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The Satavahanas (IAST: Sātavāhana), also referred to as the Andhras in the Puranas, were an ancient Indian dynasty based in the Deccan region. Most modern scholars believe that the Satavahana
Satavahana
rule began in the first century BCE and lasted until the second century CE, although some assign the beginning of their rule to as early as the 3rd century BCE. The Satavahana
Satavahana
kingdom mainly comprised the present-day Telangana, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Maharashtra. At different times, their rule extended to parts of modern Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Karnataka. The dynasty had different capital cities at different times, including Pratishthana
Pratishthana
(Paithan) and Amaravati (Dharanikota). The origin of the dynasty is uncertain, but according to the Puranas, their first king overthrew the Kanva dynasty. In the post- Maurya
Maurya
era, the Satavahanas established peace in the Deccan region, and resisted the onslaught of foreign invaders. In particular their struggles with the Saka
Saka
Western Satraps
Western Satraps
went on for a long time. The dynasty reached its zenith under the rule of Gautamiputra Satakarni
Satakarni
and his successor Vasisthiputra Pulamavi. The kingdom fragmented into smaller states by the early 3rd century CE. The Satavahanas were early issuers of Indian state coinage struck with images of their rulers. They formed a cultural bridge and played a vital role in trade and the transfer of ideas and culture to and from the Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
to the southern tip of India. They supported Brahmanism
Brahmanism
as well as Buddhism, and patronised Prakrit
Prakrit
literature.

Contents

1 Origins

1.1 Etymology 1.2 Original homeland

2 History

2.1 Foundation 2.2 Early expansion

2.2.1 Art of Sanchi

2.3 First Saka
Saka
invasion 2.4 First revival 2.5 Second Saka
Saka
invasion 2.6 Second revival 2.7 Decline

3 Territorial extent 4 Administration 5 Economy 6 Religion 7 Inscriptions 8 Coinage 9 Cultural achievements

9.1 Sculptures 9.2 Bronze 9.3 Architecture 9.4 Paintings 9.5 Art of Amaravati

10 List of rulers

10.1 Puranic lists 10.2 Purana-based lists

11 References

11.1 Bibliography

12 External links

Origins The date and place of origin of the Satavahanas, as well as the meaning of the dynasty's name, are a matter of debate among the historians. Some of these debates have happened in the context of regionalism, with the present-day Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka
Karnataka
and Telangana
Telangana
being variously claimed as the original homeland of the Satavahanas.[6] Etymology According to one theory, the word "Satavahana" is a Prakrit
Prakrit
form of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sapta-Vahana ("driven by seven"; in Hindu mythology, the chariot of the sun god is drawn by seven horses). This would indicate that the Satavahanas originally claimed association with the legendary solar dynasty, as was common in ancient India.[7] According to Inguva Kartikeya Sarma, the dynasty's name is derived from the words sata ("sharpened", "nimble" or "swift") and vahana ("vehicle"); the expression thus means "one who rides a nimble horse".[8] Another theory connects their name to the earlier Satiyaputa dynasty. Yet another theory derives their name from the Munda words Sadam ("horse") and Harpan ("son"), implying "son of the performer of a horse sacrifice".[9] Several rulers of the dynasty bear the name or title "Satakarni". Satavahana, Satakarni, Satakani and Shalivahana appear to be variations of the same word. Damodar Dharmanand Kosambi theorized that the word "Satakarni" is derived from the Munda words sada ("horse") and kon ("son").[10] The Puranas
Puranas
use the name "Andhra" or "Andhra-Bhritya" for the Satavahanas. The term "Andhra" may refer to ethnicity or territory of the dynasty (see Original homeland below). It does not appear in the dynasty's own records.[11] Original homeland

Cave No.19 of Satavahana
Satavahana
king Kanha at the Nasik
Nasik
caves, 1st century BCE.

Krishna inscription of king Kanha in cave No.19, Nasik
Nasik
caves. This is the oldest known Satavahana
Satavahana
inscription, circa 100-70 BCE.[6]

The use of the name "Andhra" in the Puranas
Puranas
has led some scholars to believe that the dynasty originated in the eastern Deccan region (the historic Andhra region, present-day Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Telangana).[12] At Kotilingala
Kotilingala
in Telangana, coins bearing the legend "Rano Siri Chimuka Satavahanasa" were found.[13] Epigraphist and numismastist P. V. P. Sastry initially identified Chimuka with the dynasty's founder Simuka,[14] because of which Kotilingala
Kotilingala
came to be known as the only place where coins attributed to Simuka
Simuka
were found.[15] Coins attributed to Simuka's successors Kanha and Satakarni
Satakarni
I were also discovered at Kotilingla.[16] Based on these discoveries, historians such as D. R. Reddy, S. Reddy and Shankar R. Goyal theorized that Kotlingala was the original home of the Satavahanas. However, the coin samples from Kotlingala are small, and it is not certain if these coins were minted there or reached there from somewhere else.[17] Moreover, the identification of Chimuka of Kotilingala
Kotilingala
with the dynasty's founder Simuka
Simuka
has been contested by several scholars including P. L. Gupta and I. K. Sarma, who identified Chimuka as a later ruler.[18][19] P.V.P. Sastry also later changed his view, and stated that the two kings were different.[14] As for the Puranas, these texts were compiled much later, during the Gupta period, and it is not certain if the Satavahanas were referred to as Andhras during their time.[19]

Naneghat
Naneghat
inscription. Dated to 70-60 BCE, in the reign of Satakarni I.[6]

Another section of scholars believe that the Satavahanas originated in western Deccan (present-day Maharashtra).[12] All four extant inscriptions from the early Satavahana
Satavahana
period (c. 1st century BCE) have been found in and around this region. The oldest known Satavahana inscription was found at Cave No.19 of the Pandavleni Caves
Pandavleni Caves
in Nashik district, and was issued during the reign of Kanha (100-70 BCE).[20] An inscription found at Naneghat
Naneghat
was issued by Nayanika (or Naganika), the widow of Satakarni
Satakarni
I; another inscription found at Naneghat
Naneghat
has been dated to the same period on a paleographic basis. A slightly later inscription dated to the reign of Satakarni
Satakarni
II has been found at Sanchi
Sanchi
in Madhya Pradesh, located to the north of Maharashtra.[6] The majority of the other Satavahana
Satavahana
inscriptions have also been found in western Deccan.[17] On the other hand, the epigraphic evidence from eastern Deccan does not mention the Satavahanas before the 4th century CE.[19] At Nevasa, a seal and coins attributed to Kanha have been discovered.[21] Coins attributed to Satakarni
Satakarni
I have also been discovered at Nashik, Nevasa
Nevasa
and Pauni
Pauni
in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
(besides places in eastern Deccan and present-day Madhya Pradesh).[13] Based on this evidence, some historians argue that the Satavahanas initially came to power in the area around their capital Pratishthana
Pratishthana
(modern Paithan, Maharashtra) and then expanded their territory to eastern Deccan.[22] Carla Sinopoli cautions that the inference about the western Deccan origin of the Satavahanas is "tentative at best" given the small sample of early inscriptions.[23] Kanha's Pandavleni mentions the term maha-matra (officer-in-charge), which indicates that the early Satavahanas followed the Mauryan administrative model.[24] C. Margabandhu theorized that the Satavahanas were called Andhras because they were natives of eastern Deccan (the Andhra region), although they first established their empire in western Deccan after having served as Mauryan subordinates. Himanshu Prabha Ray (1986) opposes this theory, stating that the Andhra was originally an ethnic term, and did not come to denote the geographical region of eastern Deccan until well after the Satavahana period.[6] According to Vidya Dehejia, the writers of the Puranas (which were compiled after the Satavahana
Satavahana
period) mistook the Satavahana
Satavahana
presence in eastern Deccan as evidence for their origin in that region, and wrongly labeled them as "Andhra".[25] Some scholars also suggest that the dynasty originated in present-day Karnataka, and initially owed allegiance to some Andhra rulers (because of which they were called Andhra-Bhrityas or "servants of the Andhras".[26] V. S. Sukthankar theorized that the territorial division Satavahani-Satahani (Satavahanihara or Satahani-rattha), in present-day Bellary district, was the homeland of the Satavahana family.[27] A stupa in Kanaganahalli
Kanaganahalli
village of Karnataka, dated between the first century BCE and first century CE, features limestone panels depicting portraits of Chimuka (Simuka), Satakani (Satakarni) and other Satavahana
Satavahana
rulers.[28] History Information about the Satavahanas comes from the Puranas, some Buddhist and Jain texts, the dynasty's inscriptions and coins, and foreign (Greek and Roman) accounts that focus on trade.[29] The information provided by these sources is not sufficient to reconstruct the dynasty's history with absolute certainty. As a result, there are multiple theories about the Satavahana
Satavahana
chronology.[30] Foundation

Satavahana
Satavahana
depiction of the city of Kushinagar
Kushinagar
in the War over the Buddha's Relics, South Gate, Stupa
Stupa
no. 1, Sanchi.

Simuka
Simuka
is mentioned as the first king in a list of royals in a Satavahana
Satavahana
inscription at Naneghat. The various Puranas
Puranas
state that the first king of the dynasty ruled for 23 years, and mention his name variously as Sishuka, Sindhuka, Chhismaka, Shipraka, etc. These are believed to be corrupted spellings of Simuka, resulting from copying and re-copying of manuscripts.[31] Simuka
Simuka
cannot be dated with certainty based on available evidence. Based on the following theories, the beginning of the Satavahana
Satavahana
rule is dated variously from 271 BCE to 30 BCE.[32]

According to the Puranas, the first Andhra king overthrew the Kanva rule. D. C. Sircar dated this event to c. 30 BCE, a theory supported by many other scholars.[30] The Matsya Purana
Purana
mentions that the Andhra dynasty ruled for around 450 years. As the Satavahana
Satavahana
rule ended in the early 3rd century, the beginning of their rule can be dated to the 3rd century BCE. The Indica of Megasthenes
Megasthenes
(350 – 290 BCE) mentions a powerful tribe named "Andarae", whose king maintained an army of 100,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry and 1,000 elephants. If Andarae is identified with the Andhras, this can be considered additional evidence of Satavahana
Satavahana
rule starting in the 3rd century BCE. The Brahmanda Purana
Purana
states that "the four Kanvas will rule the earth for 45 years; then (it) will again go to the Andhras". Based on this statement, the proponents of this theory argue that the Satavahana
Satavahana
rule began immediately after the Maurya
Maurya
rule, followed by a Kanva interregnum, and then, a revival of the Satavahana
Satavahana
rule. According to one version of the theory Simuka succeeded the Mauryans. A variation of the theory is that Simuka
Simuka
was the person who restored the Satavahana
Satavahana
rule by overthrowing the Kanvas; the compiler of the Puranas
Puranas
confused him with the founder of the dynasty.[33]

Most modern scholars believe that the Satavahana
Satavahana
ruler began in the first century BCE and lasted until the second century CE. This theory is based on Puranic records as well as archaeological and numismatic evidence. The theory that dates their rule to an earlier period is now largely discredited because the various Puranas
Puranas
contradict each other, and are not fully supported by epigraphic or numismatic evidence.[11] Early expansion Simuka
Simuka
was succeeded by his brother Kanha (also known as Krishna), who extended the kingdom up to Nashik
Nashik
in the west.[34][33] His successor Satakarni
Satakarni
I conquered western Malwa, Anupa ( Narmada
Narmada
valley) and Vidarbha, taking advantage of the turmoil caused by Greek invasions of northern India. He performed Vedic sacrifices including Ashvamedha
Ashvamedha
and Rajasuya. Instead of the Buddhists, he patronised Brahmins and donated a substantial amount of wealth to them.[9] The Hathigumpha inscription of the Kalinga king Kharavela
Kharavela
mentions a king named "Satakani" or "Satakamini", who some[35] identify with Satakarni
Satakarni
I. The inscription describes dispatching of an army and Kharavela's threat to a city. Since the inscription is only partially legible, different scholars interpret the events described in the inscription differently. According to R. D. Banerji and Sailendra Nath Sen, Kharavela
Kharavela
sent out an army against Satakarni.[36] According to Bhagwal Lal, Satakarni wanted to avoid an invasion of his kingdom by Kharavela. So, he sent horses, elephants, chariots and men to Kharavela
Kharavela
as a tribute.[37] According to Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya, Kharavela's army diverted its course after failing to advance against Satakarni.[38] According to Alain Daniélou, Kharavela
Kharavela
was friendly with Satakarni, and only crossed his kingdom without any clashes.[39] Satakarni's successor Satakarni
Satakarni
II ruled for 56 years, during which he captured eastern Malwa
Malwa
from the Shungas. He was succeeded by Lambodara. The coins of Lambodara's son and successor Apilaka have been found in eastern Madhya Pradesh.[9] Art of Sanchi In that period, the Satavahanas contributed greatly to the embellishment of the Buddhist stupa of Sanchi. It was heavily repaired under King Satakarni
Satakarni
II. The gateways and the balustrade were built after 70 BCE, and appear to have been commissioned by the Satavahanas. An inscription on the Southern Gateway records that it was the work of Satakarni
Satakarni
II's royal architect Ananda.[40] An inscription records the gift of one of the top architraves of the Southern Gateway by the artisans of the Satavahana
Satavahana
Emperor Satakarni:

Gift of Ananda, the son of Vasithi, the foreman of the artisans of rajan Siri Satakarni[41]

Sanchi
Sanchi
under the Satavahanas 1st century BCE/CE.

Architrave

Architrave

Yakshini.

Pillar capital.

Lion pillar capital.

The Miracle of Walking in the air at Savrasti.

Pipal tree.

Miracle of the Buddha
Buddha
walking on the River Nairanjana

Bimbisara
Bimbisara
with his royal cortege issuing from the city of Rajagriha
Rajagriha
to visit the Buddha.

Foreigners making a dedication to the Great Stupa
Stupa
at Sanchi.

Procession of king Suddhodana
Suddhodana
from Kapilavastu.

First Saka
Saka
invasion Little is known about Apilaka's successors, except cryptic references to one Kuntala Satakarni. The next well-known ruler of the dynasty was Hāla, who composed Gaha Sattasai
Gaha Sattasai
in Maharashtri Prakrit. Like Hala, his four successors also ruled for very short periods (a total of 12 years), indicating troubled times for the Satavahanas.[9] Epigraphic and numismatic evidence suggests that the Satavahanas earlier controlled the northern Deccan plateau, the northern Konkan coastal plains, and the mountain passes connecting these two regions. During 15-40 CE, their northern neighbours - the Western Kshatrapas
Western Kshatrapas
- extended their influence into these regions.[42] The Western Kshatrapa ruler Nahapana
Nahapana
is known to have ruled the former Satavahana
Satavahana
territory, as attested by the inscriptions of his governor and son-in-law, Rishabhadatta.[43] First revival

A coin of Nahapana
Nahapana
restruck by the Satavahana
Satavahana
king Gautamiputra Satakarni. Nahapana's profile and coin legend are still clearly visible.

Satavahana
Satavahana
architecture at Cave No.3 of the Pandavleni Caves
Pandavleni Caves
in Nashik. This cave was probably started during the reign of Gautamiputra Satakarni, and was finished and dedicated to the Buddhist Samgha
Samgha
during the reign of his son Vasishthiputra Pulumavi, crica 150 CE.

The Satavahana
Satavahana
power was revived by Gautamiputra Satakarni, who is considered the greatest of the Satavahana
Satavahana
rulers.[34] Charles Higham dates his reign c. 103 – c. 127 CE.[34] S. Nagaraju dates it 106–130 CE.[44] The king defeated by him appears to have been the Western Kshatrapa
Western Kshatrapa
ruler Nahapana, as suggested by Nahapana's coins overstuck with names and titles of Gautamiputra.[43] The Nashik prashasti inscription of Gautamiputra's mother Gautami Balashri, dated to the 20th year after his death, records his achievements. The most liberal interpretation of the inscription suggests that his kingdom extended from the present-day Rajasthan in the north to Krishna river in the south, and from Saurashtra in the west to Kalinga in the east. He assumed the titles Raja-Raja (King of Kings) and Maharaja (Great King), and was described as the Lord of Vindhya.[9] During the last years of his reign, his administration was apparently handled by his mother, which could have been a result of an illness or military preoccupation.[9] According to the Nasik
Nasik
inscription made by his mother Gautami Balashri, he was the one …[45]

… who crushed down the pride and conceit of the Kshatriyas; who destroyed the Sakas (Western Satraps), Yavanas (Indo-Greeks) and Pahlavas (Indo-Parthians),... who rooted out the Khakharata family (the Kshaharata family of Nahapana); who restored the glory of the Satavahana
Satavahana
race. — Inscription of Queen Mother Gautami Balashri at Cave No.3 of the Pandavleni Caves
Pandavleni Caves
in Nashik.

Gautamiputra was succeeded by his son Vasisthiputra Sri Pulamavi
Vasisthiputra Sri Pulamavi
(or Pulumayi). According to Sailendra Nath Sen, Pulumavi ruled from 96–119 CE.[9] According to Charles Higham, he ascended the throne around 110 CE.[34] Pulumavi features in a large number of Satavahana inscriptions and his coins have been found distributed over a wide area. This indicates that he maintained Gautamiputra's territory, and ruled a prosperous kingdom. He is believed to have added the Bellary region to Satakarni's kingdom. His coins featuring ships with double mast have been found on the Coromandel Coast, indicating involvement in maritime trade and naval power. The old stupa at Amaravati was renovated during his reign.[9] Second Saka
Saka
invasion

Coin
Coin
of Vashishtiputra Satakarni.

Pulumavi's successor was his brother Vashishtiputra Satakarni. According to S. N. Sen he ruled during 120–149 CE;[9] according to Charles Higham, his regnal years spanned 138–145 CE.[34] He entered into a marriage alliance with the Western Satraps, marrying the daughter of Rudradaman I.[9] The Junagadh
Junagadh
inscription of Rudradaman I
Rudradaman I
states that he defeated Satakarni, the lord of Dakshinapatha (Deccan), twice. It also states that he spared the life of the defeated ruler because of close relations:[34]

"Rudradaman (...) who obtained good report because he, in spite of having twice in fair fight completely defeated Satakarni, the lord of Dakshinapatha, on account of the nearness of their connection did not destroy him." —  Junagadh
Junagadh
rock inscription

According to D. R. Bhandarkar and Dineshchandra Sircar, the ruler defeated by Rudradaman was Gautamiputra Satakarni. However, E. J. Rapson believed that the defeated ruler was his son Vasishthiputra Pulumavi.[46] Shailendra Nath Sen and Charles Higham believe that the defeated ruler was Vashishtiputra's successor Shivaskanda or Shiva Sri Pulumayi (or Pulumavi).[34][9] As a result of his victories, Rudradaman regained all the former territories previously held by Nahapana, except for the extreme south territories of Pune
Pune
and Nasik. Satavahana
Satavahana
dominions were limited to their original base in the Deccan and eastern central India
India
around Amaravati. Second revival

Coin
Coin
of Yajna Sri Satakarni, British Museum.

Sri Yajna Sātakarni, the last person belonging to the main Satavahana dynastic line, briefly revived the Satavahana
Satavahana
rule. According to S. N. Sen, he ruled during 170–199 CE.[9] Charles Higham dates the end of his reign to 181 CE. His coins feature images of ships, which suggest naval and marine trade success.[34] Wide distribution of his coins, and inscriptions at Nashik, Kanheri and Guntur indicate that his rule extended over both eastern and western parts of Deccan. He recovered much of the territory lost the Western Kshatrapas, and issued silver coinage, imitating them. During the last years of his reign, the Abhiras captured the northern parts of the kingdom, around Nashik region.[9] Decline After Yajna Satakarni, the dynasty was soon extinguished following the rise of its feudatories, perhaps on account of a decline in central power.[47] Yajna Sri was succeeded by Madhariputra Swami Isvarasena. The next king Vijaya ruled for 6 years. His son Vasishthiputra Sri Chadha Satakarni
Satakarni
ruled for 10 years.[9] Pulumavi IV, the last king of the main line, ruled until c. 225 CE. During his reign, several Buddhist monuments were constructed at Nagarjunakonda
Nagarjunakonda
and Amaravati.[34] Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
was also part of his kingdom.[9] After the death of Pulumavi IV, the Satavahana
Satavahana
empire fragmented into five smaller kingdoms:[9]

Northern part, ruled by a collateral branch of the Satavahanas (which ended in early 4th century[34]) Western part around Nashik, ruled by the Abhiras Eastern part (Krishna-Guntur region), ruled by the Andhra Ikshvakus South-western parts (northern Karanataka), ruled by the Chutus of Banavasi South-eastern part, ruled by the Pallavas

Territorial extent The Satavahana
Satavahana
territory included northern Deccan region, spanning the present-day Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Telangana
Telangana
states. At times, their rule also extended to present-day Gujarat, Karnataka
Karnataka
and Madhya Pradesh. The Nashik
Nashik
prashasti inscription issued by Gautami Balashri, the mother of Gautamiputra Satakarni, claims that her son ruled an extensive territory that stretched from Gujarat
Gujarat
in the north to northern Karnataka
Karnataka
in the south. It is not clear if Gautamiputra had effective control over these claimed territories. In any case, historical evidence suggests that his control over these territories did not last long.[48] Moreover, this realm was not continuous: many areas in this region remained under the control of the hunter-gatherers and other tribal communities.[49] The Satavahana
Satavahana
capital kept shifting with time. The Nashik
Nashik
inscription describes Gautamiputra as the lord of Benakataka, suggesting that this was the name of his capital. Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(2nd century CE) mentioned Pratishthana
Pratishthana
(modern Paithan) as the capital of Pulumavi.[48] At other times, the Satavahana
Satavahana
capitals included Amaravati (Dharanikota) and Junnar.[50] M. K. Dhavalikar theorized that the original Satavahana capital was located at Junnar, but had to be moved to Pratishthana because of Saka- Kushana
Kushana
incursions from the north-west.[51] Several Satavahana-era inscriptions record grants to religious monasteries. The settlements most frequently mentioned as the residences of donors in these inscriptions include the sea ports of Sopara, Kalyan, Bharucha, Kuda (unidentified), and Chaul. The most frequently mentioned inland settlements include Dhenukakata (unidentified), Junnar, Nashik, Paithan, and Karadh.[48] Other important Satavahana
Satavahana
sites in western Deccan include Govardhana, Nevasa, Ter, and Vadgaon-Madhavpur. The ones in eastern Deccan include Amaravati, Dhulikatta, Kotalingala
Kotalingala
and Peddabankur.[52] Administration The Satavahanas followed the administration guidelines of the Shastras. Their government was less top-heavy than that of the Mauryans, and featured several levels of feudatories:[9]

Rajan, the hereditary rulers Rajas, petty princes who struck coins in their own names Maharathis, hereditary lords who could grant villages in their own names and maintained matrimonial relations with the ruling family Mahabhojas Mahasenapati (civil administrator under Pulumavi II; governor of a janapada under Pulumavi IV) Mahatalavara ("great watchman")

The royal princes (kumaras) were appointed as viceroys of the provinces.[9] The ahara appears to have been the largest geographical subdivision of the Satavahana
Satavahana
polity. Several inscriptions refer to aharas named after the governors appointed to rule them (e.g. Govardhanahara, Mamalahara, Satavanihara and Kapurahara).[48] This suggests that the Satavahanas attempted to build a formal administrative and revenue collection structure.[53] The inscriptions of Gautamiputra Satakarni
Satakarni
suggest the existence of a bureaucratic structure, although it is not certain how stable and effective this structure was. For example, two inscriptions from Nashik
Nashik
Cave 11 record donations of agricultural land to ascetic communities. They state that the ascetics would enjoy tax exemption and non-interference from the royal officials. The first inscription states that the grant was approved by Gautamiputra's minister Sivagupta on the king's verbal orders, and preserved by the "great lords". The second inscription records a grant by Gautamiputra and his mother, and mentions Syamaka as the minister of the Govardhana ahara. It states that the charter was approved by a woman named Lota, who according to archaeologist James Burgess' interpretation, was the chief lady-in-waiting of Gautamiputra's mother.[54] The Satavahana-era inscriptions mention three types of settlements: nagara (city), nigama (market town) and gama (village).[48] Economy

Indian ship on lead coin of Vasisthiputra Sri Pulamavi, testimony to the naval, seafaring and trading capabilities of the Satavahanas during the 1st–2nd century CE.

The Satavahanas participated in (and benefited from) economic expansion through intensification of agriculture, increased production of other commodities, and trade within and beyond the Indian subcontinent.[55] During the Satavahana
Satavahana
period, several large settlements emerged in the fertile areas, especially along the major rivers. The amount of land under agricultural use also expanded significantly, as a result of forest clearance and construction of irrigation reservoirs.[53] The exploitation of sites with mineral resources may have increased during the Satavahana
Satavahana
period, leading to the emergence of new settlements in these areas. Such sites facilitated commerce and crafts (such as ceramic ware). The increased craft production during the Satavahana
Satavahana
period is evident from archaeological discoveries at sites such as Kotalingala, as well as epigraphic references to artisans and guilds.[53] The Satavahanas controlled the Indian sea coast, and as a result, they dominated the growing Indian trade with the Roman Empire. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentions two important Satavahana
Satavahana
trade centres: Pratishthana
Pratishthana
and Tagara. Other important urban centres included Kondapur, Banavasi
Banavasi
and Madhavpur. Nanaghat
Nanaghat
was the site of an important pass that linked the Satavahana
Satavahana
capital Pratishthana
Pratishthana
to the sea.[34] Religion

The Pompeii Lakshmi
Pompeii Lakshmi
ivory statuette was found in the ruin of Pompeii (destroyed in an eruption of Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
in 79 CE). It is thought to have come from Bhokardan
Bhokardan
in the Satavahana
Satavahana
realm in the first half of the 1st century CE. It testifies to Indo-Roman trade relations
Indo-Roman trade relations
in the beginning of our era.

The Satavahanas were Hindus
Hindus
and claimed Brahmanical status,[56] although they also made generous donations to Buddhist monasteries.[57] The lay people in the Satavahana
Satavahana
period generally did not exclusively support a particular religious group .[42] The Naneghat
Naneghat
inscription of Nayanika, recorded on the walls of a Buddhist monastic cave, mentions that her husband Satakarni
Satakarni
I performed several Vedic sacrifices, including ashvamedha (horse sacrifice), rajasuya (royal consecration), and agnyadheya (fire ceremony).[58] The inscription also records subsantial fees paid to Brahmin
Brahmin
priests and attendees for these sacrifices. For example, 10,001 cows were granted for the Bhagala-Dasaratra sacrifice; and 24,400 coins were granted for another sacrifice, whose name is not clear.[59] In the Nashik
Nashik
inscription of Gautami Balashri, her son Gautamiputra Satakarni
Satakarni
is called "ekabamhana", which is interpreted by some as "unrivaled Brahmana", thus indicating a Brahmin
Brahmin
origin. However, R. G. Bhandarkar interprets this word as "the only protector of the Brahmins".[60] A number of Buddhist monastic sites emerged in the Deccan region during the Satavahana
Satavahana
period. However, the exact relations between these monasteries and the Satavahana
Satavahana
government is not clear.[52] The Pandavleni Caves
Pandavleni Caves
inscription issued during the reign of Kanha states that the cave was excavated by maha-matra (officer-in-charge) of the shramanas (non-Vedic ascetics). Based on this, Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya concludes that Kanha favoured Buddhism, and had an administrative department dedicated to the welfare of Buddhist monks.[24] However, Carla M. Sinopoli notes that although there are some records of donations to the Buddhist monasteries by the Satavahana
Satavahana
royals, the vast majority of the donations were made by the non-royals. The most common among these donors were merchants, and many of the monasteries were located along the important trade routes.[52] The merchants probably donated to the monasteries, because these sites facilitated trade by serving as rest houses, and possibly by directly participating in the trade.[56] The monasteries appear to have been an important venue for displaying charitable donations, including the donations made to non-Buddhists (especially Brahmins).[57] Inscriptions

The inscription on the Southern Gateway at Sanchi
Sanchi
mentioning "Gift of Ananda, the son of Vasithi, the foreman of the artisans of rajan Siri Satakarni" (the inscription is written in three lines over the dome of the stupa in this relief).[61] Circa 50 BCE- 0 CE.

Several Brahmi script
Brahmi script
inscriptions are available from the Satavahana period, but most of these record donations to Buddhist institutions by individuals, and do not provide much information about the dynasty. The inscriptions issued by the Satavahana
Satavahana
royals themselves also primarily concern religious donations, although some of them provide some information about the rulers and the imperial structure.[5] The earliest extant Satavahana
Satavahana
inscription is from Nashik
Nashik
Cave 19, which states that the cave was commissioned by Mahamatra Saman of Nashik
Nashik
during the reign of king Kanha.[6] At Naneghat, an inscription issued by Nayanika, the widow of Satakarni I, has been found. It records Nayanika's lineage and mentions the Vedic sacrifices performed by the royal family.[6] Another inscription at Naneghat
Naneghat
comprises names of Satavahana
Satavahana
royals, appearing as labels over their bas-relief portraits. The portraits are now completely eroded, but the inscription is believed to be contemporary to Nayanika's inscription on a paleographic basis.[17] The next oldest Satavahana-era inscription appears on a sculpted gateway element of Stupa
Stupa
1 at Sanchi. It states that the element was donated by Ananda, who was the son of Siri Satakarni's foreman of artisans. This inscription is probably from the reign of Satakarni II.[17] Coinage The Satavahanas are among the earliest Indian rulers to issue their own coins with portraits of their rulers, starting with king Gautamiputra Satakarni, a practice derived from that of the Western Kshatrapas he defeated, itself originating with the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings to the northwest. Thousands of lead, copper and potin Satavahana
Satavahana
coins have been discovered in the Deccan region; a few gold and silver coins are also available. These coins do not feature uniform design or size, and suggest that multiple minting locations existed within the Satavahana territory, leading to regional differences in coinage.[5] The coin legends of the Satavahanas, in all areas and all periods, used a Prakrit
Prakrit
dialect without exception. Some reverse coin legends are in Tamil,[62] and Telugu languages.[5][63] Several coins carry titles or matronyms that were common to multiple rulers (e.g. Satavahana, Satakarni, and Pulumavi), so the number of rulers attested by coinage cannot be determined with certainty. The names of 16 to 20 rulers appear on the various coins. Some of these rulers appear to be local elites rather than the Satavahana monarchs.[5] The Satavahana
Satavahana
coins give unique indications as to their chronology, language, and even facial features (curly hair, long ears and strong lips). They issued mainly lead and copper coins; their portrait-style silver coins were usually struck over coins of the Western Kshatrapa kings. The Satavahana
Satavahana
coins also display various traditional symbols, such as elephants, lions, horses and chaityas (stupas), as well as the " Ujjain
Ujjain
symbol", a cross with four circles at the end.

Early Satavahana
Satavahana
coinage, Satakarni
Satakarni
issue, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
– Vidarbha type, 1st century BCE.

Satavahana
Satavahana
1st century BCE coin inscribed in Brahmi: "(Sataka)Nisa". British Museum

Coin
Coin
of Gautamiputra Yajna Satakarni
Satakarni
(r. 167 – 196 CE).

Cultural achievements The Satavahanas patronised the Prakrit
Prakrit
language instead of Sanskrit.[9] The Satavahana
Satavahana
king Hāla is famous for compiling the collection of Maharashtri poems known as the Gaha Sattasai
Gaha Sattasai
(Sanskrit: Gāthā Saptashatī), although from linguistic evidence it seems that the work now extant must have been re-edited in the succeeding century or two. Through this book, it was evident that agriculture was the main means of livelihood. Also many sorts of superstitions had prevailed. Additionally, Gunadhya, the minister of Hala, was the author of Brihatkatha.[64] Sculptures Madhukar Keshav Dhavalikar writes that "The Satavahana
Satavahana
sculptures unfortunately has never been recognized as an independent school in spite of the fact it has its own distinctive characteristic features. The earliest in point of time is that in the Bhaja Vihara cave which marks the beginning of sculptural art in the Satavahana
Satavahana
dominion around 200BC. It is profusely decorated with carvings, and even pillars have a lotus capital crowned with sphinx-like mythic animals."[65] Dhavalikar also writes that in Chankama "the panel occurring on the west pillar of Northern Gateway portrays a very important event in Buddha's life. It depicts votaries, two each on either side of what looks like a ladder which actually is the promenade which Buddha
Buddha
is supposed to have walked. It is said that Buddha, after attaining Enlightment, spent four weeks near the Bodhi tree. Of these, the third week he spent walking along the promenade (chankama) to and fro."[66] Along with some of the above major Satavahana
Satavahana
sculptures some more sculptures existed--namely, Dvarapala, Gajalaksmi, Shalabhanjikas, Royal Procession, Decorative pillar, etc.[67] Bronze

Royal earrings, Andhra Pradesh, 1st Century BCE.

Several metal figurines are found that could be attributed to the Satavahanas. A hoard of unique bronze objects were also found from Bramhapuri. Numerous articles obtained from there were Indian but also reflected Roman and Italian influence. A small statue of Poseidon, wine jugs, and a plaque depicting Perseus and Andromeda were also obtained from the house from where the objects were found.[68] The fine elephant in the Ashmolean Museum, the Yaksi image in the British Museum,[69] and the cornucopia found in Posheri, kept at Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya[70] can also be attributed to the Satavahana
Satavahana
period. Architecture Sculptures of Amravati represent the architectural development of the Satavahana
Satavahana
periods. They built Buddhist stupas in Amravati (95 feet high). They also constructed a large number of stupas at Goli, Jaggiahpeta, Gantasala, Amravati Bhattiprolu, and Shri Parvatam. Caves IX and X, containing Ajanta paintings, were patronized by Satavahana, and the painting throughout the caves appear to have started with them. Ashokan Stupas were enlarged, the earlier bricks and wood works being replaced with stone works. The most famous of these monuments are the stupas, the most famous among them being the Amravati Stupa and the Nagarjunakonda
Nagarjunakonda
Stupa. Paintings The Satavahana
Satavahana
paintings are the earliest surviving specimens--excluding prehistoric--in India, and they are to be found only at the Ajanta. There were two phases of artistic activity of Ajanta: the first occurring in the 2nd to 1st centuries BC, when Hinayana caves were excavated during Satavahana
Satavahana
rule; the later in the second half of the 5th century under the Vakatakas. Vagaries of nature and some vandalism have taken a heavy toll on the Ajanta Caves. Only a few fragments related to the Satavahanas have survived in Caves No. 9 and 10, both of which are chaitya-grihas with stupas. The most important surviving painting of the Satavahana
Satavahana
period at Ajanta is the Chhadanta Jataka in Cave No. 10, but that, too, is only fragmentary. It is a painting of an elephant named Bodhisattva with six tusks, related to a mythological story. The human figures, both male and female, are typically Satavahanas, almost identical with their counterparts on the Sanchi
Sanchi
Gateways so far as their physiognomy, costumes, and jewellery are concerned. The only difference is that the Sanchi
Sanchi
figures have shed some of their weight.[71] Art of Amaravati The Satavahana
Satavahana
rulers are also remarkable for their contributions to Buddhist art
Buddhist art
and architecture. They built great stupas in the Krishna River Valley, including the stupa at Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh. The stupas were decorated in marble slabs and sculpted with scenes from the life of the Buddha, portrayed in a characteristic slim and elegant style. The Amaravati style of sculpture also influenced the sculpture of Southeast Asia.[citation needed]

Amaravati Marbles, fragments of Buddhist stupa

Fragment of Amaravati stupa

Mara's assault on the Buddha, 2nd century, Amaravati

Ajanta Cave No. 9, possibly of Satavahana
Satavahana
era

Scroll supported by Indian Yaksha, Amaravati, 2nd–3rd century CE.

List of rulers Multiple Puranas
Puranas
contain chronology of Satavahana
Satavahana
kings. However, there are inconsistencies among the various Puranas
Puranas
over the number of kings in the dynasty, the names of the kings, and the length of their rule. In addition, some of the kings listed in the Puranas
Puranas
are not attested via archaeological and numismatic evidence. Similarly, there are some kings known from coins and inscriptions, whose names are not found in the Puranic lists.[32][33] The reconstructions of the Satavahana
Satavahana
kings by historians fall into two categories. According to the first one, 30 Satavahana
Satavahana
kings ruled for around 450 years, starting from Simuka's rule immediately after the fall of the Mauryan empire. This view relies heavily on the Puranas, and is now largely discredited. According to the second (and more widely accepted) category of reconstructions, the Satavahana
Satavahana
rule started in around first century BCE. The chronologies in this category contain a smaller number of kings, and combine Puranic records with archaeological, numismatic and textual evidence.[72] Because of uncertainty regarding the establishment date of the Satavahana
Satavahana
kingdom, it is difficult to give absolute dates for the reigns of the Satavahana
Satavahana
kings.[32] Therefore, many modern scholars do not assign absolute dates to the reigns of the historically attested Satavahana
Satavahana
kings, and those who do vary greatly with each other.[11] Himanshu Prabha Ray provides the following chronology, based on archaeological and numismatic evidence:[12]

Simuka
Simuka
(before 100 BCE) Kanha (100–70 BCE) Satakarni
Satakarni
I (70–60 BCE) Satakarni
Satakarni
II (50–25 BCE) Kshatrapa interregnum with vassal Satavahana
Satavahana
kings like Hāla

Nahapana
Nahapana
(54-100 CE)

Gautamiputra Satakarni
Satakarni
(86–110 CE) Pulumavi (110–138 CE) Vashishtiputra Satakarni
Satakarni
(138–145 CE) Shiva Shri Pulumavi (145–152 CE) Shiva Skanda Satakarni
Satakarni
(145–152 CE) Yajna Shri Satakarni
Satakarni
(152–181 CE) Vijaya Satakarni Regional rulers of south-eastern Deccan:[55]

Chandra Shri Pulumavi II Abhira Isvasena Madhariputra Sakasena Haritiputra Satakarni

Puranic lists The various Puranas
Puranas
give different lists of the Satavahana
Satavahana
rulers. The Matsya Purana
Purana
states that 30 Andhra kings ruled for 460 years, but some of its manuscripts name only 19 kings whose reigns add up to 448.5 years. The Vayu Purana
Purana
also mentions that there were 30 Andhra kings, but its various manuscripts name only 17, 18, and 19 kings respectively; the reigns add up to 272.5, 300, and 411 years respectively. Many of thse kings are not attested by historical evidence. On the other hand, some Satavahana
Satavahana
kings attested by numismatic evidence (such as Rudra Satakarni) are not mentioned in the Puranas
Puranas
at all.[73] Different scholars have explained these anamolies in different ways. Scholars such as R. G. Bhandarkar, D. C. Sircar and H. C. Raychaudhuri theorized that the Vayu Purana
Purana
mentions only the main imperial branch of the dynasty, while the Matsya Purana
Purana
puts together princes of all its branches.[73] The names of the Andhra kings (in IAST), as mentioned in the various Puranas, are given below. These names vary across different manuscripts of the same Puranas, and some names are missing in some of the manuscripts. The list given below for each Purana
Purana
contains the most exhaustive version. In the Puranas, Krishna (IAST: Kṛṣṇa) is described as brother of the first king, who overthrew the Kanva king Susharman. All other kings are described as sons of their predecessors. The first king of the Andhra-Bhrityas is also known as Shudraka or Suraka in the Kumarika Khanda of Skanda Purana
Purana
(not present in the table below).[74]

Puranic genealogy of Andhra dynasty[75]

# Ruler Coins Epigraphy Bhagavata Brahmanda Matsya Vayu Vishnu Reign (years) Alternative names and reigns[76][77]

1 Simuka ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 23 Śiśuka (Matsya), Sindhuka (Vayu), Śipraka (Vishnu), Chhismaka (Brahmanda)

2 Kṛṣṇa (Kanha) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 18

3 Śatakarṇi I ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 10 Śantakarṇa (Bhagavata), Mallakarni - 10 or 18 years (Matsya), Śri Śatakarṇi (Vishnu)

4 Pūrṇotsanga

✓ ✓ ✓

✓ 18 Paurṇamāsa (Bhagavata)

5 Skandastambhi

✓ ✓

18 Śrivasvani (Matsya)

6 Śatakarṇi II ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 56

7 Lambodara

✓ ✓ ✓

✓ 18

8 Āpīlaka ✓

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 12 Apītaka (Matsya), Ivīlaka (Vishnu), Hivilaka (Bhagavata)

9 Meghasvāti ✓

✓ ✓ ✓

✓ 18 Saudāsa (Brahmanda)

10 Svāti (Śatakarṇi)

✓ ✓ ✓

✓ 12

11 Skandasvāti

✓ ✓

7 Skandasvati - 28 years (Brahmanda)

12 Mṛgendra-Svātikarṇa

✓ ✓

3 Mahendra Śatakarṇi (Brahmanda)

13 Kuntala-Svātikarṇa

✓ ✓

8

14 Svātikarṇa

✓ ✓

1

15 Pulomavi I ✓

✓ ✓ ✓ 24 Pulomavi - 36 years (Matsya), Aṭamāna (Bhagavata), Paṭimavi (Vayu), Paṭumat (Vishnu), Ābhi - Brahmanda

16 Gaurakṛṣṇa

✓ ✓ ✓ 25 Gorakśāśvaśri (Matsya), Nemi Kṛṣṇa (Vayu), Arishṭakarman (Vishnu)

17 Hāla

✓ ✓ ✓ 5 Hāleya (Bhagavata); 1 year in one manuscript

18 Mandalaka

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 5 Talaka (Bhagavata), Saptaka (Vayu), Pattalaka (Vishnu), Bhavaka (Brahmanda)

19 Purindrasena

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 5 Purīṣabhiru (Bhagavata), Purikaṣena - 21 years (Vayu), Pravillasena (Vishnu), Pravillasena - 12 years (Brahmanda)

20 Sundara Śatakarṇi

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 1 Sundara Svatikarṇa (Matsya), Sunandana (Bhagavata)

21 Cakora Śatakarṇi (Chakora)

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 0.5

22 Śivasvāti

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 28 Svātisena - 1 year (Brahmanda), Śivasvāmi (Vayu)

23 Gautamīputra ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 21 Yantramati - 34 years (Brahmanda), Gotamīputra (Bhagavata and Vishnu); 24 years according to inscriptions

24 Pulomavi II (Vashishtiputra) ✓ ✓ ✓

✓ 28 Purīmān (Bhagavata), Pulomat (Matsya), Pulimat (Vishnu). See also: Vashishtiputra Satakarni.

25 Śivaśri ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

✓ 7 Madaśirā (Bhagavata)

26 Śivaskanda Śatakarṇi ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

✓ 7

27 Yajñaśri ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 29 Yajñaśri Śatakarṇi - 19 years (Brahmanda), Yajñaśri - 9, 20 or 29 years (Matsya)

28 Vijaya ✓ ✓ ✓

✓ ✓ ✓ 6

29 Candraśri (Chandrashri) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 3 Candravijaya (Bhagavata), Daṇḍaśri (Brahmanda and Vayu), Vada-Śri or Candra-Śri-Śatakarṇi - 10 years (Matsya)

30 Pulomavi III ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 7 Sulomadhi (Bhagavata), Pulomavit (Matsya), Pulomarchis (Vishnu)

Purana-based lists S. Nagaraju relies on the Puranic lists of 30 kings, and gives the following regnal dates:[44]

Simuka
Simuka
(r. 228 – 205 BCE) Krishna (r. 205 – 187 BCE) Satakarni
Satakarni
I (r. 187 – 177 BCE) Purnotsanga (r. 177 – 159 BCE) Skandhastambhi (r. 159 – 141 BCE) Satakarni
Satakarni
II (r. 141 – 85 BCE) Lambodara (r. 85 – 67 BCE) Apilaka (r. 67 – 55 BCE) Meghasvati (r. 55 – 37 BCE) Svati (r. 37 – 19 BCE) Skandasvati (r. 19 – 12 BCE) Mrigendra Satakarni
Satakarni
(r. 12 – 9 BCE) Kunatala Satakarni
Satakarni
(r. 9 – 1 BCE) Satakarni
Satakarni
III (r. 1 BCE-1 CE) Pulumavi I (r. 1 – 36 CE) Gaura Krishna (r. 36 – 61 CE) Hāla (r. 61 – 66 CE) Mandalaka aka Puttalaka or Pulumavi II (r. 69 – 71 CE) Purindrasena (r. 71 – 76 CE) Sundara Satakarni
Satakarni
(r. 76 – 77 CE) Chakora Satakarni
Satakarni
(r. 77 – 78 CE) Shivasvati (r. 78 – 106 CE) Gautamiputra Satkarni
Gautamiputra Satkarni
(r. 106 – 130 CE) Vasisthiputra aka Pulumavi III (r. 130 – 158 CE) Shiva Sri Satakarni
Satakarni
(r. 158 – 165 CE) Shivaskanda Satakarni
Satakarni
(r. 165–172) Sri Yajna Satakarni
Satakarni
(r. 172 – 201 CE) Vijaya Satakarni
Satakarni
(r. 201 – 207 CE) Chandra Sri Satakarni
Satakarni
(r. 207 – 214 CE) Pulumavi IV (r. 217 – 224 CE)

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sculptures unfortunately has never been recognized as an independent school in spite of the fact it has its own distinctive characteristic features. The earliest in point of time is that in the Bhaja Vihara cave which marks the beginning of sculptural art in the Satavahana
Satavahana
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Buddha
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Art. Sharada Publishing House. p. 95. ISBN 81-88934-04-6.  ^ M. K. Dhavalikar 2004, pp. 77, 81, 84. ^ Carla M. Sinopoli 2001, pp. 166-168. ^ a b M. K. Dhavalikar 1996, p. 134. ^ Kr̥shṇājī Pāṇḍuraṅga Kulakarṇī (1927). Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Drama & Dramatists: Their Chronology, Mind and Art.  ^ M. K. Dhavalikar 1996, p. 139. ^ Sir Ramkrishna Gopal Bhandarkar (1884). Early History of the Dekkan Down to the Mahomedan Conquest. Printed at the Government Central Press. p. 25.  ^ Robert Sewell (1884). Lists of Inscriptions, and Sketch of the Dynasties of Southern India. 2. Government Press. p. 145. 

Bibliography

Ajay Mitra Shastri (1999). The Age of the Sātavāhanas. Aryan. ISBN 978-81-7305-158-6.  Ajay Mitra Shastri (1998). The Sātavāhanas and the Western Kshatrapas: a historical framework. Dattsons. ISBN 978-81-7192-031-0.  Akira Shimada (9 November 2012). Early Buddhist Architecture in Context. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-23283-4.  B. S. L. Hanumantha Rao (1976). The Age of Satavahanas. Andhra Pradesh Sahitya Akademi.  Carla M. Sinopoli (2001). "On the edge of empire: form and substance in the Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty". In Susan E. Alcock. Empires: Perspectives from Archaeology and History. Cambridge University Press.  Charles Higham (2009). Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase. ISBN 9781438109961.  Damodar Dharmanand Kosambi
Damodar Dharmanand Kosambi
(1975). An Introduction to the Study of Indian History. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7154-038-9.  G. Mannepalli (2013). "Courses towards Trade in Early Andhra" (PDF). American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences. 4 (2): 107–113.  Harry Falk (2009). "Two Dated Sātavāhana Epigraphs". Indo-Iranian Journal. 52 (2): 197–206. doi:10.1163/001972409X445924. ISSN 0019-7246.  Hemchandra Raychaudhuri (2006). Political History of Ancient India: From the Accession of Parikshit to the Extinction of the Gupta Dynasty. Cosmo Publications. ISBN 978-81-307-0291-9.  Himanshu Prabha Ray (1986). Monastery and guild: commerce under the Sātavāhanas. Oxford University Press.  I. K. Sarma (1980). Coinage of the Satavahana
Satavahana
Empire. Agam.  Mala Dutta (1990). A Study of the Sātavāhana Coinage. Harman. ISBN 978-81-85151-39-7.  M. K. Dhavalikar (2004). Satavahana
Satavahana
Art. Delhi: B.L Bansal, Sharada. ISBN 81-88934-04-6.  M. K. Dhavalikar (1996). "Sātavāhana Chronology: A Re-examination". Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. 77 (1/4): 133–140.  P. Raghunadha Rao (1993). Ancient and medieval history of Andhra Pradesh. Sterling Publishers. ISBN 978-81-207-1495-3.  R.C.C. Fynes (1995). "The Religious Patronage of the Satavahana Dynasty". South Asian Studies. 11 (1): 43–50.  Sailendra Nath Sen (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. ISBN 9788122411980.  Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya (1974). Some Early Dynasties of South India. Motilal Banarsidass.  Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0. 

Joglekar, S. A. “SĀTAVĀHANA AND SĀTAKARṆI.” Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, vol. 27, no. 3/4, 1946, pp. 237–287. www.jstor.org/stable/41688591. Pradhan, Shruti S. “FROM THE SĀTAVĀHANAS TO THE ANDHRAS AND THE ANDHRA-BHRTYAS.” Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, vol. 75, no. 1/4, 1994, pp. 121–142. www.jstor.org/stable/41694410.

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History of India

Ancient

Madrasian Culture Soanian, c. 500,000 BCE Neolithic, c. 7600 – c. 3300 BCE

Bhirrana
Bhirrana
7570 - 6200 BCE Jhusi
Jhusi
7106 BCE Lahuradewa 7000 BCE Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
7000 - 2600 BCE

Indus Valley Civilization, c. 3300 – c. 1700 BCE Post Indus Valley Period, c. 1700 – c. 1500 BCE Vedic Civilization, c. 1500 – c. 500 BCE

Early Vedic Period

Rise of Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movement

Later Vedic Period

Spread of Jainism
Jainism
- Parshvanatha Spread of Jainism
Jainism
- Mahavira Rise of Buddhism

Mahajanapadas, c. 500 – c. 345 BCE Nanda Dynasty, c. 345 – c. 322 BCE

Classical

Maurya
Maurya
Dynasty, c. 322 – c. 185 BCE Shunga Dynasty, c. 185 – c. 75 BCE Kanva Dynasty, c. 75 – c. 30 BCE Kushan Dynasty, c. 30 – c. 230 CE Satavahana
Satavahana
Dynasty, c. 30 BCE – c. 220 CE Gupta Dynasty, c. 200 – c. 550 CE

Early medieval

Chalukya Dynasty, c. 543 – c. 753 CE Harsha's Dynasty, c. 606 CE – c. 647 CE Karakota Dynasty, c. 724 – c. 760 CE Arab Invasion, c. 738 CE Tripartite Struggle, c. 760 – c. 973 CE

Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
Dynasty Rastrakuta Dynasty Pala Dynasty

Chola Dynasty, c. 848 – c. 1251 CE 2nd Chalukya Dynasty, c. 973 – c. 1187 CE

Late medieval

Delhi Sultanate, c. 1206 – c. 1526 CE

Slave Dynasty Khalji Dynasty Tugluq Dynasty Sayyid Dynasty Lodhi Dynasty

Pandyan Dynasty, c. 1251 – c. 1323 CE Vijayanagara, c. 1336 – c. 1646 CE Bengal Sultanate, c. 1342 – c. 1576 CE

Early modern

Mughal Dynasty, c. 1526 – c. 1540 CE Suri Dynasty, c. 1540 – c. 1556 CE Mughal Dynasty, c. 1556 – c. 1857 CE

Bengal Subah, c. 1576 – c. 1757 CE

Maratha Empire, c. 1674 – c. 1818 CE Company Raj, c. 1757 – c. 1858 CE Kingdom of Mysore, c. 1760 – c. 1799 CE Sikh Empire, c. 1799 – c. 1849 CE

Modern

The Great Rebellion, c. 1857 – c. 1858 CE British Raj, c. 1858 – c. 1947 CE

Independence Movement

Independent India, c. 1947 CE – present

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Outline of South Asian history

Palaeolithic (2,500,000–250,000 BC)

Madrasian Culture

Soanian
Soanian
Culture

Neolithic (10,800–3300 BC)

Bhirrana
Bhirrana
Culture (7570–6200 BC)

Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
Culture (7000–3300 BC)

Edakkal Culture (5000–3000 BC)

Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
(3500–1500 BC)

Ahar-Banas Culture (3000–1500 BC)

Pandu Culture (1600–1500 BC)

Malwa
Malwa
Culture (1600–1300 BC)

Jorwe Culture (1400–700 BC)

Bronze Age (3300–1300 BC)

Indus Valley Civilisation (3300–1300 BC)

 – Early Harappan Culture (3300–2600 BC)

 – Mature Harappan Culture (2600–1900 BC)

 – Late Harappan Culture (1900–1300 BC)

Vedic Civilisation (2000–500 BC)

 – Ochre Coloured Pottery culture (2000–1600 BC)

 – Swat culture (1600–500 BC)

Iron Age (1500–200 BC)

Vedic Civilisation (1500–500 BC)

 – Janapadas (1500–600 BC)

 – Black and Red ware culture (1300–1000 BC)

 – Painted Grey Ware culture (1200–600 BC)

 – Northern Black Polished Ware (700–200 BC)

Pradyota Dynasty (799–684 BC)

Haryanka Dynasty (684–424 BC)

Three Crowned Kingdoms (c. 600 BC–AD 1600)

Maha Janapadas (c. 600–300 BC)

Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)

Ror Dynasty (450 BC–AD 489)

Shishunaga Dynasty (424–345 BC)

Nanda Empire (380–321 BC)

Macedonian Empire (330–323 BC)

Maurya
Maurya
Empire (321–184 BC)

Seleucid India (312–303 BC)

Pandya Empire (c. 300 BC–AD 1345)

Chera Kingdom (c. 300 BC-AD 1102)

Chola Empire (c. 300 BC–AD 1279)

Pallava Empire (c. 250 BC–AD 800)

Maha-Megha-Vahana Empire (c. 250 BC–c. AD 500)

Parthian Empire (247 BC– AD 224)

Middle Kingdoms (230 BC– AD 1206)

Satavahana
Satavahana
Empire (230 BC–AD 220)

Kuninda Kingdom (200 BC–AD 300)

Mitra Dynasty (c. 150 –c. 50 BC)

Shunga Empire (185–73 BC)

Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdom (180 BC–AD 10)

Kanva Empire (75–26 BC)

Indo-Scythian Kingdom (50 BC–AD 400)

Indo-Parthian Kingdom (AD 21–c. 130)

Western Satrap Empire (AD 35–405 )

Kushan Empire (AD 60–240)

Bharshiva Dynasty (170–350)

Nagas of Padmavati (210–340)

Sasanian Empire (224–651)

Indo-Sassanid Kingdom (230–360)

Vakataka Empire (c. 250–c. 500)

Kalabhras Empire (c. 250–c. 600)

Gupta Empire (280–550)

Kadamba Empire (345–525)

Western Ganga Kingdom (350–1000)

Kamarupa
Kamarupa
Kingdom (350–1100)

Vishnukundina
Vishnukundina
Empire (420–624)

Maitraka
Maitraka
Empire (475–767)

Huna Kingdom (475–576)

Rai Kingdom (489–632)

Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi
Empire (c. 500–1026)

Chalukya Empire (543–753)

Maukhari
Maukhari
Empire (c. 550–c. 700)

Harsha Empire (606–647)

Tibetan Empire (618–841)

Eastern Chalukya Kingdom (624–1075)

Rashidun Caliphate (632–661)

Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
Empire (650–1036)

Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)

Pala Empire (750–1174)

Rashtrakuta Empire (753–982)

Paramara Kingdom (800–1327)

Yadava Empire (850–1334)

Chaulukya Kingdom (942–1244)

Western Chalukya Empire (973–1189)

Lohara Kingdom (1003–1320)

Hoysala Empire (1040–1346)

Sena Empire (1070–1230)

Eastern Ganga Empire (1078–1434)

Kakatiya Kingdom (1083–1323)

Zamorin Kingdom (1102–1766)

Kalachuris of Tripuri (675-1210)

Kalachuris of Kalyani (1156–1184)

Chutiya Kingdom (1187–1673)

Deva Kingdom (c. 1200–c. 1300)

Late medieval period (1206–1526)

Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526)

 – Mamluk Sultanate (1206–1290)

 – Khalji Sultanate (1290–1320)

 – Tughlaq Sultanate (1320–1414)

 – Sayyid Sultanate (1414–1451)

 – Lodi Sultanate (1451–1526)

Ahom Kingdom (1228–1826)

Chitradurga Kingdom (1300–1779)

Reddy Kingdom (1325–1448)

Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646)

Bengal Sultanate (1352–1576)

Garhwal Kingdom (1358–1803)

Mysore Kingdom (1399–1947)

Gajapati Kingdom (1434–1541)

Deccan Sultanates (1490–1596)

 – Ahmadnagar Sultanate (1490–1636)

 – Berar Sultanate (1490–1574)

 – Bidar Sultanate (1492–1619)

 – Bijapur Sultanate (1492–1686)

 – Golkonda Sultanate (1518–1687)

Keladi Kingdom (1499–1763)

Koch Kingdom (1515–1947)

Early modern period
Early modern period
(1526–1858)

Mughal Empire (1526–1858)

Sur Empire (1540–1556)

Madurai Kingdom (1559–1736)

Thanjavur Kingdom (1572–1918)

Bengal Subah (1576–1757)

Marava Kingdom (1600–1750)

Thondaiman Kingdom (1650–1948)

Maratha Empire (1674–1818)

Sikh Confederacy (1707–1799)

Travancore
Travancore
Kingdom (1729–1947)

Sikh Empire (1799–1849)

Colonial states (1510–1961)

Portuguese India (1510–1961)

Dutch India (1605–1825)

Danish India (1620–1869)

French India (1759–1954)

Company Raj (1757–1858)

British Raj (1858–1947)

Periods of Sri Lanka

Prehistory (Until 543 BC)

Early kingdoms period (543 BC–377 BC)

Anuradhapura period (377 BC–AD 1017)

Polonnaruwa period (1056–1232)

Transitional period (1232–1505)

Crisis of the Sixteenth Century (1505–1594)

Kandyan period (1594–1815)

British Ceylon (1815–1948)

Contemporary Sri Lanka (1948–present)

National histories

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka

Regional histories

Assam Balochistan Bengal Bihar Gujarat Himachal Pradesh Kabul Kashmir Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Rajasthan Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Punjab Odisha Sindh South India Tamil Nadu Tibet

Specialised histories

Agriculture Architecture Coinage Demographics Dynasties Economy Education Indology Influence on Southeast Asia Language Literature Maritime Metallurgy Military Partition of India Pakistan studies Philosophy Religion Science & Technology Timeline

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Middle kingdoms of India

Timeline and cultural period

Northwestern India (Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)

Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India

Upper Gangetic Plain (Kuru-Panchala)

Middle Gangetic Plain Lower Gangetic Plain

IRON AGE

Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period ( Brahmin
Brahmin
ideology)[a] Painted Grey Ware culture

Late Vedic Period (Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)[b] Northern Black Polished Ware

Pre-history

 6th century BC Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation" Rise of Shramana
Shramana
movements Jainism
Jainism
- Buddhism
Buddhism
- Ājīvika
Ājīvika
- Yoga

Pre-history

 5th century BC (Persian rule)

Shishunaga dynasty

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

 4th century BC (Greek conquests) Nanda empire

HISTORICAL AGE

Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history Sangam period (300 BC – 200 AD)

 3rd century BC Maurya
Maurya
Empire Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - "Hindu Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD)[e][f] Epics - Puranas
Puranas
- Ramayana
Ramayana
- Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
- Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition Mahayana Buddhism Sangam period (continued) (300 BC – 200 AD)

 2nd century BC Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdom Shunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty

Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

 1st century BC

 1st century AD

Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians

Kuninda Kingdom

 2nd century Kushan Empire

 3rd century Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[g] Puranas Co-existence of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism

 4th century Kidarites Gupta Empire Varman dynasty

Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty

 5th century Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Vishnukundina

 6th century Nezak Huns Kabul Shahi

Maitraka

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Badami Chalukyas Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture Late-Classical Hinduism
Hinduism
(ca. AD 650-1100)[h] Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
- Tantra Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

 7th century Indo-Sassanids

Vakataka dynasty Empire of Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Pandyan Kingdom(Revival) Pallava

 8th century Kabul Shahi

Pala Empire Pandyan Kingdom Kalachuri

 9th century

Gurjara-Pratihara

Rashtrakuta dynasty Pandyan Kingdom Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10th century Ghaznavids

Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty

Kalyani Chalukyas Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai Rashtrakuta

References and sources for table

References

^ Samuel ^ Samuel ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Micheals (2004) p.40 ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

Sources

Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge Univ

.