SEPULTURA (Portuguese pronunciation: , "grave ") is a Brazilian
heavy metal band from
Belo Horizonte . Formed in 1984 by brothers Max
Igor Cavalera , the band was a major force in the thrash metal
and groove metal genres during the late 1980s and early 1990s, with
their later experiments drawing influence from alternative metal ,
world music , nu metal , hardcore punk and industrial metal .
Sepultura has had several changes in its lineup since its formation,
with Max and
Igor Cavalera departing in 1996 and 2006, respectively.
Sepultura's current lineup consists of vocalist
Derrick Green ,
Andreas Kisser , bassist
Paulo Jr. and drummer Eloy
Casagrande . Since Igor Cavalera's departure in 2006, there have been
no original members left in the band. Paulo Jr., who has been a member
Sepultura since 1985, is the only member to appear on every
release. Kisser, who replaced
Jairo Guedz in 1987, has played on all
of the band's studio albums, except for their debut Morbid Visions
(1986) and the split
Bestial Devastation (1985).
Sepultura has released fourteen studio albums to date, the latest
being Machine Messiah (2017). Their most successful records are Arise
Chaos A.D. (1993) and Roots (1996).
Sepultura has sold over
three million units in the United States and almost 20 million
worldwide, gaining multiple gold and records around the globe,
including in countries as diverse as France, Australia, Indonesia,
United States, Cyprus and their native Brazil.
* 1 History
Max Cavalera era
Bestial Devastation and
Morbid Visions (1984–1986)
* 1.1.2 Schizophrenia,
Beneath the Remains and Arise (1987–1992)
* 1.1.3 Chaos A.D.,
Nailbomb and Roots (1993–1996)
* 1.1.4 Departure of
Max Cavalera (1996–1997)
Derrick Green era
* 1.2.1 Against, Nation and
* 1.2.2 Dante XXI,
A-Lex and departure of Igor Cavalera
* 1.2.3 Kairos and The Mediator Between Head and Hands Must Be the
* 1.2.4 Machine Messiah (2015–present)
* 2 Musical style, influences and legacy
* 3 Band members
* 4 Discography
* 5 References
* 6 Bibliography
* 7 External links
MAX CAVALERA ERA
Sepultura was formed in 1984 in
Belo Horizonte , the capital city of
Minas Gerais , Brazil. The band was founded by teen brothers Max and
Igor Cavalera , the impoverished sons of Vânia, a model, and
Graciliano, a well-to-do Italian diplomat whose fatal heart attack
left his family in financial ruin. Graciliano's death deeply affected
his sons, inspiring them to form a band after Max heard the album
Black Sabbath Vol. 4 the very same day. They chose the band name
Sepultura, the Portuguese word for "grave", when Max translated the
lyrics of the
Motörhead song "Dancing on Your Grave".
The brothers' early influences included
Led Zeppelin , Black Sabbath
Deep Purple , and the popular metal and hard rock artists of the
early 1980s, such as
Van Halen ,
Iron Maiden ,
Judas Priest and
Ozzy Osbourne . They would travel to a record shop
São Paulo that mixed tapes of the latest records by American
bands. Their listening habits changed dramatically after being
introduced to Venom . As
Igor Cavalera put it:
I remember the first time I listened to Venom, it was on a friend's
borrowed tape. It was similar to Motörhead, only a lot heavier. I
remember someone saying: it's the devil's Motörhead! After we got
acquainted with Venom, we stopped listening to
Iron Maiden and all
that lighter stuff.
The Cavalera brothers started listening to bands such as Hellhammer
Celtic Frost ,
Kreator , Sodom ,
Megadeth , Exodus and Exciter .
They also had influences on Brazilian metal from bands like Stress ,
Sagrado Inferno and
Dorsal Atlântica . By 1984, they had dropped out
of school. After several early membership changes, Sepultura
established a stable lineup of Max on guitar, Igor on drums, vocalist
Wagner Lamounier , and bassist
Paulo Jr. Lamounier departed in March
1985 after disagreements with the band, and moved on to become the
leader of the pioneering Brazilian black metal band
Sarcófago . After
his departure, Max took over the vocal duties.
Jairo Guedes was
invited to join the band as lead guitarist.
Bestial Devastation And
Morbid Visions (1984–1986)
After about a year of performing,
Sepultura signed to Cogumelo
Records in 1985. Later that year, they released
Bestial Devastation ,
a shared EP with fellow Brazilian band Overdose. It was self-produced
and recorded in just two days. The band recorded their first
Morbid Visions , in August 1986. It contained their
first hit, "Troops of Doom", which gained some media attention. The
band then decided to relocate to the larger city of São Paulo.
Schizophrenia, Beneath The Remains And Arise (1987–1992)
In early 1987,
Jairo Guedes quit the band. Guedes was replaced by
São Paulo -based guitarist
Andreas Kisser , and they released their
second studio album, Schizophrenia , in 1987. The album reflected a
stylistic change towards a more thrash metal-oriented sound, while
still keeping the death metal elements of Morbid Visions.
Schizophrenia was an improvement in production and performance, and
became a minor critical sensation across Europe and America as a much
sought-after import. The band sent tapes to North America(USA) that
made radio playlists at a time when they were struggling to book gigs
because club owners were afraid to book them due to their style. The
band then decided to relocate to the larger city of
São Paulo in
1988. The band gained attention from
Roadrunner Records who signed
them and released Schizophrenia internationally before seeing the band
perform in person.
The band's third studio album,
Beneath the Remains , was released in
1989. The album was recorded in a rustic studio in Rio de Janeiro
while the band communicated through translators with the American
producer Scott Burns . It was an immediate success and became known
in thrash metal circles as a classic on the order of Slayer's Reign in
Blood . It is hailed by Terrorizer magazine as one of the all-time
top 20 thrash metal albums, as well as a gaining a place in their
all-time top 40 death metal records.
AllMusic gave the album 4.5
stars out of 5 and said, "The complete absence of filler here makes
this one of the most essential death/thrash metal albums of all time."
A long European and American tour furthered the band's reputation,
despite the fact that they were still very limited English speakers.
Their first US show was held on October 31, 1989, at the Ritz in New
York City, opening for Danish heavy metal band King Diamond . The band
filmed its first video for the single "Inner Self". Traveling on
trains. Getting beat up by cops. Sleeping behind the stage. It's part
of growing up. It's part of the nature of this stuff. If you don't
have that kind of background, you can't be a band like us. Max
Cavalera reflecting on Sepultura's past in Brazil.
In January 1991,
Sepultura played for more than 100,000 people at the
Rock in Rio II festival. The band relocated from their native Brazil
to Phoenix ,
Arizona in 1990, obtained new management, and recorded
the album Arise at Morrisound Studios in Tampa, Florida. By the time
the album was released in 1991, the band had become one of the most
critically praised thrash/death metal bands of the time. The first
Dead Embryonic Cells " was a success, and the title track
gained additional attention when its video was banned by MTV America
due to its apocalyptic religious imagery. The album was critically
acclaimed and their first to chart on the
Billboard 200 , reaching No.
Max Cavalera married the band's manager Gloria Bujnowski during this
period. In 1992,
Sepultura was part of two major tours: Helmet
Alice in Chains
Alice in Chains /
Ozzy Osbourne .
Nailbomb And Roots (1993–1996)
Sepultura's fifth album,
Chaos A.D. , was released in 1993. It saw a
departure from their death metal style, adding influences of groove
metal , industrial and hardcore punk . While
Chaos A.D. is not a
death metal album, the album does have a lot of thrash metal music.
AllMusic gave the album 4.5 stars out of 5 and wrote that, "Chaos A.D.
ranks as one of the greatest heavy metal albums of all time." In
1994, Max and Igor collaborated with
Alex Newport of
Fudge Tunnel to
Nailbomb . They released an even more industrial-oriented album,
Point Blank the same year. The group performed only one full live gig
Dynamo Open Air in 1995, and the performance was released as Proud
to Commit Commercial Suicide .
Nailbomb was disbanded shortly
Sepultura's sound change continued with their sixth album, Roots ,
which was released in 1996. On this album the band experimented with
elements of the music of Brazil's indigenous peoples, and adopted a
slower, down-tuned sound. The album was hailed as a modern-day heavy
AllMusic gave it 4.5 stars out of 5 and said, "Roots
consolidates Sepultura's position as perhaps the most distinctive,
original heavy metal band of the 1990s." In 1996,
"War (Guerra)" for the AIDS benefit album Silencio=Muerte: Red Hot +
Latin produced by the Red Hot Organization.
Max Cavalera (1996–1997)
Sepultura played on the Castle Donington Monsters of Rock
main stage alongside
Ozzy Osbourne ,
Paradise Lost ,
Type O Negative
Type O Negative ,
Fear Factory . The band was suddenly a three-piece with
Andreas Kisser taking over on lead vocals, after
Max Cavalera left the
concert site earlier in the day upon learning of the death of his
stepson Dana Wells in a car accident. After Dana Wells' funeral was
finished, Max returned and continued to tour with Sepultura. A few
months after Wells' death, the band had a meeting with Max and said
that they wanted to fire their manager Gloria Bujnowski, who was Max's
wife and Dana's mother, and have her replaced with someone else. The
other band members felt that Bujnowski was paying more attention to
Max rather than the band itself. Max, who was still dealing with the
death of Wells, felt betrayed by his band members for wanting to rid
of Bujnowski and abruptly quit the band. For many years, the true
reasons behind his departure remained unknown. Max Cavalera's final
Sepultura was at
Brixton Academy in England on
December 16, 1996. I started
Sepultura back in the day. I used to
write that name on my schoolbooks. What I'm going through now, is like
watching my own son die. I cry every day, I feel hurt, sad, angry,
it's like half of me has died.
Max Cavalera on how he felt when
In an interview with Faceculture in 2010,
Max Cavalera explained that
one of the reasons he left
Sepultura was that Kisser's wife attempted
to arrange Dana Wells' funeral before Max and his wife Gloria
Bujnowski could return home from England. Max also said in the
interview that he regrets the events that led to his departure but a
reunion is currently unlikely due to lingering disputes between him
and Kisser, although Max has expressed interest in such an idea in the
future. The events also led to a feud between Max and Igor Cavalera
that lasted until Igor's own departure from the band ten years later.
DERRICK GREEN ERA
Against, Nation And
Sepultura on stage in 2007.
Derrick Green (left) joined
Sepultura in 1997 as the replacement of original singer
Max Cavalera .
Following Max Cavalera's departure, the rest of
plans to find a new vocalist. Among those who auditioned were Chuck
Billy of Testament ,
Phil Demmel of Machine Head and
Vio-lence , Marc
Grewe of Morgoth , Jorge Rosado of
Merauder and a then-unknown Jason
"Gong" Jones . American musician
Derrick Green from Cleveland , Ohio
, was selected as the band's new front-man. The first album with the
new line-up was Against , which was released in 1998. The album was
critically and commercially less successful than previous albums and
sold considerably fewer copies than the debut album by Max Cavalera's
AllMusic gave the album 3 stars out of 5, stating
that "there are enough flashes of the old
Sepultura brilliance to
suggest that great things are still to come".
The band's eighth album, Nation , released in 2001, sold poorly. It
would be their last studio album with Roadrunner Records. AllMusic
gave the album 3 stars out of 5 and said, "As Green scrapes the lining
of his vocal chords through the brash, impassioned tracks, he's
singing about more than just 'one nation, Sepulnation'; he's
suggesting something bigger, something worth shouting about and
fighting for." In an interview,
Derrick Green said that, "Every song
will be related to the idea of building this nation. We will have our
own flags, our own anthem." A recording of Max Cavalera's last live
show with Sepultura, titled
Under a Pale Grey Sky , was released in
2002 by Roadrunner Records.
Revolusongs , an EP of covers in 2002, the band
released their ninth studio album,
Roorback , in 2003. Despite
receiving greater critical acclaim than its predecessors, sales
remained low. It was their first album with SPV Records . AllMusic
gave the album 4 stars out of 5 and said, "if there are still any
lingering doubts about the Green/
Sepultura match, 2003's excellent
Roorback should put them to rest for good. Green is passionate and
focused throughout the album — he has no problem going that extra
mile — and the writing is consistently strong." In 2005, the band
Dubai for the annual
Dubai Desert Rock Festival . In
November of that year, a live double
DVD /double CD package, Live in
São Paulo , was released. This was the first official live album from
A-Lex And Departure Of
Igor Cavalera (2006–2010)
Sepultura in Poland.
Sepultura's tenth album,
Dante XXI , was released on March 14, 2006.
It is a concept album based on
Dante Alighieri 's
The Divine Comedy .
Music videos were recorded for the songs "
Convicted in Life " and
AllMusic gave the album 3.5 stars out of 5 and said that,
Dante XXI is easily one of Sepultura's strongest releases to
feature Green on vocals."
In a 2007 interview with Revolver magazine,
Max Cavalera stated that
he and Igor, both of whom having recently reconciled after a
decade-long feud, would reunite with the original
There were also rumors that the reunited line up would play on the
main stage at Ozzfest 2007 . However, this was denied by Kisser and
the reunion did not occur. Instead,
Igor Cavalera left the band after
the release of
Dante XXI and was replaced by Brazilian drummer Jean
Dolabella , leaving the band without any of its original members.
After leaving Sepultura, Igor and Max formed
Cavalera Conspiracy .
The band was one of the featured musical guests at the Latin Grammy
Awards of 2008 on November 13. They performed a cover of "The Girl
from Ipanema ", and "We've Lost You" from the album A-Lex. The 9th
Latin Grammy Awards ceremony was held at the Toyota Center in
Texas and aired on
Sepultura also appeared in a
successful ad campaign for
Volkswagen motors commercial that aired
nationally throughout Brazil in 2008. The spot said that "it's the
first time you've seen
Sepultura like this. And a Sedan like this one
Volkswagen TV spot shows
Sepultura playing bossa nova , the
opposite of its heavy metal style, to say that "you never saw
something like this, as you never saw a car like the new Voyage".
Sepultura released the album
A-Lex on 26 January 2009. This was the
Sepultura album to include neither of the Cavalera brothers,
Paulo Jr. as the sole remaining member from the band's
A-Lex is a concept album based on the book A Clockwork
Orange . The album was recorded at Trama Studios in São Paulo,
Brazil, with producer Stanley Soares.
AllMusic gave the album 4 stars
out of 5 and said, "Personnel changes can have a very negative effect
on a band, but
Sepultura have maintained their vitality all these
years – and that vitality is alive and well on the superb A-Lex."
In the same year
Andreas Kisser contributed his recipe for "Churrasco
Soy Sauce " to Hellbent for Cooking: The Heavy Metal Cookbook ,
stating in the recipe that he prefers his meat "medium-rare".
Metallica on January 30 and January 31, 2010, at
Morumbi Stadium in
São Paulo, Brazil
São Paulo, Brazil . The two concerts were attended
by 100,000 people. The band filmed a concert
DVD in 2010. Sepultura
played at Kucukciftlik Park,
Istanbul , on April 27, 2010. On August
8, 2010 visited the UK to play at the
Hevy Music Festival near
Kairos And The Mediator Between Head And Hands Must Be The Heart
Eloy Casagrande at
Nova Rock Festival
Nova Rock Festival 2014. Casagrande
has been the drummer of
Sepultura since 2011.
On July 6, 2010, it was announced that
Sepultura were signed with
Nuclear Blast Records , and would release their first album for the
label in 2011. The band confirmed that there would be no reunion of
the classic lineup. By the end of 2010, the band began writing new
material and entered the studio to begin recording their 12th album
Roy Z (
Judas Priest , Halford ,
Iron Maiden 's Bruce
Andre Matos ). On March 1, 2011,
Sepultura had completed recording their new album, entitled Kairos ,
which was released in June 2011.
The album includes cover versions of Ministry 's "
Just One Fix " and
The Prodigy 's "Firestarter ", both of which are available as bonus
tracks on various special-edition releases.
Sepultura played on the
Kairos World Tour and at
Wacken Open Air 2011. Drummer Jean Dolabella
left the band and was replaced by 20-year-old
Eloy Casagrande in
November 2011, who had already played in Brazilian heavy metal singer
Andre Matos ' solo band. In November and December 2011 Sepultura
participated the Thrashfest Classics 2011 tour alongside thrash metal
bands like Exodus , Destruction , Heathen and Mortal Sin .
In May 2012, guitarist
Andreas Kisser told Metal Underground that
Sepultura would soon "start working on something new with Eloy" and
see if they could "get ready for new music early next year". In an
interview at England's
Bloodstock Open Air on August 10, 2012, Kisser
Sepultura would be filming a live
DVD with the French
Les Tambours du Bronx . He also revealed that the
band was "already thinking about new ideas" for their next album and
would "have something new going on" in 2013.
On December 10, 2012, producer
Ross Robinson , who produced
Sepultura's Roots album, tweeted: "Oh, didn't mention.. Spoke to
Andreas, it's on. My vision, smoke Roots- It can be done", suggesting
he would be producing the band's next album. This was later confirmed,
as well as an announcement that the album would be co-produced by
Steve Evetts. Former
Dave Lombardo made a guest
appearance on the album.
On January 25, 2013, it was announced that author Jason Korolenko was
working on Relentless – 30 Years of Sepultura, which is described in
a press release as "the only book-length biography to cover the band's
entire 30-year career." Relentless was published on October 8, 2014 in
Poland under the title Brazylijska Furia, and the English language
edition was published via Rocket 88 on December 4, 2014. The
Brazilian edition, titled Relentless – 30 Anos de Sepultura, is
scheduled for publication via Benvira in early 2015. The French
language edition of "Relentless" was published in France on October
On July 19, 2013, it was revealed that the title of the band's
thirteenth album was The Mediator Between Head and Hands Must Be the
Heart . In September 2013, they performed at
Rock in Rio with
Brazilian rock/MPB artist
Zé Ramalho – this line-up was named
"Zépultura", a portmanteau of both artists' names.
In October 2014, the band made their return to both Australia and New
Zealand for the first time since 2003 and 1999 respectively.
Machine Messiah (2015–present)
In a June 2015 interview with Yell! Magazine, guitarist Andreas
Kisser stated that
Sepultura would begin work on their fourteenth
studio album after the completion of The Mediator Between Head and
Hands Must Be the Heart tour. Asked about the album, Kisser stated,
"We're gonna start working now. Of course, I have a lot of riffs here
and there. Eloy also has some ideas. But we need really to start
organizing and then get ready for practice and really develop the
songs properly. But we're gonna take our time, probably for an
On February 24, 2016,
Sepultura announced on their Facebook page that
they had begun writing their fourteenth studio album, and posted
pictures of themselves in the studio. The band entered the studio in
May to begin recording it with producer
Jens Bogren . On October 28,
2016, it was announced that the album was titled Machine Messiah , and
would be released on January 13, 2017. In support of the album,
Sepultura (along with
Aborted ) will be supporting
Kreator on the
Gods of Violence tour in Europe in February–March
2017, and Testament and Prong on the
Brotherhood of the Snake tour in
the United States in April–May 2017.
During a video interview with the German fanzine metal-heads.de from
the 4. March 2017,
Andreas Kisser talked about the release of the
Sepultura documentary ; the film,
was premiered in May 2017 and will release on June 17. Max and Igor
declined to be interviewed for the film and also refused to allow
early material of the band to be used.
MUSICAL STYLE, INFLUENCES AND LEGACY
Sepultura's early influences were heavy metal groups such as Iron
Celtic Frost and
Slayer , and death metal bands
like Possessed and Death .
Andreas Kisser affirmed that "without
Sepultura would never be possible".
Sepultura's music comes in a wide range of heavy metal musical styles
. The band has been described mostly as thrash metal and death metal .
Another genre the band has been commonly categorized under is groove
metal . The band's early music has sometimes been described as black
metal . The band later on started experimenting elements of other
musical genres such as hardcore punk , industrial metal , alternative
metal , world music and nu metal .
MTV has called
Sepultura the most successful Brazilian heavy metal
band in history and "perhaps the most important heavy metal band of
the '90s". In 1993, Robert Baird of
Phoenix New Times wrote that the
band played "machine-gun-tempo mayhem" and that the members "love to
attack organized religion and repressive government".
Paulo Jr. – bass , backing vocals (1985–present)
Andreas Kisser – lead guitar , backing vocals (1987–present)
Derrick Green – lead vocals , rhythm guitar (1998–present)
Eloy Casagrande – drums , percussion (2011–present)
* Silvio Golfetti – lead guitar (1991)
* Guilherme Martin – drums (2005)
Roy Mayorga – drums, percussion (2006)
* Amilcar Christófaro – drums (2011)
* Kevin Foley – drums (2013)
Igor Cavalera – drums, percussion (1984–2006)
Max Cavalera – lead vocals (1985–1996), rhythm guitar
(1985–1996), lead guitar (1984–1986)
* Cássio – rhythm guitar (1984)
Wagner Lamounier – lead vocals (1984–1985)
* Roberto Raffan – bass (1984)
* Beto Pinga – drums (1984)
* Roberto UFO – rhythm guitar (1984)
* Julio Cesar Vieira Franco – rhythm guitar (1985)
Jairo Guedz – lead guitar (1985–1987)
Jean Dolabella – drums, percussion (2006–2011)
Sepultura band members live at Free ">
Sepultura discography Studio albums
Morbid Visions (1986)
* Schizophrenia (1987)
Beneath the Remains (1989)
* Arise (1991)
Chaos A.D. (1993)
* Roots (1996)
* Against (1998)
* Nation (2001)
Dante XXI (2006)
* Kairos (2011)
The Mediator Between Head and Hands Must Be the Heart (2013)
* Machine Messiah (2017)
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Chaos A.D. stripped
down Sepultura's sound into a coarse metallic loop. The CD sold half a
million copies, and alongside Pantera the band forged a streetwise,
death-derived groove metal that inspired an upcoming generation of
mavens in the 1990s.
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Sepultura em comercial da
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* ^ "SEPULTURA Signs With NUCLEAR BLAST RECORDS".
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Sepultura Definitely Not Reuniting With Cavalera Brothers --
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– oneindia entertainment". Entertainment.oneindia.in. Retrieved
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* ^ "SEPULTURA Completes Recording New Album; Lays Down MINISTRY,
THE PRODIGY Covers".
* ^ "Brazilian Guitarist Andreas Kisser: "The Spirit Of Sepultura
Is Still Very Much Alive"".
* ^ "SEPULTURA To Film Concert
DVD With French Percussive Group LES
TAMBOURS DU BRONX".
* ^ "Twitter / ROSS_ROBINSON".
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Sepultura Reunite With
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Dave Lombardo To Guest On The
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Sepultura To Release \'Machine Messiah\' Album In January".
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Kreator To Tour Europe With Sepultura, Soilwork, Aborted".
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metal-heads.de. 4 March 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
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Sepultura Endurance\'". 5 May 2017.
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To Be Used In Official Documentary". 25 May 2017.
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História. São Paulo: Ed. 34. ISBN 85-7326-156-0
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Brasil, 6, 18-26, 28-30.
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Sepultura (1996). Roots. . New York, NY: Roadrunner Records. The
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* Official website
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