SARDINIA (/sɑːrˈdɪniə/ _sar-DIN-ee-ə_ ; Italian : _Sardegna_
, Sardinian : _Sardìgna/Sardìnnia_ / , Sassarese : _Sardhigna_,
Gallurese : _Saldigna_, Catalan : _Sardenya_,
Tabarchino : _Sardegna_)
is the second largest island in the
Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily
Cyprus ) and an autonomous region of
Italy . It is located
in the Western Mediterranean, to the immediate south of the French
The region's official name is _Regione Autonoma della Sardegna_ /
_Regione Autònoma de Sardigna_ (Autonomous Region of Sardinia), and
its capital and largest city is
Cagliari . It is divided into four
provinces and a metropolitan city . Its indigenous language and the
other minority languages (Sassarese , Corsican
Gallurese , Algherese
Catalan and Ligurian
Tabarchino ) spoken by the
"equal dignity" with Italian under regional law.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 3 History
* 3.1 Prehistory
* 3.2 Ancient history
* 3.3 Vandal conquest
* 3.4 Byzantine era and the rise of the _giudicati_
* 3.5 Aragonese period
* 3.6 Spanish period
* 3.7 Savoyard period
* 3.8 Post-
Second World War
Second World War period
* 4 Education
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Economic sectors
* 5.1.1 Primary
* 5.1.2 Industry and handicraft
* 5.1.3 Tertiary
* 6 Communications
* 7 Transport
* 7.1 Airports
* 7.2 Seaports
* 7.3 Roads
* 7.4 Railways
* 8 Demographics
* 8.2 Foreign immigration
* 8.3 Main cities and Functional Urban Areas
* 9 Government and politics
* 9.1 Administrative divisions
* 9.2 Military installations
* 10 Culture
* 10.1 Languages
* 10.2 World Heritage Sites
* 10.3 Literature
* 10.4 Traditional clothes
* 10.5 Music
* 10.6 Cuisine
* 11 Sports
* 11.1 Football
* 11.2 Basketball
* 11.3 Motor racing
* 11.4 Water sports
* 11.5 Winter sports
* 11.6 Traditional sports
* 12 Environment
* 12.1 Fauna
* 12.2 Natural parks and reserves
* 13 See also
* 14 References
* 15 External links
Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *_s(a)rd-_, later
romanised as _sardus_ (feminine _sarda_). It makes its first
appearance on the
Nora Stone , where the word _Šrdn_ testifies to the
name's existence when the Phoenician merchants first arrived.
According to _Timaeus_ , one of
Plato 's dialogues,
Sardinia and its
people as well might have been named after Sardò (_Σαρδώ_), a
legendary woman born in
Sardis (_Σάρδεις_), capital of the
ancient Kingdom of
Lydia . There has also been speculation that
identifies the ancient Nuragic Sards with the
Sherden , one of the Sea
Peoples . It is suggested that the name had a religious connotation
from its use also as the adjective for the ancient Sardinian
Sardus Pater "Sardinian Father" (in modern
times misunderstood as being "Father Sardus"), as well as being the
stem of the adjective "sardonic ". In
Classical antiquity , Sardinia
was called Ichnusa (the Latinised form of
Ancient Greek :
Υκνούσσα), Σανδάλιον "Sandal", _Sardinia_ and
Topographic map of
Sardinia The southern coast of Corsica
as seen from
Santa Teresa Gallura Cave in Cala Luna , Dorgali
Baunei View of
Gennargentu , the highest massif of
Sardinia A proportionate graph of Sardinian topography: 13.6%
of the island is mountainous, 18.5% is flat, and 67.9% is hilly.
Sardinia is the second-largest island in the
Mediterranean Sea (after
Sicily and before Cyprus), with an area of 24,100 square kilometres
(9,305 sq mi). It is situated between 38° 51' and 41° 18' latitude
north (respectively Isola del Toro and Isola La Presa) and 8° 8' and
9° 50' east longitude (respectively Capo dell'
Argentiera and Capo
Comino). To the west of
Sardinia is the
Sea of Sardinia , a unit of
the Mediterranean Sea; to Sardinia's east is the
Tyrrhenian Sea ,
which is also an element of the Mediterranean Sea.
Lake Omodeo ,
the largest reservoir in
The nearest land masses are (clockwise from north) the island of
Corsica , the
Italian Peninsula ,
Tunisia , the Balearic
Islands , and
Provence . The
Tyrrhenian Sea portion of the
Mediterranean Sea is directly to the east of
Sardinia between the
Sardinian east coast and the west coast of the Italian mainland
Strait of Bonifacio is directly north of
Sardinia from the French island of
The coasts of
Sardinia (1,849 kilometres (1,149 miles) long) are
generally high and rocky, with long, relatively straight stretches of
coastline, many outstanding headlands, a few wide, deep bays, rias ,
many inlets and with various smaller islands off the coast.
The island has an ancient geoformation and, unlike
mainland Italy, is not earthquake-prone. Its rocks date in fact from
Palaeozoic Era (up to 500 million years old). Due to long erosion
processes, the island's highlands, formed of granite, schist ,
trachyte , basalt (called _jaras_ or _gollei_), sandstone and dolomite
limestone (called _tonneri_ or "heels"), average at between 300 to
1,000 metres (984 to 3,281 feet). The highest peak is Punta La Marmora
(_Perdas Carpìas_ in Sardinian language)(1,834 m (6,017 ft)), part of
Gennargentu Ranges in the centre of the island. Other mountain
Monte Limbara (1,362 m (4,469 ft)) in the northeast, the
Chain of Marghine and Goceano (1,259 m (4,131 ft)) running crosswise
for 40 kilometres (25 miles) towards the north, the
Monte Albo (1,057
m (3,468 ft)), the Sette Fratelli Range in the southeast, and the
Sulcis Mountains and the
Monte Linas (1,236 m (4,055 ft)). The
island's ranges and plateaux are separated by wide alluvial valleys
and flatlands, the main ones being the
Campidano in the southwest
Cagliari and the
Nurra in the northwest.
Sardinia has few major rivers, the largest being the Tirso , 151 km
(94 mi) long, which flows into the
Sea of Sardinia , the
km) and the
Flumendosa (127 km). There are 54 artificial lakes and
dams that supply water and electricity. The main ones are Lake Omodeo
Coghinas . The only natural freshwater lake is Lago di Baratz
. A number of large, shallow, salt-water lagoons and pools are located
along the 1,850 km (1,150 mi) of the coastline.
Sardinia average rainfalls
The climate of the island is variable from area to area, due to
several factors including the extension in latitude and the elevation.
It can be classified in two different macrobioclimates (Mediterranean
pluviseasonal oceanic and Temperate oceanic), one macrobioclimatic
variant, called Submediterranean, and four classes of continentality
(from weak semihyperoceanic to weak semicontinental), eight
thermotypic horizons (from lower thermomediterranean to upper
supratemperate) and seven ombrotypic horizons (from lower dry to lower
hyperhumid), resulting in a combination of 43 different
During the year there is a major concentration of rainfall in the
winter and autumn, some heavy showers in the spring and snowfalls in
the highlands. The average temperature is between 11 to 17 °C (52 to
63 °F), with mild winters and hot summers on the coasts ( 9 to 11 °C
(48 to 52 °F) in January, 23 to 26 °C (73 to 79 °F) in July), and
cold winters and cool summers on the mountains ( −2 to 4 °C (28 to
39 °F) in January, 16 to 20 °C (61 to 68 °F) in July).
Rainfall has a Mediterranean distribution all over the island, with
almost totally rainless summers and wet autumns, winters and springs.
However, in summer, the rare rainfalls can be characterized by short
but severe thunderstorms , which can cause flash floods . The climate
is also heavily influenced by the vicinity of the Gulf of Genoa
(barometric low) and the relative proximity of the
Atlantic Ocean .
Low pressures in autumn can generate the formation of the so-called
_Medicanes_, extratropical cyclones which affect the Mediterranean
basin. In 2013, the island was hit by several cyclones, included the
Cyclone Cleopatra , which dumped almost 18 inches (450 mm) of rainfall
within an hour and a half.
Sardinia being relatively large and hilly,
weather is not uniform; in particular the East is drier, but
paradoxically it suffers the worst rainstorms : in autumn 2009, it
rained more than 200 mm (7.9 in) in a single day in Siniscola, and 19
November 2013, locations in
Sardinia were reported to have received
more than 431 mm (17 inches) within two hours. The western coast has a
higher distribution of rainfalls even for modest elevations (for
instance Iglesias, elevation 200 m (656 ft), average annual
precipitation 815 mm (32.1 in)). The driest part of the island is the
Cagliari gulf, with less than 450 mm (17.7 in) per year, the
minimum is at Capo Carbonara at the extreme south-east of the island
381 mm (15.0 in), and the wettest is the top of the Gennargentu
mountain with almost 1,500 mm (59.1 in) per year. The average for the
entire island is about 800 mm (31.5 in) per year, which is more than
enough for the needs of the population and vegetation. The Mistral
from the northwest is the dominant wind on and off throughout the
year, though it is most prevalent in winter and spring. It can blow
quite strongly, but it is usually dry and cool.
CLIMATE DATA FOR CAGLIARI , ALTITUDE 4 M
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Servizio Meteorologico ,
Hong Kong Observatory for data
of sunshine hours
CLIMATE DATA FOR FONNI , ALTITUDE 1029 M
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM)
The prehistoric megalithic temple of Monte d\'Accoddi . Main
History of Sardinia See also:
History of mining in Sardinia
Pre-Nuragic Sardinia _
Domus de Janas _ at Villanova
Sardinia is one of the most geologically ancient bodies of land in
Europe . The island was populated in various waves of immigration from
prehistory until recent times.
The first people to settle in
Sardinia during the Upper Paleolithic
Mesolithic came probably from the
Iberian Peninsula and the
Italian Peninsula ; the
Paleolithic colonization of the island is
demonstrated by the evidences in
Oliena 's _Corbeddu Cave_ in the
Mesolithic some populations, particularly from present-day
managed to move to northern
Sardinia via Corsica. The Neolithic
Revolution was introduced in the
6th millennium BC by the Cardial
culture coming from the Italian Peninsula. In the mid-Neolithic
Ozieri culture , probably of Aegean origin , flourished on
the island spreading the hypogeum tombs known as domus de Janas ,
Arzachena culture of
Gallura built the first megaliths :
circular tombs. In the early
3rd millennium BC , the metallurgy of
copper and silver began to develop.
During the late
Chalcolithic , the so-called
Beaker culture , coming
Europe , appeared in Sardinia. These new people
predominantly settled on the west coast, where the majority of the
sites attributed to them had been found. The
Beaker culture was
followed in the early
Bronze Age by the
Bonnanaro culture which showed
both reminiscences of the Beaker and influences by the Polada culture
As time passed, the different Sardinian populations appear to have
become united in customs, yet remained politically divided into
various small, tribal groupings, at times banding together, and at
others waging war against each other. Habitations consisted of round
thatched stone huts.
Nuraghe Losa .
From about 1500 BC onwards, villages were built around round
tower-fortresses called nuraghi (singular form "Nuraghe", usually
pluralized in English as "Nuraghes"). These towers were often
reinforced and enlarged with battlements. Tribal boundaries were
guarded by smaller lookout Nuraghes erected on strategic hills
commanding a view of other territories.
Today, some 7,000 Nuraghes dot the Sardinian landscape. While
initially these Nuraghes had a relatively simple structure, with time
they became extremely complex and monumental (see for example Nuraghe
Santu Antine , Su Nuraxi , or
Nuraghe Arrubiu ). The scale, complexity
and territorial spread of these buildings attest to the level of
wealth accumulated by the Nuragic people, their advances in technology
and the complexity of their society, which was able to coordinate
large numbers of people with different roles for the purpose of
building the monumental Nuraghes. Giants\' grave in Dorgali
Bronze Age ).
The Nuraghes are not the only Nuragic buildings that survive, as
there are several sacred wells around
Sardinia and other buildings
that had religious purposes such as the Giants\' grave (monumental
collective tombs) and collections of religious buildings that probably
served as destinations for pilgrimage and mass religious rites (e.g.
Su Romanzesu near
Bitti ). Head of one of the so-called Giants of
Sardinia was at the time at the centre of several commercial routes
and it was an important provider of raw materials such as copper and
lead, which were pivotal for the manufacture of the time. By
controlling the extraction of these raw materials and by commercing
them with other countries, the Nuragic civilisation was able to
accumulate wealth and reach a level of sophistication that is not only
reflected in the complexity of its surviving buildings, but also in
its artworks (e.g. the votive bronze statuettes found across
According to some scholars, the Nuragic people(s) are identifiable
Sherden , a tribe of the "
Sea Peoples ".
Nuragic civilization was linked with other contemporaneous
megalithic civilization of the western Mediterranean, such as the
Talaiotic culture of the
Balearic Islands and the Torrean civilization
Corsica . Evidence of trade with the other civilizations of
the time is attested by several artefacts (e.g. pots), coming from as
Crete , Mainland Greece ,
Spain and Italy, that have
been found in Nuragic sites, bearing witness to the scope of
commercial relations between the Nuragic people and other peoples in
Europe and beyond.
The Phoenician and subsequently Roman town of
Necropolis of Tuvixeddu ,
9th century BC the Phoenicians began visiting Sardinia
with increasing frequency, presumably initially needing safe
over-night and/or all-weather anchorages along their trade routes from
the coast of modern-day Lebanon as far afield as the African and
European Atlantic coasts and beyond. The most common ports of call
were Caralis , Nora , Bithia ,
Sulci , and
Tharros . Claudian , a
Latin poet, in his poem _De bello Gildonico_, stated that
Caralis was founded by people from Tyre , probably in the same time of
the foundation of
Carthage , in the 9th or
8th century BC .
6th century BC , after the conquest of western Sicily, the
Carthaginians planned to annex Sardinia. A first invasion attempt led
by Malco was foiled by the victorious Nuraghic resistance. However,
from 510 BC, the southern and west-central part of the island was
invaded a second time and came under Carthaginian rule. _ Roman
thermae of Forum Traiani_, in what is now
In 238 BC, taking advantage of
Carthage having to face a rebellion of
her mercenaries (the
Mercenary War ) after the First Punic War
(264–241 BC), the Romans annexed
Sardinia from the
Carthaginians. The two islands became the province of
Sardinia . They were not given a provincial governor until 227 BC. The
Romans faced many rebellions, and it took them many years to pacify
both islands. The existing coastal cities were enlarged and
embellished, and Roman colonies such as Turris Lybissonis and Feronia
were founded. These were populated by Roman immigrants. The Roman
military occupation brought the
Nuragic civilization to an end, except
for the mountainous interior of the island, which the Romans called
_Barbaria _, meaning “
Barbarian land”. Roman rule in Sardinia
lasted 694 years, during which time the province was an important
source of grain for the capital.
Latin came to be the dominant spoken
language during this period, though Roman culture was slower to take
hold, and Roman rule was often contested by the Sardinian tribes from
the mountainous regions.
A Vandal-period coin found in
Sardinia depicting Godas. Latin
legend : REX CVDA.
The east Germanic tribe of the
Sardinia in 456.
Their rule lasted for 78 years up to 534, when 400 eastern Roman
troops led by Cyril, one of the officers of the _foederati_, retook
the island. It is known that the Vandal government continued the forms
of the existing Roman Imperial structure. The governor of Sardinia
continued to be called the _praeses _ and apparently continued to
manage military, judicial, and civil governmental functions via
imperial procedures. The only Vandal governor of
Sardinia about whom
there is substantial record is the last,
Godas , a
Visigoth noble. In
AD 530, a coup d\'état in
Carthage removed King
Hilderic , a convert
Nicene Christianity , in favor of his cousin
Gelimer , an Arian
Christian like most of the élite in his kingdom.
Godas was sent to
take charge and ensure the loyalty of Sardinia. He did the exact
opposite, declaring the island's independence from
opening negotiations with Emperor
Justinian I , who had declared war
on Hilderic's behalf. In AD
Gelimer sent the bulk of his army and
navy (120 vessels and 5,000 men) to
Sardinia to subdue Godas, with the
catastrophic result that the Vandal Kingdom was overwhelmed when
Justinian's own army under
Belisarius arrived at
Carthage in their
absence. The Vandal Kingdom ended and
Sardinia was returned to Roman
BYZANTINE ERA AND THE RISE OF THE _GIUDICATI_
Sardinia returned to the rule of the
Byzantine Empire when
Vandals were defeated by the armies of
Justinian I under the
Belisarius in the
Battle of Tricamarum , in their African
Belisarius sent his general Cyril to
Sardinia to retake the
Sardinia remained in Byzantine hands for the next 300 years
aside from a short period in which it was invaded by the
Under Byzantine rule, the island was divided into districts called
_mereíai_ (μερείαι) in
Byzantine Greek , which were governed
by a judge residing in Caralis and garrisoned by an army stationed in
_Forum Traiani_ (today
Fordongianus ) under the command of a _dux _.
During this time,
Christianity took deeper root on the island,
Paganism which had survived into the early Middle Ages
in the culturally conservative hinterlands. Along with lay
Christianity, the followers of monastic figures such as Basil of
Caesarea became established in Sardinia. While
the majority of the population, the region of
largely pagan and, probably, partially non-
Latin speaking. They
re-established a short-lived independent domain with Sardinian-heathen
lay and religious traditions, one of its kings being
Hospito . Pope
Gregory I wrote a letter to
Hospito defining him "
and, being Christian, the leader and best of his people. In this
unique letter about Hospito, the Pope prompts him to convert his
people who “living all like irrational animals, ignore the true God
and worship wood and stone” (_Barbaricini omnes, ut insensata
animalia vivant, Deum verum nesciant, ligna autem et lapides
adorent_). Santa Sabina Byzantine church and nuraghe in
The dates and circumstances of the end of Byzantine rule in Sardinia
are not known. Direct central control was maintained at least through
c. 650, after which local legates were empowered in the face of the
Gregory the Patrician
Gregory the Patrician , Exarch of
Africa and the first
invasion of the
Muslim conquest of the Maghreb . There is some
evidence that senior Byzantine administration in the Exarchate of
Africa retreated to Caralis following the final fall of
Arabs in 697. The loss of imperial control in
Africa led to
escalating raids by
Berbers on the island, the first of
which is documented in 705, forcing increased military self-reliance
in the province. Communication with the central government became
daunting if not impossible during and after the Muslim conquest of
Sicily between 827 and 902. A letter by
Pope Nicholas I as early as
864 mentions the "Sardinian judges", without reference to the empire
and a letter by
Pope John VIII (reigned 872–882) refers to them as
_principes_ ("princes"). By the time of _
De Administrando Imperio _,
completed in 952, the Byzantine authorities no longer listed Sardinia
as an imperial province, suggesting they considered it lost. In all
likelihood a local noble family acceded to the power, still
identifying themselves as vassals of the Byzantines, but _de facto _
independent as communications with Constantinople were very difficult.
We know only two names of those rulers, Salusios (Σαλούσιος)
and the protospatharios Turcoturios (Tουρκοτούριος) from
two inscriptions ), who probably reigned between the 10th and the
11th century. These rulers were still closely linked to the
Byzantines, both for a pact of ancient vassalage, and from the
ideological point of view, with the use of the Greek language (in a
country of the romance language), and the use of art of Byzantine
inspiration. The medieval
Basilica of San Gavino in
12th century frescoes in the
Basilica di Saccargia in
In the early 11th century, an attempt to conquer the island was made
by Muslims based in Spain. The only records of that war are from
Pisan and Genoese chronicles. The Christians won, but after that, the
previous Sardinian kingdom was totally undermined and divided into
four small giudicati:
Gallura, Torres or Logudoro.
Whether this final transformation from imperial civil servant to
independent sovereign resulted from imperial abandonment or local
assertion, by the 10th century, the giudici (Sardinian : _judikes_ /
Latin : _iudices_, literally "judges", a Byzantine administrative
title) had emerged as the autonomous rulers of Sardinia. The title of
_iudice_ changed with the language and local understanding of the
position, becoming the Sardinian _judike_, essentially a king or
sovereign, while _giudicato _ (Sardinian : _judicadu_), literally
‘judgeship’ or ‘judicature’, came to mean "state". A letter by
Mieszko I of Poland to
Pope John XV proves that the
known even in
Poland , and that they played an important role in
Early medieval Sardinian political institutions evolved from the
millennium-old Roman imperial structures with relatively little
Giudicati were hereditary lordships, the old Byzantine
imperial notion that personal title or honor was separate from the
state still remained, so the Giudicato was not regarded as the
personal property of the monarch as was common in later European
feudalism . Like the imperial systems, the new order also preserved
"semi-democratic" forms, with national assemblies called the Crown of
the Realm . Each Giudicato saw to its own defense, maintained its own
laws and administration, and looked after its own foreign and trading
The history of the four
Giudicati would be defined by the contest for
influence between the rival rising sea powers of
Pisa , and
later the ambitions of the
Kingdom of Aragon . Sardinian
The Giudicato of
Cagliari (or Pluminos), during the regency of
Torchitorio V of
Cagliari and his successor, William III , was allied
with the Republic of
Genoa . For this it was brought to an end in
1258, when its capital,
Santa Igia , was stormed and destroyed by an
alliance of Sardinian and Pisan forces. The territory then was divided
between Republic of
Pisa , the
Della Gherardesca family and the
Arborea and Gallura.
Pisa maintained the control over the
fortress of Castel di
Cagliari founded by Pisan merchants in 1216/1217
east of Santa Igia; in the south-west the count Ugolino della
Gherardesca promoted the birth of the town of Villa di Chiesa (today
Iglesias ) to exploit the nearby rich silver deposits.
Giudicato of Logudoro (sometimes called Torres) was also allied
to the Republic of
Genoa and came to an end in 1259 after the death of
the _judikessa_ (queen) Adelasia . The territory was divided up
between the Doria and Malaspina families of
Genoa and the Bas-Serra
Arborea , while the city of
Sassari became a small republic,
Italian city-states (_comuni_), confederated firstly with
Pisa and then with Genoa.
The Giudicato of
Gallura ended in the year 1288, when the last
Nino Visconti (a friend of
Dante Alighieri ), was driven out
by the Pisans, who occupied the territory.
Giudicato of Arborea , having
Oristano as its capital, had a
longer life compared to the other kingdoms. Its later history is
entwined with the attempt to unify the island into a single Sardinian
state (_Republica Sardisca_) against their relatives and former
Pope Boniface VIII established on his own initiative (_motu
proprio _) a hypothetical _regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae_ ("Kingdom of
Corsica ") in order to settle the War of the Sicilian
Vespers diplomatically. This had broken out in 1282 between the
Capetian House of Anjou and
Catalans over the possession of Sicily.
Despite the existence of the indigenous states, the Pope offered this
newly created crown to
James II of Aragon , promising him support
should he wish to conquer Pisan
Sardinia in exchange for Sicily.
The proclamation of the Republic of
Sassari . The Sassarese republic
lasted from 1272 until 1323, when it sided with the new born Kingdom
In 1324, in alliance with the Kingdom of
Arborea and following a
military campaign that lasted a year or so, the Aragon Crown Prince
Alfonso led a Catalan army that occupied the Pisan territories of
Gallura along with the allied city of Sassari, naming
Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica_". The kingdom was to
remain a dominion of the
Crown of Aragon (under the Kings of
until the Treaty of Utrecht.
During this period, the
Giudicato of Arborea promulgated the legal
code of the kingdom in the _
Carta de Logu _ (‘Charter of the
Carta de Logu was originally compiled by Marianus IV of
Arborea , and was amended and updated by Mariano's daughter, Female
Judge (_judikessa_ or _juighissa_)
Eleanor of Arborea . The legal code
was written in Sardinian and established a whole range of citizens'
rights. Among the revolutionary concepts in this
Carta de Logu was the
right of women to refuse marriage and to own property. In terms of
civil liberties, the code made provincial 1
Sardinia one of
the most developed societies in all of Europe.
Peter IV of Aragon
Peter IV of Aragon , following Aragonese customs, granted a
parliament to the kingdom of
Sardinia and Corsica, which was followed
by some degree of self-government under a viceroy and judicial
independence. This parliament, however, had limited powers. It
consisted of high-ranking military commanders, the clergy and the
nobility. The kingdom of Aragon also introduced the feudal system into
the areas of
Sardinia that it ruled.
Giudicati never adopted feudalism, and Arborea
maintained its parliament, called the _Corona de Logu_ "Crown of the
Realm". In this parliament, apart from the nobles and military
commanders, also sat the representatives of each township and village.
The Corona de Logu exercised some control over the king: under the
rule of the _bannus consensus_ the king could be deposed or even
executed if he did not follow the rules of the kingdom. _ Statue
Eleanor of Arborea in
Broken the alliance with the Crown of Aragon, from 1353 to 1409, the
Arborean giudici Marianus IV , Hugh III and
Brancaleone Doria (husband
Eleanor of Arborea ), succeeded in occupying all of
the heavily fortified towns of the Castle of
which for years remained as the only Aragonese dominions in Sardinia.
In 1409, Martin I of
Sicily , king of
Sicily and heir to the crown of
Aragon, defeated the
Sardinians at the
Battle of Sanluri . The battle
was fought by about 20,000 Sardinian, Genoese and French knights,
enrolled from their kingdom at a time when the population of Sardinia
had been greatly depleted by the plague. Despite the Sardinian army
outnumbering the Aragonese army, they were defeated.
The giudicato of
Arborea disappeared in 1420, when its rights were
sold by the last king for 100,000 gold florins , and after some of
its most notable men switched sides in exchange for privileges. For
example, Leonardo Cubello, with some claim to the crown being from a
family related to the Kings of Arborea, was granted the title of
Oristano and feudal rights on a territory that partly
overlapped with the original extension of the Kingdom of
exchange for his subjection to the Aragonese monarchs .
The conquest of
Sardinia by the
Kingdom of Aragon meant the
introduction of the feudal system throughout Sardinia. Thus Sardinia
is probably the only European country where feudalism was introduced
in the transition period from the
Middle Ages to the early modern
period , at a time when feudalism had already been abandoned by many
other European countries.
Flag of the
Kingdom of Sardinia (center) at the funeral of
Charles I of
In 1469, the heir to Sardinia,
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon , married
Isabel of Castile , and the "
Kingdom of Sardinia " (which was
separated from Corsica) was to be inherited by their Habsburg
grandson, Charles I of
Spain , with the state symbol of the Four Moors
. The successors of Charles I of
Spain , in order to defend their
Mediterranean territories from raids of the
Barbary pirates ,
fortified the Sardinian shores with a system of coastal lookout
towers, allowing the gradual resettlement of some coastal areas.
Kingdom of Sardinia remained Aragonese-Spanish for about 400
years, from 1323 to 1708, assimilating a number of Spanish traditions,
customs and linguistic expressions, nowadays vividly portrayed in the
folklore parades of Saint Efisio in
Cagliari (1 May), the Cavalcade on
Sassari (last but one Sunday in May), and the Redeemer in
August). To this day Catalan is still spoken in the north-western city
Alghero (l\'Alguer ).
Many famines have been reported in Sardinia. According to Stephen L.
Dyson and Robert J. Rowland, "The
Cagliari recorded years
during the late 16th century "of such hunger and so sterile that the
majority of the people could sustain life only with wild ferns and
other weeds" ... During the terrible famine of 1680, some 80,000
people, out of a total population of 250,000, are said to have died,
and entire villages were devastated..."
In 1708, as a consequence of the
Spanish War of Succession , the rule
Kingdom of Sardinia passed from King Philip V of
Spain into the
hands of the Austrians , who occupied the island. The Treaty of
Sardinia to the Austrians , but in 1717, Cardinal
Giulio Alberoni , minister of Philip V of
Spain , reoccupied Sardinia
In 1718, with the Treaty of London,
Sardinia was handed over to the
House of Savoy , that would impose the
Italian language on the island
in 1760. The French siege of
Cagliari and Quartu
Sardinians repelled two French invasions . On 23 February
Domenico Millelire , commanding the Sardinian fleet, defeated
the fleets of the French Republic near the
Maddalena archipelago , of
Napoleon Bonaparte was a leader. Millelire
became the first recipient of the
Gold Medal of Military Valor
Gold Medal of Military Valor of the
Italian Armed Forces . In the same month,
Sardinians stopped the
attempted French landing on the beach of Quartu Sant\'Elena , near the
Cagliari . Because of these successes, the representatives
of nobility and clergy (_Stamenti_) formulated five requests addressed
to the King
Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia , but they got refused.
Because of this discontent, on 28 April 1794, during an uprising in
Cagliari , two Savoyard officials were killed. That was the start of a
revolt (called the "Sardinian Vespers") in the island, which
culminated on 28 April 1794 (commemorated today as _sa die de sa
Sardigna _) with the expulsion or even execution of the Piedmontese
officers for a few days from the Capital
Cagliari . G.M. Angioy
entry into Sassari.
On 28 December 1795 in
Sassari insurgents demonstrating against
feudalism, mainly from the region of
Logudoro , occupied the city. On
13 February 1796, in order to prevent the spread of the revolt, the
viceroy Filippo Vivalda gave the Sardinian magistrate Giovanni Maria
Angioy the role of Alternos, which meant a substitute of the viceroy
himself. Angioy moved from
Cagliari to Sassari, and during his journey
almost all the villages joined the uprising, demanding an end to
feudalism and aiming to declare the island to be an independent
republic, but once he was outnumbered by loyalist forces he fled to
Paris and sought support for a French annexation of the island.
In 1798 the islet near
Sardinia was attacked by the Tunisians and
over 900 inhabitants were taken away as slaves . The final Muslim
attack on the island was on Sant\'Antioco on 16 October 1815, over a
millennium since the first.
In 1799, as a consequence of the
Napoleonic Wars in Italy, the Savoy
royal family left
Turin and took refuge in
Cagliari for some fifteen
years. In 1847, the Sardinian parliaments (_Stamenti_), in order to
get the Piedmontese liberal reforms they could not afford due to their
separated legal system, renounced their state autonomy and agreed to
form a union with Piedmont, Savoy, Nice and
Liguria in order to have a
single parliament, a single magistracy and a single government in
Turin; this move aggravated the island's peripheral condition and
most of the pro-union supporters, including its leader Giovanni Siotto
Pintor, would later regret it.
Sardinians wearing traditional
In 1820, the Savoyards imposed the "Enclosures Act" (_Editto delle
Chiudende_) on the island, aimed at turning the land's traditional
collective ownership, a cultural and economic cornerstone of Sardinia
since the Nuragic times, to private property. This gave rise to many
abuses, as the reform favoured the landholders while excluding the
poor Sardinian farmers and shepherds, who witnessed the abolition of
the communal rights and the sale of the land. Many local rebellions
like the Nuorese _Su Connottu_ ("The Already Known" in Sardinian) riot
in 1868, all repressed by the King's army, resulted in an attempt to
return to the past and reaffirm the right to use the once common land.
However the common lands (called _ademprivios_) were never completely
abolished, and they are still present in large number to this day
(500,000 hectares of common lands were counted in 1956, of which
345,000 constituted by woods).
In 1848, the confederation of states powered by the Savoyard kings of
Sardinia became a unitarian and constitutional state and moved to the
Italian Wars of Independence for the Unification of
Italy , that were
led for thirteen years. In 1861, being
Italy united by a debated war
campaign, the parliament of the
Kingdom of Sardinia decided by law to
change its name and the title of its king in Kingdom of
Italy and King
Italy . Most Sardinian forests were cut down at this time, in order
to provide the Piedmontese with raw materials, like wood, used to make
railway sleepers on the mainland. The extension of the primary natural
forests, praised by every traveller visiting Sardinia, would in fact
be reduced to 1/5 of their original number, being little more than
100.000 hectares at the end of the century.
During the First World War , the Sardinian soldiers of the Brigata
Sassari distinguished themselves. It was the first and only regional
military unit in Italy, since the people enrolled were only
Sardinians. The regiment suffered heavy losses and earned four gold
Medals of Military Valor .
Sardinia lost more young people than any
other Italian region on the front, with 138 casualties per 1000
soldiers compared to the Italian average of 100 casualties.
During the Fascist period, with the implementation of the policy of
autarky , several swamps around the island were reclaimed and agrarian
communities founded. The main communities were the village of
Mussolinia (now called
Arborea ), populated by farmers from
Friuli , in the area of
Fertilia , populated at first by
settlers from the
Ferrara area, followed, after
World War II
World War II , by a
notable number of
Istrian Italians and
Dalmatian Italians hailing from
territories lost to
Yugoslavia , in the area adjacent the city of
Alghero , within the region of
Nurra . Also established during that
time (1938) was the city of Carbonia , which became the main centre of
coal mining activity, that attracted thousand of workers from the rest
of the Island and the Italian mainland. The Sardinian writer Grazia
Deledda won the
Nobel Prize for Literature in 1926. Effect of
Allied bombing on
Cagliari during the
Second World War
Second World War .
Second World War
Second World War ,
Sardinia was an important air and naval
base and was heavily bombed by the Allies , especially the city of
Cagliari. German troops left the island on 8 September 1943, a few
days after the
Armistice of Cassibile
Armistice of Cassibile , and retired to
fighting and bloodshed, after a bilateral agreement between the
general Antonio Basso (Commander of the Armed Forces of Sardinia) and
the German Karl Hans Lungerhausen, general of the 90th Panzergrenadier
POST-SECOND WORLD WAR PERIOD
In 1946, by popular referendum,
Italy became a republic, with
Sardinia being administered since 1948 by a special statute of
autonomy. By 1951, malaria was successfully eliminated by the ERLAAS,
Anti-malaric Regional Authority, and the support of the Rockefeller
Foundation , which facilitated the commencement of the Sardinian
tourist boom. With the increase in tourism , coal decreased in
Sardinia followed the
Italian economic miracle .
Super Yachts anchored at
Porto Cervo port,
In the early 1960s, an industrialisation effort was commenced, the
so-called _Piani di Rinascita_ (rebirth plans), with the initiation of
major infrastructure projects on the island. These included the
construction of new dams and roads, reforestation, agricultural zones
on reclaimed marshland, and large industrial complexes (primarily oil
refineries and related petrochemical operations). With the creation of
petrochemical industries , thousands of ex-farmers became industrial
1973 oil crisis
1973 oil crisis caused the termination of employment for
thousands of workers employed in the petrochemical industries, which
aggravated the emigration already present in the 1950s and 1960s.
Sardinia faced the creation of military bases on the island, like
Decimomannu Air Base and
Salto di Quirra (the biggest scientific
military base in Europe) in the same decades. Even now, around 60% of
all Italian and
NATO military installations in
Italy are on Sardinia,
whose area is less than one-tenth of all the Italian territory and
whose population is little more than the 2.5%; furthermore, they
comprise over 35.000 hectares used for experimental weapons testing,
where 80% of the military explosives in
Italy are used.
Sardinian nationalism and local protest movements became stronger in
the 1970s, and a number of bandits (_anonima sarda _) started a long
series of kidnappings , which ended only in the 1990s. This also gave
rise to various militant groups that blended separatist and communist
ideas, the most famous being _
Barbagia Rossa_ and the Sardinian Armed
Movement , which perpetrated several bombings and terrorist actions
between the 1970s and the 1980s. In the span of just two years
(1987–1988), 224 bombing attacks were reported. Santo Stefano
NATO naval base
In 1983 a prominent activist of a separatist party, the Sardinian
Action Party (_Partidu Sardu – Partito Sardo d'Azione_), was elected
president of the regional parliament, and in the 1980s several other
movements calling for independence from
Italy were born; in the 1990s
some of them became political parties, even if in a rather disjointed
manner. It was not until 1999 that the island's languages (Sardinian ,
Tabarchino ) were recognised,
even if just formally, together with Italian . The
35th G8 summit was
Prodi II Cabinet to be held in Sardinia, on the island of
La Maddalena , in July 2009; however, in April 2009, the Italian Prime
Silvio Berlusconi , decided, without convoking the Italian
parliament or consulting the Sardinian governor of his own party , to
move the summit, even though the works were almost completed, to
L\'Aquila , provoking heavy protests.
Sardinia is phasing in as an EU region, with a diversified
economy focused on tourism and the tertiary sector. The economic
efforts of the last twenty years have reduced the handicap of
insularity, especially in the fields of low-cost air travel and
advanced information technology . For example, the
CRS4 (Center for
Advanced Studies, Research and Development in Sardinia) developed the
second European website and 1st in
Italy in 1991 and webmail in 1995.
CRS4 allowed several telecommunication companies and internet service
providers based on the island to flourish, such as Videonline in 1994,
Tiscali in 1998 and Andala Umts in 1999.
Main Building of the University of
Sassari (founded in 1617)
According to the ISTAT census of 2001, the literacy rate in Sardinia
among people below 64 years old is 99.5 percent. Total literacy rate
(including people over 65) is 98.2 percent. Illiteracy rate among
males below 65 years old is 0.24 percent and among women 0.25 percent;
the number of women that annually graduate at secondary high schools
and universities is about 10–20 percent higher than men. Sardinia
has the 2nd highest rate of school drop-out in Italy.
Sardinia has two public universities: the University of
the University of
Cagliari , founded in the 17th century. 48,979
students were enrolled at universities in 2007–08.
Economic classification of European regions according to
Eurostat Exports of
Sardinia in 2012–13
Taken as a whole, Sardinia's economic conditions are such that the
island is in the best position among Italian regions located south of
Rome. The greatest economic development had taken place inland, in the
Sassari , characterized by a certain amount
of enterprise. According to
Eurostat , the 2014 nominal GDP was
€33,356 million, €33,085 million in purchasing power parity ,
resulting in €19,900 GDP per capita that is the 72% of the EU
average. The per capita income in
Sardinia is the highest of the
southern half of Italy. The most populated provincial chief towns have
higher incomes: in
Cagliari the income per capita is €27,545, in
Sassari €24,006, in
Oristano €23,887, in
Nuoro is €23,316 and in
Olbia is €20,827.
The Sardinian economy is, however, constrained due to the high costs
of the transportation of goods and electricity, which is twice that of
the continental Italian regions, and triple that of the EU average.
Sardinia is the only Italian region that produces a surplus of
electricity, and exports electricity to
Corsica and the Italian
mainland : in 2009, the new submarine power cable
Sapei entered into
operation, it links the Fiume Santo Power Station, in Sardinia, to the
converter stations in Latina , in the Italian peninsula, the
another submarine power cable that links
Sardinia to Italy, crossing
Corsica , from 1965. The submarine gas pipeline
GALSI would have
brought Algerian gas to the Italian mainland through the island.
Three main banks are headquartered in Sardinia: the Banco di Sardegna
and the Banca di
Sassari , both based in
Sassari ; Banca di Credito
Sardo , based in
Cagliari , was absorbed by parent company Intesa
Sanpaolo in 2014.
The unemployment rate for the fourth quarter of 2008 was 8.6%; by
2012, the unemployment rate had increased to 14.6%. Its rise was due
to the global financial crisis that hit Sardinian exports, mainly
focused on refined oil, chemical products, and also mining and
There are chances for
Sardinia to become a tax haven , the whole
island territory being free by custom duties , vat and excise taxes on
fuel; since February 2013, the town of
Portoscuso has become the first
free trade zone. According to the article 12 of the Sardinian
Statute modified by the regional parliament in October 2013: "_The
Territory of the Autonomous Region of
Sardinia is located off the
customs line and constitutes a Free Trade Zone enclosed by the
surrounding sea; the access points consist of the seaports and the
airports. The Sardinian Free Trade Zone is regulated by the laws of
European Union and
Italy that are in force also in Livigno,
Campione D'Italia, Gorizia, Savogna d'Isonzo and the Region of Aosta
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT _nominal_
(Million €) 25,958.1
GDP PER CAPITA _nominal_
Percentage distribution of employees in different economic
sectors in Sardinia: 8.7% the primary sector (fishing, agriculture,
farming), 23.5% the secondary sector (industry, machinery,
manufacturing), and 67.8% the tertiary sector (tourism, services,
This table shows the sectors of the Sardinian economy in 2011:
GDP (MIL. €)
Agriculture, farming, fishing
Commerce, hotels and restaurants, transport, services and
Financial activity and real estate
Other economic activities related to services
Total value added
GDP OF SARDINIA
Sheep grazing around Lula ,
Sardinia's land is dedicated 60% to livestock, 20% to agriculture and
the rest is occupied by closed forests, urban areas and areas that are
Sicily practically has reversed percentages and, with
the same extension, almost three times the inhabitants of Sardinia.
Sardinia is home to nearly 4 million sheep, almost half of the entire
Italian assets and that makes the island one of the areas of the world
with the highest density of sheep along with some parts of UK and New
Zealand (135 sheep every square kilometer versus 129 in UK and 116 in
New Zealand). The soils of
Sardinia are largely underpowered, shallow
and therefore not very productive for agriculture.
Sardinia has been
for thousands of years specializing in sheep breeding, and, to a
lesser extent, goats and cattle that is less productive of agriculture
in relation to land use. It is probably in breeding and cattle
ownership the economic base of the early proto-historic and monumental
Sardinian civilization from Neolithic to the Iron Age. Peel
trunks of cork oaks in
Even agriculture has played a very important role in the economic
history of the island, especially in the great plain of Campidano,
particularly suitable for wheat farming. The Sardinian soils, even
those plains are slightly permeable, with aquifers of lacking and
sometimes brackish water and very small natural reserves. Water
scarcity was the first problem that was faced for the modernization of
the sector, with the construction of a great barrier system of dams,
which today contains nearly 2 billion cubic meters of water. The
Sardinian agriculture is now linked to specific products such as
cheese, wine, olive oil, artichoke, tomato for a growing product
export. The reclamations have helped to extend the crops and to
introduce other ones such as vegetables and fruit, next to the
historical ones, olive and grapes that are present in the hilly areas.
Campidano plain, the largest lowland Sardinian produces oats,
barley and durum, of which is one of the most important Italian
producers. Among the vegetables, as well as artichokes, has a certain
weight the production of oranges, and, before the reform of the sugar
sector from the European Union, the cultivation of sugar beet. In the
forests there is the cork oak , which grows naturally; Sardinia
produces about 80% of Italian cork. In fresh food, as well as
artichokes, the production of tomatoes (including Camoni tomato) and
citrus fruit are of a certain weight.
Sardinia is the 5th Italian
region for rice production, the main paddy fields are located in the
In addition to meat,
Sardinia produces a wide variety of cheese,
considering that half of the sheep milk produced in
Italy is produced
in Sardinia, and is largely worked by the cooperatives of the
shepherds and small industries.
Sardinia also produces most of the
pecorino romano, a non-original product of the island, much of which
is traditionally addressed to the Italian overseas communities.
Sardinia boasts a centuries-old tradition of horse breeding since the
Aragonese domination, whose cavalry drew from equine heritage of the
island to strengthen their own army or to make a gift to the other
sovereigns of Europe. Today the Island boasts the highest number of
horse herds in Italy.
There is little fishing (and no real maritime tradition), Portoscuso
tunas are exported worldwide, but primarily to
Japan . The cork
district, in the northern part of the
Gallura region, around
Tempio Pausania , is composed of 130 companies. Every
Sardinia 200,000 quintals (20,000 tonnes) of cork are carved,
and 40% of the end products are exported.
Industry And Handicraft
Petrochemical and Green Chemical industries in
The once prosperous mining industry is still active though restricted
to coal (
Nuraxi Figus , hamlet of
Gonnesa ), antimony (
Furtei ), bauxite (Olmedo ) and lead and zinc (
Nurra ). The granite extraction represents one of the most flourishing
industries in the northern part of the island. The
district is composed of 260 companies that work in 60 quarries, where
75% of the Italian granite is extracted. The principal industries are
Porto Torres ,
Porto Torres ,
Sarroch ), metalworking (Portoscuso,
Villacidro ), cement (
Cagliari ), pharmaceutical (Sassari
), shipbuilding (
Porto Torres ), oil rig
Arbatax ), rail industry (
Villacidro ), arms
Domusnovas and food (sugar refineries at
Oristano, dairy at
Thiesi , fish factory at
Sardinia is located the DASS (_Distretto Aerospaziale della
Sardegna_), a consortium of companies, research centers and
universities focused on aerospace industry and research. The
aerospace manufacturer Vitrociset , in
Villaputzu , is involved in the
production of the stealth multirole fighter Lockheed Martin F-35
Lightning II .
Plans related to industrial conversion are in progress in the main
industrial sites, like in Porto Torres, where seven research centres
are developing the transformation from traditional fossil fuel related
industry to an integrated production chain from vegetable oil using
oleaginous seeds to bio-plastics.matrica green chemicals
Sardinia is involved in the industrial production of the
AIRPod , an
innovative car powered by compressed air, with the first factory being
Craft industries include rugs, jewelry, textile, lacework, basket
making and coral.
Porto Cervo (luxury tourism represents an important
source of income in
Sardinia since the 1960s)
The Sardinian economy is today focused on the overdeveloped tertiary
sector (67.8% of employment), with commerce , services , information
technology , public administration and especially on tourism (mainly
balnear tourism), which represents the main industry of the island
with 2,721 active companies and 189,239 rooms. In 2008 there were
2,363,496 arrivals (up 1.4% on 2007). In the same year, the airports
of the island registered 11,896,674 passengers (up 1.24% on 2007).
Sardinia Radio Telescope
Sardinia Radio Telescope
On the island are headquartered some telecommunication companies and
internet service providers, such as
Tiscali and the Mediterranean
Skylogic Teleport, a ground station controlled by satellite provider
Sardinia is after Valle D'Aosta the Italian region with
the highest e-intensity index (Index that measures the relative
maturity of Internet economies on the basis of three factors:
enablement, engagement, and expenditure) and the region with the
highest internet performances, such as fastest broadband connection in
Italy. The Chinese multinational telecommunications equipment and
Huawei have development centers and
innovation labs in Sardinia.
Sardinia has become Europe's first region to fully adopt the new
Digital Terrestrial Television broadcasting standard. From 1 November
2008 TV channels are broadcast only in digital.
Boeing 767 of Sardinian airline
Sardinia has three international airports (Alghero-Fertilia/Riviera
del Corallo Airport , Olbia-
Costa Smeralda Airport and Cagliari-Elmas
Airport ) connected with the principal Italian cities and many
European destinations, mainly in the
United Kingdom ,
Germany , and two regional airports (Oristano-Fenosu Airport
Arbatax Airport ). Internal air connections between
Sardinian airports are limited to a daily Cagliari-
Olbia flight and
Olbia flight. Sardinian citizens benefit from special sales
on plane tickets, and several low-cost air companies operate on the
Meridiana is an airline based in the airport of
Olbia ; it was
Alisarda in 1963 by the
Aga Khan IV . The development of
Alisarda followed the development of
Costa Smeralda in the north east
part of the island, a well known vacation spot among billionaires and
film actors worldwide.
A high-speed ferry in the Gulf of
The ferry companies operating on the island are Tirrenia di
Moby Lines ,
Corsica Ferries -
Sardinia Ferries , Grandi
SNCM and CMN; they link the Sardinian seaports of
Porto Torres ,
Golfo Aranci ,
Santa Teresa Gallura ,
Toulon , Bonifacio
A regional ferry company, the
Saremar , links the main island to the
La Maddalena and San Pietro , and from 2011, also the port
Porto Torres with
About 40 tourist harbours are located along the Sardinian coasts.
Cable-stayed bridge of the
Monserrato University Campus
interchange SS 554 A bus of
Sardinia public transport
authorities (Arst ) in
Sardinia is the only Italian region without
Autostrade , but the road
network is well developed with a system of no-toll roads with dual
carriageway , called _superstrade_ (en: super roads), that connect the
principal towns and the main airports and seaports; the speed limit is
90 km/h (56 mph)/110 km/h (68 mph). The principal road is the SS131
Carlo Felice ", linking the north with the south of the island,
crossing the most historic regions of
Porto Torres and
Cagliari ; it
is part of
European route E25. The SS 131 d.c.n links
Olbia , crossing the hinterland
Nuoro region. Other roads designed for
high-capacity traffic link
Sassari with Tempio
Lanusei . A work in progress is converting the
main routes to highway standards, with the elimination of all
intersections . The secondary inland and mountain roads are generally
narrow with many hairpin turns , so the speed limits are very low.
Public transport buses reach every town and village at least once a
day; however, due to the low density of population, the smallest
territories are reachable only by car. The Azienda Regionale Sarda
Trasporti (ARST ) is the public regional bus transport agency.
Networks of city buses serve the main towns.
Sardinia 1,295,462 vehicles circulate, equal to 613 per 1,000
ATR 365 owned by the Autonomous Region of
7-kilometre-long (4 mi) railway tunnel of Campeda Tourist
The Sardinian railway system was developed starting from the 19th
century by the Welsh engineer
Benjamin Piercy .
Today there are two different railway operators:
Trenitalia which connects the most populated towns, the main ports
and also the Italian peninsula through the use of train ferries . This
network is the most modern on the island, running primarily diesel
locomotives such as the _
Alstom Minuetto_ and, from 2015 the faster
tilting train CAF ATR365 and ATR 465 , specifically designed for the
Sardinian railway network;
* ARST : the trains run on narrow-gauge track, are generally slow,
due to the tortuosity of the lines, except for the electrified
tram-trains operating in the metropolitan areas of
Trenino Verde _ (_Little Green Train_) is a railway tourism
service operated by ARST. Vintage railcars and steam locomotives run
through the wildest parts of the island. They allow the traveller to
have scenic views impossible to see from the main roads.
Sardinian people ,
Corsican people ,
Italian people ,
Catalan people , and List of
Source: ISTAT 2011, – D.Angioni-S.Loi-G.Puggioni, La popolazione
dei comuni sardi dal 1688 al 1991, CUEC, Cagliari, 1997 – F.
Corridore, Storia documentata della popolazione di Sardegna, Carlo
Clausen, Torino, 1902
With a population density of 69/km2, slightly more than a third of
the national average,
Sardinia is the fourth least populated region in
Italy. In the recent past the population distribution was anomalous
compared to that of other Italian regions lying on the sea. In fact,
contrary to the general trend, most urban settlement, with the
exception of the fortified cities of
Alghero , Castelsardo
and few others, has not taken place primarily along the coast but in
the subcoastal areas and towards the centre of the island. Historical
reasons for this include the repeated
Saracen raids during the Middle
Ages and then
Barbary raids until the early 19th century (making the
coast unsafe), widespread pastoral activities inland, and the swampy
nature of the coastal plains (reclaimed definitively only in the 20th
century). The situation has been reversed with the expansion of
seaside tourism; today all Sardinia's major urban centres are located
near the coasts, while the island's interior is very sparsely
populated. Change in population for each comune of Sardinia
between 1861 and 2011
It is the region with the lowest total fertility rate (1.087 births
per woman) and the second-lowest birth rate of
Italy (which is
already one of the lowest in the world). Combined with the aging of
population going rather fast (in 2009, people older than 65 were
18,7%), rural depopulation is quite a big issue: between 1991 and
2001, 71,4% of Sardinian villages have lost population (32 more than
20% and 115 between 10% and 20%), with over 30 of them being at risk
to become ghost towns . Nonetheless, the overall population has been
increasing because of a considerable immigration flow, mainly from the
Italian mainland, Eastern
Average life expectancy is slightly over 82 years (85 for women and
79.7 for men ).
Sardinia shares with the Japanese island of Okinawa
the highest rate of centenarians in the world (22 centenarians/100,000
Sardinia is the first discovered
Blue Zone , a
demographic and/or geographic area in the world with an oversize
concentration of centenarians and supercentenarians.
In 2016 there were 50,346 foreign national residents, forming 3% of
the total Sardinian population. The most represented nationalities
United Kingdom 669
MAIN CITIES AND FUNCTIONAL URBAN AREAS
Cagliari, Alghero, Sassari, Nuoro, Oristano,
Sardinia's most populated cities are
Cagliari and Sassari. The
Metropolitan City of
Cagliari has 431,302 inhabitants, or about ¼ of
the population of the entire island.
Eurostat has identified in
Sardinia two Functional Urban Areas : Cagliari, with 477,000
inhabitants, and Sassari, with 222,000 inhabitants.
Metropolitan City of
Quartu Sant\'Elena / Quartu Sant'Aleni
Metropolitan City of
Alghero / L'Alguer
Nuoro / Nùgoro
Oristano / Aristanis
Province of South Sardinia
Selargius / Ceraxius
Metropolitan City of
Province of South Sardinia
Assemini / Assèmini
Metropolitan City of
Capoterra / Cabuderra
Metropolitan City of
Metropolitan City of
Monserrato / Pauli
Metropolitan City of
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
Politics of Sardinia and List of political parties in
Sardinia Provinces of Sardinia.
Sardinia is one of the five Italian autonomous regions , along with
Valle d\'Aosta ,
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol ,
Friuli Venezia Giulia
Sicily . Its statute, which is a constitutional law , gives the
region the right to create its own laws in a wide number of domains
and to carry out regional administrative functions.
The regional administration is constituted by three authorities:
* the Regional Council (legislative power)
* the Regional Junta (executive power)
* the President (chief of executive power)
Sardinia is divided into four provinces,
Oristano , Sassari
Sardinia , and one metropolitan city ,
Cagliari (metropolitan city)
Province of South Sardinia
US Artillery Live Fire Exercise in Capo Teulada 2015 during NATO
exercise Trident Juncture
Around 61% of all the Italian and
NATO military installations in
Italy are on Sardinia, whose area is less than one-tenth of all the
Italian territory and whose population is little more than the 2,5%.
The bases, used for manufacturing plants and military testing grounds,
totally take up more than 350 km² of the island's land, making
Sardinia the most militarized region in
Italy and the most militarized
island in Europe. Besides the land-occupying installations, where 80%
of the military explosives in
Italy are used, there are also other
military structures located on the sea and along the coastline,
roughly equivalent to 20000 km² (little less than the island's
surface), being made inaccessible to the civil population when
military exercises are being held. Among the others, the most notable
military bases on the island are the Interagency Polygons in Quirra,
Capo Teulada and Capo Frasca, used by Italian and
NATO forces to
test-fire ballistic missiles and weapons. Until 2008, the US navy had
also a nuclear submarine base in the
Maddalena Archipelago .
See also: List of
Sardinians , List of tourist attractions in
Sardinia , and
List of archaeological and artistic sites of Sardinia
_ A Mamuthone_ and an _Issohadore_, traditional carnival costumes
Sardinia is the only autonomous region where its special
the term _popolo_ (distinct people) to describe its inhabitants .
While this formula applies even to
Veneto , which unlike
an ordinary region within the Italian Republic, the Sardinian Statute
is adopted with a constitutional law . In both cases, this term does
not imply any legal difference between
Sardinians and the other
Sardinian language ,
Sassarese language , Gallurese
Algherese Catalan , and
Ligurian (Romance language)
Language map of
Sardinia A ‘no smoking ’ sign in both
Sardinian and Italian A bilingual road sign in Italian and
Italian (_Italiano_), which is the official language throughout Italy
, is the most widely spoken language on the island, followed by
Sardinian is a distinct branch of the
Romance language family: it is
not, by any means, an Italian dialect , rather it is closer to its
Latin roots than Italian itself. Sardinian has been formally
recognized as one of the twelve historical language minorities of
Italy since 1997, by regional and Italian law. The language has been
influenced by Catalan , Spanish and recently Italian, while the once
spoken Nuragic contributes many features to it in many ancient
remnants. In 2006 the regional administration has approved the use of
a standardised writing system, the so-called _Limba Sarda Comuna_, in
official acts. As a literary language, Sardinian is gaining
importance, despite heated debate about the lack of a commonly
acknowledged standard orthography and controversial proposed solutions
to this problem.
The two most widely spoken forms of the language are the Southern
dialects, known as Campidanese (_Sardu Campidanesu_), and the Northern
dialects known as Logudorese (_Sardu Logudoresu_), extending almost to
the suburbs of
Sassari . The
Sardinian language is quite different
from the other
Romance languages and is homogeneous in terms of
morphology , syntax and lexicon , but it also shows a spectrum of
variation in terms of phonetics between the Northern and the Southern
Sassarese (_Sassaresu_) and
Gallurese (_Gadduresu_) are classified as
Corso-Sardinian languages , therefore more akin to the Italo-Dalmatian
branch than to the Sardinian one, and are spoken in the north.
Sardinia there are examples of language islands : Algherese
(_Alguerés_) is a dialect of Catalan spoken in the city of
on the islands of San Pietro and Sant\'Antioco , located in the
extreme south west of Sardinia, the local population speaks a variant
of Ligurian called
Tabarchino (_Tabarchin_); fewer and fewer people
speak Venetian , Friulian and Istriot in
Fertilia , since
these villages have been populated in the 1920s and 1930s by colonists
who mainly came from north-eastern Italy, and families from
Dalmatia immediately after
World War II
World War II .
Due to the Italian assimilation policies carried out since 1760 and
the ongoing absorption into the Italian culture, over the course of
time the once prevalent indigenous languages have been increasingly
losing ground to Italian and the process of ongoing language shift has
led to their extreme endangerment. In fact, according to the data
published by ISTAT in 2006, 52.5% of the Sardinian population mainly
speaks Italian in the family environment, while 29.3% alternates
Italian and Sardinian and only 16.6% mainly uses Sardinian or other
Following the recent growth of the foreign-born population, the
presence of other languages, principally Romanian ,
Arabic , Wolof and
Chinese , is expanding in some urban areas.
WORLD HERITAGE SITES
Megalithic building structures called nuraghes are scattered in great
numbers throughout Sardinia.
Su Nuraxi di Barumini is a
Heritage Site .
Sardinian literature and
Sardinian Literary Spring
Ovodda Main article: Sardinian_people §
Colourful and of various and original forms, the Sardinian
traditional clothes are a clear symbol of belonging to specific
collective identities. Although the basic model is homogeneous and
common throughout the island, each town or village has its own
traditional clothing which differentiates it from the others.
Music of Sardinia
Sardinia is home to one of the oldest forms of vocal polyphony ,
generally known as cantu a tenore . In 2005,
Unesco classed the _cantu
a tenore_ among intangible world heritage. Several famous musicians
have found it irresistible, including
Frank Zappa ,
Ornette Coleman ,
Peter Gabriel . The latter travelled to the town of
Bitti in the
central mountainous region and recorded the now world-famous Tenores
Bitti CD on his Real World label. The guttural sounds produced in
this form make a remarkable sound, similar to
Tuvan throat singing .
Another polyphonic style of singing, more like the Corsican
_paghjella_ and liturgic in nature, is found in
Sardinia and is known
as _cantu a cuncordu_.
Another unique instrument is the launeddas . Three reed-canes (two of
them glued together with beeswax ) produce distinctive harmonies,
which have their roots many thousands of years ago, as demonstrated by
the bronze statuettes from
Ittiri , of a man playing the three reed
canes, dated to 2000 BC.
Beyond this, the tradition of _cantu a chiterra_ (guitar songs) has
its origins in town squares, when artists would compete against one
another. The most famous singer of this genre are
Maria Carta and
Elena Ledda .
Sardinian culture is alive and well, and young people are actively
involved in their own music and dancing. In 2004,
BBC presenter Andy
Kershaw travelled to the island with Sardinian music specialist Pablo
Farba and interviewed many artists. His programme can be heard on BBC
Sardinia has produced a number of notable jazz musicians such
as Antonello Salis, Marcello Melis, and
Paolo Fresu .
The main opera houses of the island are the Teatro Lirico in Cagliari
and the Teatro Verdi in
Sassari (soon to be replaced by the new Teatro
Cheeses and sausages in
Alghero 's city market A range of
different cakes, pastries, meals, dishes and sweets which are common
elements of Sardinian cuisine
Meat, dairy products, grains and vegetables constitute the most basic
elements of the traditional diet, to a lesser extent rock lobster
(_aligusta_), scampi , bottarga (_butàriga_), squid, tuna.
Suckling pig (_porcheddu_) and wild boar (_sirbone_) are roasted on
the spit or boiled in stews of beans and vegetables, thickened with
bread. Herbs such as mint and myrtle are used. Much Sardinian bread is
made dry, which keeps longer than high-moisture breads. Those are
baked as well, including _civraxiu_, _coccoi pintau_, a highly
decorative bread and _pistoccu_ made with flour and water only,
originally meant for herders, but often served at home with tomatoes,
basil, oregano, garlic and a strong cheese. Traditional cheeses
include pecorino sardo , pecorino romano , casizolu , ricotta and the
casu marzu (notable for containing live insect larvae). Beer
One of the most famous of foods is pane carasau , the flat bread of
Sardinia, famous for its thin crunchiness. Originally the making of
this bread was a hard process which needed three women to do the job.
This flat bread is always made by hand as it gives a different flavor
the more you work the dough. After working the dough it will be rolled
out in very thin circles and placed in an extremely hot stone oven
where the dough will blow up into a ball shape. Once the dough
achieves that state it is then removed from the oven where it is then
cut into two thin sheets and stacked to go back into the oven. Main
Alcoholic beverages include many peculiar wines such as Cannonau ,
Vermentino , various liquors like Abbardente ,
Filu Ferru and Mirto . Beer is the most drunk alcoholic beverage,
Sardinia boasts the highest consumption per capita of beer in Italy
(twice higher than national average).
Birra Ichnusa is the most
commercialized beer produced in Sardinia.
Cagliari is home to
Cagliari Calcio , which was founded in 1920 and
will play in the
Serie A , the Italian first division, in 2016–17
following promotion from
Serie B . It won the Italian Championship in
Serie A season, becoming the first club in Southern
Italy to achieve such a result. Home matches are played at the Stadio
Sassari is home to Dinamo Basket
Sassari , the only Sardinian
professional basketball club playing in the Italiana serie A (Lega A),
the highest level club competition in Italian professional basketball.
It was founded in 1960, and is also known as Dinamo Banco di Sardegna
thanks to a long sponsorship deal with the Sardinian bank. Since its
promotion in Lega A in 2010, it has been enjoying the support of fans
Sassari and all over
Sardinia with full-house matches on every
game played at home. Dinamo
Sassari achieved the highest titles in the
Italian basketball in 2015, winning the Coppa Italia , the Supercoppa
and the Italian basketball championship.
In the Province of
Sassari is the Mores motor racing circuit , the
only FIA Circuit homologated by CSAI (Cars) and the IMF (Motorcycles),
Cagliari hosted a
Formula 3000 race in 2002 and 2003 on a 2.414-km
street circuit around Sant'Elia stadium . In 2003,
Renault F1 's Jarno
Trulli and former
Jean Alesi did a spectacular
exhibition. At the Grand Prix BMW-F1 driver Robert Kubica took part in
a F3 car, as did BMW WTCC Augusto Farfus, GP2 's
Fairuz Fauzy and
Vitaly Petrov . Since 2004
Sardinia has hosted the Rally d\'Italia
Sardegna , a rally competition in the FIA World Rally Championship
schedule. The rally is held on narrow, twisty, sandy and bumpy
mountainous roads in the north of the island.
Santa Maria Navarrese
Santa Maria Navarrese
On the island of
Caprera is located the _Centro Velico
that is considered the largest school of sailing in the Mediterranean
Sea , founded in 1967.
The Yacht Club
Costa Smeralda located in
Porto Cervo and founded in
1967 is the main yachting club in the island.
Annually the island hosts the
Loro Piana Super Yacht Regatta and the
Maxy Yacht Rolex Cup . Part of the Louis Vuitton Trophy was held in
Maddalena archipelago in 2010.
Cagliari hosts regular international regattas , such RC44
Farr 40 World championship and
Audi MedCup ; all series
which boast current America\'s Cup contenders like
BMW Oracle Racing ,
Mascalzone Latino and
Emirates Team New Zealand as contenders.
_Vento di Sardegna_ (en: Wind of Sardinia) is a sailboat sponsored by
the Autonomous Region of Sardinia. Its skipper, Andrea Mura, won the
Single-Handed Trans-Atlantic Race in 2013, the Two Handed
Transatlantic Race (Twostar) regatta in 2012 and the Route du Rhum.
Porto Pollo , north of Palau , is a bay often used by windsurfers and
kitesurfers . The bay is divided by a thin tongue of land that
separates it in an area for advanced and beginning/intermediate
windsurfers. There is also a restricted area for kitesurfers. Many
Italian freestyle surfers come to
Porto Pollo for training and 2007
saw the finale of the freestyle pro kids
Europe 2007 contest. Because
Venturi effect between
Corsica , western wind
accelerates between the islands and creates the wind that makes Porto
Pollo popular among windsurfing enthusiasts. In 2005,
hosted the Kitesurf World Cup in the Vignola 's beach.
Skilifts on the Bruncu Spina
Four ski resorts are located on the
Gennargentu Range at
Separadorgiu, Monte Spada, S'Arena and Bruncu Spina, they are equipped
with ski schools, skilifts and ski equipment hire.
_S'Istrumpa_, also known as Sardinian Wrestling, is a traditional
Sardinian sport, officially recognized by the Italian National Olympic
Committee (C.O.N.I.) and the International Federation of Celtic
Wrestling (I.F.C.W.). It shows similarities with the Scottish
Backhold and the gouren . Istrumpa's wrestlers participate annually at
the championships for Celtic wrestling stiles.
Sardinia boasts ancient equestrian traditions and is the Italian
region with the highest number of horse riders (29% of population)
and boasts also fine darts tradition, which many believe originated in
Sassari region of the country towards the end of the 15th century.
In those days, the darts were carved from beech (_fagus_) wood and the
flights were feathers drawn from the indigenous _pollo sultano _
(‘sultana bird’), famed for its spectacular violet-blue plumage.
_ A wind farm in
Paeonia mascula _
The island has some environmental laws. Following an enormous
reforestation plan it has become the Italian region with the largest
forest extension. The 50% of the territory is covered by forested
areas, 1,213,250 hectares (12,132 km2). The _Corpo forestale e di
vigilanza ambientale della Regione Sarda_ is the Sardinian Forestry
Sardinia is the Italian region most affected by forest fires
during the summer.
The Regional Landscape Plan prohibits new building activities on the
coast (except in urban centers), next to forests, lakes or other
environmental or cultural sites and the Coastal conservation agency
ensures the protection of natural areas on the Sardinian coast.
Renewable energies have increased noticeably in recent years, mainly
wind power , favoured by the windy climate, but also solar power
Carlo Rubbia , Nobelist in physics, is creating an experimental solar
thermal energy central) and biofuel , based on jatropha oil and colza
oil . 586.8 megawatts of wind power capacity were installed on the
island at the end of 2009.
List of mammals of Sardinia Giara horses
Albine donkeys in Asinara The Sardinian feral cat, long
considered a subspecies of the
African wildcat , are descended from
Sardinia is home to a wide variety of rare or uncommon animals, such
as several species of mammals , many of them belonging to an endemic
Mediterranean monk seal ,
Sarcidano horse , Giara
horse , albino donkey , Sardinian feral cat , mouflon , Sardinian
long-eared bat ,
Sardinian deer , fallow deer , Sardinian fox (_Vulpes
vulpes ichnusae_), Sardinian hare (_Lepus capensis mediterraneus_),
wild boar (_Sus scrofa meridionalis_), edible dormouse and European
pine marten .
Rare amphibians, found only on the island, are the Sardinian brook
salamander , brown cave salamander , imperial cave salamander , Monte
Albo cave salamander ,
Supramonte cave salamander and Sarrabus cave
salamander (_Speleomantes sarrabusensis_); the
Sardinian tree frog is
also found in
Corsica and in the
Tuscan Archipelago . Among reptiles
worthy of note are Bedriaga\'s rock lizard , the Tyrrhenian wall
lizard and Fitzinger\'s algyroides , endemic species of
Corsica. The island is inhabited by terrestrial tortoises and sea
turtles like Hermann\'s tortoise , the spur-thighed tortoise ,
marginated tortoise (_Testudo marginata sarda_), Nabeul tortoise,
loggerhead sea turtle and green sea turtle . A new arachnid species,
endemic to the island, has been recently found: the
Nuragic spider .
Sardinia has four endemic subspecies of birds found nowhere else in
the world: its great spotted woodpecker (ssp _harterti_), great tit
(ssp _ecki_), common chaffinch (ssp _sarda_), and Eurasian jay (ssp
_ichnusae_). It also shares a further 10 endemic subspecies of bird
Corsica . In some cases
Sardinia is a delimited part of the
species range. For example, the subspecies of hooded crow , _Corvus
cornix _ ssp _cornix_ occurs in
Sardinia and Corsica, but no further
Some birds of prey found here are the griffon vulture , common
buzzard , golden eagle , long-eared owl , western marsh harrier ,
peregrine falcon ,
European honey buzzard , Sardinian goshawk
(_Accipiter gentilis arrigonii_), Bonelli\'s eagle and Eleonora\'s
falcon , whose name comes from Eleonor of
Arborea , national heroine
of Sardinia, expert in falconry . The hundreds of lagoons and coastal
lakes that dot the island are home for many species of wading birds,
such as the greater flamingo .
Sardinia lacks many species common on the European
continent, such as the viper , wolf , bear and marmot .
The island has also long been used for grazing flocks of indigenous
Sardinian sheep . The
Sardinian Anglo-Arab is a horse breed that was
established in Sardinia, where it has been selectively bred for more
than one hundred years.
Three different breeds of dogs are peculiar to Sardinia: the Pastore
Dogo Sardo and
Levriero Sardo .
NATURAL PARKS AND RESERVES
National and regional parks of
Sardinia Sulcis Regional
Park, the European largest Mediterranean evergreen forest
Over 600,000 hectares of Sardinian territory is environmentally
preserved (about 25% of the island's territory). The island has
three national parks :
Asinara National Park ,
* 2. Arcipelago di
La Maddalena National Park , and
Gennargentu National Park .
The numbers correspond to those in the map to right.
Ten regional parks :
* 4. Parco del Limbara
* 5. Parco del Marghine e Goceano
* 6. Parco del Sinis – Montiferru
* 7. Parco di Monte Arci
* 8. Parco della Giara di Gesturi
* 9. Parco di
Monte Linas – Oridda – Marganai
* 10. Parco dei Sette Fratelli – Monte Genas
* 11. Parco del Sulcis
* Parco naturale regionale di Porto Conte
* Parco regionale Molentargius – Saline
There are 60 wildlife reserves, 5 W.W.F oases, 25 natural monuments
and one Geomineral Park, preserved by
Northern Sardinian Coasts are included in the Pelagos Sanctuary for
Mammals , a Marine Protected Area, that covers a
surface of about 84,000 km2 (32,433 sq mi), aimed at the protection of
* Islands portal
* Mediterranean portal
History of Sardinia
List of tourist attractions in Sardinia
Sardinian people , List of
Kingdom of Sardinia
Sardinian Literary Spring
List of monarchs of Sardinia
* ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT 2011" (PDF). Demo.istat.it.
Retrieved 4 December 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_
Banca D'Italia, Economie regionali – Istat datas – page 55
* ^ Delibera della Giunta regionale del 26 giugno 2012
* ^ "Legge Regionale 15 ottobre 1997, n. 26-Regione Autonoma della
* ^ Nuragica, Archeologia (9 August 2010). "Archeologia Nuragica:
Sul nome Sardigna".
* ^ _Platonis dialogi, scholia in Timaeum_ (edit. C. F. Hermann,
Lipsia 1877), 25 B, pag. 368
* ^ M. Pittau, _La Lingua dei Sardi Nuragici e degli Etruschi_,
Sassari 1981, pag. 57
* ^ Sardi in _Dizionario di Storia_ (2011), Treccani
* ^ Sardi in _Enciclopedia Italiana_ (1936), Giacomo Devoto,
* ^ "Personaggi – Sardo".
* ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. _Balearic Sea_. Encyclopedia of Earth.
Eds. P.Saundry & C.J.Cleveland. National Council for Science and the
Environment. Washington DC
* ^ http://www.earthweek.com/2013/ew131122/ew131122c.html Cyclone'
Cleopatra Submerges Parts of Sardinia
* ^ "Località più secche". _Sardegna Clima Onlus_.
* ^ Domenico Corraine. "Il clima della Sardegna".
* ^ Tabelle climatiche 1971–2000 della stazione meteorologica di
Elmas Ponente dall'Atlante Climatico 1971–2000 – Servizio
Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica Militare
* ^ "Climatological Information for Cagliari, Italy" – Hong Kong
* ^ _A_ _B_ Paolo Melis – Un approdo della costa di Castelsardo,
fra età nuragica e romana
* ^ Giovanni Ugas, _L'alba dei Nuraghi_ p.22-23-24-25-29-30-31-32
* ^ _Nuraghes_ in Logudorese Sardinian , _nuraxis_ in Campidanese
Sardinian , plurals of _nuraghe _ and _nuraxi_ respectively.
* ^ "SP INTERVISTA>GIOVANNI UGAS: SHARDANA".
* ^ Claudian, De Bello Gildonico, IV A.D.: city located in front of
Libya (Africa), founded by the powerful Tyro, Karalis extends in
length, between the waves, with a small bumpy hill, disperses
headwinds. It follows a port in the mid of the sea, and all strong
winds are softened in the shelter of the pond.(521.Urbs Lybiam contra
Tyrio fundata potenti 521. Tenditur in longum Caralis, tenuemque per
undas 522. Obvia dimittit fracturum flamina collem. 523. Efficitur
portus medium mare: tutaque ventis 524. Omnibus, ingenti mansuescunt
* ^ _A_ _B_ Brigaglia, Mastino, Ortu 2006 , p. 27.
* ^ Piero Meloni, La Sardegna romana, Sassari, Chiarella, 1975, p.
* ^ "
Sardinia - Province of the Roman Empire". _www.unrv.com_.
* ^ Casula 1994 , p. 133.
* ^ The
Vandals by Andy Merrills and Richard Miles, published by
John Wiley & Sons, 2010, p. 136. Retrieved 12 October 2010
* ^ "Provicia del Sole – Siena".
* ^ Casula 1994 , p. 137-138.
* ^ Italia, Stephan Hützen & MT Publisher. "
Sardinia - History of
Sardinia". _www.sardegna.net_. Retrieved 2017-07-18.
Wolf Heinz J., 1998, Toponomastica barbaricina.
Microtoponomastica dei comuni di Fonni, Gavoi, Lodine, Mamoiada,
Oliena, Ollolai, Olzai, Orgósolo, Ovodda, Insula Edizioni
* ^ Gregorius I, Epistolae, Liber Quartus, Epistola XXIII: “Ad
Hospitonem ducem barbaricinorum: Gregorius Hospitoni duci
Barbaricinorum. Cum de gente vestra nemo Christianus sit, in hoc scio
quia omni gente tua es melior, quia tu in ea Christianus inveniris.
Dum enim Barbaricini omnes, ut insensata animalia vivant, Deum verum
nesciant, ligna autem et lapides adorent, in eo ipso quod Deum verum
colis, quantum omnes antecedas ostendis. Sed fidem quam percepisti
etiam bonis actibus exsequere et verbis, et Christo, cui credis, offer
quod praevales, ut ad eum quoscunque potueris adducas, eosque
baptizari facias, et aeternam vitam diligere admoneas. Quod si
fortasse ipse agere non potes, quia ad aliud occuparis, salutans peto
ut hominibus (0692C) nostris, quos illuc transmisimus, fratri scilicet
et coepiscopo meo Felici, filioque meo Cyriaco servo Dei, solatiari in
omnibus debeas, ut dum eorum labores adiuvas, devotionem tuam
omnipotenti Domino ostendas; et ipse tibi in bonis actibus adiutor
sit, cuius tu in bono opere famulis solatiaris. Benedictionem vero
sancti Petri apostoli per eos vobis transmisimus, quam peto ut
debeatis benigne suscipere. Mense Iunio, indictione 12”
* ^ Edwardes, Charles (1889). _
Sardinia and the Sardes_. London: R.
Bentley and Son. p. 249.
* ^ _A_ _B_ P. Grierson & L.Travaini, Medieval European Coinage,
Cambridge University Press, 1998, p. 287.
* ^ Cosentino, Salvatore (2004). _Byzantine
Sardinia between East
and West_. Berlin, New York: Millennium. pp. 329–367.
* ^ Casula 1994 , p. 163.
* ^ Κύριε βοήθε τοῦ δοῦλου σου
Tουρκοτουρίου ἅρχωντος Σαρδινίας καί
τής δούλης σου Γετιτ 2) Tουρκοτουρίου
βασιλικου πρωτοσπαθαρίου και
Σαλουσίου των ευγενεστάτων αρχόντων.)
R. CORONEO, Scultura mediobizantina in Sardegna, Nuoro, Poliedro, 2000
* ^ Antiquitas nostra primum Calarense iudicatum, quod tunc erat
caput tocius Sardinie, armis subiugavit, et regem Sardinie Musaitum
nomine civitati Ianue captum adduxerunt, quem per episcopum qui tunc
Ianue erat, aule sacri palatii in Alamanniam mandaverunt, intimantes
regnum illius nuper esse additum ditioni Romani imperii." – Oberti
Cancellarii, Annales p 71, Georg Heinrich (a cura di) MGH, Scriptores,
Hannoverae, 1863, XVIII, pp. 56–96
* ^ Crónica del califa ‘Abd ar-Rahmân III an-Nâsir entre los
años 912–942,(al-Muqtabis V), édicion. a cura de P. CHALMETA –
F. CORRIENTE, Madrid,1979, p. 365 Tuesday, 24 August 942 (A.D.), a
messenger of the Lord of the island of
Sardinia appeared at the gate
of al-Nasir (...) asking for a treaty of peace and friendship. With
him were the merchants, people Malfat, known in al-Andalus as from
Amalfi, with the whole range of their precious goods, ingots of pure
silver, brocades etc. ... transactions which drew gain and great
* ^ To the Archont of Sardinia: a bulla with two gold bisolida with
this written: from the very Christian Lord to the Archont of Sardinia.
(εὶς τὸν ἄρχοντα Σαρδανίας. βούλλα
κρυσῆ δισολδία. "κέλευσις ὲκ τῶν
φιλοχρίστων δεσποτῶν πρὸς τὸν
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Sardinia and Its Resources_ (2010)
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Sardinia in Five Senses_ by Charming
Italy Publishers (2008)
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Robert Andrews (2007) excerpt and text search
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Sardinia from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages: Shepherds,
Sailors, and Conquerors_ (2007)
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Sardinia Side Show_ by
Amelie Posse Brazdova (1930)
* _The Island of Sardinia_ by John Warre Tyndale vol I (1849) From
* _The Island of Sardinia_ by John Warre Tyndale vol II (1849) From
* _The Island of Sardinia_ by John Warre Tyndale vol III (1849) From
* _Sketch of the present state of the island of Sardinia_ by William
Henry Smyth (1928) From Google books
* DH Lawrence _
Sea and Sardinia _ (1921)
* Casula, Francesco Cesare (1994). _La Storia di Sardegna_. Sassari,
it: Carlo Delfino Editore. ISBN 978-88-7138-084-1 .
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origini al Settecento_. Roma-Bari: Laterza Editore. ISBN
978-88-420-7839-5 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )
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Sardinia Tourism website in English
* Official regional website in Italian
* Digital Library of
Sardinia Autonomous Region
* Dyson, S., R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. "Places: 472014
Sardinia Ins.)". Pleiades. Retrieved 8 March 2012. CS1 maint:
Multiple names: authors list (link )
Coordinates : 40°00′N 09°00′E / 40.000°N 9.000°E /