Christchurch
and the Main South Line
Main South Line
from Lyttelton to Invercargill via Dunedin
Dunedin
together comprise the South Island
South Island
Main Trunk Railway. The secondary Midland Line branches from the Main South Line
Main South Line
in Rolleston and passes through the Southern Alps
Southern Alps
via the Otira Tunnel
Otira Tunnel
to the West Coast and its terminus in Greymouth. In Stillwater, it meets the other secondary route, the Stillwater - Westport Line, which now includes the Ngakawau Branch. A number of other secondary routes are now closed, including the Otago Central Railway, the isolated Nelson Section, and the interdependent Waimea Plains Railway and Kingston Branch. An expansive network of branch lines once existed, especially in Canterbury, Otago, and Southland, but these are now almost completely closed. The branch lines that remain in operation serve ports ( Bluff Branch and Port Chalmers Branch), coal mines (Ohai Branch and Rapahoe Branch), and a dairy factory ( Hokitika
Hokitika
Branch). The first 64 km of the Otago Central Railway remain in operation for tourist trains run by Dunedin Railways (formerly Taieri Gorge Railway). The most significant freight is coal from West Coast mines to the port of Lyttelton for export. Passenger services were once extensive. Commuter trains operated multiple routes around Christchurch
Christchurch
and Dunedin, plus a service between Invercargill
Invercargill
and Bluff. Due to substantial losses, these were cancelled between the late 1960s and early 1980s. The final services to operate ran between Dunedin's City Centre and the suburb of Mosgiel, and they ceased in 1982.[57] Regional passenger trains were once extensive, but are now limited to the TranzCoastal
TranzCoastal
from Christchurch
Christchurch
to Picton and the TranzAlpine
TranzAlpine
from Christchurch
Christchurch
to Greymouth. The Southerner between Christchurch
Christchurch
and Invercargill, once the flagship of the network, was cancelled on 10 February 2002. Subsequently, the architecturally significant Dunedin
Dunedin
Railway Station has been used solely by the TGR's tourist trains, the Taieri Gorge Limited along the Otago
Otago
Central Railway and the Seasider to Palmerston. Rural passenger services on branch lines were provided by mixed trains and Vulcan/88 seater railcars but the mixeds had largely ceased to exist by the 1950s and the railcars were withdrawn in the mid-1970s. The South Island
South Island
saw the final use of steam locomotives in New Zealand. Locomotives belonging to classes long withdrawn elsewhere continued to operate on West Coast branches until the very late 1960s, when they were displaced by DJ class diesels. In comparison to most countries, where steam locomotives were last used on insubstantial rural and industrial operations, the very last services run by steam locomotives were the premier expresses between Christchurch
Christchurch
and Invercargill: the South Island Limited until 1970 and the Friday and Sunday night services until 1971. This was due to the carriages being steam-heated. The final steam-hauled service in New Zealand, headed by a member of the JA class, ran on 26 October 1971.[58] Water transport[edit] Main article: Transport in New Zealand
New Zealand
§ Ferry services

The Interislander
Interislander
DEV Arahura in the Marlborough Sounds.

The South Island
South Island
is separated from the North Island
North Island
by Cook Strait, which is 24 kilometres (15 miles) wide at its narrowest point, and requires a 70 kilometres (43 miles) ferry trip to cross. Dunedin
Dunedin
was the headquarters of the Union Steam Ship Company, once the largest shipping company in the Southern Hemisphere. Ports and harbours[edit]

Container ports: Lyttelton (Christchurch), Port Chalmers
Port Chalmers
(Dunedin) Other ports: Nelson, Picton, Westport, Greymouth, Timaru, Bluff. Harbours: Akaroa
Akaroa
Harbour, Otago
Otago
Harbour, Halfmoon Bay (Stewart Island/Rakiura), Milford Sound. Freshwater: Queenstown and Kingston ( Lake
Lake
Wakatipu), Te Anau
Te Anau
and Manapouri
Manapouri
( Lake
Lake
Manapouri)

Air transport[edit] Airports[edit]

USAF C-17 Globemaster III
C-17 Globemaster III
on the tarmac at Christchurch
Christchurch
International Airport

Dunedin
Dunedin
International Airport control tower and terminal building in 2009 with an Air New Zealand
New Zealand
Boeing 737-300
Boeing 737-300
on the tarmac

Queenstown Airport
Queenstown Airport
from a Glenorchy Air
Glenorchy Air
aircraft

LOCATION    ICAO    IATA    AIRPORT NAME

Alexandra NZLX ALR Alexandra Aerodrome

Ashburton NZAS ASG Ashburton Aerodrome

Balclutha NZBA

Balclutha Aerodrome

Blenheim NZWB BHE Blenheim Airport (Woodbourne)

Christchurch NZCH CHC Christchurch
Christchurch
International Airport (long-distance)

Cromwell NZCS

Cromwell Racecourse Aerodrome

Dunedin NZDN DUD Dunedin
Dunedin
Airport (Limited)

Gore NZGC

Gore Aerodrome

Greymouth NZGM GMN Greymouth
Greymouth
Aerodrome

Haast NZHT

Haast Aerodrome

Hokitika NZHK HKK Hokitika
Hokitika
Airport

Invercargill NZNV IVC Invercargill
Invercargill
Airport

Kaikoura NZKI KBZ Kaikoura
Kaikoura
Aerodrome

Lake
Lake
Pukaki NZGT GTN Glentanner Aerodrome

Milford Sound NZMF MFN Milford Sound
Milford Sound
Airport

Mount Cook NZMC MON Mount Cook Aerodrome

Motueka NZMK MZP Motueka
Motueka
Aerodrome

Nelson NZNS NSN Nelson Airport

Oamaru NZOU OAM Oamaru
Oamaru
Aerodrome

Picton NZPN PCN Picton Aerodrome

Queenstown NZQN ZQN Queenstown Airport
Queenstown Airport
(Limited)

Rangiora NZRT

Rangiora
Rangiora
Aerodrome

Forest
Forest
Field NZFF

Forest
Forest
Field Aerodrome

Takaka NZTK KTF Takaka Aerodrome

Te Anau
Te Anau
/ Manapouri NZMO TEU Manapouri
Manapouri
Aerodrome

Timaru NZTU TIU Richard Pearse Airport

Twizel NZUK TWZ Pukaki Aerodrome

Wanaka NZWF WKA Wanaka
Wanaka
Airport

Westport NZWS WSZ Westport Airport

Wigram NZWG

Wigram Aerodrome

Geography[edit]

A true-colour image of the South Island, after a powerful winter storm swept across New Zealand
New Zealand
on 12 June 2006.

Lake
Lake
Ohau

Aoraki/Mount Cook
Aoraki/Mount Cook
is the tallest mountain in New Zealand

The South Island, with an area of 150,437 km2 (58,084 sq mi), is the largest land mass of New Zealand; it contains about one quarter of the New Zealand
New Zealand
population and is the world's 12th-largest island. It is divided along its length by the Southern Alps, the highest peak of which is Aoraki/Mount Cook
Aoraki/Mount Cook
at 3724 metres (12,218 ft), with the high Kaikoura
Kaikoura
Ranges to the northeast. There are eighteen peaks of more than 3000 metres (9800 ft) in the South Island. The east side of the island is home to the Canterbury Plains
Canterbury Plains
while the West Coast is famous for its rough coastlines such as Fiordland, very high proportion of native bush, and Fox and Franz Josef Glaciers. The dramatic landscape of the South Island
South Island
has made it a popular location for the production of several films, including The Lord of the Rings trilogy and The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. Geology[edit] Main articles: 2010 Canterbury earthquake
2010 Canterbury earthquake
and 2011 Christchurch earthquake On 4 September 2010, the South Island
South Island
was struck by a 7.1 magnitude earthquake, which caused extensive damage, several power outages, and many reports of aftershocks. Five and a half months later, the 22 February Christchurch
Christchurch
earthquake of 6.3 magnitude caused far more additional damage in Christchurch, resulting in 181 deaths.[59] This quake struck at about lunchtime and was centred closer at Lyttelton, and shallower than the prior quake, consequently causing extensive damage.[60] Climate[edit] The climate in the South Island
South Island
is mostly temperate. The mean temperature for the South Island
South Island
is 8 °C (46 °F).[61] January and February are the warmest months while July is the coldest. Historical maxima and minima are 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) in Rangiora, Canterbury and −21.6 °C (−6.9 °F) in Ophir, Otago.[62] Conditions vary sharply across the regions from extremely wet on the West Coast to semi-arid in the Mackenzie Basin
Mackenzie Basin
of inland Canterbury. Most areas have between 600 and 1600 mm of rainfall with the most rain along the West Coast and the least rain on the East Coast, predominantly on the Canterbury Plains. Christchurch
Christchurch
is the driest city, receiving about 640 mm (25 in) of rain per year while Invercargill
Invercargill
is the wettest, receiving about 1,150 mm (45 in). The southern and south-western parts of South Island have a cooler and cloudier climate, with around 1,400–1,600 hours of sunshine annually; the northern and north-eastern parts of the South Island are the sunniest areas and receive about 2,400–2,500 hours.[63]

Panoramic view of some of the Southern Alps
Southern Alps
in winter from the summit of Hamilton Peak in the Craigieburn Range.

Natural geographic features[edit] Fiords[edit] Main article: Fiords of New Zealand

Typical view of the Doubtful Sound.

The South Island
South Island
has 15 named maritime fiords which are all located in the southwest of the island in a mountainous area known as Fiordland. The spelling 'fiord' is used in New Zealand
New Zealand
rather than 'fjord', although all the maritime fiords use the word Sound in their name instead. A number of lakes in the Fiordland
Fiordland
and Otago
Otago
regions also fill glacial valleys. Lake
Lake
Te Anau
Te Anau
has three western arms which are fiords (and are named so). Lake McKerrow
Lake McKerrow
to the north of Milford Sound
Milford Sound
is a fiord with a silted-up mouth. Lake Wakatipu
Lake Wakatipu
fills a large glacial valley, as do lakes Hakapoua, Poteriteri, Monowai and Hauroko in the far south of Fiordland. Lake
Lake
Manapouri
Manapouri
has fiords as its west, north and south arms. The Marlborough Sounds, a series of deep indentations in the coastline at the northern tip of the South Island, are in fact rias, drowned river valleys. Glaciers[edit] Main article: Glaciers
Glaciers
of New Zealand

Franz Josef Glacier.

Most of New Zealand's glaciers are in the South Island. They are generally found in the Southern Alps
Southern Alps
near the Main Divide. An inventory of South Island
South Island
glaciers during the 1980s indicated there were about 3,155 glaciers with an area of at least one hectare (2.5 acres).[64] About a sixth of these glaciers covered more than 10 hectares. These include the Fox and Franz Josef glaciers on the West Coast, and the Tasman, Hooker, Mueller and Murchison glaciers in the east. Lakes[edit] Main article: Lakes of New Zealand

Lake
Lake
Hauroko.

There are some 3,820 lakes in New Zealand
New Zealand
with a surface area larger than one hectare. Much of the higher country in the South Island
South Island
was covered by ice during the glacial periods of the last two million years. Advancing glaciers eroded large steep-sided valleys, and often carried piles of moraine (rocks and soil) that acted as natural dams. When the glaciers retreated, they left basins that are now filled by lakes. The level of most glacial lakes in the upper parts of the Waitaki and Clutha rivers are controlled for electricity generation. Hydroelectric reservoirs are common in South Canterbury
South Canterbury
and Central Otago, the largest of which is Lake
Lake
Benmore, on the Waitaki River. The South Island
South Island
has 8 of New Zealand's 10 biggest lakes. They were formed by glaciers and include Lake
Lake
Wakatipu, Lake
Lake
Tekapo and Lake Manapouri. The deepest (462 m) is Lake
Lake
Hauroko, in western Southland. It is the 16th deepest lake in the world. Millions of years ago, Central Otago
Central Otago
had a huge lake – Lake
Lake
Manuherikia. It was slowly filled in with mud, and fossils of fish and crocodiles have been found there. Volcanoes[edit] Main article: Volcanoes in New Zealand

Banks Peninsula
Banks Peninsula
is roughly circular, with many bays and two deep harbours.

There are 4 extinct volcanoes in the South Island, all located on the east coast. Banks Peninsula
Banks Peninsula
forms the most prominent of these volcanic features. Geologically, the peninsula comprises the eroded remnants of two large shield volcanoes (Lyttelton formed first, then Akaroa). These formed due to intraplate volcanism between about eleven and eight million years ago (Miocene) on a continental crust. The peninsula formed as offshore islands, with the volcanoes reaching to about 1,500 m above sea level. Two dominant craters formed Lyttelton and Akaroa Harbours. The Canterbury Plains
Canterbury Plains
formed from the erosion of the Southern Alps
Southern Alps
(an extensive and high mountain range caused by the meeting of the Indo-Australian and Pacific tectonic plates) and from the alluvial fans created by large braided rivers. These plains reach their widest point where they meet the hilly sub-region of Banks Peninsula. A layer of loess, a rather unstable fine silt deposited by the foehn winds which bluster across the plains, covers the northern and western flanks of the peninsula. The portion of crater rim lying between Lyttelton Harbour
Lyttelton Harbour
and Christchurch
Christchurch
city forms the Port Hills. The Otago
Otago
Harbour was formed from the drowned remnants of a giant shield volcano, centred close to what is now the town of Port Chalmers. The remains of this violent origin can be seen in the basalt of the surrounding hills. The last eruptive phase ended some ten million years ago, leaving the prominent peak of Mount Cargill. Timaru
Timaru
was constructed on rolling hills created from the lava flows of the extinct Mount Horrible, which last erupted many thousands of years ago. Te Wāhipounamu World Heritage site[edit] Te Wāhipounamu (Māori for "the place of greenstone") is a World Heritage site in the south west corner of the South Island.[65] Inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1990 it covers 26,000 km2 and incorporates the Aoraki/Mount Cook, the Fiordland, the Mount Aspiring and the Westland National Parks. It is thought to contain some of the best modern representations of the original flora and fauna present in Gondwanaland, one of the reasons for listing as a World Heritage site. Protected areas[edit] Forest
Forest
parks[edit]

Broken River Ski Area
Broken River Ski Area
in the Craigieburn Forest
Forest
Park.

There are six forest parks in the South Island
South Island
which are on public land administered by the Department of Conservation.

Catlins Forest
Forest
Park  Situated in the Southland region. Craigieburn Forest
Forest
Park  Situated in the Canterbury region, its boundaries lie in part alongside State Highway 73 and is adjacent to the eastern flanks of the Southern Alps. The Broken River Ski Area
Broken River Ski Area
and the Craigieburn Valley Ski Area lie within its borders. The New Zealand
New Zealand
Forest
Forest
Service had used the area as an experimental forestry area and there is now an environmental issue with the spread of wilding conifers. Hanmer Forest
Forest
Park  Situated in the Canterbury region. Lake
Lake
Sumner Forest
Forest
Park  Situated in the Canterbury region. Mount Richmond Forest
Forest
Park  Situated in the Marlborough region. Victoria Forest
Forest
Park  Situated in the West Coast region.

National parks[edit]

Abel Tasman
Abel Tasman
National Park

The famous "Pancake Rocks" at Paparoa National Park

The South Island
South Island
has ten national parks established under the National Parks Act 1980 and which are administered by the Department of Conservation. From north to south, the National Parks are:

Kahurangi National Park  (4,520 km2, established 1996) Situated in the north-west of the South Island, Kahurangi comprises spectacular and remote country and includes the Heaphy Track. It has ancient landforms and unique flora and fauna. It is New Zealand's second largest national park. Abel Tasman
Abel Tasman
National Park  (225 km2, established 1942) Has numerous tidal inlets and beaches of golden sand along the shores of Tasman Bay. It is New Zealand's smallest national park. Nelson Lakes National Park  (1,018 km2, established 1956) A rugged, mountainous area in Nelson Region. It extends southwards from the forested shores of Lake Rotoiti and Rotoroa to the Lewis Pass National Reserve. Paparoa National Park  (306 km2, established 1987) On the West Coast of the South Island between Westport and Greymouth. It includes the celebrated Pancake Rocks at Punakaiki. Arthur's Pass National Park  (1,144 km2, established 1929) A rugged and mountainous area straddling the main divide of the Southern Alps. Westland Tai Poutini National Park  (1,175 km2, established 1960) Extends from the highest peaks of the Southern Alps
Southern Alps
to a wild remote coastline. Included in the park are glaciers, scenic lakes and dense rainforest, plus remains of old gold mining towns along the coast. Aoraki/Mount Cook
Aoraki/Mount Cook
National Park  (707 km2, established 1953) An alpine park, containing New Zealand's highest mountain, Aoraki/Mount Cook
Aoraki/Mount Cook
(3,754 m) and its longest glacier, Tasman Glacier
Tasman Glacier
(29 km). A focus for mountaineering, ski touring and scenic flights, the park is an area of outstanding natural beauty. Together, the Mount Cook and Westland National Parks have been declared a World Heritage Site. Mount Aspiring National Park  (3,555 km2, established 1964) A complex of impressively glaciated mountain scenery centred on Mount Aspiring/Tititea
Mount Aspiring/Tititea
(3,036 m), New Zealand's highest peak outside of the main divide. Fiordland
Fiordland
National Park  (12,519 km2, established 1952) The largest national park in New Zealand and one of the largest in the world. The grandeur of its scenery, with its deep fiords, its lakes of glacial origin, its mountains and waterfalls, has earned it international recognition as a world heritage area. Rakiura National Park  (1,500 km2, established 2002) On Stewart Island/Rakiura.

Other native reserves and parks

Hakatere Conservation Park[66]

Hooker Valley at Aoraki/Mount Cook
Aoraki/Mount Cook
National Park, with Aoraki / Mount Cook, the highest mountain in New Zealand
New Zealand
at 3,724 metres (12,218 feet), and Hooker Lake
Lake
in the background

Natural history[edit] Birds[edit]

The South Island
South Island
kea, a species of mountain parrot

The South Island
South Island
takahē

Main article: Birds of New Zealand There are several bird species which are endemic to the South Island. They include the kea, great spotted kiwi, Okarito brown kiwi, South Island kōkako, South Island
South Island
pied oystercatcher, Malherbe's parakeet, king shag, takahe, black-fronted tern, South Island
South Island
robin, rock wren, wrybill, and yellowhead. Many South Island
South Island
bird species are now extinct, mainly due to hunting by humans and predation by cats and rats introduced by humans. Extinct species include the South Island
South Island
goose, South Island
South Island
giant moa, harpagornis and South Island
South Island
piopio. Education[edit]

Southern Institute of Technology
Southern Institute of Technology
main campus

The South Island
South Island
has several tertiary level institutions:

Aoraki Polytechnic Christchurch
Christchurch
Polytechnic Institute of Technology Lincoln University Nelson Marlborough Institute of Technology Otago
Otago
Polytechnic Southern Institute of Technology Tai Poutini Polytechnic Telford Rural Polytechnic University of Canterbury University of Otago

Healthcare[edit]

Princess Margaret Hospital in Christchurch

The Otago
Otago
Regional Rescue Helicopter taking off from the Dunedin Public Hospital helipad

Healthcare in the South Island
South Island
is provided by five District Health Boards (DHBs). Organised around geographical areas of varying population sizes, they are not coterminous with the Local Government Regions.

Name Area covered Population[67]

Canterbury District Health Board (CDHB) Ashburton District, Christchurch
Christchurch
City, Hurunui District, Kaikoura District, Selwyn District, Waimakariri District 491,000

Southern District Health Board (Southern DHB) Invercargill
Invercargill
City, Gore District, Southland District, Dunedin
Dunedin
City, Waitaki District, Central Otago
Central Otago
District, Queenstown Lakes District, Clutha District. 300,400

Nelson Marlborough District
Marlborough District
Health Board (NMDHB) Marlborough District, Nelson City, Tasman District, 135,000

South Canterbury
South Canterbury
District Health Board (SCDHB) Mackenzie District, Timaru
Timaru
District, Waimate
Waimate
District 55,000

West Coast District Health Board (WCDHB) Buller District, Grey District, Westland District 32,000

Emergency medical services[edit] There are several air ambulance and rescue helicopter services operating throughout the South Island.[68]

The Lake
Lake
Districts Air Rescue Trust operates two AS350BA Squirrel's and an AS355
AS355
Squirrel from Queenstown Airport. The New Zealand
New Zealand
Flying Doctor Service operates a Cessna 421
Cessna 421
Golden Eagle and a Cessna Conquest
Cessna Conquest
C441 from Christchurch
Christchurch
International Airport.[69] The Otago
Otago
Rescue Helicopter Trust operates a MBB/Kawasaki BK 117
MBB/Kawasaki BK 117
from Taieri Aerodrome near Mosgiel. The Solid Energy Rescue Helicopter Trust operates an AS350BA Squirrel from Greymouth. The Summit Rescue Helicopter Trust operates an AS350BA Squirrel from Nelson Airport. The Westpac Rescue Helicopter Trust operates a MBB/Kawasaki BK 117
MBB/Kawasaki BK 117
and an AS350BA Squirrel from Christchurch
Christchurch
International Airport.

Culture[edit] Art[edit]

The Centre of Contemporary Art
Centre of Contemporary Art
gallery in Christchurch

Old Chemistry Building, Christchurch
Christchurch
Arts Centre

The South Island
South Island
has contributed to the Arts in New Zealand
New Zealand
and internationally through highly regarded artists such as Nigel Brown, Frances Hodgkins, Colin McCahon, Shona McFarlane, Peter McIntyre Grahame Sydney and Geoff Williams. The University of Canterbury
University of Canterbury
School of Fine Arts was founded in 1950. South Island
South Island
Art Galleries include:

Centre of Contemporary Art Christchurch
Christchurch
Arts Centre Dunedin
Dunedin
Public Art Gallery

Language[edit] Parts of the South Island
South Island
principally Southland and the very southernmost areas of Otago
Otago
near the border with Southland are famous for its people speaking what is often referred to as the "Southland burr", a semi-rhotic, Scottish-influenced dialect of the English language. Media[edit] Newspapers[edit] The South Island
South Island
has ten daily newspapers and a large number of weekly community newspapers; major daily newspapers include the Ashburton Guardian, Greymouth
Greymouth
Star, The Marlborough Express, The Nelson Mail, Oamaru
Oamaru
Mail, Otago
Otago
Daily Times, The Press, Southland Times, The Timaru Herald, and West Coast Times. The Press
The Press
and Otago
Otago
Daily Times, serving mainly Christchurch
Christchurch
and Dunedin
Dunedin
respectively, are the South Island's major newspapers. Television[edit] The South Island
South Island
has seven regional stations (either non-commercial public service or privately owned) that broadcast only in one region or city: 45 South TV, Channel 9, Canterbury Television, CUE, Mainland Television, Shine TV, and Visitor TV. These stations mainly broadcast free to air on UHF
UHF
frequencies, however some are carried on subscription TV. Content ranges from local news, access broadcasts, satellite sourced news, tourist information and Christian programming to music videos. Radio stations[edit] A large number of radio stations serve communities throughout the South Island; these include independent stations, but many are owned by organisations such as Radio New Zealand, New Zealand
New Zealand
Media and Entertainment, and MediaWorks New Zealand. Museums[edit]

Bluff Maritime Museum Cadbury World Canterbury Museum Ferrymead Heritage Park Nelson Provincial Museum Olveston House Otago
Otago
Museum Otago
Otago
Settlers Museum: Toitū Royal New Zealand
New Zealand
Air Force Museum Southland Museum and Art Gallery World of Wearable Art Yaldhurst Museum

Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in New Zealand Anglicanism
Anglicanism
is strongest in Canterbury (the city of Christchurch having been founded as an Anglican settlement). Catholicism
Catholicism
is still has a noticeably strong presence on the West Coast, and in Kaikoura. The territorial authorities with the highest proportion of Catholics are Kaikoura
Kaikoura
(where they are 18.4% of the total population), Westland (18.3%), and Grey (17.8%). Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
is strong in the lower South Island
South Island
— the city of Dunedin
Dunedin
was founded as a Presbyterian settlement, and many of the early settlers in the region were Scottish Presbyterians. The territorial authorities with the highest proportion of Presbyterians are Gore (where they are 30.9% of the total population), Clutha District (30.7%), and Southland (29.8%). The first Muslims in New Zealand
New Zealand
were Chinese gold diggers working in the Dunstan gold fields of Otago
Otago
in the 1860s. Dunedin's Al-Huda mosque is the world's southernmost,[70] and the farthest from Mecca.[71] Sport[edit] Main article: Sport in New Zealand

The Christchurch
Christchurch
based Crusaders rugby team playing the Bulls from South Africa
South Africa
in the Super Rugby
Super Rugby
competition.

A number of professional sports teams are based in the South Island — with the major spectator sports of rugby union and cricket particularly well represented. The Crusaders and Highlanders represent the upper and lower South Island
South Island
respectively in rugby union's Super Rugby competition; and Canterbury, Otago, Southland Stags, Tasman Makos all participate in provincial rugby's ITM Cup. At cricket, the South Island
South Island
is represented by the Canterbury Wizards, Central Stags, and Otago
Otago
Volts in the Plunket Shield, one day domestic series, and the HRV Twenty20 Cup. As well as rugby union and cricket, the South Island
South Island
also boasts representative teams in the domestic basketball, soccer, ice hockey, netball, and rugby league. The North vs South match, sometimes known as the Interisland match was a longstanding rugby union fixture in New Zealand. The first game was played in 1897 and the last match was played in 1995. Christchurch
Christchurch
also hosted the 1974 Commonwealth Games. An unidentified group is promoting a bid for the South Island
South Island
to host the 2022 Winter Olympics.[72][73] See also[edit]

New Zealand
New Zealand
portal Islands portal Geography portal

Cities and towns of the South Island
South Island
by population List of twin towns and sister cities in the South Island Military of the South Island New Munster Nor'west arch South Island
South Island
nationalism

References[edit]

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New Zealand
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and GNS Science. 4 September 2010. Archived from the original on 5 September 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ " New Zealand
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Quake Victims Say 'It was terrifying'". The Epoch Times. 3 September 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2010.  ^ a b "New Zealand's South Island
South Island
Rocked by Magnitude 7.0 Earthquake". Bloomberg. 3 September 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2010.  ^ "Latest News: Christchurch
Christchurch
earthquake". The New Zealand
New Zealand
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Christchurch
to be evacuated after quake". Radio New Zealand. 4 September 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2010.  ^ Stuff.co.nz (4 September 2010). "Officers flown into protect Christchurch". Stuff. New Zealand. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2010.  ^ Published: 9:08 am Saturday 4 September 2010. "State of emergency declared after quake hits Chch NATIONAL News". Tvnz.co.nz. Retrieved 4 September 2010.  ^ "Massive 7.4 quake hits South Island", Stuff, New Zealand, 4 September 2010, archived from the original on 6 September 2010  ^ "Canterbury shaken by 240 aftershocks". Stuff. New Zealand. 8 September 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2010.  ^ "Multiple fatalities in New Zealand
New Zealand
earthquake near Christchurch". Daily Telegraph. UK. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2011.  ^ " New Zealand
New Zealand
Earthquake Report – Feb 22, 2011 at 12:51 pm (NZDT)". GeoNet. Earthquake Commission
Earthquake Commission
and GNS Science. 22 February 2011. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2011.  ^ Fox, Andrea (1 March 2011). "Building code no match for earthquake". The Dominion Post. Retrieved 11 July 2011.  ^ "List of deceased". New Zealand
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Police. 1 June 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 September 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2011.  Christchurch
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aftershocks: Hard-hit east residents three times unlucky ^ " Christchurch
Christchurch
earthquake: Latest information - Friday". Stuff.co.nz. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2011.  ^ "'Thousands of homes need to go'". The Press. 14 June 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2011.  ^ [1] Iconic cathedral window collapses in quake ^ [2] Anglican Taonga: Cathedral loses rose window ^ Viewing Page 5997 of Issue 20687 Text of the 1846 Constitution from the [London Gazette] ^ Written submission in support of application for broadcasting funding[permanent dead link], Richard Prosser, 18 April 2008 ^ "Southern mayors plot united stand". Odt.co.nz. 13 October 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010.  ^ "South Isl. Strategic Alliance faster, cheaper, collaborative". scoop.co.nz.  ^ Living Density: Table 1, Housing Statistics, Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 25 January 2009. Areas are based on 2001 boundaries. Water bodies greater than 15 hectares are excluded. ^ " New Zealand
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Further reading[edit]

Atkinson, Brett, et al. New Zealand's South Island
South Island
(2010) excerpt and text search Bull, Mary P. (2004). New Zealand
New Zealand
Tales and Tours: South Island Adventures. Trafford Publishing. 

External links[edit]

South Island
South Island
travel guide from Wikivoyage South Island South Island
South Island
Road Map

v t e

Regions of New Zealand

North Island

Northland Auckland* Waikato Bay of Plenty Gisborne* Hawke's Bay Taranaki Manawatu-Wanganui Wellington

South Island

Tasman* Marlborough* Nelson* West Coast Canterbury Otago Southland

* Governed by a unitary authority rather than a regional council

Authority control

World Cat
Cat
Identities VIAF: 248142

.