Sindh /sɪnd/ (Sindhi: سنڌ‎ ; Urdu: سندھ‬‎) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country. Historically home to the Sindhi people, it is also locally known as the Mehran.[6][7] Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, and second largest province by population after Punjab. Sindh is bordered by Balochistan province to the west, and Punjab province to the north. Sindh also borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, and Arabian Sea to the south. Sindh's landscape consists mostly of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar desert in the eastern portion of the province closest to the border with India, and the Kirthar Mountains in the western part of Sindh. Sindh's climate is noted for hot summers and mild winters. The provincial capital of Sindh is Pakistan's largest city and financial hub, Karachi. Sindh has Pakistan's second largest economy with Karachi being its capital that hosts the headquarters of several multinational banks. Sindh is home to a large portion of Pakistan's industrial sector and contains two of Pakistan's commercial seaports, Port Bin Qasim and the Karachi Port. The remainder of Sindh has an agriculture based economy, and produces fruit, food consumer items, and vegetables for the consumption other parts of the country.[8][9][10] Sindh is also the centre of Pakistan's pharmaceutical industry.[citation needed] Sindh is known for its distinct culture which is strongly influenced by Sufism, an important marker of Sindhi identity for both Hindus (Sindh has Pakistan's highest percentage of Hindu residents)[11] and Muslims in the province.[12] Several important Sufi shrines are located throughout the province which attract millions of annual devotees. Sindh's capital, Karachi, is Pakistan's most ethnically diverse city, with Muhajirs, or descendants of those who migrated to Pakistan from India after 1947 and throughout the 1950s and 1960s, making up the majority of the population.[13] Karachi and other urban centres of Sindh have seen ethnic tensions between the native Sindhis and the Muhajirs boil over into violence on several occasions.[14] Sindh is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites – the Historical Monuments at Makli, and the Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro.[15]


1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistoric period 2.2 Early history 2.3 Arrival of Islam 2.4 Soomra dynasty period 2.5 Samma Dynasty period 2.6 Migration of Baloch 2.7 Mughal era 2.8 Talpurs 2.9 British Raj 2.10 Independence of Pakistan

3 Population

3.1 Demographics 3.2 Religions 3.3 Languages

3.3.1 Sindhi language 3.3.2 Other languages

4 Geography and nature

4.1 Flora 4.2 Fauna 4.3 Climate

5 Major cities 6 Government

6.1 Sindh province 6.2 Divisions 6.3 Districts

7 Economy 8 Education 9 Culture

9.1 Arts and crafts 9.2 Cultural heritage

10 Places of interest 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 Further reading 16 External links

Etymology The word Sindh is derived from the Sanskrit term Sindhu (literally meaning "river"), which is a reference to Indus River.[16] The official spelling "Sind" was discontinued in 1988 by an amendment passed in Sindh Assembly.[17] The Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indós, hence the modern Indus. The ancient Iranians referred to everything east of the river Indus as hind. When the British came to India in the 17th century, they applied the Greek version of the name Sindh to all of South Asia, calling it India. Pakistan's name is derived from an acronym, in which the letter 'S' stands for Sindh.[18][19] History Main article: History of Sindh Prehistoric period

Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization in pre-modern Pakistan and India 3000 BC

The Priest King from Mohenjo-daro, more than 4000 years old, in the National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi

Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, Sindh, Pakistan

Sindh's first known village settlements date as far back as 7000 BCE. Permanent settlements at Mehrgarh, currently in Balochistan, to the west expanded into Sindh. This culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilization rivaled the contemporary civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in size and scope, numbering nearly half a million inhabitants at its height with well-planned grid cities and sewer systems. The primitive village communities in Balochistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a highly cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji. This was one of the most developed urban civilizations of the ancient world. It flourished between the 25th century BCE and 1500 BCE in the Indus valley sites of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. The people had a high standard of art and craftsmanship and a well-developed system of quasi-pictographic writing which remains un-deciphered. The remarkable ruins of the beautifully planned towns, the brick buildings of the common people, roads, public baths and the covered drainage system suggest a highly organized community.[20] According to some accounts, there is no evidence of large palaces or burial grounds for the elite. The grand and presumably holy site might have been the great bath, which is built upon an artificially created elevation.[21] This indigenous civilization collapsed around 1700 BCE. The cause is hotly debated and may have been a massive earthquake, which dried up the Ghaggar River. Skeletons discovered in the ruins of Mohen Jo Daro ("mount of dead") were thought to indicate that the city was suddenly attacked and the population was wiped out,[22] but further examinations showed that the marks on the skeletons were due to erosion and not of violence.[23]

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Indus Valley civilization Sindhu Rai Soomra Samma Kalhora Talpur

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Early history The ancient city of Roruka, identified with modern Aror/Rohri, was capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, and finds mentioned early Buddhist literature as a major trading center.[24] Sindh finds mention in the Hindu epic Mahabharata as being part of Bharatvarsha. Sindh was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC. In the late 4th century BC, Sindh was conquered by a mixed army led by Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great. Alexander described his encounters with these trans-Indus tribes of Sindh: "I am involved in the land of a lions and brave people, where every foot of the ground is like a well of steel, confronting my soldier. You have brought only one son into the world, but everyone in this land can be called an Alexander." The region remained under control of Greek satraps for only a few decades. After Alexander's death, there was a brief period of Seleucid rule, before Sindh was traded to the Mauryan Empire led by Chandragupta in 305 BC. During the rule of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, the Buddhist religion spread to Sindh. Mauryan rule ended in 185 BC with the overthrow of the last king by the Shunga Dynasty. In the disorder that followed, Greek rule returned when Demetrius I of Bactria led a Greco-Bactrian invasion of India and annexed most of northwestern lands, including Sindh. Demetrius was later defeated and killed by a usurper, but his descendants continued to rule Sindh and other lands as the Indo-Greek Kingdom. Under the reign of Menander I many Indo-Greeks followed his example and converted to Buddhism. In the late 2nd century BC, Scythian tribes shattered the Greco-Bactrian empire and invaded the Indo-Greek lands. Unable to take the Punjab region, they invaded South Asia through Sindh, where they became known as Indo-Scythians (later Western Satraps). By the 1st century AD, the Kushan Empire annexed Sindh. Kushans under Kanishka were great patrons of Buddhism and sponsored many building projects for local beliefs.[25] Ahirs were also found in large numbers in Sindh.[26] Abiria country of Abhira tribe was in southern Sindh.[27][28] The Kushan Empire was defeated in the mid 3rd century AD by the Sassanid Empire of Persia, who installed vassals known as the Kushanshahs in these far eastern territories. These rulers were defeated by the Kidarites in the late 4th century. It then came under the Gupta Empire after dealing with the Kidarites. By the late 5th century, attacks by Hephthalite tribes known as the Indo-Hephthalites or Hunas (Huns) broke through the Gupta Empire's northwestern borders and overran much of northwestern India. Concurrently, Ror dynasty ruled parts of the region for several centuries. Afterwards, Sindh came under the rule of Emperor Harshavardhan, then the Rai Dynasty around 478. The Rais were overthrown by Chachar of Alor around 632. The Brahman dynasty ruled a vast territory that stretched from Multan in the north to the Rann of Kutch, Alor was their capital. Arrival of Islam

A manuscript written during the Abbasid Era

Arab Muslim rule in Pakistan region

Sindh captured by the Umayyads:   Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632   Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661   Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750

In 711, Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Sindh and Indus Valley, bringing South Asian societies into contact with Islam. Dahir was an unpopular Hindu king that ruled over a Buddhist majority and that Chach of Alor and his kin were regarded as usurpers of the earlier Buddhist Rai Dynasty,[29][30] a view questioned by those who note the diffuse and blurred nature of Hindu and Buddhist practices in the region,[31] especially that of the royalty to be patrons of both and those who believe that Chach may have been a Buddhist.[32][33] The forces of Muhammad bin Qasim defeated Raja Dahir in alliance with the Jats and other regional governors. In 711 AD, Muhammad bin Qasim led an Umayyad force of 20,000 cavalry and 5 catapults. Muhammad bin Qasim defeated the Raja Dahir, and captured the cities of Alor, Multan and Debal. Sindh became the easternmost State of the Umayyad Caliphate and was referred to as "Sind" on Arab maps, with lands further east known as "Hind". Muhammad bin Qasim built the city of Mansura as his capital; the city then produced famous historical figures such as Abu Mashar Sindhi, Abu Ata al-Sindhi,[34] Abu Raja Sindhi and Sind ibn Ali. At the port city of Debal most of the Bawarij embraced Islam and became known as Sindhi Sailors, who were renowned for their in navigation, geography and languages. After Bin Qasim left, the Umayyads ruled Sindh through the Habbari dynasty. By the year 750, Debal (modern Karachi) was second only to Basra; Sindhi sailors from the port city of Debal voyaged to Basra, Bushehr, Musqat, Aden, Kilwa, Zanzibar, Sofala, Malabar, Sri Lanka and Java (where Sindhi merchants were known as the Santri). During the power struggle between the Umayyads and the Abbasids. The Habbari Dynasty became semi independent and was eliminated and Mansura was invaded by Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi. Sindh then became an easternmost State of the Abbasid Caliphate ruled by the Soomro Dynasty until the Siege of Baghdad (1258). Mansura was the first capital of the Soomra Dynasty and the last of the Habbari dynasty. Muslim geographers, historians and travelers such as al-Masudi, Ibn Hawqal, Istakhri, Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi, al-Tabari, Baladhuri, Nizami,[35] al-Biruni, Saadi Shirazi, Ibn Battutah and Katip Çelebi[36] wrote about or visited the region, sometimes using the name "Sindh" for the entire area from the Arabian Sea to the Hindu Kush. Soomra dynasty period Main article: Soomra dynasty When Sindh was under the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Arab Habbari dynasty was in control. The Umayyads appointed Aziz al Habbari as the governor of Sindh. Habbaris ruled Sindh until Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi defeated the Habbaris in 1024. Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi viewed the Abbasid Caliphate to be the caliphs thus he removed the remaining influence of the Umayyad Caliphate in the region and Sindh fell to Abbasid control following the defeat of the Habbaris. The Abbasid Caliphate then appointed Al Khafif from Samarra; 'Soomro' means 'of Samarra' in Sindhi. The new governor of Sindh was to create a better, stronger and stable government. Once he became the governor, he allotted several key positions to his family and friends; thus Al-Khafif or Sardar Khafif Soomro formed the Rajput Soomro Dynasty in Sindh;[37] and became its first ruler. Until the Siege of Baghdad (1258) the Soomro dynasty was the Abbasid Caliphate's functionary in Sindh, but after that it became independent. When the Soomro dynasty lost ties with the Abbasid Caliphate after the Siege of Baghdad (1258,) the Soomra ruler Dodo-I established their rule from the shores of the Arabian Sea to the Punjab in the north and in the east to Rajasthan and in the west to Pakistani Balochistan. The Soomros were one of the first indigenous Muslim dynasties in Sindh of Parmar Rajput origin.[38] They were the first Muslims to translate the Quran into the Sindhi language. The Sammas created a chivalrous culture in Sindh, which eventually facilitated their rule centered at Mansura. It was later abandoned due to changes in the course of the Puran River; they ruled for the next 95 years until 1351. During this period, Kutch was ruled by the Samma Dynasty, who enjoyed good relations with the Soomras in Sindh. Since the Soomro Dynasty lost its support from the Abbasid Caliphate, the Sultans of Delhi wanted a piece of Sindh. The Soomros successfully defended their kingdom for about 36 years, but their dynasties soon fell to the might of the Sultanate of Delhi's massive armies such as the Tughluks and the Khaljis. Samma Dynasty period Main article: Samma dynasty

Makli Hill is one of the largest necropolises in the world.

In 1339 Jam Unar founded a Sindhi Muslim Rajput Samma Dynasty and challenged the Sultans of Delhi. He used the title of the Sultan of Sindh. The Samma tribe reached its peak during the reign of Jam Nizamuddin II (also known by the nickname Jám Nindó). During his reign from 1461 to 1509, Nindó greatly expanded the new capital of Thatta and its Makli hills, which replaced Debal. He patronized Sindhi art, architecture and culture. The Samma had left behind a popular legacy especially in architecture, music and art. Important court figures included the famous poet Kazi Kadal, Sardar Darya Khan, Moltus Khan, Makhdoom Bilwal and the theologian Kazi Kaadan. However, Thatta was a port city; unlike garrison towns, it could not mobilize large armies against the Arghun and Tarkhan Mongol invaders, who killed many regional Sindhi Mirs and Amirs loyal to the Samma. Some parts of Sindh still remained under the Sultans of Delhi and the ruthless Arghuns and the Tarkhans sacked Thatta during the rule of Jam Ferozudin. Migration of Baloch Main article: Sindhi Baloch According to Dr. Akhtar Baloch, Professor at University of Karachi, the Balochi migrated from Balochistan during the Little Ice Age and settled in Sindh and Punjab. The Little Ice Age is conventionally defined as a period extending from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries,[39][40][41] or alternatively, from about 1300[42] to about 1850.[43][44][45] According to Professor Baloch, the climate of Balochistan was very cold during this epoch and the region was uninhabitable during the winters so the Baloch people emigrated in waves to Sindh and Punjab.[46] Mughal era In the year 1524, the few remaining Sindhi Amirs welcomed the Mughal Empire and Babur dispatched his forces to rally the Arghuns and the Tarkhans, braches of a Turkic dynasty. In the coming centuries Sindh became a region loyal to the Mughals, a network of forts manned by cavalry and musketeers further extended Mughal power in Sindh.[47][48] In 1540 a mutiny by Sher Shah Suri forced the Mughal Emperor Humayun to withdraw to Sindh, where he joined the Sindhi Emir Hussein Umrani. In 1541 Humayun married Hamida Banu Begum, who gave birth to the infant Akbar at Umarkot in the year 1542.[47][49] During the reign of Akbar the Great, Sindh produced scholars and others such as Mir Ahmed Nasrallah Thattvi, Tahir Muhammad Thattvi and Mir Ali Sir Thattvi and the Mughal chronicler Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak and his brother the poet Faizi was a descendant of a Sindhi Shaikh family from Rel, Siwistan in Sindh. Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak was the author of Akbarnama (an official biographical account of Akbar) and the Ain-i-Akbari (a detailed document recording the administration of the Mughal Empire). Shah Jahan carved a subah (imperial province), covering Sindh, called Thatta after its capital, out of Multan, further bordering on the Ajmer and Gujarat subahs as well as the rival Persian Safavid empire. During the Mughal period Sindhi literature began to flourish and historical figures such as Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, Sulatn-al-Aoliya Muhammad Zaman and Sachal Sarmast became prominent throughout the land. In 1603 Shah Jahan visited the State of Sindh; at Thatta he was generously welcomed by the locals after the death of his father Jahangir. Shah Jahan ordered the construction of the Shahjahan Mosque, which was completed during the early years of his rule under the supervision of Mirza Ghazi Beg. During his reign, in 1659 in the Mughal Empire, Muhammad Salih Tahtawi of Thatta created a seamless celestial globe with Arabic and Persian inscriptions using a wax casting method.[50][51] Sindh was home to very famous wealthy merchant-rulers such as Mir Bejar of Sindh, whose great wealth had attracted the close ties with the Sultan bin Ahmad of Oman.[52] In the year 1701 the Kalhora Nawabs were authorized in a firman by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb to administer subah Sindh. From 1752 to 1762, Marathas collected Chauth or tributes from Sindh.[53] Maratha power was decimated in the entire region after the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. In 1762, Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro brought stability in Sindh, he reorganized and independently defeated the Marathas and their prominent vassal the Rao of Kuch in the Thar Desert and returned victoriously. After the Sikhs annexed Multan, the Kalhora Dynasty supported counterattacks against the Sikhs and defined their borders.[54] In 1783 a firman, which designated Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur as the new Nawab of Sindh, and mediated peace particularly after the Battle of Halani and the defeat of the ruling Kalhora by the Talpur baloch tribes.[55]

Caravan of merchants in the Indus River Valley

Talpurs The Talpur tribe migrated from Dera Ghazi Khan in Punjab to Sindh on the invitation of Kalhora to help them organize unruly Baloch tribes living in Sindh. Talpurs, who learned the Sindhi language, settled in northern Sindh. Very soon they united all the Baloch tribes of Sindh and formed a confederacy against the Kalhora Dynasty. The Talpur Baloch soon gained power, overthrowing the Kalhora after the Battle of Halani to conquer and rule Sindh and other parts of present-day Pakistan, from 1783 to 1843. British East India Company forces led by General Charles James Napier overthrew the Talpur Baloch in 1843. British Raj

Sindh became part of the Bombay Presidency in 1909.

In 1802, when Mir Ghulam Ali Khan Talpur Baloch succeeded as the Talpur Nawab, internal tensions broke out in the state. As a result, the following year the Maratha Empire declared war on Sindh and Berar Subah, during which Arthur Wellesley took a leading role causing much early suspicion between the Emirs of Sindh and the British Empire.[56] The British East India Company made its first contacts in the Sindhi port city of Thatta, which according to a report was:

"a city as large as London containing 50,000 houses which were made of stone and mortar with large verandahs some three or four stories high ... the city has 3,000 looms ... the textiles of Sindh were the flower of the whole produce of the East, the international commerce of Sindh gave it a place among that of Nations, Thatta has 400 schools and 4,000 Dhows at its docks, the city is guarded by well armed Sepoys".

British and Bengal Presidency forces under General Charles James Napier arrived in Sindh in the mid-19th century and conquered Sindh in February 1843.[57] The Baloch coalition led by Talpur Balochs under Mir Nasir Khan Talpur Baloch was defeated at the Battle of Miani during which 5,000 Talpur Baloch were killed. Shortly afterward, Hoshu Sheedi commanded another army at the Battle of Dubbo, where 5,000 Baloch were killed. The first Agha Khan helped the British in their conquest of Sindh. As result he was granted a lifetime pension. A British journal[58] by Thomas Postans mentions the captive Sindhi Amirs: "The Amirs as being the prisoners of 'Her Majesty'... they are maintained in strict seclusion; they are described as Broken-Hearted and Miserable men, maintaining much of the dignity of fallen greatness, and without any querulous or angry complaining at this unlivable source of sorrow, refusing to be comforted". Within weeks, Charles Napier and his forces occupied Sindh. After 1853 the British divided Sindh into districts and later made it part of British India's Bombay Presidency. Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi pioneered the Sindhi Muslim Hur Movement against the British Raj. He was hanged on 20 March 1943 in Hyderabad, Sindh. His burial place is not known. During the British period, railways, printing presses and bridges were introduced in the province. Writers like Mirza Kalich Beg compiled and traced the literary history of Sindh.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who spoke three languages: Gujarati, Kutchi, and English

Although Sindh had a culture of religious syncretism, communal harmony and tolerance due to Sindh's strong Sufi culture in which both Sindhi Muslims and Sindhi Hindus partook,[59] the mostly Muslim peasantry was oppressed by the Hindu moneylending class and also by the landed Muslim elite.[60] Sindhi Muslims eventually demanded the separation of Sindh from the Bombay Presidency, a move opposed by Sindhi Hindus.[61] Another campaign in the early 20th century which attracted Sindhi Muslims was the Khilafat Movement, for which support had been generated by the Sufi pirs of Sindh. In that time period Sindh emerged at the forefront of the Khilafat cause.[62][63] By 1936 Sindh was separated from the Bombay Presidency. Elections in 1937 resulted in local Sindhi Muslim parties winning the bulk of seats. By the mid-1940s the Muslim League gained a foothold in the province and after winning over the support of local Sufi pirs,[64] came to have the support of the overwhelming majority of Sindhi Muslims for its campaign to create Pakistan.[65][66] Independence of Pakistan At the time of Partition there were 1,400,000 Hindu Sindhis, dominating the province's upper middle class. There was very little communal violence in Sindh, in comparison to Punjab.[59] Communal violence in Ajmer, in India, in December 1947 led to Muslim refugees crossing over the Thar Desert to Sindh in Pakistan. This sparked riots in Hyderabad and later in Karachi, although less than 500 Hindu were killed in Sindh between 1947-48 as Sindhi Muslims largely resisted calls to turn against their Hindu neighbours.[67] Hundreds of thousands of Sindhi Hindus fled to India. The arrival of Sindhi Hindu refugees in the Indian town of Godhra sparked the March 1948 anti-Muslim riots there which led to an emigration of Ghanchi Muslims from Godhra to Pakistan.[68] Indian Muslims from the United Provinces, Central Provinces and Bombay continued migrating to and settling in Sindh's urban centers throughout the 1950s and 1960s.[13] Population Demographics Main article: Demographics of Sindh

Sindh Demographic Indicators

Indicator Statistic

Urban population 49.50%

Rural population 50.50%

Population growth rate 2.80%

Gender ratio (male per 100 female) 112.24

Economically active population 22.75%

Historical populations

Census Population Urban

1951 6,047,748 29.23%

1961 8,367,065 37.85%

1972 14,155,909 40.44%

1981 19,028,666 43.31%

1998 29,991,161 48.75%

Sindh has the 2nd highest Human Development Index out of all of Pakistan's provinces at 0.628.[69] The 1998 Census of Pakistan indicated a population of 30.4 million. According to 2011 estimates the population of Sindh increased 81.5% to a total of 55.24 million since the census of 1998. Sindh was the second largest gainer of population after Balochistan during this period.[70] Just under half of the population are urban dwellers, mainly found in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Mirpurkhas, Nawabshah District, Umerkot and Larkana. Sindhi is the sole official language of Sindh since the 19th century.[citation needed] The Sindhis as a whole are composed of original descendants of an ancient population known as Sammaat, sub-groups related to the Baloch origin are found in interior Sindh and to a lesser extent Sindhis of Pashtun origins. Sindhis of Balochi origins make up about 30% of the total Sindhi population (although they speak Sindhi Saraiki as their native tongue), while Urdu-speaking Muhajirs make up over 19% of the total population of the province while Punjabi are 10% and Pashtuns represent 7%.In August 1947, before partition of India, total population of Sindh was 38,87,070 out of which 28,32,000 were Muslims and 10,15,000 were Hindus[71] According to Dr. Akhtar Baloch, Professor at University of Karachi, the Baloch migrated from Balochistan during the Little Ice Age. This is conventionally defined as a period extending from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries,[39][40][41] or alternatively, from about 1300.[42] to about 1850,[43][44][45] although climatologists and historians working with local records no longer expect to agree on either the start or end dates of this period, which varied according to local conditions. Professor Baloch said the climate of Balochistan was very cold and the region was inhabitable during the winter so the Baloch people in waves migrated and settled in Sindh and Punjab.[72] Religions See also: Sufism in Sindh and Hinduism in Sindh Islam in Sindh has a strong Sufi ethos with numerous Muslim saints and mystics, such as the Sufi poet Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, having lived in Sindh historically. One popular legend which highlights the strong Sufi presence in Sindh is that 125,000 Sufi saints and mystics are buried on Makli Hill near Thatta.[73] The development of Sufism in Sindh was similar to the development of Sufism in other parts of the Muslim world. In the 16th century two Sufi tareeqat (orders) - Qadria and Naqshbandia - were introduced in Sindh.[74] Sufism continues to play an important role in the daily lives of Sindhis.[75] Sindh also has Pakistan's highest percentage of Hindu residents, with 8% of Sindh's population overall, and 11.6% of Sindh's rural population, classifying itself as Hindu,[76] and over 40% of residents in Tharparkar District identifying themselves as Hindu.[11] The communal harmony between Sindhi Muslims and Hindus is an example of Sindh's pluralistic and tolerant Sufi culture.[77] Languages

First languages of Sindh (according to 1998 Census)[2]















Sindhi language Main article: Sindhi language Sindhi (Arabic script: سنڌي) is spoken by more than 27 million people (in 2016) in the province of Sindh. Sindhi (like Punjabi) is an Indo-European language, both are linguistically considered to be the daughter languages of Sanskrit. Balochi and Seraiki have also influenced Sindhi which also accommodates substantial Persian, Turkish and Arabic words. Sindhi is written in a modified Arabic script. Today, Sindhi in Pakistan is heavily influenced by Urdu with more borrowed Perso-Arabic elements, while Sindhi in India is influenced by Hindi and borrows more elements from Sanskrit. Key dialects of Sindhi include Kutchi, Lasi, Memoni, Lari, Vicholi, Utradi, Macharia and Dukslinu (which is spoken by Sindhi Hindus). Other languages Other languages in the province include Gujarati[78] and Parkari Koli (sometimes called just Parkari); a language spoken by only 250,000 natives of Sindh according to a 1995 estimate.[79] Only 7.3% of people Karachi's residents are Sindhi-speaking. Karachi is populated by Muhajirs who speak Urdu.[80] Other immigrant communities in Karachi are Pashtuns from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjabis from Punjab and other linguistic groups from various regions of Pakistan. Geography and nature

Peninsula of Manora

Sindh is in the western corner of South Asia, bordering the Iranian plateau in the west. Geographically it is the third largest province of Pakistan, stretching about 579 kilometres (360 mi) from north to south and 442 kilometres (275 mi) (extreme) or 281 kilometres (175 mi) (average) from east to west, with an area of 140,915 square kilometres (54,408 sq mi) of Pakistani territory. Sindh is bounded by the Thar Desert to the east, the Kirthar Mountains to the west and the Arabian Sea in the south. In the centre is a fertile plain around the Indus River. Flora

Sindh ibex in Kirthar National Park

The province is mostly arid with scant vegetation except for the irrigated Indus Valley. The dwarf palm, Acacia Rupestris (kher), and Tecomella undulata (lohirro) trees are typical of the western hill region. In the Indus valley, the Acacia nilotica (babul) (babbur) is the most dominant and occurs in thick forests along the Indus banks. The Azadirachta indica (neem) (nim), Zizyphys vulgaris (bir) (ber), Tamarix orientalis (jujuba lai) and Capparis aphylla (kirir) are among the more common trees. Mango, date palms and the more recently introduced banana, guava, orange and chiku are the typical fruit-bearing trees. The coastal strip and the creeks abound in semi-aquatic and aquatic plants and the inshore Indus delta islands have forests of Avicennia tomentosa (timmer) and Ceriops candolleana (chaunir) trees. Water lilies grow in abundance in the numerous lake and ponds, particularly in the lower Sindh region. Fauna Main article: Fauna of Sindh

Indus river dolphin

Among the wild animals, the Sindh ibex (sareh), blackbuck, wild sheep (Urial or gadh) and wild bear are found in the western rocky range. The leopard is now rare and the Asiatic cheetah extinct. The Pirrang (large tiger cat or fishing cat) of the eastern desert region is also disappearing. Deer occur in the lower rocky plains and in the eastern region, as do the striped hyena (charakh), jackal, fox, porcupine, common gray mongoose and hedgehog. The Sindhi phekari, red lynx or Caracal cat, is found in some areas. Phartho (hog deer) and wild bear occur particularly in the central inundation belt. There are bats, lizards and reptiles, including the cobra, lundi (viper) and the mysterious Sindh krait of the Thar region, which is supposed to suck the victim's breath in his sleep. Some unusual sightings of Asian cheetah occurred in 2003 near the Balochistan border in Kirthar Mountains. The rare houbara bustard find Sindh's warm climate suitable to rest and mate. Unfortunately, it is hunted by locals and foreigners. Crocodiles are rare and inhabit only the backwaters of the Indus, eastern Nara channel and Karachi backwater. Besides a large variety of marine fish, the plumbeous dolphin, the beaked dolphin, rorqual or blue whale and skates frequent the seas along the Sindh coast. The Pallo (Sable fish), a marine fish, ascends the Indus annually from February to April to spawn. The Indus river dolphin is among the most endangered species in Pakistan and is found in the part of the Indus river in northern Sindh. Hog deer and wild bear occur particularly in the central inundation belt. Although Sindh has a semi arid climate, through its coastal and riverine forests, its huge fresh water lakes and mountains and deserts, Sindh supports a large amount of varied wildlife. Due to the semi-arid climate of Sindh the left out forests support an average population of jackals and snakes. The national parks established by the Government of Pakistan in collaboration with many organizations such as World Wide Fund for Nature and Sindh Wildlife Department support a huge variety of animals and birds. The Kirthar National Park in the Kirthar range spreads over more than 3000 km2 of desert, stunted tree forests and a lake. The KNP supports Sindh ibex, wild sheep (urial) and black bear along with the rare leopard. There are also occasional sightings of The Sindhi phekari, ped lynx or Caracal cat. There is a project to introduce tigers and Asian elephants too in KNP near the huge Hub Dam Lake. Between July and November when the monsoon winds blow onshore from the ocean, giant olive ridley turtles lay their eggs along the seaward side. The turtles are protected species. After the mothers lay and leave them buried under the sands the SWD and WWF officials take the eggs and protect them until they are hatched to keep them from predators. Climate Main article: Climate of Sindh

Lansdowne Railway Bridge

Sindh lies in a tropical to subtropical region; it is hot in the summer and mild to warm in winter. Temperatures frequently rise above 46 °C (115 °F) between May and August, and the minimum average temperature of 2 °C (36 °F) occurs during December and January in the northern and higher elevated regions. The annual rainfall averages about seven inches, falling mainly during July and August. The southwest monsoon wind begins in mid-February and continues until the end of September, whereas the cool northerly wind blows during the winter months from October to January. Sindh lies between the two monsoons—the southwest monsoon from the Indian Ocean and the northeast or retreating monsoon, deflected towards it by the Himalayan mountains—and escapes the influence of both. The region's scarcity of rainfall is compensated by the inundation of the Indus twice a year, caused by the spring and summer melting of Himalayan snow and by rainfall in the monsoon season. Sindh is divided into three climatic regions: Siro (the upper region, centred on Jacobabad), Wicholo (the middle region, centred on Hyderabad), and Lar (the lower region, centred on Karachi). The thermal equator passes through upper Sindh, where the air is generally very dry. Central Sindh's temperatures are generally lower than those of upper Sindh but higher than those of lower Sindh. Dry hot days and cool nights are typical during the summer. Central Sindh's maximum temperature typically reaches 43–44 °C (109–111 °F). Lower Sindh has a damper and humid maritime climate affected by the southwestern winds in summer and northeastern winds in winter, with lower rainfall than Central Sindh. Lower Sindh's maximum temperature reaches about 35–38 °C (95–100 °F). In the Kirthar range at 1,800 m (5,900 ft) and higher at Gorakh Hill and other peaks in Dadu District, temperatures near freezing have been recorded and brief snowfall is received in the winters. Major cities Main articles: List of most populous cities in Pakistan and List of cities in Sindh

List of major cities in Sindh

Rank City District(s) Population


1 Karachi Karachi East Karachi West Karachi South Karachi Central Malir Korangi 9,339,023

2 Hyderabad Hyderabad 1,166,894

3 Sukkur Sukkur 335,551

4 Larkana Larkana 270,283

4 Nawabshah Saheed Benazir Abad 1,135,131 Source: Pakistan Census 1998[81]

This is a list of each city's urban populations and does not indicate total district populations

Government Sindh province

Provincial symbols of Sindh[82][83][84]

Provincial animal Sindh ibex

Provincial bird Black partridge

Provincial flower Nerium (common)

Provincial tree Neem Tree

Main article: Government of Sindh The Provincial Assembly of Sindh is a unicameral and consists of 168 seats, of which 5% are reserved for non-Muslims and 17% for women. The provincial capital of Sindh is Karachi. The provincial government is led by Chief Minister who is directly elected by the popular and landslide votes; the Governor serves as a ceremonial representative nominated and appointed by the President of Pakistan. The administrative boss of the province who is incharge of the bureaucracy is the Chief Secretary Sindh, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Most of the influential Sindhi tribes in the province are involved in Pakistan's politics. In addition, Sindh's politics leans towards the left-wing and its political culture serves as a dominant place for the left-wing spectrum in the country.[85] The province's trend towards the Pakistan Peoples Party and away from the Pakistan Muslim League (N) can be seen in nationwide general elections, in which, Sindh is a stronghold of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP).[85] The PML(N) has a limited support due to its centre-right agenda.[86] In metropolitan cities such as Karachi and Hyderabad, the MQM (another left-wing party with the support of Muhajirs) has a considerable vote bank and support.[85] Minor leftist parties such as People's Movement also found support in rural areas of the province.[87] Divisions

In 2008, after the public elections, the new government decided to restore the structure of Divisions of all provinces.[88] In Sindh after the lapse of the Local Governments Bodies term in 2010 the Divisional Commissioners system was to be restored.[89][90] [91] In July 2011, following excessive violence in the city of Karachi and after the political split between the ruling PPP and the majority party in Sindh, the MQM and after the resignation of the MQM Governor of Sindh, PPP and the Government of Sindh decided to restore the commissionerate system in the province. As a consequence, the five divisions of Sindh were restored – namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Mirpurkhas and Larkana with their respective districts. Subsequently, two new divisions have been added in Sindh, Banbore and Nawab Shah/Shaheed Benazirabad division.[92] Karachi district has been de-merged into its five original constituent districts: Karachi East, Karachi West, Karachi Central, Karachi South and Malir. Recently Korangi has been upgraded to the status of sixth district of Karachi. These six districts form the Karachi Division now.[93] Districts Main article: List of districts of Pakistan

Sr. No. District Headquarters Area (km²) Population (2012) Density (people/km²) Division

1 Badin Badin 6,726 1,136,044 169 Banbhore

2 Dadu Dadu 19,070 1,688,811 89 Hyderabad

3 Ghotki Mirpur Mathelo 6,083 970,549 160 Sukkur

4 Hyderabad Hyderabad 5,519 1,565,000 524 Hyderabad

5 Jacobabad Jacobabad 5,278 1,425,572 270 Larkana

6 Jamshoro[note 1] Jamshoro


7 (7) Karachi Central Karachi 3,527 13,215,631 2,795 Karachi

8 Kashmore[note 1] Kashmore 2,592 662,462 255 Larkana

9 Khairpur Khairpur 15,910 1,546,587 97 Sukkur

10 Larkana Larkana 7,423 1,927,066 260 Larkana

11 Matiari Matiari 1,417 515,331 364 Hyderabad

12 Mirpur Khas Mirpur Khas 2,925 1,569,030 536 Mirpur Khas

13 Naushahro Firoze Naushahro Feroze 2,945 1,087,571 369 Shaheed Benazir Abad

14 Shaheed Benazir Abad Nawabshah 4,502 1,071,533 238 Shaheed Benazir Abad

15 Qambar Shahdadkot[note 1] Qambar


16 Sanghar Sanghar 10,720 1,453,028 135 Mirpur Khas

17 Shikarpur Shikarpur


18 Sukkur Sukkur 2,512 890,438 350 Sukkur

19 Tando Allahyar Tando Allahyar 5,165 908,373 176 Hyderabad

20 Tando Muhammad Khan Tando Muhammad Khan 2,310 550,000 238 Hyderabad

21 Tharparkar Mithi 19,638 955,812 49 Mirpur Khas

22 Thatta Thatta 19,638 914,291 47 Banbhore

23 Umerkot[94] Umerkot 17,355 1,113,194 64 Mirpur Khas

24 Sujawal Sujawal 7,355 383,194 18 Banbhore

25 (7) Karachi East Karachi


26 (7) Karachi South Karachi


27 (7) Karachi West Karachi


28 (7) Korangi Korangi


29 (7) Malir Malir


Note: In this map, Sujawal is shown within Thatta District on #22. Economy Main article: Economy of Sindh

A view of Karachi downtown, the capital of Sindh province

GDP by province

Qayoom Abad Bridge Karachi

Navalrai Market Clock Tower Hyderabad

Sindh has the second largest economy in Pakistan. A 2016 study commissioned by Pakistan Ministry of Planning found that urban Sindh and northern Punjab province are the most prosperous regions in Pakistan.[95] Its GDP per capita was $1,400 in 2010 which is 50 per cent more than the rest of the nation or 35 per cent more than the national average. Historically, Sindh's contribution to Pakistan's GDP has been between 30% to 32.7%. Its share in the service sector has ranged from 21% to 27.8% and in the agriculture sector from 21.4% to 27.7%. Performance wise, its best sector is the manufacturing sector, where its share has ranged from 36.7% to 46.5%.[96] Since 1972, Sindh's GDP has expanded by 3.6 times.[97] Endowed with coastal access, Sindh is a major centre of economic activity in Pakistan and has a highly diversified economy ranging from heavy industry and finance centred in and around Karachi to a substantial agricultural base along the Indus. Manufacturing includes machine products, cement, plastics, and other goods. Sindh is Pakistan's most natural gas producing province.[citation needed] Agriculture is very important in Sindh with cotton, rice, wheat, sugar cane, dates, bananas, and mangoes as the most important crops. The largest and finer quality of rice is produced in Larkano district.[citation needed] [98] Sindh is the richest province of Pakistan in natural resources of gas, petrol, and coal.[citation needed] Education

Dayaram Jethmal College (D.J. College), Karachi in the 19th century

National Academy of Performing Arts, Karachi

Year Literacy rate

1972 60.77

1981 37.5%

1998 45.29%

2008 60.7%

2012 69.50%

The following is a chart of the education market of Sindh estimated by the government in 1998:[99]

Qualification Urban Rural Total Enrollment ratio (%)

— 14,839,862 15,600,031 30,439,893 —

Below Primary 1,984,089 3,332,166 5,316,255 100.00

Primary 3,503,691 5,687,771 9,191,462 82.53

Middle 3,073,335 2,369,644 5,442,979 52.33

Matriculation 2,847,769 2,227,684 5,075,453 34.45

Intermediate 1,473,598 1,018,682 2,492,280 17.78

Diploma, Certificate... 1,320,747 552,241 1,872,988 9.59

BA, BSc... degrees 440,743 280,800 721,543 9.07

MA, MSc... degrees 106,847 53,040 159,887 2.91

Other qualifications 89,043 78,003 167,046 0.54

Major public and private educational institutes in Sindh include:

Adamjee Government Science College Aga Khan University APIIT Applied Economics Research Centre Bahria University Baqai Medical University Chandka Medical College Larkana College of Digital Sciences College of Physicians & Surgeons Pakistan COMMECS Institute of Business and Emerging Sciences D. J. Science College Dawood College of Engineering and Technology Defence Authority Degree College for Men Dow International Medical College Dow University of Health Sciences Fatima Jinnah Dental College Federal Urdu University GBELS Dourai Mahar Taluka Daur Distt: Shaheed Benazirabad Ghulam Muhammad Mahar Medical College Sukkur Government College for Men Nazimabad Government College Hyderabad Government College of Commerce & Economics Government College of Technology, Karachi Government High School Ranipur Government Islamia Science College Sukkur Government Muslim Science College Hyderabad Government National College (Karachi) Greenwich University (Karachi) Hamdard University Hussain Ebrahim Jamal Research Institute of Chemistry Imperial Science College Nawabshah Indus Valley Institute of Art and Architecture Institute of Business Administration, Karachi Institute of Business Administration, Sukkar Institute of Business Management Institute of Industrial Electronics Engineering Institute of Sindhology Iqra University Islamia Science College (Karachi) Isra University Jinnah Medical & Dental College Jinnah Polytechnic Institute Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre Jinnah University for Women KANUPP Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering Karachi School of Business and Leadership Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Mehran University of Engineering and Technology Mohammad Ali Jinnah University National Academy of Performing Arts National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences National University of Sciences and Technology NED University of Engineering and Technology Ojha Institute of Chest Diseases PAF Institute of Aviation Technology TES Public School, Daur PAF KIET- Karachi Institute of Economics and Technology Pakistan Navy Engineering College Pakistan Shipowners' College Pakistan Steel Cadet College Peoples Medical College for Girls Nawabshah PIA Training Centre Karachi Provincial Institute of Teachers Education Nawabshah Public School Hyderabad Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and Technology, Nawabshah Rana Liaquat Ali Khan Government College of Home Economics Rehan College of Education Saint Patrick's College, Karachi Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai University Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Medical College Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology Sindh Agriculture University Sindh Medical College Superior College of Science Hyderabad Sindh Muslim Law College Sir Syed Government Girls College Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology St. Joseph's College Sukkur Institute of Science & Technology Textile Institute of Pakistan University of Karachi University of Sindh Usman Institute of Technology Ziauddin Medical University


Children in a rural area of Sindh, 2012

The rich culture, art and architectural landscape of Sindh has fascinated historians. The culture, folktales, art and music of Sindh form a mosaic of human history.[100] Arts and crafts Main article: Places of historical interest in Sindh The traditions of Sindhi craftwork reflect the cumulative influence of 5000 years of invaders and settlers, whose modes of art were eventually assimilated into the culture. The elegant floral and geometrical designs that decorate everyday objects —whether of clay, metal, wood, stone or fabric— can be traced to Muslim influence. Though chiefly an agricultural and pastoral province, Sindh has a reputation for ajraks, pottery, leatherwork, carpets, textiles and silk cloths which, in design and finish, are matchless. The chief articles produced are blankets, coarse cotton cloth (soosi), camel fittings, metalwork, lacquered work, enamel, gold and silver embroidery. Hala is famous for pottery and tiles; Boobak for carpets; Nasirpur, Gambat and Thatta for cotton lungees and khes. Other popular crafts include the earthenware of Johi, the metal vessels of Shikarpur, the ralli quilt, embroidery and leather articles of Tharparkar, and the lacquered work of Kandhkot. Prehistoric finds from archaeological sites like Mohenjo-daro, engravings in graveyards, and the architectural designs of Makli and other tombs have provided ample evidence of the people's literary and musical traditions. Painting and calligraphy have developed in recent times. Some young trained men have taken up commercial art.[citation needed] Cultural heritage Main article: Sindhi culture

Archaeological ruins at Moenjodaro, sindh, Pakistan

The ruins of an ancient mosque at Bhambore

Sindhi women collecting water from a reservoir on the way to Mubarak Village

Sindh has a rich heritage of traditional handicraft that has evolved over the centuries. Perhaps the most professed exposition of Sindhi culture is in the handicrafts of Hala, a town some 30 kilometres from Hyderabad. Hala's artisans manufacture high-quality and impressively priced wooden handicrafts, textiles, paintings, handmade paper products, and blue pottery. Lacquered wood works known as Jandi, painting on wood, tiles, and pottery known as Kashi, hand woven textiles including khadi, susi, and ajraks are synonymous with Sindhi culture preserved in Hala's handicraft. The Small and Medium Enterprises Authority (SMEDA) is planning to set up an organization of artisans to empower the community. SMEDA is publishing a directory of the artisans so that exporters can directly contact them. Hala is the home of a remarkable variety of traditional crafts and traditional handicrafts that carry with them centuries of skill that has woven magic into the motifs and designs used. Sindh is known the world over for its handicrafts and arts. The work of Sindhi artisans was sold in ancient markets of Damascus, Baghdad, Basra, Istanbul, Cairo and Samarkand. Referring to the lacquer work on wood locally known as Jandi, T. Posten (an English traveller who visited Sindh in the early 19th century) asserted that the articles of Hala could be compared with exquisite specimens of China. Technological improvements such as the spinning wheel (charkha) and treadle (pai-chah) in the weaver's loom were gradually introduced and the processes of designing, dyeing and printing by block were refined. The refined, lightweight, colourful, washable fabrics from Hala became a luxury for people used to the woolens and linens of the age.[101] The ajrak has existed in Sindh since the birth of its civilization. The colour blue is predominantly used for ajraks. Sindh was traditionally a large producer of indigo and cotton cloth and both used to be exported to the Middle East. The ajrak is a mark of respect when it is given to an honoured guest or friend. In Sindh, it is most commonly given as a gift at Eid, at weddings, or on other special occasions like homecoming.


The ralli (also known as rilli, rehli, rallee, gindi or other names), or patchwork quilt, is another Sindhi icon and part of the heritage and culture. Most Sindhi homes have many rallis—one for each member of the family and a few spare for guests. The ralli is made with small pieces of cloth of geometrical shapes sewn together to create intricate designs. They may be used as a bedspread or a blanket and are often given as gifts to friends and guests.




Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as the World Wildlife Fund, Pakistan, play an important role to promote the culture of Sindh. They provide training to women artisans in the interior of Sindh so they get a source of income. They promote their products under the name of "Crafts Forever". Many women in rural Sindh are skilled in the production of caps. Sindhi caps are manufactured commercially on a small scale at New Saeedabad and Hala New. These are in demand with visitors from Karachi and other places; however, these manufacturing units have a limited production capacity. Sindhi people began celebrating Sindhi Topi Day on December 6, 2009 to preserve the historical culture of Sindh by wearing Ajrak and Sindhi topi.[102]

Huts in the Thar desert

Places of interest See also: Places of historical interest in Sindh Tourist sites include the ruins of Mohenjo-daro near the city of Larkana, Runi Kot, Kot Deji, the Jain temples of Nangar Parker and the historic temple of Sadhu Bela, Sukkur. Islamic architecture is quite prominent in the province; its numerous mausoleums include the ancient Shahbaz Qalander mausoleum.

Sachal Sarmast ( Sufi poet ) Daraz near Ranipur

Aror (ruins of historical city) near Sukkur Chaukandi Tombs, Karachi Do darya, Karachi Forts at Hyderabad and Umarkot Gorakh Hill in Dadu Kahu-Jo-Darro near Mirpurkhas Kirthar National Park in Dadu Kot Diji Fort, Kot Diji Kotri Barrage near Hyderabad Makli Hill, Asia's largest necropolis, Makli, Thatta Mazar-e-Quaid, Karachi Minar-e-Mir Masum Shah, Sukkur Mohatta Palace Museum, Karachi Rani Bagh, Hyderabad Ranikot Fort near Sann Ruins of Mohenjo-daro and Museum near Larkana Pakka Qila, Hyderabad Sadhu Bela Temple near Sukkur Shahjahan Mosque, Thatta Shrine of Allama Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi, Thatta Shrine of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Bhit Shah Shrine of Shahbaz Qalander in Sehwan, Dadu Sukkur Barrage, Sukkur Talpurs' Faiz Mahal Palace, Khairpur

Faiz Mahal, Khairpur

Ranikot Fort, one of the largest forts in the world

Chaukhandi tombs

Remains of 9th century Jain temple in Bhodesar near Nagarparkar.

Keenjhar lake Thatta

Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro

Karachi Beach

Qasim fort

Kot Diji

West bank of the River Indus

Bakri Waro Lake, Khairpur

National Museum of Pakistan

Kirthar National Park

Karoonjhar Mountains

See also

Sindh (other) Government of Sindh List of cities in Sindh Sind Province (1936–55) Sind Division Sindhudesh Indus River Institute of Sindhology Sindhu Kingdom List of Sindhi people Sufism in Sindh Mansura, Sindh Mohenjodaro Tomb paintings of Sindh Debal Gurjara-Pratihara Western Satraps Mughal Empire Sindbad the Sailor Muhajir Sooba Brahma from Mirpur-Khas Sindhi dress Bagh Prints List of districts of Pakistan

Geography portal Asia portal South Asia portal Pakistan portal Sindh portal Karachi portal


^ a b c No data is available on the recently created districts of Sindh Province.


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Retrieved 27 January 2016.  ^ Fall and Colored Leaves – Jasbir Singh Sethi – Google Books. Retrieved 2012-08-03.  ^ Qammaruddin Bohra, City of Hyderabad Sindh 712–1947 (2000). ^ Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley ^ General Napier apocryphally reported his conquest of the province to his superiors with the one-word message peccavi, a schoolgirl's pun recorded in Punch (magazine) relying on the Latin word's meaning, "I have sinned", homophonous to "I have Sindh". Eugene Ehrlich, Nil Desperandum: A Dictionary of Latin Tags and Useful Phrases [Original title: Amo, Amas, Amat and More], BCA 1992 [1985], p. 175. ^ Personal observations on Sindh: the manners and customs of its inhabitants ... – Thomas Postans – Google Boeken. Retrieved 2012-08-03.  ^ a b Priya Kumar & Rita Kothari (2016) Sindh, 1947 and Beyond, South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 39:4, 775, DOI: 10.1080/00856401.2016.1244752 ^ Ayesha Jalal (4 January 2002). Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam Since 1850. Routledge. pp. 415–. ISBN 978-1-134-59937-0.  ^ Roger D. Long; Gurharpal Singh; Yunas Samad; Ian Talbot (8 October 2015). State and Nation-Building in Pakistan: Beyond Islam and Security. Routledge. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-1-317-44820-4.  ^ Pakistan Historical Society (2007). Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 245.  ^ Sarah F. D. Ansari (31 January 1992). Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sind, 1843–1947. Cambridge University Press. pp. 77–. ISBN 978-0-521-40530-0.  ^ Sarah F. D. Ansari (31 January 1992). Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sind, 1843–1947. Cambridge University Press. pp. 115–. ISBN 978-0-521-40530-0.  ^ I. Malik (3 June 1999). Islam, Nationalism and the West: Issues of Identity in Pakistan. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 56–. ISBN 978-0-230-37539-0.  ^ Veena Kukreja (24 February 2003). 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Phiroze Vasunia (16 May 2013), The Classics and Colonial India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-01-9920-323-9  Malkani, Kewal Ram (1984). The Sindh Story. Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd. 

Further reading

Ansari, Sarah FD. Sufi saints and state power: the pirs of Sind, 1843–1947. No. 50. Cambridge University Press, 1992.

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