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The Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
spoken by the Slavic peoples. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic spoken during the Early Middle Ages, which in turn is thought to have descended from the earlier Proto-Balto-Slavic language, linking the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
to the Baltic languages
Baltic languages
in a Balto-Slavic group within the Indo-European family. The Slavic languages
Slavic languages
are divided intro three subgroups: East, West, and South, which together constitute more than twenty languages. Of these, ten have at least one million speakers and official status as the national languages of the countries in which they are predominantly spoken: Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian (of the East group), Polish, Czech and Slovak (of the West group) and Slovene, Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian and Bulgarian (of the South group). The current geographic distribution of natively spoken Slavic languages covers Eastern Europe, the Balkans, Central Europe
Central Europe
and all of the territory of Russia, which includes northern and north-central Asia. Furthermore, the diasporas of many Slavic peoples have established isolated minorities of speakers of their languages all over the world. The number of speakers of all Slavic languages together is estimated to be 315 million.[2][3][unreliable source?] Despite the large extent, the individual Slavic languages
Slavic languages
are considerably less differentiated than Germanic and Romance languages.

Contents

1 Branches 2 History

2.1 Common roots and ancestry 2.2 Evolution 2.3 Differentiation 2.4 Linguistic history

3 Features

3.1 Consonants 3.2 Vowels 3.3 Length, accent, and tone 3.4 Grammar 3.5 Selected cognates

4 Influence on neighboring languages 5 Detailed list 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References

Branches

Slavic language tree.

Scholars traditionally divide Slavic languages
Slavic languages
on the basis of geographical and genealogical principle into three main branches, some of which feature subbranches:

East Slavic

Belarusian Russian Ukrainian Rusyn

West Slavic

Czech–Slovak

Czech Slovak

Lechitic

Polish, Silesian Pomeranian Kashubian

Sorbian

Upper Sorbian Lower Sorbian

South Slavic

Eastern

Bulgarian Macedonian Church Slavonic

Western

Serbo-Croatian

Serbian Croatian Bosnian Montenegrin Burgenland Croatian

Slovene

Some linguists speculate that a North Slavic branch has existed as well. The Old Novgorod dialect
Old Novgorod dialect
may have reflected some idiosyncrasies of this group. Mutual intelligibility also plays a role in determining the West, East, and South branches. Speakers of languages within the same branch will in most cases be able to understand each other at least partially, but they are generally unable to across branches (for which it would be comparable to a native English speaker trying to understand any other Germanic language). The most obvious differences between the East, West and Slavic branches are in the orthography of the standard languages: West Slavic languages (and Western South Slavic languages
South Slavic languages
- Croatian and Slovene) are written in the Latin script, and have had more Western European influence due to their proximity and speakers being historically Roman Catholic, whereas the East Slavic and Eastern South Slavic languages are written in Cyrillic and, with Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
or Uniate
Uniate
faithful, have had more Greek influence. East Slavic languages
East Slavic languages
such as Russian have, however, during and after Peter the Great's Europeanization campaign, absorbed many words of Latin, French, German, and Italian origin. The tripartite division of the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
does not take into account the spoken dialects of each language. Of these, certain so-called transitional dialects and hybrid dialects often bridge the gaps between different languages, showing similarities that do not stand out when comparing Slavic literary (i.e. standard) languages. For example, Slovak (West Slavic) and Ukrainian (East Slavic) are bridged by the Rusyn language/dialect of Eastern Slovakia and Western Ukraine.[4] Similarly, the Croatian Kajkavian
Kajkavian
dialect is more similar to Slovene than to the standard Croatian language. Although the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
diverged from a common proto-language later than any other group of the Indo-European language
Indo-European language
family, enough differences exist between the various Slavic dialects and languages to make communication between speakers of different Slavic languages difficult. Within the individual Slavic languages, dialects may vary to a lesser degree, as those of Russian, or to a much greater degree, as those of Slovene. History

Part of a series on

Indo-European topics

Languages

List of Indo-European languages

Historical

Albanian Armenian Balto-Slavic

Baltic Slavic

Celtic Germanic Hellenic

Greek

Indo-Iranian

Indo-Aryan Iranian

Italic

Romance

Extinct

Anatolian Tocharian Paleo-Balkan Dacian Illyrian Liburnian Messapian Mysian Paeonian Phrygian Thracian

Reconstructed

Proto-Indo-European language

Phonology: Sound laws, Accent, Ablaut

Hypothetical

Daco-Thracian Graeco-Armenian Graeco-Aryan Graeco-Phrygian Indo-Hittite Italo-Celtic Thraco-Illyrian

Grammar

Vocabulary Root Verbs Nouns Pronouns Numerals Particles

Other

Proto-Anatolian Proto-Armenian Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
(Proto-Norse) Proto-Celtic Proto-Italic Proto-Greek Proto-Balto-Slavic (Proto-Slavic) Proto-Indo-Iranian (Proto-Iranian)

Philology

Hittite texts Hieroglyphic Luwian Linear B Rigveda Avesta Homer Behistun Gaulish epigraphy Latin epigraphy Runic epigraphy Ogam Gothic Bible Armenian Bible Slanting Brahmi Old Irish glosses

Origins

Homeland Proto-Indo-Europeans Society Religion

Mainstream

Kurgan
Kurgan
hypothesis Indo-European migrations Eurasian nomads

Alternative and fringe

Anatolian hypothesis Armenian hypothesis Indigenous Aryans Baltic homeland Paleolithic Continuity Theory

Archaeology

Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
(Copper Age)

Pontic Steppe

Domestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe cultures

Bug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk Yamna

Mikhaylovka culture

Caucasus

Maykop

East-Asia

Afanasevo

Eastern Europe

Usatovo Cernavodă Cucuteni

Northern Europe

Corded ware

Baden Middle Dnieper

Bronze Age

Pontic Steppe

Chariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka Srubna

Northern/Eastern Steppe

Abashevo culture Andronovo Sintashta

Europe

Globular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus Urnfield Lusatian

South-Asia

BMAC Yaz Gandhara grave

Iron Age

Steppe

Chernoles

Europe

Thraco-Cimmerian Hallstatt Jastorf

Caucasus

Colchian

India

Painted Grey Ware Northern Black Polished Ware

Peoples and societies

Bronze Age

Anatolians Armenians Mycenaean Greeks Indo-Iranians

Iron Age

Indo-Aryans

Indo-Aryans

Iranians

Iranians

Scythians Persians Medes

Europe

Celts

Gauls Celtiberians Insular Celts

Hellenic peoples Italic peoples Germanic peoples Paleo-Balkans/Anatolia:

Thracians Dacians Illyrians Phrygians

Middle Ages

East-Asia

Tocharians

Europe

Balts Slavs Albanians Medieval Europe

Indo-Aryan

Medieval India

Iranian

Greater Persia

Religion and mythology

Reconstructed

Proto-Indo-European religion Proto-Indo-Iranian religion

Historical

Hittite

Indian

Vedic

Hinduism

Buddhism Jainism

Iranian

Persian

Zoroastrianism

Kurdish

Yazidism Yarsanism

Scythian

Ossetian

Others

Armenian

Europe

Paleo-Balkans Greek Roman Celtic

Irish Scottish Breton Welsh Cornish

Germanic

Anglo-Saxon Continental Norse

Baltic

Latvian Lithuanian

Slavic Albanian

Practices

Fire-sacrifice Horse sacrifice Sati Winter solstice/Yule

Indo-European studies

Scholars

Marija Gimbutas J.P. Mallory

Institutes

Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European

Publications

Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture The Horse, the Wheel and Language Journal of Indo-European Studies Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch Indo-European Etymological Dictionary

v t e

Main article: History of the Slavic languages See also: Proto-Slavic language, History of Proto-Slavic, and Proto-Balto-Slavic language Common roots and ancestry

Area of Balto-Slavic dialectic continuum (purple) with proposed material cultures correlating to speakers Balto-Slavic in Bronze Age (white). Red dots = archaic Slavic hydronyms

Slavic languages
Slavic languages
descend from Proto-Slavic, their immediate parent language, ultimately deriving from Proto-Indo-European, the ancestor language of all Indo-European languages, via a Proto-Balto-Slavic stage. During the Proto-Balto-Slavic period a number of exclusive isoglosses in phonology, morphology, lexis, and syntax developed, which makes Slavic and Baltic the closest related of all the Indo-European branches. The secession of the Balto-Slavic dialect ancestral to Proto-Slavic is estimated on archaeological and glottochronological criteria to have occurred sometime in the period 1500–1000 BCE.[5] A minority of Baltists maintain the view that the Slavic group of languages differs so radically from the neighboring Baltic group (Lithuanian, Latvian, and the now-extinct Old Prussian), that they could not have shared a parent language after the breakup of the Proto-Indo-European continuum about five millennia ago. Substantial advances in Balto-Slavic accentology that occurred in the last three decades, however, make this view very hard to maintain nowadays, especially when one considers that there was most likely no "Proto-Baltic" language and that West Baltic and East Baltic differ from each other as much as each of them does from Proto-Slavic.[6]

Baška tablet, 11th century, Krk, Croatia.

Evolution

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The imposition of Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
on Orthodox Slavs
Slavs
was often at the expense of the vernacular. Says WB Lockwood, a prominent Indo-European linguist, "It (O.C.S) remained in use to modern times but was more and more influenced by the living, evolving languages, so that one distinguishes Bulgarian, Serbian, and Russian varieties. The use of such media hampered the development of the local languages for literary purposes, and when they do appear the first attempts are usually in an artificially mixed style." (148) Lockwood also notes that these languages have "enriched" themselves by drawing on Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
for the vocabulary of abstract concepts. The situation in the Catholic countries, where Latin was more important, was different. The Polish Renaissance poet Jan Kochanowski and the Croatian Baroque
Baroque
writers of the 16th century all wrote in their respective vernaculars (though Polish itself had drawn amply on Latin in the same way Russian would eventually draw on Church Slavonic).

14th-century Novgorodian children were literate enough to send each other letters written on birch bark.

Although Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
hampered vernacular literatures, it fostered Slavonic literary activity and abetted linguistic independence from external influences. Only the Croatian vernacular literary tradition nearly matches Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
in age. It began with the Vinodol Codex and continued through the Renaissance until the codifications of Croatian in 1830, though much of the literature between 1300 and 1500 was written in much the same mixture of the vernacular and Church Slavonic as prevailed in Russia
Russia
and elsewhere. The most important early monument of Croatian literacy is the Baška tablet from the late 11th century. It is a large stone tablet found in the small Church of St. Lucy, Jurandvor
Church of St. Lucy, Jurandvor
on the Croatian island of Krk, containing text written mostly in Čakavian
Čakavian
dialect in angular Croatian Glagolitic
Glagolitic
script. The independence of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
facilitated the continuity of the tradition.

10th–11th century Codex Zographensis, canonical monument of Old Church Slavonic.

More recent foreign influences follow the same general pattern in Slavic languages
Slavic languages
as elsewhere and are governed by the political relationships of the Slavs. In the 17th century, bourgeois Russian (delovoi jazyk) absorbed German words through direct contacts between Russians and communities of German settlers in Russia. In the era of Peter the Great, close contacts with France
France
invited countless loan words and calques from French, a significant fraction of which not only survived but also replaced older Slavonic loans. In the 19th century, Russian influenced most literary Slavic languages
Slavic languages
by one means or another. Differentiation The Proto-Slavic language existed until around AD 500. By the 7th century, it had broken apart into large dialectal zones. There are no reliable hypotheses about the nature of the subsequent breakups of West and South Slavic. East Slavic is generally thought to converge to one Old Russian or Old East Slavonic language, which existed until at least the 12th century. Linguistic differentiation was accelerated by the dispersion of the Slavic peoples over a large territory, which in Central Europe exceeded the current extent of Slavic-speaking majorities. Written documents of the 9th, 10th, and 11th centuries already display some local linguistic features. For example, the Freising manuscripts
Freising manuscripts
show a language that contains some phonetic and lexical elements peculiar to Slovene dialects
Slovene dialects
(e.g. rhotacism, the word krilatec). The Freising manuscripts are the first Latin-script continuous text in a Slavic language. The migration of Slavic speakers into the Balkans
Balkans
in the declining centuries of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
expanded the area of Slavic speech, but the pre-existing writing (notably Greek) survived in this area. The arrival of the Hungarians
Hungarians
in Pannonia
Pannonia
in the 9th century interposed non-Slavic speakers between South and West Slavs. Frankish conquests completed the geographical separation between these two groups, also severing the connection between Slavs
Slavs
in Moravia
Moravia
and Lower Austria
Lower Austria
(Moravians) and those in present-day Styria, Carinthia, East Tyrol
East Tyrol
in Austria, and in the provinces of modern Slovenia, where the ancestors of the Slovenes
Slovenes
settled during first colonisation. Linguistic history Main article: Historical development of the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
up to the Proto-Slavic See also: Proto-Slavic The following is a summary of the main changes from Proto-Indo-European (PIE) leading up to the Common Slavic (CS) period immediately following the Proto-Slavic language (PS).

Satem
Satem
sound changes:

PIE *ḱ, *ǵ, *ǵʰ → *ś, *ź, *źʰ (→ CS *s, *z, *z) PIE *kʷ, *gʷ, *gʷʰ → *k, *g, *gʰ

Ruki rule: Following *r, *u, *k or *i, PIE *s → *š (→ CS *x) Loss of voiced aspirates: PIE *bʰ, *dʰ, *gʰ → *b, *d, *g Merger of *o and *a: PIE *a/*o, *ā/*ō → PS *a, *ā (→ CS *o, *a) Law of open syllables: All closed syllables (syllables ending in a consonant) are eventually eliminated, in the following stages:

Nasalization: With *N indicating either *n or *m not immediately followed by a vowel: PIE *aN, *eN, *iN, *oN, *uN → *ą, *ę, *į, *ǫ, *ų (→ CS *ǫ, *ę, *ę, *ǫ, *y). (NOTE: *ą *ę etc. indicates a nasalized vowel.) In a cluster of obstruent (stop or fricative) + another consonant, the obstruent is deleted unless the cluster can occur word-initially. (occurs later, see below) Monophthongization of diphthongs. (occurs much later, see below) Elimination of liquid diphthongs (e.g. *er, *ol when not followed immediately by a vowel).

First palatalization: *k, *g, *x → CS *č, *ž, *š (pronounced [tʃ], [ʒ], [ʃ] respectively) before a front vocalic sound (*e, *ē, *i, *ī, *j). Iotation: Consonants are palatalized by an immediately following *j:

*sj, *zj → CS *š, *ž *nj, *lj, *rj → CS *ň, *ľ, *ř (pronounced [nʲ lʲ rʲ] or similar) *tj, *dj → CS *ť, *ď (probably palatal stops, e.g. [c ɟ], but developing in different ways depending on the language) *bj, *pj, *mj, *wj → *bľ, *pľ, *mľ, *wľ (the lateral consonant *ľ is mostly lost later on in West Slavic)

Vowel fronting: After *j or some other palatal sound, back vowels are fronted (*a, *ā, *u, *ū, *ai, *au → *e, *ē, *i, *ī, *ei, *eu). This leads to hard/soft alternations in noun and adjective declensions. Prothesis: Before a word-initial vowel, *j or *w is usually inserted. Monophthongization: *ai, *au, *ei, *eu, *ū → *ē, *ū, *ī, *jū, *ȳ [ɨː] Second palatalization: *k, *g, *x → CS *c [ts], *dz, *ś before new *ē (from earlier *ai). *ś later splits into *š (West Slavic), *s (East/South Slavic). Progressive palatalization (or "third palatalization"): *k, *g, *x → CS *c, *dz, *ś after *i, *ī in certain circumstances. Vowel quality
Vowel quality
shifts: All pairs of long/short vowels become differentiated as well by vowel quality:

*a, *ā → CS *o, *a *e, *ē → CS *e, *ě (originally a low-front sound [æ] but eventually raised to [ie] in most dialects, developing in divergent ways) *i, *u → CS *ь, *ъ (also written *ĭ, *ŭ; lax vowels as in the English words pit, put) *ī, *ū, *ȳ → CS *i, *u, *y

Elimination of liquid diphthongs: Liquid diphthongs (sequences of vowel plus *l or *r, when not immediately followed by a vowel) are changed so that the syllable becomes open:

*or, *ol, *er, *el → *ro, *lo, *re, *le in West Slavic. *or, *ol, *er, *el → *oro, *olo, *ere, *olo in East Slavic. *or, *ol, *er, *el → *rā, *lā, *re, *le in South Slavic. Possibly, *ur, *ul, *ir, *il → syllabic *r, *l, *ř, *ľ (then develops in divergent ways).

Development of phonemic tone and vowel length (independent of vowel quality): Complex developments (see History of accentual developments in Slavic languages).

Features The Slavic languages
Slavic languages
are a relatively homogeneous family, compared with other families of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
(e.g. Germanic, Romance, and Indo-Iranian). As late as the 10th century AD, the entire Slavic-speaking area still functioned as a single, dialectally differentiated language, termed Common Slavic. Compared with most other Indo-European languages, the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
are quite conservative, particularly in terms of morphology (the means of inflecting nouns and verbs to indicate grammatical differences). Most Slavic languages
Slavic languages
have a rich, fusional morphology that conserves much of the inflectional morphology of Proto-Indo-European.[7] Consonants The following table shows the inventory of consonants of Late Common Slavic:[8]

Consonants of Late Proto-Slavic

Labial Coronal Palatal Velar

Nasal m n nʲ

Plosive p b t d tʲː dʲː k ɡ

Affricate

ts dz tʃ

Fricative

s z ʃ, (sʲ1) ʒ x

Trill

r rʲ

Lateral

l lʲ

Approximant ʋ

j

1The sound /sʲ/ did not occur in West Slavic, where it had developed to /ʃ/. This inventory of sounds is quite similar to what is found in most modern Slavic languages. The extensive series of palatal consonants, along with the affricates *ts and *dz, developed through a series of palatalizations that happened during the Proto-Slavic period, from earlier sequences either of velar consonants followed by front vowels (e.g. *ke, *ki, *ge, *gi, *xe, and *xi), or of various consonants followed by *j (e.g. *tj, *dj, *sj, *zj, *rj, *lj, *kj, and *gj, where *j is the palatal approximant ([j], the sound of the English letter "y" in "yes" or "you"). The biggest change in this inventory results from a further general palatalization occurring near the end of the Common Slavic period, where all consonants became palatalized before front vowels. This produced a large number of new palatalized (or "soft") sounds, which formed pairs with the corresponding non-palatalized (or "hard") consonants[7] and absorbed the existing palatalized sounds *lʲ *rʲ *nʲ *sʲ. These sounds were best preserved in Russian but were lost to varying degrees in other languages (particularly Czech and Slovak). The following table shows the inventory of modern Russian:

Consonant phonemes of Russian

Labial Dental & Alveolar Post- alveolar/ Palatal Velar

hard soft hard soft hard soft hard soft

Nasal m mʲ n nʲ

Stop p   b pʲ   bʲ t   d tʲ   dʲ

k   ɡ kʲ   ɡʲ

Affricate

t͡s (t͡sʲ)   t͡ɕ

Fricative f   v fʲ   vʲ s   z sʲ   zʲ ʂ   ʐ ɕː   ʑː x     xʲ  

Trill

r rʲ

Approximant

l lʲ   j

This general process of palatalization did not occur in Serbo-Croatian and Slovenian. As a result, the modern consonant inventory of these languages is nearly identical to the Late Common Slavic inventory. Late Common Slavic tolerated relatively few consonant clusters. However, as a result of the loss of certain formerly present vowels (the weak yers), the modern Slavic languages
Slavic languages
allow quite complex clusters, as in the Russian word взблеск [vzblʲesk] ("flash"). Also present in many Slavic languages
Slavic languages
are clusters rarely found cross-linguistically, as in Russian ртуть [rtutʲ] ("mercury") or Polish mchu [mxu] ("moss", gen. sg.). The word for "mercury" with the initial rt- cluster, for example, is also found in the other East and West Slavic languages, although Slovak retains an epenthetic vowel (ortuť). Vowels A typical vowel inventory is as follows:

Front Central Back

Close i (ɨ) u

Mid e

o

Open

a

The sound [ɨ] occurs only in some languages (Russian and Belarusian), and even in these languages, it is unclear whether it is its own phoneme or an allophone of /i/. Nonetheless, it is a quite prominent and noticeable characteristic of the languages in which it is present.

Russian мышь  [mɨʂ] (help·info) and Polish mysz  [mɨʂ] "mouse"

Common Slavic also had two nasal vowels: *ę [ẽ] and *ǫ [õ]. However, these are preserved only in modern Polish (along with a few lesser-known dialects and microlanguages; see Yus
Yus
for more details).

Polish wąż  /vɔ̃ʐ/ and węże  /vɛ̃ʐɛ/ "snake, snakes"

Other phonemic vowels are found in certain languages (e.g. the schwa /ə/ in Bulgarian and Slovenian, distinct high-mid and low-mid vowels in Slovenian, and the lax front vowel /ɪ/ in Ukrainian). Length, accent, and tone An area of great difference among Slavic languages
Slavic languages
is that of prosody (i.e. syllabic distinctions such as vowel length, accent, and tone). Common Slavic had a complex system of prosody, inherited with little change from Proto-Indo-European. This consisted of phonemic vowel length and a free, mobile pitch accent:

All vowels could occur either short or long, and this was phonemic (it could not automatically be predicted from other properties of the word). There was (at most) a single accented syllable per word, distinguished by higher pitch (as in modern Japanese) rather than greater dynamic stress (as in English). Vowels in accented syllables could be pronounced with either a rising or falling tone (i.e. there was pitch accent), and this was phonemic. The accent was free in that it could occur on any syllable and was phonemic. The accent was mobile in that its position could potentially vary among closely related words within a single paradigm (e.g. the accent might land on a different syllable between the nominative and genitive singular of a given word). Even within a given inflectional class (e.g. masculine i-stem nouns), there were multiple accent patterns in which a given word could be inflected. For example, most nouns in a particular inflectional class could follow one of three possible patterns: Either there was consistent accent on the root (pattern A), predominant accent on the ending (pattern B), or accent that moved between root and ending (pattern C). In patterns B and C, the accent in different parts of the paradigm shifted not only in location but also type (rising vs. falling). Each inflectional class had its own version of patterns B and C, which might differ significantly from one inflectional class to another.

The modern languages vary greatly in the extent to which they preserve this system. On one extreme, Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
preserves the system nearly unchanged (even more so in the conservative Chakavian dialect); on the other, Macedonian has basically lost the system in its entirety. Between them are found numerous variations:

Slovenian preserves most of the system but has shortened all unaccented syllables and lengthened non-final accented syllables so that vowel length and accent position largely co-occur. Russian and Bulgarian have eliminated distinctive vowel length and tone and converted the accent into a stress accent (as in English) but preserved its position. As a result, the complexity of the mobile accent and the multiple accent patterns still exists (particularly in Russian because it has preserved the Common Slavic noun inflections, while Bulgarian has lost them). Czech and Slovak have preserved phonemic vowel length and converted the distinctive tone of accented syllables into length distinctions. Phonemic
Phonemic
accent is otherwise lost, but the former accent patterns are echoed to some extent in corresponding patterns of vowel length/shortness in the root. Paradigms with mobile vowel length/shortness do exist but only in a limited fashion, usually only with the zero-ending forms (nom. sg., acc. sg., and/or gen. pl., depending on inflectional class) having a different length from the other forms. (Czech has a couple of other "mobile" patterns, but they are rare and can usually be substituted with one of the "normal" mobile patterns or a non-mobile pattern.) Old Polish
Old Polish
had a system very much like Czech. Modern Polish has lost vowel length, but some former short-long pairs have become distinguished by quality (e.g. [o oː] > [o u]), with the result that some words have vowel-quality changes that exactly mirror the mobile-length patterns in Czech and Slovak.

Grammar

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Similarly, Slavic languages
Slavic languages
have extensive morphophonemic alternations in their derivational and inflectional morphology,[7] including between velar and postalveolar consonants, front and back vowels, and between a vowel and no vowel.[9] Selected cognates Main article: Slavic vocabulary The following is a very brief selection of cognates in basic vocabulary across the Slavic language family, which may serve to give an idea of the sound changes involved. This is not a list of translations: cognates have a common origin, but their meaning may be shifted and loanwords may have replaced them.

Proto-Slavic Russian Ukrainian Belarusian Polish Czech Slovak Slovene Serbo-Croatian Bulgarian Macedonian

*uxo (ear) ухо (úkho) вухо (vúkho) вуха (vúkha) ucho ucho ucho uho уво / uvo; uho ухо (ukhó) уво (úvo)

*ognь (fire) огонь (ogónʹ) вогонь (vohónʹ) агонь (ahónʹ) ogień oheň oheň ogenj огањ / oganj огън (ógǎn) оган/огин (ógan/ógin)

*ryba (fish) рыба (rýba) риба (rýba) рыба (rýba) ryba ryba ryba riba риба / riba риба (ríba) риба (ríba)

*gnězdo (nest) гнездо (gnezdó) гнiздо (hnizdó) гняздо (hnyazdó) gniazdo hnízdo hniezdo gnezdo гн(иј)ездо / gn(ij)ezdo гнездо (gnezdó) гнездо (gnézdo)

*oko (eye) око (óko) (dated, poetic or in set expressions) modern: глаз (glaz) око (óko) вока (vóka) oko oko oko oko око / oko око (óko) око (óko)

*golva (head) голова (golová) глава (glavá) "chapter or chief, leader, head" голова (holová) галава (halavá) głowa hlava hlava glava глава / glava глава (glavá) глава (gláva)

*rǫka (hand) рука (ruká) рука (ruká) рука (ruká) ręka ruka ruka roka рука / ruka ръка (rǎká) рака (ráka)

*noktь (night) ночь (nočʹ) ніч (nič) ноч (noč) noc noc noc noč ноћ / noć нощ (nosht) ноќ (noḱ)

Influence on neighboring languages

West Slav tribes in 9th–10th centuries

Most languages of the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and of some neighbouring countries (for example, Mongolian) are significantly influenced by Russian, especially in vocabulary. The Romanian, Albanian, and Hungarian languages show the influence of the neighboring Slavic nations, especially in vocabulary pertaining to urban life, agriculture, and crafts and trade—the major cultural innovations at times of limited long-range cultural contact. In each one of these languages, Slavic lexical borrowings represent at least 20% of the total vocabulary. However, Romanian has much lower influence from Slavic than Albanian or Hungarian[citation needed]. This is because Slavic tribes crossed and partially settled the territories inhabited by ancient Illyrians
Illyrians
and Vlachs on their way to the Balkans. Although also spoken in neighbouring lands, the Germanic languages show less significant Slavic influence, partly because Slavic migrations were mostly headed south rather than west. Slavic tribes did push westwards into Germanic territory, but borrowing for the most part seems to have been from Germanic to Slavic rather than the other way: for instance, the now-extinct Polabian language
Polabian language
was heavily influenced by German, far more than any living Slavic language today. The Slavic contributions to Germanic languages
Germanic languages
remains a moot question, though Max Vasmer, a specialist in Slavic etymology, has claimed that there were no Slavic loans into Proto-Germanic. The only Germanic languages
Germanic languages
that shows significant Slavic influence are Yiddish and the historical colonial dialects of German that were spoken East of the Oder–Neisse line, such as Silesian German (formerly spoken in Silesia
Silesia
and South of East Prussia) and the Eastern varieties of East Low German, with the exception of Low Prussian, which had a strong Baltic substratum. Modern Dutch slang, especially the Amsterdam dialect, borrowed much from Yiddish
Yiddish
in turn. However, there are isolated Slavic loans (mostly recent) into other Germanic languages. For example, the word for "border" (in modern German Grenze, Dutch grens) was borrowed from the Common Slavic granica. There are, however, many cities and villages of Slavic origin in Eastern Germany, the largest of which are Berlin, Leipzig
Leipzig
and Dresden. English derives quark (a kind of cheese, not the subatomic particle) from the German Quark, which in turn is derived from the Slavic tvarog, which means "curd". Many German surnames, particularly in Eastern Germany and Austria, are Slavic in origin. Swedish also has torg (market place) from Old Russian tъrgъ or Polish targ,[10] tolk (interpreter) from Old Slavic tlŭkŭ,[11] and pråm (barge) from West Slavonic pramŭ.[12] The Czech word robot is now found in most languages worldwide, and the word pistol, probably also from Czech,[citation needed] is found in many Indo-European languages, including Greek (πιστόλι, pistóli). A well-known Slavic word in almost all European languages is vodka, a borrowing from Russian водка (vodka) – which itself was borrowed from Polish wódka (lit. "little water"), from common Slavic voda ("water", cognate to the English word) with the diminutive ending "-ka".[13][14] Owing to the medieval fur trade with Northern Russia, Pan-European loans from Russian include such familiar words as sable.[15] The English word "vampire" was borrowed (perhaps via French vampire) from German Vampir, in turn derived from Serbian vampir, continuing Proto-Slavic *ǫpyrь,[16][17] although Polish scholar K. Stachowski has argued that the origin of the word is early Slavic *vąpěrь, going back to Turkic oobyr.[18] Several European languages, including English, have borrowed the word polje (meaning "large, flat plain") directly from the former Yugoslav languages (i.e. Slovene, Croatian, and Serbian). During the heyday of the USSR
USSR
in the 20th century, many more Russian words became known worldwide: da, Soviet, sputnik, perestroika, glasnost, kolkhoz, etc. Also in the English language
English language
borrowed from Russian is samovar (lit. "self-boiling") to refer to the specific Russian tea urn. Detailed list The following tree for the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
derives from the Ethnologue
Ethnologue
report for Slavic languages.[19] It includes the ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-3 codes where available. East Slavic languages:

Ruthenian section

Belarusian: ISO 639-1 code: be; ISO 639-3 code: bel; Ukrainian: ISO 639-1 code: uk; ISO 639-3 code: ukr

Rusyn (a language or a dialect of Ukrainian): ISO 639-3 code: rue;

Russian: ISO 639-1 code: ru; ISO 639-3 code: rus

West Slavic languages:

Sorbian section (also known as Wendish): ISO 639-3 code: wen

Lower Sorbian (also known as Lusatian): ISO 639-3 code: dsb; Upper Sorbian: ISO 639-3 code: hsb

Lechitic section

Polish: ISO 639-1 code: pl; ISO 639-3 code: pol

Silesian (see footnote above): ISO 639-3 code: szl

Pomeranian

Kashubian: ISO 639-2 code: csb;

Slovincian (a language or a dialect of Kashubian)—extinct

Polabian—extinct: ISO 639-3 code: pox

Czech-Slovak section

Czech: ISO 639-1 code: cs; ISO 639-3 ces Knaanic or Judeo Slavic—extinct: ISO 639-3 code: czk Slovak: ISO 639-1 code: sk; ISO 639-3 code: slk

South Slavic languages:

Western Section

Serbo-Croatian

Bosnian: ISO 639-1 code: bs; ISO 639-3 code: bos Croatian: ISO 639-1 code: hr; ISO 639-3 code: hrv Serbian: ISO 639-1 code: sr; ISO 639-3 code: srp Montenegrin (not regulated but official in Montenegro)

Slovene: ISO 639-1 code: sl; ISO 639-3 code: slv

Eastern Section

Bulgarian: ISO 639-1 code: bg; ISO 639-3 code: bul Macedonian: ISO 639-1 code: mk; ISO 639-3 code: mkd Old Church Slavonic—extinct: ISO 639-1 code: cu; ISO 639-3 code: chu

Para- and supranational languages

Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
language, derived from Old Church Slavonic, but with significant replacement of the original vocabulary by forms from the Old Russian language
Russian language
and other regional forms. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Church, Polish Orthodox Church, Macedonian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Church, and even some Roman Catholic Churches in Croatia
Croatia
continue to use Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
as a liturgical language. While not used in modern times, the text of a Church Slavonic Roman Rite Mass survives in Croatia
Croatia
and the Czech Republic, which is best known through Janáček's musical setting of it (the Glagolitic
Glagolitic
Mass).

See also

Slavic microlanguages Slavistics Slavic names Language families and languages False Friends of the Slavist

Notes

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Slavic". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Britannica - Slavic languages ^ According to the data taken from Anatole V. Lyovin, An Introduction to the Languages of the World, Oxford University Press, New York – Oxford, 1997. ^ Encyclopedia of Rusyn history and culture, p 274, Paul R. Magocsi, Ivan Ivanovich Pop, University of Toronto Press, 2002 ^ cf. Novotná & Blažek (2007) with references. "Classical glottochronology" conducted by Czech Slavist M. Čejka in 1974 dates the Balto-Slavic split to −910±340 BCE, Sergei Starostin in 1994 dates it to 1210 BCE, and "recalibrated glottochronology" conducted by Novotná & Blažek dates it to 1400–1340 BCE. This agrees well with Trziniec-Komarov culture, localized from Silesia
Silesia
to Central Ukraine and dated to the period 1500–1200 BCE. ^ Kapović (2008, p. 94) "Kako rekosmo, nije sigurno je li uopće bilo prabaltijskoga jezika. Čini se da su dvije posvjedočene, preživjele grane baltijskoga, istočna i zapadna, različite jedna od druge izvorno kao i svaka posebno od praslavenskoga". ^ a b c Comrie & Corbett (2002:6) ^ Schenker (2002:82) ^ Comrie & Corbett (2002:8) ^ Hellquist, Elof (1922). "torg". Svensk etymologisk ordbok (in Swedish). Project Runeberg. Retrieved 2006-12-27.  ^ Hellquist, Elof (1922). "tolk". Svensk etymologisk ordbok (in Swedish). Project Runeberg. Retrieved 2006-12-27.  ^ Hellquist, Elof (1922). "pråm". Svensk etymologisk ordbok (in Swedish). Project Runeberg. Retrieved 2006-12-27.  ^ Harper, Douglas. "vodka". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-05-18.  ^ Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary. Retrieved 28 April 2008 ^ Harper, Douglas. "sable". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-05-18.  ^ cf.: Deutsches Wörterbuch von Jacob Grimm und Wilhelm Grimm. 16 Bde. [in 32 Teilbänden. Leipzig: S. Hirzel 1854–1960.], s.v. Vampir; Trésor de la Langue Française informatisé; Dauzat, Albert, 1938. Dictionnaire étymologique. Librairie Larousse; Wolfgang Pfeifer, Етymologisches Woerterbuch, 2006, p. 1494; Petar Skok, Etimologijski rjecnk hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika, 1971–1974, s.v. Vampir; Tokarev, S.A. et al. 1982. Mify narodov mira. ("Myths of the peoples of the world". A Russian encyclopedia of mythology); Russian Etymological Dictionary by Max Vasmer. ^ Harper, Douglas. "vampire". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-09-21.  ^ Stachowski, Kamil. 2005. Wampir na rozdrożach. Etymologia wyrazu upiór – wampir w językach słowiańskich. W: Rocznik Slawistyczny, t. LV, str. 73–92 ^ "Indo-European, Slavic". Language Family Trees. Ethnologue. 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 

References

Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville. G. (2002). "Introduction". In Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville. G. The Slavonic Languages. London: Routledge. pp. 1–19. ISBN 0-415-28078-8.  Lockwood, W.B. A Panorama of Indo-European Languages. Hutchinson University Library, 1972. ISBN 0-09-111020-3 hardback, ISBN 0-09-111021-1 paperback. Marko Jesensek, The Slovene Language in the Alpine and Pannonian Language Area, 2005. ISBN 83-242-0577-2 Kapović, Mate (2008). "Uvod u indoeuropsku lingvistiku" (in Serbo-Croatian). Zagreb: Matica hrvatska. ISBN 978-953-150-847-6.  Novotná, Petra; Blažek, Václav (2007). "Glottochronolgy and its application to the Balto-Slavic languages" (PDF). Baltistica. XLII (2): 185–210. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2008.  Schenker, Alexander M. (2002). "Proto-Slavonic". In Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville. G. The Slavonic Languages. London: Routledge. pp. 60–124. ISBN 0-415-28078-8. 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Slavic languages.

Slavic dictionaries on Slavic Net Slavistik- Portal
Portal
The Slavistics Portal
Portal
(Germany) Swadesh lists of Slavic basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix)   Leo Wiener (1920). "Slavic Languages". Encyclopedia Americana. 

v t e

Slavic languages

History

Proto-Balto-Slavic Up to Proto-Slavic Proto-Slavic (Accent) Old Church Slavonic Modern languages Cyril and Methodius Cyrillic script Glagolitic
Glagolitic
alphabet

West Slavic languages

Czech Kashubian Polabian Middle Polish Old Polish Polish Pomeranian Slovak Slovincian Lower Sorbian Upper Sorbian

East Slavic languages

Belarusian Iazychie Old East Slavic Old Novgorodian Russian Ruthenian Ukrainian

South Slavic languages

Bulgarian Macedonian Serbo-Croatian

Bosnian Croatian Montenegrin Serbian

Slovene

Constructed languages

Church Slavonic Pan-Slavic language

Interslavic Slovio

Slavonic-Serbian

Separate Slavic dialects and microlanguages

Balachka Banat Bulgarian Burgenland Croatian Carpathian Rusyn Canadian Ukrainian Chakavian Cieszyn Silesian Czechoslovak Eastern Slovak Kajkavian Knaanic Lach Lesser Polish Masovian Masurian Moravian Molise Croatian Pannonian Rusyn Podhale Prekmurje Slovene Resian Shtokavian Silesian Slavic dialects of Greece Surzhyk Torlakian Trasianka West Polesian

Historical phonology

Slavic first palatalization Slavic second palatalization Slavic liquid metathesis and pleophony Dybo's law Havlík's law Hirt's law Illič-Svityč's law Ivšić's law Meillet's law Pedersen's law Ruki sound law Winter's law

Italics indicate extinct languages.

Authority control

LCCN: sh85123361 GND: 4120036-6 SUDOC: 027236331 BNF: cb11932225v (d

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