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Sabah
Sabah
(Malay pronunciation: [saˈbah]) is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo
Borneo
Island. Sabah
Sabah
has land borders with the Malaysian state of Sarawak
Sarawak
to the southwest, and Indonesia's Kalimantan
Kalimantan
region to the south. The Federal Territory of Labuan
Labuan
is an island just off the Sabah
Sabah
coast. Sabah
Sabah
shares maritime borders with Vietnam
Vietnam
in the west and the Philippines
Philippines
to the north and east. Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
is the capital city, the economic centre of the state and the seat of the Sabah
Sabah
state government. Other major towns in Sabah
Sabah
include Sandakan
Sandakan
and Tawau. As of the 2015 census in Malaysia, the state's population is 3,543,500.[19] Sabah
Sabah
has an equatorial climate with tropical rainforests and abundant animal and plant species. The state has long mountain ranges on the west side which form part of the Crocker Range
Crocker Range
National Park. Kinabatangan
Kinabatangan
River, second longest river in Malaysia
Malaysia
runs through Sabah
Sabah
and Mount Kinabalu is the highest point of Sabah
Sabah
as well as of Malaysia. The earliest human settlement in Sabah
Sabah
can be traced back to 20,000–30,000 years ago along the Darvel Bay
Darvel Bay
area at the Madai-Baturong caves. The state had a trading relationship with China from the 14th century AD. Sabah
Sabah
came under the influence of the Bruneian Empire
Bruneian Empire
in the 14th–15th century while the eastern part of the territory fell under the influence of Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
between the 17th–18th centuries. The state was subsequently acquired by the British-based North Borneo
North Borneo
Chartered Company in the 19th century. During World War II, Sabah
Sabah
was occupied by the Japanese for three years. It became a British Crown Colony in 1946. On 31 August 1963, Sabah
Sabah
was granted self-government by the British. Following this, Sabah
Sabah
became one of the founding members of the Federation of Malaysia (established on 16 September 1963) alongside Sarawak, Singapore (expelled in 1965), and the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
(Peninsular Malaysia or West Malaysia). The federation was opposed by neighbouring Indonesia, which led to the Indonesia– Malaysia
Malaysia
confrontation over three years along with the threats of annexation by the Philippines, threats which continue to the present day.[20] Sabah
Sabah
exhibits notable diversity in ethnicity, culture and language. The head of state is the Governor, also known as the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, while the head of government is the Chief Minister. The government system is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and has one of the earliest state legislature system in Malaysia. Sabah
Sabah
is divided into administrative divisions and districts. Malay is the official language of the state;[21][22] and Islam
Islam
is the state religion; but other religions may be practised in peace and harmony in any part of the state.[23] Sabah
Sabah
is known for its traditional musical instrument, the sompoton. The Sabah
Sabah
International Folklore
Folklore
Festival is the main folklore event in Malaysia, other festivals including the Borneo
Borneo
Bird Festival, Borneo
Borneo
Bug Fest, Borneo Eco Film Festival, Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
Food Fest, Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
Jazz Festival, Sabah
Sabah
Dragon Boat Festival, Sabah
Sabah
Fest and Sabah
Sabah
Sunset Music Festival. Sabah
Sabah
is the only state in Malaysia
Malaysia
to celebrate the Kaamatan
Kaamatan
festival. Sabah
Sabah
has abundant natural resources, and its economy is strongly export-oriented. Its primary exports include oil, gas, timber and palm oil. The other major industries are agriculture and ecotourism.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Sultanates of Brunei
Brunei
and Sulu influences 2.3 British North Borneo 2.4 Second World War 2.5 British crown colony 2.6 Malaysia

3 Politics

3.1 Government 3.2 Administrative division

4 Security

4.1 Territorial disputes

5 Environment

5.1 Geography 5.2 Biodiversity

5.2.1 Conservation issues

6 Economy 7 Infrastructure

7.1 Energy and water resources 7.2 Telecommunication and broadcasting 7.3 Transportation 7.4 Healthcare 7.5 Education

8 Demography

8.1 Ethnicity and immigration 8.2 Religion 8.3 Languages

9 Culture

9.1 Fine arts and crafts 9.2 Cuisine 9.3 Portrayal in media 9.4 Holidays and festivals 9.5 Sports

10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links

Etymology[edit]

Sabah
Sabah
is located south of the typhoon belt, making it insusceptible to the devastating effects of the typhoons which frequently batter the neighbouring Philippines,[24] such as the Typhoon
Typhoon
Haiyan in 2013.[25]

The origin of the name Sabah
Sabah
is uncertain, and there are many theories that have arisen.[26] One theory is that during the time it was part of the Bruneian Sultanate, it was referred to as Saba
Saba
because of the presence a variety of banana called pisang saba (also known as pisang menurun),[27][28] which is grown widely on the coast of the region and popular in Brunei.[29] The Bajau community referred to it as pisang jaba.[29] While the name Saba
Saba
also refers to a variety of banana in both Tagalog and Visayan languages, the word in Visayan has the meaning of "noisy".[26] Perhaps due to local dialect, the word Saba has been pronounced as Sabah
Sabah
by the local community.[27] While Brunei was a vassal state of Majapahit, the Old Javanese eulogy of Nagarakretagama
Nagarakretagama
described the area in what is now Sabah
Sabah
as Seludang.[12][27] Meanwhile, although the Chinese since during the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
had long been associated with the island of Borneo,[30][31] they did not have any specific names for the area. Instead during the Song dynasty, they referred to the whole island as Po Ni (also pronounced Bo Ni), which is the same name they used to refer to the Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
at the time.[26] Due to the location of Sabah
Sabah
in relation to Brunei, it has been suggested that Sabah
Sabah
was a Brunei
Brunei
Malay word meaning upstream or "in a northerly direction".[28][32][33] Another theory suggests that it came from the Malay word sabak which means a place where palm sugar is extracted.[34] Sabah
Sabah
('صباح') is also an Arabic word which means morning. The presence of multiple theories makes it difficult to pinpoint the true origin of the name.[35] It is nicknamed "Land Below the Wind" (Negeri Di Bawah Bayu) as the state lies below the typhoon belt of East Asia and never battered by any typhoons,[24][36] except for several tropical storms.[37] History[edit] Main article: History of Sabah

Historical affiliations

Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
15th century–1882[34] Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
1658–1882[12][38] British North Borneo
North Borneo
1882–1941; 1945–1946 Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
1942–1945 British North Borneo
North Borneo
Crown 1946–1963   Malaysia
Malaysia
1963–present

Prehistory[edit] Main article: Prehistoric Malaysia

Entrance to the Madai Cave.

The earliest known human settlement into the region existed 20,000–30,000 years ago, as evidenced by stone tools and food remains found by excavations along the Darvel Bay
Darvel Bay
area at Madai-Baturong caves near the Tingkayu River.[39] The earliest inhabitants in the area were thought to be similar to Australian aborigines, but the reason for their disappearance is unknown.[40] In 2003, archaeologists discovered the Mansuli valley in the Lahad Datu District, which dates back the history of Sabah
Sabah
to 235,000 years.[41] The first southern Mongoloid
Mongoloid
migration then occurred 5,000 years ago,[40] as evidenced from the discovery of archaeological site at Bukit Tengkorak, Semporna
Semporna
which is famed for being the largest pottery making site during the Neolithic
Neolithic
Southeast Asian period.[42][43] Some anthropologists such as S.G. Tan and Thomas R. Williams believe that these Mongoloids (comprising today of Kadazan-Dusun, Murut, Orang Sungai, etc.)[40] are said to originate from South China and Northern Vietnam, and are more closely related to a number of indigenous groups in the Philippines
Philippines
and Formosa (Taiwan) than to the indigenous peoples of neighbouring Sarawak
Sarawak
and Kalimantan,[44] These claims were also supported by the findings of Charles Hose
Charles Hose
and William McDougall in their account of the "Pagan Tribes of Borneo" that stated:

“ The people in northern Borneo
Borneo
are probably part of Mongolian blood and descended from a race inhabiting southern China.[45] ”

Sultanates of Brunei
Brunei
and Sulu influences[edit]

The presence of Chinese junk in northern Borneo
Borneo
on Kinabatangan
Kinabatangan
as been photographed by Martin and Osa Johnson
Martin and Osa Johnson
in 1935, both the sultanates of Brunei
Brunei
and Sulu have been traditionally engaging trade with the dynasties of China and the arrival of Chinese junks was continued until the British colonial times.[46][47]

During the 7th century CE, a settled community known as Vijayapura, a tributary to the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
empire, was thought to have existed in northwest Borneo.[48] The earliest kingdom, supposed to have existed from the 9th century, was Po Ni, as recorded in the Chinese geographical treatise Taiping Huanyu Ji. It was believed that Po Ni existed at the mouth of Brunei
Brunei
River and was the predecessor to the Bruneian Empire.[49] As China had been under the conquest of Mongol Empire, all Chinese vassal state subsequently controlled by the Mongol emperors of China. Early in 1292, Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
is said to have sending an expedition to northern Borneo,[50] before departing for the invasion of Java in 1293.[51][52] As a result of this campaign, it is believed that many of his followers in addition to other Chinese traders eventually settled and established their own colony at Kinabatangan
Kinabatangan
River.[50] In the 14th century, Brunei
Brunei
became the vassal state of Majapahit
Majapahit
but in 1370 transferred its allegiance to Ming dynasty of China.[53] The Maharaja
Maharaja
Karna of Borneo
Borneo
then paid a visit to Nanjing
Nanjing
with his family until his death.[54] He was succeeded by his son Hsia-wang who agreed to send tribute to China once every three years.[53] Since then, Chinese junks came to northern Borneo
Borneo
with cargoes of spices, bird nests, shark fins, camphor, rattan and pearls.[46] More Chinese traders eventually settled in Kinabatangan, as stated in both Brunei
Brunei
and Sulu records.[53][55] A younger sister of Huang Senping (Ong Sum Ping), the Governor of the Chinese settlement then married Sultan Ahmad of Brunei.[53][56] Perhaps due to this relationship, a burial place with 2,000 wooden coffins, some estimated to be 1,000 years old, were discovered in Agop Batu Tulug Caves
Agop Batu Tulug Caves
and around the Kinabatangan
Kinabatangan
Valley area.[57][58] It is believed that this type of funeral culture was brought by traders from Mainland China
Mainland China
and Indochina
Indochina
to northern Borneo
Borneo
as similar wooden coffins were also discovered in these countries.[57] In addition with the discovery of Chinese ceramics
Chinese ceramics
from a shipwreck in Tanjung Simpang Mengayau
Tanjung Simpang Mengayau
which estimated to be from 960–1127 A.D. of Song dynasty
Song dynasty
and Vietnamese Đông Sơn drum
Đông Sơn drum
in Bukit Timbang Dayang on Banggi Island
Banggi Island
that had existed between 2,000–2,500 years ago.[40][59][60]

Territorial changes of northern Borneo
Borneo
from 1500 to 1905.

Sultanates thalassocracy:   Sultanate of Brunei   Sultanate of Sulu   Sultanate of Bulungan

European/Western presence:   British North Borneo
North Borneo
Company / British North Borneo   American Trading Company of Borneo   German Borneo
Borneo
Company   Dutch East India
India
Company / Dutch East Indies   Kingdom of Sarawak

During the reign of the fifth sultan of Bolkiah
Bolkiah
between 1485 and 1524, the Sultanate's thalassocracy extended over northern Borneo
Borneo
and the Sulu Archipelago, as far as Kota Seludong (present-day Manila) with its influence extending as far of Banjarmasin,[61] taking advantage of maritime trade after the fall of Malacca
Malacca
to the Portuguese.[62][63] Many Brunei
Brunei
Malays migrated to Sabah
Sabah
during this period, beginning after the Brunei
Brunei
conquest of the territory in the 15th century.[64] But plagued by internal strife, civil war, piracy and the arrival of western powers, the Bruneian Empire
Bruneian Empire
began to shrink. The first Europeans to visit Brunei
Brunei
were the Portuguese, who described the capital of Brunei
Brunei
at the time as surrounded by a stone wall.[62] The Spanish followed, arriving soon after Ferdinand Magellan's death in 1521, when the remaining members of his expedition sailed to the islands of Balambangan and Banggi in the northern tip Borneo; later, in Castilian War
Castilian War
of 1578, Spain unsuccessfully declared war on Brunei.[12][60][65] The Sulu region gained its own independence in 1578, forming their own sultanate known as the Sultanate of Sulu.[66] When the civil war broke out in Brunei
Brunei
between Sultans Abdul Hakkul Mubin and Muhyiddin, the Sulu asserted their claim to Brunei's territories in northern Borneo.[65][67] The Sulu claimed that Sultan Muhyiddin had promised to cede the northern and eastern portion of Borneo
Borneo
to them in compensation for their help in settling the civil war.[65][68] The territory seems never to have been ceded formally, but the Sulu continued to claim the territory, with Brunei
Brunei
weakened and unable to resist.[69] After the war with the Spanish, the area in northern Borneo
Borneo
began to fall under the influence of the Sulu Sultanate.[65][68] The seafaring Bajau-Suluk and Illanun people
Illanun people
then arrived from the Sulu Archipelago
Sulu Archipelago
and started settling on the coasts of north and eastern Borneo,[note 1][71] many of them were fleeing from the oppression of Spanish colonialism.[72] While the thalassocratic Brunei
Brunei
and Sulu sultanates controlled the western and eastern coasts of Sabah
Sabah
respectively, the interior region remained largely independent from either kingdoms.[73] The Sultanate of Bulungan's influence was limited to the Tawau
Tawau
area,[74] who came under the influence of the Sulu Sultanate before gaining its own rule after the 1878 treaty between the British and Spanish governments.[75] British North Borneo[edit] Main articles: North Borneo
North Borneo
Chartered Company, North Borneo, and Madrid Protocol of 1885

Left: The first concession treaty was signed by Sultan Abdul Momin
Abdul Momin
of Brunei
Brunei
on 29 December 1877.[34] Right: The second concession treaty was signed by Sultan Jamal ul-Azam of Sulu on 22 January 1878.[69]

In 1761, Alexander Dalrymple, an officer of the British East India Company, concluded an agreement with the Sultan of Sulu to allow him to set up a trading post for the first time in northern Borneo, although this was to prove a failure.[76] Following the British occupation of Manila
Manila
in 1763, the British freed the Sultan Alimuddin from Spanish colonisers and allowed him to return to his throne;[77] this was welcomed by the Sulu people and by 1765, Dalrymple managed to obtain the island, having concluded a Treaty of Alliance and Commerce with the Sultan of Sulu by the willing of Sultan Alimuddin as a sign of gratitude for the British aid.[68][77] A small British factory was then established in 1773 on Balambangan Island, a tiny island situated off the north coast of Borneo.[68] The British saw the island as a suitable location to control the trade route in the East, capable of diverting trade from the Spanish port of Manila
Manila
and the Dutch port of Batavia especially with its strategic location between the South China Sea and Sulu Sea.[68] But the British abandoned the island two years later when the Sulu pirates began attacking.[55] This forced the British to seek refuge in Brunei
Brunei
in 1774, and to abandon temporarily their attempts to find alternative sites for the factory.[68] Although an attempt was made in 1803 to turn Balambangan into a military station,[55] the British did not re-establish any further trading posts in the region until Stamford Raffles
Stamford Raffles
founded Singapore in 1819.[68]

Flag of British North Borneo
North Borneo
from 1882–1948.

In 1846, the island of Labuan
Labuan
on the west coast of Sabah
Sabah
was ceded to Britain by the Sultan of Brunei
Brunei
through the Treaty of Labuan, and in 1848 it became a British Crown Colony.[55] Seeing the presence of British in Labuan, the American consul in Brunei, Claude Lee Moses, obtained a ten-year lease in 1865 for a piece of land in northern Borneo. Moses then passed the land to the American Trading Company of Borneo, a company owned by Joseph William Torrey
Joseph William Torrey
and Thomas Bradley Harris as well Chinese investors.[55][78] The company choose Kimanis (which they renamed "Ellena") and start to build a base there. Requests for financial backing from the US government proved futile and the settlement was later abandoned. Before he left, Torrey managed to sell all his rights to the Austrian Consul in Hong Kong, von Overbeck. Overbeck then went to Brunei, where he met the Temenggong to renew the concession.[78] Brunei
Brunei
agreed to cede all territory in northern Borneo
Borneo
under its control, with the Sultan receiving an annual payment of $12,000, while the Temenggong received a sum of $3,000.[68] In 1872, the Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
granted use of an area of land in the Sandakan
Sandakan
Bay to William Frederick Schuck, a former agent of the German consular service who had lived on the Sulu island of Jolo
Jolo
since 1864. The arrival of German warship Nymph at the Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea
in 1872 to investigate the Sulu-Spanish conflict made the Sultanate believe Schuck was connected with the German government.[79] The Sultanate authorised Schuck to establish a trading port to monopolise the rattan trade in the northeast coast, where Schuck could operate freely, without the Spanish blockade.[80] He continued this operation until this land also was ceded to Overbeck, with the Sultan receiving an annual payment of $5,000, by a treaty signed in 1878.[68]

Map of British North Borneo
North Borneo
by Edward Stanford
Edward Stanford
in 1888, kept by the United States Library of Congress.

After a series of transfers, Overbeck tried to sell the territory to Germany, Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and Italy but all rejected his offer.[78] Overbeck then co-operated with the British Dent brothers (Alfred Dent and Edward Dent) for financial backing to develop the land, with the Dent company persuading him that any investors would need guarantees of British military and diplomatic support.[78] Overbeck agreed to this co-operation, especially with regard to the counterclaims of the Sultan of Sulu, part of whose territory in the Sulu Archipelago
Sulu Archipelago
had been occupied by Spain.[78] Overbeck, however, withdrew in 1879 and his treaty rights were transferred to Alfred Dent, who in 1881 formed the North Borneo
North Borneo
Provisional Association Ltd to administer the territory.[81][82][83] In the following year, Kudat
Kudat
was made its capital but due to frequent pirate attacks, the capital was moved to Sandakan
Sandakan
in 1884.[48] To prevent further disputes over intervention, the governments of the United Kingdom, Spain and Germany signed the Madrid Protocol of 1885, recognising the sovereignty of the King of Spain over the Sulu Archipelago
Sulu Archipelago
in return for the relinquishment of all Spanish claims over northern Borneo.[84] The arrival of the company brought prosperity to the residents of northern Borneo, with the company allowing indigenous communities to continue their traditional lifestyles, but imposing laws against headhunting, ethnic feuds, slave trade, and piracy.[85][86] North Borneo
North Borneo
then became a protectorate of the United Kingdom in 1888 despite facing local resistance from 1894 to 1900 by Mat Salleh and Antanum
Antanum
in 1915.[55][86] Second World War[edit] Main articles: Battle of Borneo
Borneo
(1941–42), Japanese occupation of British Borneo, and Battle of North Borneo

A map of the occupation of Borneo
Borneo
in 1943 prepared by the Japanese during World War II, with label written in Japanese characters.

Japanese civilians and soldiers prior to their embarkation to Jesselton after their surrender to the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) in Tawau
Tawau
on 21 October 1945.

The Japanese forces landed in Labuan
Labuan
on 3 January 1942,[87] during the Second World War, and later invaded the rest of northern Borneo.[55] From 1942 to 1945, Japanese forces occupied North Borneo, along with most of the rest of the island, as part of the Empire of Japan. The British saw Japanese advances in the area as motivated by political and territorial ambitions rather than economic factors.[88] The residing British and native Sabahans reluctantly obeyed and gave in to the brutality of the Japanese.[89] The occupation drove many people from coastal towns to the interior, fleeing the Japanese and seeking food.[90] The Malays generally appeared to be favoured by the Japanese, although some of them faced repression, whilst other races such as the Chinese and indigenous peoples were severely repressed.[91] The Chinese were already resisting the Japanese occupation, especially with the Sino-Japanese War in Mainland China.[92] Local Chinese formed a resistance, known as the Kinabalu Guerillas, led by Albert Kwok, with broad support from various ethnic groups in northern Borneo
Borneo
such as Dusun, Murut, Suluk and Illanun peoples. The movement was also supported by Mustapha Harun.[93] Kwok along with many other sympathisers were, however, executed after the Japanese foiled their movement in the Jesselton Revolt.[90][94] As part of the Borneo
Borneo
Campaign to retake the territory, Allied forces bombed most of the major towns under Japanese control, including Sandakan, which was razed to the ground. The Japanese ran a brutal prisoner of war camp known as Sandakan
Sandakan
camp for those siding with the British.[95] The majority of the POWs were British and Australian soldiers captured after the fall of Malaya and Singapore.[96][97] The prisoners suffered notoriously inhuman conditions, and amidst continuous Allied bombardments, the Japanese to forced them to march into Ranau, which is about 260 kilometres away, in an event known as the Sandakan
Sandakan
Death March.[98] The number of prisoners were reduced to 2,345, with many of them killed en route by either friendly fire or by the Japanese. Only six of the several hundred Australian prisoners lived to see the war's end.[99] In addition, of the total of 17,488 Javanese labourers brought in by the Japanese during the occupation, only 1,500 survived mainly due to starvation, harsh working conditions and maltreatment.[90] In March 1945, Australian forces launched Operation Agas
Operation Agas
in order to gather intelligence in the region and launch guerilla warfare against the Japanese.[100] The war ended on 10 September 1945 after the Australian Imperial Forces (AIF) succeeded in the battle of North Borneo.[55][101] British crown colony[edit] Main article: Crown Colony of North Borneo

Postage stamp of the North Borneo
North Borneo
Crown with portrait of Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
in 1964.[note 2]

After the Japanese surrender, North Borneo
North Borneo
was administered by the British Military Administration and on 15 July 1946 became a British Crown Colony.[55][102] The Crown Colony of Labuan
Labuan
was integrated into this new colony. During the ceremony, both the Union Jack
Union Jack
and Chinese flag were raised from the bullet-ridden Jesselton Survey Hall building.[102] The Chinese were represented by Philip Lee, part of the resistance movement against the Japanese, who eventually supported the transfer of power to the Crown colony.[102] He said:

“ Let their blood be the pledge of what we wish to be—His Majesty's most devoted subjects.[102] ”

Due to massive destruction in the town of Sandakan
Sandakan
since the war, Jesselton was chosen to replace the capital with the Crown continued to rule North Borneo
North Borneo
until 1963. The Crown colony government established many departments to oversee the welfare of its residents and to revive the economy of North Borneo
North Borneo
after the war.[103] Upon Philippine independence in 1946, seven of the British-controlled Turtle Islands (including Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi and Mangsee Islands) off the north coast of Borneo
Borneo
were ceded to the Philippines
Philippines
as had been negotiated by the American and British colonial governments.[104][105] Malaysia[edit] Main articles: Malaysia
Malaysia
Agreement, 20-point agreement, and Indonesia– Malaysia
Malaysia
confrontation

Donald Stephens (left) declaring the forming of the Federation of Malaysia
Malaysia
at Merdeka Square, Jesselton on 16 September 1963. Together with him is the Deputy Minister of Malaya Abdul Razak (right) and Mustapha Harun
Mustapha Harun
(second right).

Donald Stephens officiating the Keningau Oath Stone
Keningau Oath Stone
on 31 August 1964, an important agreement remembrance that has been promised between Sabahans and the Malaysian federal government.

On 31 August 1963, North Borneo
North Borneo
attained self-government.[13][14][15] The Cobbold Commission
Cobbold Commission
was set up in 1962 to determine whether the people of Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak
Sarawak
favoured the proposed union of the Federation of Malaysia, and found that the union was generally favoured by the people.[106] Most ethnic community leaders of Sabah, namely, Mustapha Harun
Mustapha Harun
representing the native Muslims, Donald Stephens representing the non-Muslim natives, and Khoo Siak Chew representing the Chinese, would eventually support the union.[93][107][108] After discussion culminating in the Malaysia Agreement and 20-point agreement, on 16 September 1963 North Borneo (as Sabah) was united with Malaya, Sarawak
Sarawak
and Singapore, to form the independent Federation of Malaysia.[109][110]

Royal Marines
Royal Marines
Commando unit armed with machine gun and Sten
Sten
gun patrolling using a boat in the river on Serudong, Sabah
Sabah
to guard the state during the Indonesia– Malaysia
Malaysia
confrontation.

From before the formation of Malaysia
Malaysia
until 1966, Indonesia
Indonesia
adopted a hostile policy towards the British-backed Malaya, leading after union to the Indonesia– Malaysia
Malaysia
confrontation.[111] This undeclared war stemmed from what Indonesian President Sukarno
Sukarno
perceived as an expansion of British influence in the region and his intention to wrest control over the whole of Borneo
Borneo
under the Greater Indonesian concept.[112] Meanwhile, the Philippines, beginning with president Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
on 22 June 1962, claims Sabah
Sabah
from cession by heirs of the Sultanate of Sulu.[113][114] Macapagal, considering Sabah
Sabah
to be property of the Sultanate of Sulu, saw the attempt to integrate Sabah, Sarawak
Sarawak
and Brunei
Brunei
into the Federation of Malaysia
Malaysia
as "trying to impose authority of Malaya into these states".[113] Following the successful formation of Malaysia, Donald Stephens became the first chief minister of Sabah. The first Governor Yang di-Pertua Negara (which later changed to Yang di-Pertua Negeri in 1976) was Mustapha Harun.[115] The leaders of Sabah
Sabah
demanded that their freedom of religion be respected, that all lands in the territory be under the power of state government, and that native customs and traditions be respected and upheld by the federal government; declaring that in return Sabahans would pledge their loyalty to the Malaysian federal government. An oath stone was officially officiated by the first Chief Minister Donald Stephens on 31 August 1964 in Keningau
Keningau
as a remembrance to the agreement and promise for reference in the future.[116] Sabah
Sabah
held its first state election in 1967.[117] In the same year, the state capital name of "Jesselton" was renamed to "Kota Kinabalu".[118] An airplane crash on 6 June 1976 killed Stephens along with four other state cabinet ministers.[119] On 14 June 1976, the state government of Sabah
Sabah
led by the new chief minister Harris Salleh signed an agreement with Petronas, the federal government-owned oil and gas company, granting it the right to extract and earn revenue from petroleum found in the territorial waters of Sabah
Sabah
in exchange for 5% in annual revenue as royalties based on the 1974 Petroleum Development Act.[120] The state government of Sabah
Sabah
ceded Labuan
Labuan
to the Malaysian federal government, and Labuan
Labuan
became a federal territory on 16 April 1984.[121] In 2000, the state capital Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
was granted city status, making it the 6th city in Malaysia
Malaysia
and the first city in the state.[122] Prior to a territorial dispute between Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia
Malaysia
since 1969 over two islands of Ligitan
Ligitan
and Sipadan
Sipadan
in the Celebes Sea, the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
(ICJ) made a final decision to award both islands to Malaysia
Malaysia
in 2002 based on their "effective occupation".[123][124] Politics[edit] Government[edit] See also: Government of Sabah, Local government in Sabah, Cabinet of Sabah, Politics of Malaysia, and Table of precedence of Sabah

The State Administrative Building (right), behind the Wisma Innoprise (left).

Sabah
Sabah
(together with its neighbour of Sarawak) has a certain level of autonomy in administration, immigration, and judiciary which differentiates it from the West Malaysian Peninsula states. The Yang di-Pertua Negeri sits at the top of the hierarchy followed by the state legislative assembly and the state cabinet.[12] It is the head of state although its functions are largely ceremonial.[125] The chief minister is the head of government as well the leader of the state cabinet.[125] The legislature is based on the Westminster system
Westminster system
and therefore the chief minister is appointed based on his or her ability to command the majority of the state assembly.[12][126] While local authorities being fully appointed by the state government owing to the suspension of local elections by the federal government. Legislation regarding state elections are within the powers of the federal government and not the state.[12] The assembly meets at the state capital, Kota Kinabalu. Members of the state assembly are elected from 73 constituencies which are delineated by the Election Commission of Malaysia
Malaysia
and may not necessarily result in constituencies of same voter population sizes.[127] A general election representatives in the state assembly must be held every five years, when the seats are subject of universal suffrage for all citizens above 21 years of age. Sabah
Sabah
is also represented in the federal parliament by 25 members elected from the same number of constituencies. The present elected state and federal government posts are held by Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
(BN), a coalition of parties which includes United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), Sabah Progressive Party (SAPP), United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (UPKO), Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah
Sabah
(PBRS), Parti Bersatu Sabah
Parti Bersatu Sabah
(PBS), Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), and Malaysian Chinese Association
Malaysian Chinese Association
(MCA).[128]

Composition of Sabah
Sabah
State Legislative Assembly, 2013:   Barisan Nasional   Pakatan Rakyat   Independent   State Reform Party

The Sabah State Legislative Assembly
Sabah State Legislative Assembly
Building in Kota Kinabalu.

Prior to the formation of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963, the then North Borneo interim government submitted a 20-point agreement
20-point agreement
to the Malayan government as conditions before North Borneo
North Borneo
would join to formed the federation. Subsequently, North Borneo
North Borneo
legislative assembly agreed on the formation of Malaysia
Malaysia
on the conditions that North Borneo
North Borneo
rights will be safeguarded. North Borneo
North Borneo
hence entered Malaysia
Malaysia
as an autonomous state with autonomous laws in immigration control and Native Customary Rights (NCR), with the territory name been changed to "Sabah". However, under the administration of the United Sabah National Organisation (USNO) led by Mustapha Harun, this autonomy has been gradually eroded with federal government influence and hegemony with a popular belief amongst Sabahans that both USNO and UMNO have been working together in harbouring illegal immigrants from the southern Philippines
Philippines
and Indonesia
Indonesia
to stay in the state and become citizens to vote the Muslim parties.[129] This was continued under the Sabah People's United Front
Sabah People's United Front
(BERJAYA) administration led by Harris Salleh with a total of 73,000 Filipino refugees from the southern Philippines
Philippines
were registered.[130] In addition, the cession of Labuan island to federal government by the Sabah
Sabah
state government under BERJAYA rule and unequal sharing and exploitation of Sabah's resources of petroleum also become the political contention often raised by Sabahans until today which has resulted in strong anti-federal sentiments and even occasional call for secession from the federation amongst the people of Sabah.[90]

Yang di-Pertua Negeri, Juhar Mahiruddin

Chief Minister, Musa Aman

Until the 2008 Malaysian general election, Sabah
Sabah
along with the states of Kelantan
Kelantan
and Terengganu, are the only three states in Malaysia
Malaysia
that had ever been ruled by opposition parties not part of the ruling BN coalition. Under Joseph Pairin Kitingan, PBS formed government after winning the 1985 state election and ruled Sabah
Sabah
until 1994. In the 1994 state election, despite PBS winning the elections, subsequent cross-overs of PBS assembly members to the BN component party resulted in BN having majority of seats and hence took over the helm of the state government.[131] A unique feature of Sabah
Sabah
politics was a policy initiated by then Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad
Mahathir Mohamad
in 1994 whereby the chief minister's post is rotated among the coalition parties every two years regardless of the party in power at the time, thus theoretically giving an equal amount of time for each major ethnic group to rule the state. However, in practice this system was problematic as it is too short for any leader to carry-out long term plan.[132] This practice has since stopped with power now held by majority in the state assembly by the UMNO party, which also holds a majority in the national parliament.[133] Direct political intervention by the federal, for example, introduction and later convenient [for UMNO] abolition of the chief minister's post and earlier PBS-BERJAYA conflict in 1985, along with co-opting rival factions in East Malaysia, is sometimes seen as a political tactic by the UMNO-led federal government to control and manage the autonomous power of the Borneo
Borneo
states.[134] The federal government however tend to view that these actions are justifiable as the display of parochialism amongst East Malaysians is not in harmony with nation building. This complicated Federal-State relations hence become a source of major contention in Sabah
Sabah
politics.[90] Administrative division[edit] Main articles: Divisions of Malaysia
Malaysia
and Districts of Malaysia Sabah
Sabah
consists of five administrative divisions, which are in turn divided into 25 districts. For each district, the state government appoints a village headman (known as ketua kampung) for each village. The administrative divisions are inherited from the British administration, which are before administered as province.[135] During the British rule, a Resident was appointed to govern each division and provided with a palace (Istana).[136] The post of the Resident was abolished and replaced with district officers for each of the district when North Borneo
North Borneo
became part of Malaysia. As in the rest of Malaysia, local government comes under the purview of state government.[12] However, ever since the suspension of local government elections in the midst of the Malayan Emergency, which was much less intense in Sabah
Sabah
than it was in the rest of the country, there have been no local elections. Local authorities have their officials appointed by the executive council of the state government.[137][138]

Kudat Kota Marudu Pitas Kota Belud Kota Kinabalu Papar Penampang Putatan Ranau Tuaran Beaufort Keningau Kuala Penyu Nabawan Sipitang Tambunan Tenom Beluran Kinabatangan Sandakan Tongod Kunak Lahad Datu Semporna Tawau North Kalimantan Labuan Sarawak

   Kudat
Kudat
Division

  West Coast Division

  Interior Division

   Sandakan
Sandakan
Division

   Tawau
Tawau
Division

Division Name Districts Area (km²) Population (2010)[139]

1 West Coast Division Kota Belud, Kota Kinabalu, Papar, Penampang, Putatan, Ranau, Tuaran 7,588 1,067,589

2 Interior Division Beaufort, Nabawan, Keningau, Kuala Penyu, Sipitang, Tambunan, Tenom 18,298 424,534

3 Kudat
Kudat
Division Kota Marudu, Kudat, Pitas 4,623 192,457

4 Sandakan
Sandakan
Division Beluran, Kinabatangan, Sandakan, Telupid, Tongod 28,205 702,207

5 Tawau
Tawau
Division Kunak, Lahad Datu, Semporna, Tawau 14,905 819,955

Security[edit] Main articles: Cross border attacks in Sabah, Eastern Sabah
Sabah
Security Command, and Eastern Sabah
Sabah
Security Zone

A Malaysian Army
Malaysian Army
soldier armed with Colt M4 standing guard in Sabah east coast as part of the Eastern Sabah Security Command
Eastern Sabah Security Command
(ESSCOM).

The Ninth Schedule of the Constitution of Malaysia
Malaysia
states that the Malaysian federal government is solely responsible for foreign policy and military forces in the country.[140] Before the formation of Malaysia, North Borneo
North Borneo
security was the responsibility of Great Britain, Australia and New Zealand.[141] In the wake of threats of "annexation" from the Philippines
Philippines
after the late President of Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
signed a bill by including Sabah
Sabah
as part the Republic of the Philippines
Philippines
on its maritime baselines in the Act of Congress on 18 September 1968,[142] the British responds in the next day by sending their Hawker Hunter
Hawker Hunter
fighter-bomber jets to Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
with the jets stopped over at the Clark Air Base
Clark Air Base
not far from the Philippines
Philippines
capital of Manila.[143] British Army
British Army
senior officer Michael Carver then reminded the Philippines
Philippines
that Britain would honour its obligations under the Anglo-Malayan Defence Agreement (AMDA) if fighting broke out.[143] In addition, a large flotilla of British warships would sail to Philippines
Philippines
waters near Sabah
Sabah
en route from Singapore along with the participation of ANZUS
ANZUS
forces.[143] The AMDA treaty have since been replaced by the Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) although the present treaty does not include East Malaysian states as its main priority, British security protection intervention can still be included over the two states.[142][144] Citing in 1971 when British Prime Minister Edward Heath
Edward Heath
been asked in Parliament of London on what threats the British intended to counter under the FPDA, the Prime Minister replied:

“ To "forces outside [Malaysia] in southern Thailand and north of the Malaysian border".[note 3] ”

The area in eastern Sabah
Sabah
facing the southern Philippines
Philippines
and northern Indonesia
Indonesia
have since been put under the Eastern Sabah
Sabah
Security Command (ESSCOM) and Eastern Sabah Security Zone
Eastern Sabah Security Zone
(ESSZONE) following the infiltration of militants, illegal immigrants and smuggling of goods and subsidies items into and from the southern Philippines
Philippines
and Indonesia.[145][146] Territorial disputes[edit] Main articles: Ligitan
Ligitan
and Sipadan
Sipadan
dispute, Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
dispute, and North Borneo
North Borneo
dispute

Map of the Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
with various countries such as China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan
Taiwan
and Vietnam
Vietnam
occupying the islands not far from the shore of Sabah.

Map of the British North Borneo
North Borneo
with the yellow area covered the Philippine claim to eastern Sabah, presented by the Philippine Government to ICJ on 25 June 2001.[147]

Sabah
Sabah
has seen several territorial disputes with Malaysia's neighbours Indonesia
Indonesia
and the Philippines. In 2002, both Malaysia
Malaysia
and Indonesia submitted to arbitration by the ICJ on a territorial dispute over the Ligitan
Ligitan
and Sipadan
Sipadan
islands which were later won by Malaysia.[123][124] There are also several other disputes yet to be settled with Indonesia
Indonesia
over the overlapping claims on the Ambalat continental shelf in the Celebes Sea
Celebes Sea
and land border dispute between Sabah
Sabah
and North Kalimantan.[148] Malaysia's claim over a portion of the Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
is also based on sharing a continental shelf with Sabah.[149] The Philippines
Philippines
has a territorial claim over much of the eastern part of Sabah.[53][67][150] It claims that the territory is connected with the Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
and was only leased to the North Borneo Chartered Company in 1878 with the Sultanate's sovereignty never being relinquished.[114] Malaysia
Malaysia
however, considers this dispute as a "non-issue", as it interprets the 1878 agreement as that of cession and that it deems that the residents of Sabah
Sabah
had exercised their right to self-determination when they joined to form the Malaysian federation in 1963.[151] The Philippine claim can be originated based on three historical events; such as the Brunei
Brunei
Civil War from 1660 until 1673, treaty between Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
and the Bulungan Sultanate in 1850 and treaty between Sultan Jamal ul-Azam with Overbeck in 1878.[67][152] Further attempts by several Filipino politicians such as Ferdinand Marcos to "destabilise" Sabah
Sabah
proved to be futile and led to the Jabidah massacre
Jabidah massacre
in Corregidor Island, Philippines.[143][153] As a consequence, this led the Malaysian government to once supporting the insurgency in southern Philippines.[38][154] Although the Philippine claim to Sabah
Sabah
has not been actively pursued for some years, some Filipino politicians are promising to bring it up again,[155] while the Malaysian government asks the Philippines
Philippines
not to threaten ties over such issue.[156] The Royal Malaysia
Malaysia
Police and the Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister made a proposal to ban barter trade between Malaysia
Malaysia
and the Philippines
Philippines
as it was seen only benefited to one side and threatening the security of the state.[157][158] This was enforced then although facing numerous opposition from Filipino resident on the nearest Philippine islands due to the raise of the living cost in their region after the ban as well from the Malaysian opposition parties, while receiving positive welcomes by Sabahans residents and politicians.[159] The barter trade activity was resumed on 1 February 2017 with the increase of security surveillance and enforcement from both Malaysia
Malaysia
and the Philippines
Philippines
authorities to jointly secure their borders.[160][161] Despite the return of barter trade activity, the state of Sabah
Sabah
has maintained they will always be cautious on their trade with the Philippines.[162] In 2016, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte and Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak
Najib Razak
have agreed to set aside the two countries’ dispute over Sabah
Sabah
for the meantime.[163] Environment[edit] Geography[edit]

The northern tip of Borneo
Borneo
at Tanjung Simpang Mengayau
Tanjung Simpang Mengayau
facing both the South China Sea
South China Sea
and Sulu Sea.

Sabah
Sabah
is located in northern Borneo
Borneo
as seen from NASA
NASA
satellite image.

The total land area of Sabah
Sabah
is nearly 73,904 square kilometres (28,534 sq mi)[5] surrounded by the South China Sea
South China Sea
in the west, Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea
in the northeast and Celebes Sea
Celebes Sea
in the southeast.[2] Sabah
Sabah
has a total of 1,743 kilometres (1,083 mi) coastline, of which 295.5 kilometres (183.6 mi) have been eroding.[164] Because of Sabah
Sabah
coastline facing three seas, the state receive an extensive marine resources.[165] Its exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is much larger towards the South China Sea
South China Sea
and Celebes Sea
Celebes Sea
than to the Sulu Sea.[166] The state coastline is covered with mangrove and nipah forests. The mangroves cover about 331,325 hectares of the state land and constitute 57% of the total mangroves in the country.[166] Both coastal areas in the west coast and east coast are entirely dominating by sand beaches, while in sheltered areas the sand was mixed with mud.[167] The northern area of Tanjung Simpang Mengayau
Tanjung Simpang Mengayau
has a type of pocket beach.[168] The areas in the west coast has a large freshwater wetlands, with the Klias Peninsula hosts a large area of tidal wetlands.[169] The western part of Sabah
Sabah
is generally mountainous, containing three highest peak. The main mountain ranges is the Crocker Range with several mountains varying height from about 1,000 metres to 4,000 metres. Adjacent to the Crocker Range
Crocker Range
is the Trus Madi Range with Mount Trus Madi, with a height of 2,642 metres.[170] The highest peak is the Mount Kinabalu, with a height around 4,095 metres.[171] It is one of the highest peak between the Himalayas
Himalayas
and New Guinea.[172] While located not far from Mount Kinabalu
Mount Kinabalu
is Mount Tambuyukon, with a height of 2,579 metres.[173]

Crocker Range, the main mountain ranges in Sabah, part of the Crocker Range National Park.

These mountains and hills are traversed by an extensive network of river valleys and are in most cases covered with dense rainforest. There are lower ranges of hills extending towards the western coasts, southern plains, and the interior or central part of Sabah. The central and eastern portion of Sabah
Sabah
are generally lower mountain ranges and plains with occasional hills. In the east coast located the Kinabatangan
Kinabatangan
River, which is the second longest river in Malaysia after Rajang River
Rajang River
in Sarawak
Sarawak
with a length of 560 kilometres.[174] The river begins from the western ranges and snakes its way through the central region towards the east coast out into the Sulu Sea. Other major rivers including the Kalabakan
Kalabakan
River, Kolopis River, Liwagu River, Padas River, Paitan River, Segama River and Sugut River. In addition to Babagon River, Bengkoka River, Kadamaian River, Kalumpang River, Kiulu River, Mawao River, Membakut
Membakut
River, Mesapol River, Nabawan
Nabawan
River, Papar River, Pensiangan
Pensiangan
River, Tamparuli
Tamparuli
River and Wario River.[175] The land of Sabah
Sabah
is located in a tropical geography with equatorial climate. It experiences two monsoon seasons of northeast and southwest. The northeast monsoon occurs from November to March with heavy rains, while the southwest monsoon prevails from May to September with less rainfall.[175] In addition, it also received two inter-monsoon season from April to May and September to October. The average daily temperature varies from 27 °C (81 °F) to 34 °C (93 °F), with a considerable amount of rain from 1,800 millimetres to 4,000 millimetres.[175] The coastal areas occasionally experience severe storms as the state is situated south of the typhoon belt.[175] Due to its location is very close to the typhoon belt, Sabah
Sabah
experience the worst Tropical Storm Greg on 25 December 1996.[176] The storm leaves more than 100 peoples died, with another 200–300 are missing and 3,000–4,000 people are left homeless.[177][178] As Sabah
Sabah
also lies within the Sunda Plate
Sunda Plate
with a compression from the Australian and Philippine Plate, it is prone to earthquake with the state itself have experienced three major earthquakes since 1923, with the 2015 earthquake being the latest major earthquake.[179] The Crocker Ranges together with Mount Kinabalu was formed since during the middle Miocene
Miocene
period after been uplifted by the Sabah
Sabah
Orogeny
Orogeny
through compression.[180]

Landscapes of Sabah

Subsidiary peak of Mount Kinabalu

Smile Islands of Manukan, Mamutik and Sulug

Lahad Datu
Lahad Datu
sea panoramic view

Padas River Valley

Biodiversity[edit] See also: Fauna of Borneo, Deforestation in Borneo, and List of nematodes in Sabah

Blue-eared kingfisher
Blue-eared kingfisher
in the lower Kinabatangan River
Kinabatangan River
area, which is endemic to the island of Borneo. Kingfisher is also once a state bird of Sabah
Sabah
and featured in one of its coat of arms.

The jungles of Sabah
Sabah
host a diverse array of plant and animal species. Most of Sabah's biodiversity is located in the forest reserve areas, which formed half of its total landmass of 7.34 million hectares.[181] Its forest reserve are part of the 20 million hectares equatorial rainforests demarcated under the "Heart of Borneo" initiative.[181] The forests surrounding the river valley of Kinabatangan River
Kinabatangan River
is the largest forest-covered floodplain in Malaysia.[182] The Crocker Range National Park
Crocker Range National Park
is the largest national park in the state, covering an area of 139,919 hectares. Most of the park area are covered in dense forest and important as a water catchment area with its headwater connecting to five major rivers in the west coast area.[183] Kinabalu National Park
Kinabalu National Park
was inscribed as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 2000 for its richness in plant diversity combined with its unique geological, topographical, and climatic conditions.[184] The park hosts more than 4,500 species of flora and fauna, including 326 bird and around 100 mammal species along with over 110 land snail species.[185][186]

A walkout through the Sepilok
Sepilok
Orang Utan Rehabilitation Centre.

Tiga Island is formed through the eruption of mud volcano in 1897. The island is now part of the Tiga Island National Park
Tiga Island National Park
together with Kalampunian Besar and Kalampunian Damit islands as a tourist attractions,[187] with a mud bath tourism.[188] The Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park is a group of five islands of Gaya, Manukan, Mamutik, Sapi and Sulug. These islands are believed to once connected to the Crocker Range
Crocker Range
but separated when sea levels rose since the last ice age.[189] The Tun Mustapha Marine Park
Tun Mustapha Marine Park
is the largest marine park located in the north of Sabah. It covers the three major islands of Banggi, Balambangan and Malawali.[190] Another marine park is the Tun Sakaran Marine Park located in the south-east of Sabah. The park comprising the islands of Bodgaya, Boheydulang, Sabangkat and Salakan along with sand cays of Maiga, Mantabuan and Sibuan. Bodgaya is gazetted as a forest reserve, while Boheydulang as a bird sanctuary.[191] These islands are formed by Quaternary pyroclastic material that was ejected during explosive volcanic activities.[192] The Tawau
Tawau
Hills National Park established as a natural water catchment area. The park contains rugged volcanic landscapes including a hot spring and spectacular waterfalls. Bordering the Philippine Turtle Islands is the Turtle Islands National Park, it consists of three islands of Selingaan, Bakkungan Kechil and Gulisaan which is notable as the nesting place for green turtle and hawksbill sea turtle.[193] Other important wildlife regions in Sabah
Sabah
include the Maliau Basin, Danum Valley, Tabin, Imbak Canyon and Sepilok. These places are either designated as national parks, wildlife reserves, virgin jungle reserves, or protection forest reserve. Beyond the coasts of Sabah
Sabah
lie a number of islands rich with coral reefs such as Ligitan, Sipadan, Selingaan, Tiga and Layang-Layang (Swallow Reef). Other main islands including the Jambongan, Timbun Mata, Bum Bum and the divided Sebatik. The Sabah
Sabah
state government has enacted several laws to protect its forests and endangered wildlife species under the Animals Ordinance 1962,[194] Forest Enactment 1968[195] and the Wildlife Conservation Enactment 1997[196] among others.[197][198] Under the Wildlife Conservation Enactment, any persons hunting inside conservation lands are liable for imprisonment for five years and fined with RM50,000.[196] The state government also plans to implement seasonal huntings as part of its conservation efforts to prevent the continuous lose of its endangered wildlife species while maintaining the state indigenous hunting traditions.[199] Conservation issues[edit]

A lorry carrying timbers in Tawau, logging have contributed for over 50% of the state revenue.[200]

Since the post- World War II
World War II
timber boom driven by the need of raw materials from industrial countries, Sabah
Sabah
forests have been gradually eroded by uncontrolled timber exploitation and the conversion of Sabah forest lands into palm oil plantations.[201] Since 1970, forestry sector have contributed for over 50% of the state revenue, of which a study conducted in 1997 revealed the state had almost depleted all of its virgin forests outside the conservation areas.[200] The state government were determined to maintain the state biodiversity while to make sure the state economy continue to alive.[202] While in the same time facing hard task to control such activities although there is laws to prevent it.[198] In addition, the need for development and basic necessities also became an issue while to preserving the nature.[203][204] Mining activities had directly released pollutants of heavy metals into rivers, reservoirs, ponds and affecting groundwater through the leaching of mine tailings. An environmental report released in 1994 reported the presence of heavy metal at the Damit/ Tuaran
Tuaran
River that exceeded the water quality safe levels for consumption. The water in Liwagu River also reported the presence of heavy metal which was believed to be originated from the Mamut Copper Mine.[205] Forest fire also have become the latest concern due to drought and fires set by irresponsible farmers or individuals such as what happened in the 2016 forest fires where thousand hectares of forest reserve areas in Binsuluk of the west coast Sabah
Sabah
are lost.[206][207]

The aerial view of Mamut Copper Mine with waters have filled the mine. Its water are reported dangerous for consumption due to the high presence of heavy metals.

Rampant fish bombing have destroyed many coral reefs and affecting fisheries production in the state.[208][209] Moreover, the illegal activities of the extraction of river sand and gravel in the rivers of Padas, Papar and Tuaran
Tuaran
had become the latest concern along with the wildlife and marine hunting and poaching.[205] Due to severe deforestation along with massive wildlife and marine poaching, the Sumatran rhino have been declared as extinct in early 2015.[210] Some other species that was threatened with extinction is banteng,[211] bearded pig,[212] clouded leopard, dugong,[213] elephant, false gharial, green turtle, hawksbill sea turtle, orangutan,[214] pangolin,[215] proboscis monkey,[216] river shark,[217] roughnose stingray,[217] sambar deer, shark and sun bear.[212][218] Although the indigenous community are also involved in hunting, they hunt based on their spiritual believes and practice, and on a small scale, which differentiates them from poachers.[219] Well-known indigenous practices, such as "maganu totuo" or "montok kosukopan", "tuwa di powigian", "managal" or "tagal" and "meminting", have helped to maintain resources and prevent their depletion.[219] Economy[edit]

Sabah
Sabah
GDP Share by Sector (2014)[220]   Services (40.9%)   Agriculture (25.3%)   Mining & Quarrying (21.8%)   Manufacturing (8.6%)   Construction (3.1%)

Container ship
Container ship
passing through the Likas
Likas
Bay in the South China Sea.

Sabah's economy is mainly based on primary sector such as agriculture, forestry and petroleum.[2][221] Currently, the tertiary sector plays an important part to the state economy, especially in tourism and services. With its richness in biodiversity, the state is offering ecotourism. Although in recent years the tourism industry has been affected by attacks and kidnapping of tourists by militant groups based in the southern Philippines, it remained stable with the increase of security in eastern Sabah
Sabah
and the Sulu Sea.[222] The tourism sector contribute 10% share of the state GDP and was predicted to increase more.[223] Majority of the tourists come from China (60.3%), followed by South Korea
South Korea
(33.9%), Australia (16.3%) and Taiwan (8.3%).[224] Since the 1950s, rubber and copra are the main source of agricultural economy of North Borneo.[225] The timber industry start to emerged in the 1960s due to high demand of raw materials from industrial countries. This was however replaced by petroleum in the 1970s after the discovery of oil in the area of west coast Sabah.[226] In the same year, cocoa and palm oil was added to the list.[221][227] The Sabah
Sabah
state government managed to increase the state fund from RM6 million to RM12 billion and poverty was down by almost half to 33.1% in 1980.[90] The state rapid development on primary sector has attracted those job seekers in neighbouring Indonesia
Indonesia
and the Philippines
Philippines
as the state labour force itself are not sufficient.[228] The state Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at the time ranked behind Selangor
Selangor
and Kuala Lumpur, being the third richest although the manufacturing sector remained small.[205][229] However, by 2000, the state started to become the poorest as it still dependent on natural resources as its primary sources of income comparing to those secondary sector producer states.[230] Thus the Sabah Development Corridor (SDC) was established in 2008 by Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
with a total investment of RM105 billion for 18 years to increase the state GDP to RM63.2 billion by 2025.[231] Around RM5.83 billion were allocated each year for infrastructures development along with the creation of 900,000 jobs.[231] The federal government targeted to eradicate hardcore poverty by the end Ninth Malaysia
Malaysia
Plan (9MP) with overall poverty halved from 23% in 2004 to 12% in 2010 and 8.1% in 2012.[231] Since its establishment in 2008, the state GDP increase to 10.7% which was higher than the national economic growth of 4.8% and the world economic growth of 2.7%. Following the world financial crisis in 2009, Sabah
Sabah
GDP recorded 4.8% growth compared to −1.5% for national level and −0.4% for world level.[231]

Paddy field
Paddy field
in Tambunan.

From 2010 to 2011, the state experienced a slower growth due to weaker performance on the oil and gas sector. Based on 2014 survey, Sabah
Sabah
GDP recorded a 5.0% growth and remained as the largest contributor in agriculture sector with 18.1%, followed by Sarawak, Johor, Pahang
Pahang
and Perak. Its GDP per capita however are still lowest with RM19,672, the third lowest after Kelantan
Kelantan
(RM11,815) and Kedah
Kedah
(RM17,321) from all 13 states.[220] In the same year, the state export value stood at RM45.3 billion with an import value of RM36.5 billion. Machinery and transportation equipment accounted for most of the imported products followed by fuel, mineral lubricants and others. While Sabah
Sabah
mostly exports raw petroleum and palm oil.[232] The state currently has a total of eight ports with two in Sepanggar
Sepanggar
while each one in Kota Kinabalu, Sandakan, Tawau, Kudat, Kunak
Kunak
and Lahad Datu that was operated and maintained by the Sabah
Sabah
Ports Authority owned by Suria Group.[233] As part of the Eleventh Malaysia
Malaysia
Plan (11MP), the federal government has approved an allocation of RM800 million to expand the cargo handling of Sapangar Bay Container Port from 500,000 to 1.25 million TEUs per annum as well to accommodate larger ship like Panamax-size vessels.[234][235] An additional allocation of RM333.51 million was given in the same year, making it a total of RM1.13 billion with the project will start in 2017.[236][237] The fisheries industries remain the important part of Sabah
Sabah
primary sector economy with a contribution for about 200,000 metric tonnes of fish worth RM700 annually as well contributing 2.8% to the state annual GDP.[165] While the aquaculture and marine fish cage sector have produce 35,000 metric tons of brackish and fresh waters aquaculture and 360 metric ton of groupers, wrasses, snappers and lobsters worth around RM60 million and RM13 million respectively. Sabah
Sabah
is also one of the producer of seaweed, with most of the farms are located in the seas around Semporna.[165] Although recently the seaweed industry was heavily affected by spate of kidnappings perpetrated by the southern-Philippine-based Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
militant group.[238]

Fishery activities in the harbour of Sandakan.

Sabah
Sabah
currently receives 5% oil royalty (percentage of oil production paid by the mining company to the lease owner) from Petronas
Petronas
over oil explorations in Sabah
Sabah
territorial waters based on the 1974 Petroleum Development Act.[90][239] Majority of the oil and gas deposits are located on Sabah
Sabah
Trough basin in the west coast side.[240] Sabah
Sabah
was also given a 10% stake in Petronas
Petronas
liquefied natural gas (LNG) in Bintulu, Sarawak.[241] Income inequality and the high cost living remain the major economic issues in Sabah.[242] The high cost living has been blamed on the Cabotage Policy, although the cause was due to the smaller trade volumes, cost of transport and efficiency of port to handle trade.[243] The government has set to review the Cabotage Policy even thought the cause was due to other reasons with the World Bank has stated that the result was due to weak distribution channels, high handling charges and inefficient inland transportation.[244] It was finally agreed to exempt the policy from 1 June 2017; with foreign ships will go directly to ports in the East without need to go to West Malaysia
Malaysia
although Cabotage Policy on transshipment of goods within Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak
Sarawak
and the federal territory of Labuan remain.[245][246] Prime Minister Najib also promised to narrow development gap between Sabah
Sabah
and the Peninsular by improving and built more infrastructures in the state.[247] Based on a latest record, the total unemployment in the state have been reduced from 5.1% (2014) to 4.7% (2015), although the number of unemployment was still high.[248] Slum
Slum
is almost non-existent in Malaysia
Malaysia
but due to the high number of refugees arriving from the troubling southern Philippines, Sabah
Sabah
has since saw a significant rise on its numbers. To eliminate water pollution and improve a better hygiene, the Sabah state government are working to relocate them into a better housing settlement.[249] As part of the BIMP-EAGA, Sabah
Sabah
also continued to position itself as a main gateway for regional investments. Foreign investment are mainly concentrated in the Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
Industrial Park (KKIP) areas.[239] Although country such as Japan have mainly focusing their various development and investment projects in the interior and islands since after the end of Second World War.[250] Following America's abandonment in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPPA) economic agreements in early 2017, Sabah
Sabah
began to turns its trade to China and India
India
markets.[251] Infrastructure[edit] Sabah's public infrastructure are still lagged behind mostly due to its geographical challenges as the second largest state in Malaysia.[12][252] The Sabah
Sabah
Ministry of Infrastructure Development (formerly known as Ministry of Communication and Works) is responsible for all public infrastructure planning and development in the state.[253] To narrow the development gap, the federal government are working to build more infrastructures and improve the already available one.[247] In 2013, Sabah
Sabah
state government allocates RM1.583 billion for infrastructure and public facilities development,[254] of which the state were allocated another RM4.07 billion by the federal government in 2015 Malaysian Budget.[255] Since the Eight Malaysia
Malaysia
Plan (8MP) until 2014, a total of RM11.115 billion has been allocated for various infrastructure projects in the state.[256] Under the Tenth Malaysia
Malaysia
Plan (10MP), infrastructure in the rural areas was given attention with the increase of rural water, electricity supply and road coverage.[257] Energy and water resources[edit]

High voltage electricity pylon located near the Kimanis
Kimanis
Power Plant.

Electricity distribution in the state as well in the Federal Territory of Labuan
Labuan
are operated and managed by the Sabah Electricity
Sabah Electricity
Sdn. Bhd. (SESB). Sabah
Sabah
electrics are mostly generated from diesel power plant, hydropower and combined cycle power plants. The only main hydroelectric plant is the Tenom
Tenom
Pangi Dam.[252] The combined cycle power plant called Kimanis
Kimanis
Power Plant was completed in 2014, supplying 300 MW, with 285 MW nominal capacity.[258] The plant is a joint venture between Petronas
Petronas
and NRG Consortium that also includes facilities such as gas pipeline of Sabah– Sarawak
Sarawak
Gas Pipeline and a terminal of Sabah
Sabah
Oil and Gas Terminal.[258] There is another two combined cycle power plants with a capacity of 380 MW operated by Ranhill Holdings Berhad.[259] In 2009, the electricity coverage covers 67% of the state population and by 2011 increase to 80%.[252] The coverage reach 100% in 2012 after an allocation of RM962.5 million from the federal government were given to expand the coverage under the 2012 National Budget.[260] The electrical grid is divided into two of West Coast and East Coast which has been integrated since 2007.[252] The West Coast Grid supplies electricity to Kota Kinabalu, Papar, Beaufort, Keningau, Kota Belud, Kota Marudu, Kudat
Kudat
and Labuan
Labuan
with a capacity of 488.4 MW and maximum demand of 396.5 MW.[252] While the East Coast Grid supplies electricity to the major towns of Sandakan, Kinabatangan, Lahad Datu, Kunak, Semporna
Semporna
and Tawau
Tawau
with a capacity of 333.02 MW and maximum demand of 203.3 MW.[252] Electricity interconnection between Sabah, the Indonesian province of North Kalimantan
Kalimantan
and the Philippine province of Palawan
Palawan
are also in the process as part of the BIMP-EAGA;[261][262] with the interconnection with Palawan
Palawan
is expected to be completed in 2018.[263][264] Since 2007, there is an attempt to establish a coal power plant in Lahad Datu
Lahad Datu
which receiving opposition from local residents and non-governmental organisations for the pollution that would be caused by the plant.[265][266] Thus Sabah
Sabah
has start to exploring alternative ways to generate electricity with the usage of renewable energy such as solar, mini hydro, biomass, geothermal and micro-algae and tidal technologies.[267][268] The Japanese government has extended aid totalling RM172,190.93 for the solar electrification project in the island of Larapan in Sabah's east coast in 2010.[269] In 2016, Malaysia's first geothermal plant was started to be developed in Tawau
Tawau
to boost electricity in the east coast after a research by United States GeothermEx Inc. and Jacobs New Zealand
New Zealand
indicated the existence of an active geothermal system centred around the flanks of Mount Maria on Apas Kiri.[270] A South Korean company GS Caltex
GS Caltex
also sets to built Malaysia's first bio-butanol plant in the state.[271]

Babagon Dam, the biggest water catchment in the state.

All pipes water supply in the state was managed by the Sabah
Sabah
State Water Department, an agency under the control of Sabah
Sabah
Ministry of Infrastructure Development. Operating with 73 water treatments plants, an average of 1.19 billion litres of water are distributed daily to meet Sabahan residents demands.[272] The coverage of water supply in major towns has reach 100% while in rural areas, the coverage still around 75% with total public pipes length up to 15,031 kilometres.[272] The only water supply dam in the state is the Babagon Dam which holds 21,000 million litres of water.[273] To meet the increase demands, another dam named as Kaiduan Dam was being proposed to be built although being met with protest from local villagers who living on the proposed site.[274] Sabah
Sabah
has a natural gas demand of 350 mmscfd in 2013, which increase to 523 mmscfd in 2015.[275] As Malaysia's liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are much cheaper through the subsidy that was given by the federal government, it was found out in 2015 that around 20,000 LPG cylinders in Sabah
Sabah
east coast were smuggled by immigrants from neighbouring Indonesia
Indonesia
and the southern Philippines
Philippines
in a monthly basis to their countries that leading to many Sabahans hard to retrieve enough supplies of LPG.[276] As a counter-measure, the Malaysian Ministry of Domestic Trade, Co-operatives and Consumerism (MDTCAC) has temporarily cancelled all permits to sell gas cylinders into neighbouring countries with a new policy will be implemented to control such illegal activities.[277][278] Telecommunication and broadcasting[edit]

Telecommunication towers atop Mount Silam facing Darvel Bay
Darvel Bay
of Lahad Datu.

Telecommunication in Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak
Sarawak
were originally administered by Posts and Telecommunication Department until 1967,[279] and maintained by the British Cable & Wireless Communications before all telecommunications management in the state been takeover by Peninsular-based company.[280] The British telecommunication company have establish a submarine cable that linking Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
with Singapore and Hong Kong.[280] Following the expansion of the Peninsular-based company on 1 January 1968, Sabah
Sabah
Posts and Telecommunication Department was merged with the Peninsular telecommunication department to formed Telecommunications Department Malaysia. All operations under Telecommunications Department Malaysia was then transferred to Syarikat Telekom Malaysia
Malaysia
Berhad (STM) which become a public listed company in 1991 with the federal government retained a majority shareholding.[279] There are also other telecommunication companies operating in the state although only providing cellular phone facilities. In 2006, the state has the lowest Direct Exchange Line (DEL) penetration rate, with cellular and internet dial-up penetrations rate only 6.5 per 100 inhabitants.[252] Most residents from the low income groups would rather use mobile phones internet or use internet at their offices instead of setting up internet access at home due to the expensive cost and slow services.[252] Until the end of 2014, there were only 934 telecommunication hotspots in Sabah.[281] Due to this, the government are working to increase the penetration and capability of internet connection as well to bridge the gap between Sabah
Sabah
and the Peninsular.[282] From 2016, UniFi
UniFi
fibre optic coverage began to expanded to other towns aside from the main city and major towns,[283] alongside Celcom
Celcom
and Maxis by the following year with a speed up to 100Mbps.[284][285] The mobile telecommunications in Sabah
Sabah
are mostly use 4G and 3G and there is also a free rural Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
services provided by the federal government known as the Kampung Tanpa Wayar 1Malaysia (KTW) although Malaysia's government-provided public internet speeds are among the slower than many other countries.[286][287]

The advertisement of Peninsular-based radio stations: Era FM, My FM and Hitz FM in a building, showing the radios had set up their offices in the capital city of Sabah.

The previous state internet traffic are routed through a hub in Malaysia's capital of Kuala Lumpur, passing through a submarine cable connecting the Peninsular with Kota Kinabalu. The systems are considered as costly and inefficient especially due to the price of leasing bandwidth with the large distance.[12] In 2000, there is a plan to establish Sabah
Sabah
own internet hub but the plan was unreachable due to the high cost and low usage rates in the state. Other alternative plan including using the Brunei
Brunei
internet gateway in a short term before establishing Sabah
Sabah
own gateway.[12] By 2016, the federal government has start to establish the first internet gateway for East Malaysia
Malaysia
with the laying of 60 terabyte submarine cable which are developed by a private company named Xiddig Cellular Communications Sdn. Bhd. at a cost of about RM850 million through the Private Funding Initiative (PFI).[288] Under the 2015 Malaysian Budget project of 1 Malaysia
Malaysia
Cable System Project (SKR1M), a new submarine cable for high speed internet has been built from Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
to Pahang
Pahang
in the Peninsular which completed in 2017.[289][290] The 1 Malaysia
Malaysia
submarine cable system linking the state capital with Miri, Bintulu
Bintulu
and Kuching
Kuching
in Sarawak
Sarawak
together with Mersing
Mersing
in Johor
Johor
with an increase of bandwidth capacity up to 12 terabyte per second.[291] Another submarine cable, the BIMP-EAGA
BIMP-EAGA
Submarine and Terrestrial (BEST) Cable Project is currently being built from Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
to Tawau
Tawau
to connecting Sabah
Sabah
with Brunei, Kalimantan
Kalimantan
and Mindanao which will be completed in 2018.[292] In early 2016, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between the state government and China's largest networking company, Huawei
Huawei
to set Sabah
Sabah
to become information and communications technology (ICT) hub by leveraging on Huawei's ICT expertise.[293] More free high speed Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
hotspots are being planned in Sabah, especially to the state capital.[294]

The building of Sabah
Sabah
Broadcasting Complex in Donggongon.

The Malaysian federal government operates one television channel, TVi[295] and two state radio channels for the state, known as Sabah FM[296] and Sabah
Sabah
vFM[297] along with district channels such as Sandakan
Sandakan
FM, Tawau
Tawau
FM and Keningau
Keningau
FM. Other radio channels such as KK FM is operated by Universiti Malaysia
Malaysia
Sabah,[298] while Bayu FM is only available through Astro, the Malaysian main satellite television.[299] Several newly independent radio station have been launched in the state, namely Kupi-Kupi FM in 2016,[300] KK12FM
KK12FM
and VOKFM in 2017.[301][302] Other Peninsular-based radio stations also had set up their offices in the state to tap the emerging market. Sabahan DJs are mostly hired and local state songs will be played to meet Sabahan listeners taste and slang. Television broadcasting in the state are divided into terrestrial and satellite television. As Malaysia
Malaysia
aims for digital television transition, all analogue signal will be shutdown soon.[303] There is two types of free-to-air television provider such as MYTV Broadcasting
MYTV Broadcasting
(digital terrestrial) and Astro NJOI (satellite), while an IPTV
IPTV
via the Unifi TV
Unifi TV
through UniFi
UniFi
fibre optic internet subscription. The state first established newspaper is the Sabah
Sabah
Times (rebranded as the New Sabah
Sabah
Times), founded by the late Fuad Stephens, who became the first Chief Minister of Sabah.[304] Other main newspapers include the independent Daily Express,[305] Overseas Chinese Daily News,[306] the Sarawak-based The Borneo
Borneo
Post,[307] the Peninsular-based Sin Chew Daily[308] and the Brunei-based Borneo
Borneo
Bulletin.[309] Transportation[edit]

Eight-lane highway in the capital city of Kota Kinabalu, part of the Pan- Borneo
Borneo
Highway.

Sabah
Sabah
has a total of 21,934 kilometres (13,629 mi) road network in 2016, of which 11,355 kilometres (7,056 mi) are sealed road.[310] Before the formation of Malaysia, the state together with Sarawak
Sarawak
only has rudimentary road systems.[311] Most trunk roads was then constructed from the 1970s until the 1980s under the World Bank loans. In 2005, 61% of road coverage in the state were still gravel and unpaved, comprising 1,428 kilometres (887 mi) federal roads and 14,249 kilometres (8,854 mi) state roads, of which 6,094 kilometres (3,787 mi) are sealed while the remaining 9,583 kilometres (5,955 mi) were gravel and unpaved roads.[252] This led to great disparity between roads in the state with those in the Peninsular, with only 38.9% are sealed while 89.4% have been sealed in the Peninsular. Due to this, SDC was implemented to expand the road coverage in Sabah
Sabah
along with the construction of Pan- Borneo
Borneo
Highway. Since the 9MP, various road projects has been undertaken under the SDC and around RM50 million has been spent to repairs Sabah
Sabah
main roads since the 8MP.[252] The high cost to repair roads frequently has led the Sabah
Sabah
state government to find other alternative ways to connecting every major districts by tunnelling roads through highlands which will also saving time and fuel as the distance being shortened as well to bypass landslides.[312][313] In early 2016, the expansion project of Pan- Borneo
Borneo
Highway has been launched to expand the road size from single carriageway to four-lane road, while city highway been expand from four-lane to eight-lane as well with the construction of new routes which will connecting the state with Sarawak, Brunei
Brunei
and the Trans Kalimantan
Kalimantan
Highway in Indonesia.[314][315] The project is divided into two packages: the first package covering the West Coast area will complete in 2021, while the second covering the East Coast area will finish in 2022.[316][317][318] All state roads are maintained under the state's Public Works Department,[319] while federal roads maintained by the national Public Works Department.[320]

Sabah State Railway
Sabah State Railway
train passing through a tunnel of the Western Line in Pengalat Besar, Papar District.

Boats and ferries at the Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
marina.

Sabah
Sabah
uses a dual carriageway with the left-hand traffic rule.[318][321] All major towns in Sabah
Sabah
provide public transportation services such as buses, taxis and vans. The BRT Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
is currently under construction to provide bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Sabah's capital.[322][323] A rail transport through the Western Line operated by the Sabah State Railway
Sabah State Railway
provides daily services for commuters, travellers, as well as for cargo transportation. A separate company owned by Sutera Harbour known as the North Borneo
North Borneo
Railway operates leisure tour for tourists.[324] The train station and terminal is located in Tanjung Aru, not far from the city airport.[325] Other main stations including in Papar, Beaufort and Tenom. The current Aeropod
Aeropod
projects on the main station in Tanjung Aru will modernise the station and provide a provision for future light rail transit (LRT).[326] In early 2016, the state government has purchased a new diesel multiple unit (DMU) for about RM8 million to replace the old train used between Beaufort and Tenom
Tenom
while the rail line from Halogilat and Tenom
Tenom
will be upgrading by the federal government at the cost of RM99.5 million along with the arrival of another three DMUs that will be received in early 2018.[327] Kota Kinabalu International Airport is the main gateway to Sabah. In 2005, the Malaysian federal government approved major renovation and refurbishment works to the main terminal (Terminal 1) as well as a runway expansion. As a result of this expansion, the airport is now able to accommodate the world's largest passenger aircraft, the Airbus A380. It has also become the second largest airport in Malaysia. Other smaller airports in Sabah
Sabah
including Kudat
Kudat
Airport, Lahad Datu
Lahad Datu
Airport, Sandakan
Sandakan
Airport and Tawau
Tawau
Airport. Layang-Layang Airport
Layang-Layang Airport
in Swallow Reef served as a military and civilian airport. Three airlines serving flight routes in Sabah: Malaysia
Malaysia
Airlines, AirAsia, and Malindo Air.[328] Sabah Air
Sabah Air
is a helicopter chartered flight company owned by the Sabah
Sabah
state government, serving flights for aerial sightseeing to interested customers as well for the transportation of state government servants.[329]

Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
International Airport (Terminal 1).

Sabah
Sabah
has a total of eight ports operating in Sepanggar, Kota Kinabalu, Sandakan, Tawau, Kudat, Kunak
Kunak
and Lahad Datu.[233] The Sapangar Bay Container Port is the main transshipment hub for the BIMP-EAGA
BIMP-EAGA
region. Another port, the Sapangar Bay Oil Terminal is the main terminal for refined petroleum products and liquid chemical in the West Coast. Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
Port remain as a general cargo port. While all ports in the northern and eastern Sabah
Sabah
served to handle palm oil related products such as fertiliser, palm kernel as well for general cargo.[233] Ferry service in the West Coast side provide trips to Labuan
Labuan
from the Jesselton Point Waterfront and Menumbok
Menumbok
Ferry Terminal in Kuala Penyu.[330][331] In the East Coast, the service are provided from the Tawau
Tawau
Ferry Terminal to Nunukan and Tarakan in Kalimantan, Indonesia.[332] There is also ferry services from Sandakan to Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
and a new one that was planned from Kudat
Kudat
to Buliluyan, Bataraza
Bataraza
of Palawan
Palawan
in the Philippines, but both services were terminated at the moment due to lack of security enforcement from the Philippine side prior to the persistent attack by pirates and kidnapping by militant groups based in the Sulu Archipelago
Sulu Archipelago
of the southern Philippines.[333][334] The planned ferry service from Kudat to Palawan
Palawan
was restored on 1 February 2017 after the increasing of security enforcement from the Philippines
Philippines
side,[160] but were postponed again until present mainly due to both ferry operators from Malaysia
Malaysia
and the Philippines
Philippines
facing difficulties in complying with the necessary requirements and permits imposed by both national and state authorities.[335] Healthcare[edit] See also: List of hospitals in Malaysia

Gleneagles Kota Kinabalu, one of the main private hospital in Sabah.

Sabah
Sabah
has four major government hospitals: Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Queen Elizabeth Hospital II, Duchess of Kent Hospital
Duchess of Kent Hospital
and Tawau Hospital followed by 13 other government districts hospitals,[note 4] women and children hospital, mental hospital, public health clinics, 1 Malaysia
Malaysia
clinics and rural clinics. Besides government-owned hospitals and clinics, there are also a number of private hospitals such as: Gleneagles Kota Kinabalu, KPJ Specialist Hospital, Damai Specialist Centre (DSC), Rafflesia Specialist Centre (RSC) and Jesselton Medical Centre (JMC).[336] There is also an addiction treatment facility known as Solace Sabah in the state capital to treat problems related to alcoholism and drug addiction. In 2011, the state's doctor-patient ratio was 1:2,480 – lower than the World Health Organisation
World Health Organisation
(WHO) recommendation of 1 doctor to 600 patients.[337] Because of the heavy workload and lack of interest from younger graduates, Sabah
Sabah
facing the shortage of doctors.[338] Many doctors who once served under the government hospitals have decided to move to private hospitals instead because of the heavy workload with low salaries in government hospitals although private hospitals won't easily recruiting them with some applications have been turned down.[336] Thus to prevent the continuous shortage of doctors, the federal government has initiated various measure to produce more physicians with massive funds has been allocated to healthcare sector in every year country budget.[339] Education[edit] Main article: List of schools in Sabah

Universiti Malaysia
Malaysia
Sabah
Sabah
(UMS) chancellory building.

All primary and secondary schools are under the jurisdiction and observation of the Sabah
Sabah
State Education Department, under the guidance of the national Ministry of Education.[340] The oldest schools in Sabah
Sabah
are: St. Michael's School Sandakan
Sandakan
(1886), St. Michael's School Penampang (1888), All Saints' School, Likas
Likas
(1903) and St. Patrick's School Tawau
Tawau
(1917).[341] Based on 2013 statistics, Sabah
Sabah
has a total of 207 government secondary schools,[342] five international schools (comprising Charis International School,[343] Kinabalu International School,[344] Sayfol International School,[345] as well the Indonesian School of Kota Kinabalu[346] and Japanese School of Kota Kinabalu).[347] and nine Chinese independent schools. Sabah
Sabah
has a considerable number of indigenous students enrolled in Chinese schools.[348] Sabah
Sabah
state government also emphasises pre-school education in the state. This was followed with the aid from Sabah Foundation
Sabah Foundation
(Yayasan Sabah) and Nestlé
Nestlé
who helped to establish pre-schools in the state.[349][350] Sabah
Sabah
has two public universities: Universiti Malaysia
Malaysia
Sabah
Sabah
(UMS) and Universiti Teknologi MARA
Universiti Teknologi MARA
(UiTM). Universiti Tun Abdul Razak (UNIRAZAK) has set up their regional centre in Kota Kinabalu.[351] As of 2016, there is around 15 private colleges, two private university colleges together with other newly established colleges.[352] In 1960, the overall literacy rate in North Borneo
North Borneo
was only 24%.[353] The recent findings in 2011 found the literacy rate have increase to 79%.[354] Most of secondary schools leavers also did not continue their studies after completing their Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia
Malaysia
(SPM) mainly due to financial burden as well because of the lack of interest and confidence to continue their studies in local higher learning institutes, with a survey in 2015 saw only 16,000 out of more than 20,000 secondary schools leavers continuing their studies.[355]

Sabahan secondary school students in their uniform.

In early 2016, Sabah
Sabah
had a total number of 42,047 teachers teaching in various pre-schools, primary and secondary schools.[356] Following the decentralisation of power from the federal government to state government as well to improve the education in the state, there has been a target to reach 90% of teachers from Sabahans itself.[357] Sabah
Sabah
State Library are the main public library in the state.[358] There is another 11 Indonesian schools (beside the main Indonesian school in the state capital) spreading across Sabah
Sabah
mainly for Indonesian migrants children residing in the state.[359] Since 2014, Filipino migrants children also have been enrolled to recently established Alternative Learning Centre (ALC) that was set-up by Filipino volunteers in Sabah
Sabah
with a collaboration with various local non-governmental organisations (NGO).[360] Demography[edit] Main article: Demographics of Sabah Ethnicity and immigration[edit]

Ethnic groups in Sabah
Sabah
(2010)[361]

Ethnic

Percent

Kadazan-Dusun

17.82%

Murut

3.22%

Bajau

14%

Malay

5.71%

Other Bumiputera

20.56%

Chinese

9.11%

Other non-native

1.5%

Non-Malaysian citizen

27.81%

The 2015 Malaysian Census reported the population of Sabah
Sabah
at 3,543,500, being the third most populous state in Malaysia
Malaysia
with the highest non-citizens population at 870,400.[19] However, as Malaysia is one of the least densely populated countries in Asia, Sabah
Sabah
is particularly sparsely populated with most of the population concentrated in the coastal areas since towns and urban centres have massively expanded. People from Sabah
Sabah
are generally called Sabahans and identify themselves as such.[362] There are an estimated 42 ethnic groups with over 200 sub-ethnic groups with separate own languages, cultures and belief systems.[363] The three largest indigenous groups in Sabah
Sabah
are the Kadazan-Dusun, Bajau and the Murut. There are large Malay, Suluk and other Bumiputera ethnic minorities,[364] while the Chinese makes up the main non-indigenous population.[2] High migration to the state was noticeable in the 1970s, when hundreds of thousands of Filipino refugees, mostly the Moros, began arriving due to the Moro conflict in the county. There are also Indonesian labourers from Kalimantan, Sulawesi
Sulawesi
and Lesser Sunda Islands.[365][366] Religion[edit]

Religion in Sabah
Sabah
(2010)[367]

Religion

Percent

Islam

65.4%

Christianity

26.6%

Buddhism

6.1%

Unknown

1.4%

No religion

0.3%

Chinese folk religion

0.1%

Others

0.1%

Hinduism

0.1%

Islam
Islam
is the predominant religion in Sabah, although its society remained secular.[368][369] In the 2010 census, the percentage of Muslims are around (65.4%), while Christians at (26.6%) and Buddhist at (6.1%).[370] In 1960, the population percentage of Muslims was only (37.9%) about the same par with Animist (33.3%), while Christians at (16.6%) and other religion (12.2%).[371] The increase was mainly contributed through the uncontrolled high immigration and controversial mass conversions in recent decades.[370][372] Several other religions such as Chinese folk religion
Chinese folk religion
as well Indian religion of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Sikhism
Sikhism
also exists in the state.[373] Languages[edit] Malay is the main language spoken in the state, although with a different creole from Sarawak
Sarawak
Malay and Peninsular Malay.[374] The state has its own slang for Malay which originated either from indigenous words, Brunei
Brunei
Malay, Suluk, Cocos Malay and Indonesian language.[375] The indigenous languages of Sabah
Sabah
can be divided into four language families of Dusunic, Murutic, Paitanic and Sama–Bajau.[376] Culture[edit] See also: Culture of Malaysia

The branch building of National Department for Culture and Arts
National Department for Culture and Arts
in Kota Kinabalu.

Sabah
Sabah
culture is diverse due to a wide range of different ethnicity.[364] In the coastal areas, Sabahan culture has been influenced by the Bruneian Malays and West Coast Bajaus on the west coast side while in the east coast it is influenced by either East Coast Bajau, Bugis and Suluk cultures with Islam
Islam
being the important part of their lives.[377][378] Christianity
Christianity
plays an important part to the indigenous cultures in the interior side in the daily lives of the Kadazan-Dusun, Lundayeh, Murut and Rungus beside their old practice of the traditional Animism
Animism
and Paganism.[377] Interracial marriage among the different ethnicity and religion are common in Sabah.[379] There is a number of cultural villages exhibiting Sabah
Sabah
indigenous cultures such as the Borneo
Borneo
Cultural Village,[380] Mari Mari Cultural Village[381] and Monsopiad
Monsopiad
Cultural Village,[382] where cultural performances are also performed. Sabah Museum
Sabah Museum
houses a number of collection of various artefacts, brassware and ceramics covering the diverse culture of Sabah, natural history, trade history and Islamic civilisation together with an ethnobotanical garden and science and technology centre.[383] Other museums include the Agop Batu Tulug Museum, Agnes Keith House, Sandakan
Sandakan
Heritage Museum, Teck Guan Cocoa Museum and 3D Wonders Museum.[384][385][386] There is also a number of preserved British, German and Japanese colonial architecture such as the Atkinson Clock Tower, Batu Tinagat Lighthouse, Jesselton Hotel, ruins of Kinarut
Kinarut
Mansion, the Sabah Tourism Board
Sabah Tourism Board
building, Tawau
Tawau
Bell Tower together with a number of memorials and monuments. Other unique tourist attractions include the Rumah Terbalik (Upside Down House) and Borneo
Borneo
Ant House.[387][388]

Traditional houses in Sabah

Bajau house

Bisaya house

Brunei
Brunei
Malay house

Dusun longhouse

Illanun house

Lotud
Lotud
house

Fine arts and crafts[edit]

The Sumazau dance performance of Papar Kadazan at the Monsopiad Cultural Village.

Handicraft
Handicraft
and souvenir productions are part of the tourism products in Sabah. In addition, the Sabah
Sabah
Crafts Exotica programme has been held annually since 2011 in different small local museums.[389][390] Following the various initiatives by state government to encourage local entrepreneurs for state handicrafts, there were a total of 526 entrepreneurs in 2012 which increased to 1,483 in 2013 and 1,702 in 2014 with total sales value up from RM31 million to RM56 million.[391]

The roundabout in Tambunan
Tambunan
with the sculpture of Sompoton, the main music instrument of Sabah.

Every ethnic groups in Sabah
Sabah
are known for their traditional music instruments,[392] the coastal people of Bajau, Brunei
Brunei
Malays, Bugis, Illanun, Kedayan and Suluks known for their gendang, kompang and kulintangan;[393] while the interior people such as the Dusun known with their bungkau, sompoton and turali, the Lun Bawang/Lun Dayeh with their bass, the Kadazan with their tongkungon, the Murut with their tagunggak, the Rungus with their sundatang, tontog and turuding;[394][395] suling is mostly played by all the interior ethnic groups of Kadazan-Dusun, Murut, Rungus and Lun Bawang/Lun Dayeh in the state.[396] Every ethnic groups also known for their traditional dances; both Kadazan-Dusun
Kadazan-Dusun
were known for their Sumazau dance, the Murut with their Magunatip,[397] the Rungus with their Monigol Sumundai,[395] The Lun Bawang/Lun Dayeh with their Alai Busak Baku, the Brunei
Brunei
Malays with their Adai-Adai,[398] the West Coast Bajau with their Limbai and Kuda Pasu, the East Coast Bajau and Suluk with their Pangalay
Pangalay
(also known as Daling-Daling or Mengalai), Bisaya with their Liliput and the Cocos Malays with their Dansa and Nona Mansaya along with many other dances from other sub-ethnic groups.[399][400] Beside that, the state of Sabah
Sabah
is also known for batik production though the industry are still small than the major batik producer states in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.[401] The state batik has since been commercialise to enter the international market.[402] Cuisine[edit] Main article: Sabahan cuisine

A swordfish hinava served with sandwich bread.

Notable dishes in Sabah
Sabah
include the Beaufort mee,[403][404] bosou,[405] hinava,[406] ngiu chap, pinasakan,[407] Sipitang satay,[408][409] Tuaran
Tuaran
mee,[404][410] tuhau,[411] the bambangan fruit (mangifera pajang) along with many others.[412] Apart from these, Sabah
Sabah
also features a number of snacks like amplang, cincin, lidah, roti kahwin, UFOs pinjaram and Sandakan
Sandakan
tart[413] and dessert like lamban, nuba tingaa, punjung, sinamu and Tuaran
Tuaran
coconut pudding.[414] Every ethnic group has its own cuisine with different styles of preparing, cooking, and the way they serving and eating the food. Example of Sabah-based companies promoting dairy product and state drinks are like the Desa Cattle, Tenom coffee
Tenom coffee
and Sabah
Sabah
Tea.[415] The indigenous people features a number of alcoholic drinks such as bahar, kinomol, lihing, montoku, sagantang, sikat and tuak;[416] with the state itself becoming the third highest in alcohol consumption in the country after Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
and Sarawak.[417] The English Tea House and Restaurant in Sandakan
Sandakan
is another attraction promoting the British tea culture. Other international shops and restaurants such as for Western food, Middle Eastern food, Bruneian food, Indonesian food, Filipino food, Japanese food, Korean food, Taiwanese food, Thai food and Vietnamese food have their presence here. With the increasing number of tourists on the purpose of culinary tourism, this have since raise the local awareness on the important of local food to state tourism.[418] Portrayal in media[edit]

Extract from the title page of the British North Borneo
North Borneo
Official Gazette (the British North Borneo
North Borneo
Herald) of 16 April 1902.

Much of the information of the territory was kept in the records of Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (since 1820) and British North Borneo
Borneo
Herald (since 1883). Joseph Hatton published one of the earliest book titled " North Borneo
North Borneo
– Explorations and Adventures in the Equator" (1886) based on the exploration notes leave by his son Frank Hatton who served under the North Borneo
North Borneo
Chartered Company, his son was accidentally killed during his journey in Segama River on North Borneo.[419] Ada Pryer wrote a book about her life in North Borneo
Borneo
titled "A Decade in Borneo" (1894, re-issued 2001) as her husband, William Pryer also served for the North Borneo
North Borneo
Chartered Company.[420] The earliest known footage of North Borneo
North Borneo
is from three American movies by the late couple Martin and Osa Johnson
Martin and Osa Johnson
titled "Jungle Adventures" (1921), "Jungle Depths of Borneo" (1937) and "Borneo" (1937).[421] Australian author Wendy Law Suart lived in North Borneo
Borneo
capital between 1949 and 1953 and wrote a book titled "The Lingering Eye – Recollections of North Borneo" based on her experiences there.[422]

Three Came Home, a 1950 Hollywood movie based on the memoir of Agnes Newton Keith life in Sandakan, North Borneo
North Borneo
(present-day Sabah) during World War II.[89]

An English author K.G. Tregonning wrote a book about his travel to Jesselton from Singapore in a book titled "North Borneo" (1960).[423] Various other American films have been taken in the state, such as the "Three Came Home" (1950), a Hollywood movie based on the memoir of Agnes Newton Keith
Agnes Newton Keith
in her book depicting the situation of World War II in Sandakan.[89] The late Keith also wrote three other books about the state, such as "Land Below the Wind", "White Man Returns" and "Beloved Exiles". In the Earl Mac Rauch novelisation of the American "Buckaroo Banzai" novel (Pocket Books, 1984; repr. 2001), as well in the DVD film, Buckaroo's archenemy Hanoi Xan is said to have his secret base in Sabah, in a "relic city of caves".[424] "Bat*21" (1988), another American film depicting the Vietnam
Vietnam
War was shot at various locations in the suburbs north of Kota Kinabalu, including Menggatal, Telipok, Kayu Madang and Lapasan.[425] Another English author Redmond O'Hanlon also wrote a book titled "Into the Heart of Borneo" (1984) about Borneo
Borneo
island.[426] While Sydney-based Australian author Lynette Ramsay Silver wrote two books about the history of Sabah
Sabah
such as " Sandakan
Sandakan
– A Conspiracy of Silence" (1998) and "Blood Brothers – Sabah
Sabah
and Australia 1942–1945" (2010). In early 2016, a "Roll of Honour" immortalising 2,479 British and Australian soldiers who died in Sabah
Sabah
during the World War II
World War II
has been presented by a British Royal Artillery veteran to Sabah
Sabah
State Tourism, Culture and Environment Department, the roll lists a record of the identity of every prisoner of war (POW) during the Sandakan
Sandakan
Death March.[427] In 2017, an English woman named Mary Christina Lewin (Tina Rimmer) who had lived in North Borneo
Borneo
since 1949,[428] was given the ‘ Sabah
Sabah
Cultural Icon’ as the first person to receive the award for her lifelong contribution to the people in the territory and her biggest role as educationist and artist who portrayed the life scene of North Borneo
North Borneo
through her artworks.[429] Following the beginning of Malaysian films in 1970s along with the foundation of Sabah
Sabah
Film Production, several local films have been produced and filmed in the state by the state production, among those are "Keluarga Si Comat" (1975) and "Hapuslah Air Matamu" (1976) (produced with a collaboration with Indonesian Film Production).[430] Abu Bakar Ellah (popularly known as Ampal) then became the leading artist of Sabah
Sabah
comedy film with his film titled "Orang Kita".[431] In the present day, state-produced dramas and documentaries are usually aired either on TVi, TV1 or TV2 while state musics aired on radios through Bayu FM, Kupi-Kupi FM, Sabah
Sabah
FM and Sabah
Sabah
vFM. Sabah
Sabah
was featured in the British popular reality show of "Survivor: Borneo" and the American show of " Eco-Challenge
Eco-Challenge
Borneo" in 2000.[432][433] In 2001, the state was featured in a 2001 Filipino documentary titled "Sabah: Ang Bagong Amerika?" by Vicky Morales on the story of Filipino immigrants from the Sulu Archipelago
Sulu Archipelago
escaping poverty and starvation in the Philippines
Philippines
by entering Sabah
Sabah
illegally to earn livehood but facing risk being caught, tortured and deported as Malaysian laws are getting strict on illegal migration.[434] In 2003, the state was featured on "The Amazing Race" for the first time as well on a 2009 Hong Kong drama of "Born Rich".[435] The state was also featured in a 2014 American documentary of "Sacred Planet" and featured again in a new edition of "The Amazing Race" as well on a Korean reality show programme titled the "Law of the Jungle", both in 2014.[436] In early 2017, Hong Kong film industry once again choose Sabah
Sabah
as one of the location for a new romance film titled "She Will Be Loved".[437] Holidays and festivals[edit] Main articles: Public holidays in Sabah and Public holidays in Malaysia

The Borneo
Borneo
Bug Fest in 2016, featuring Volkswagen Beetle.

Sabahans observe a number of holidays and festivals throughout the year.[438] Apart from the national Independence Day, Malaysia
Malaysia
Day celebrations and the State Governor's birthday, Sabah
Sabah
has start to celebrates Sabah
Sabah
Self-government Day on 31 August.[439][440] Every ethnic groups celebrate their own festivals and the culture of open house (rumah terbuka) with the visits of families and friends from other races and religion are a norm especially with the interracial marriage between different ethnic groups of different background.[441] Sabah
Sabah
are the only state in Malaysia
Malaysia
to declare the Kaamatan celebration a public holiday.[442] Both Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak
Sarawak
are also the only two states in Malaysia
Malaysia
that declare Good Friday
Good Friday
a public holiday.[441][443] At least nine festivals are being held annually in Sabah
Sabah
such as the Borneo
Borneo
Bird Festival,[444] Borneo
Borneo
Bug Fest, Borneo Eco Film Festival,[445] Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
Food Fest,[446] Kota Kinabalu Jazz Festival,[447] Sabah
Sabah
Dragon Boat Festival, Sabah
Sabah
Fest,[448] Sabah International Folklore
Folklore
Festival and Sabah
Sabah
Sunset Music Festival.[449] Sports[edit]

The Borneo
Borneo
International Marathon in 2015.

North Borneo
North Borneo
sent its own teams to participate in the 1956 Summer Olympic Games,[450] 1958 and 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games,[451] as well on the 1962 Asian Games
1962 Asian Games
before its athletes started representing Malaysia
Malaysia
after 1963.[452][453] To produce more athletes and to improve and raise the standard of sports in the state after Sabah
Sabah
became part of Malaysia, the Sabah
Sabah
State Sports Council was established in 1972.[454] In addition, the Sabah
Sabah
Sports and Cultural Board Sports was created on 1 September 1976 before being frozen in December 1978 for more than two years until 1 January 1981 due to specific reasons.[455] On 31 December 1996, the board been split into Sport Authority of Sabah
Sabah
and Sabah
Sabah
Cultural Board with a new board been established as the Sabah
Sabah
Sports Board that was maintained until present.[455] Sabah
Sabah
became the host of SUKMA Games
SUKMA Games
in 2002. The state also sending its teams to representing Malaysia
Malaysia
at the Southeast Asian Games. Beside focusing to main sports, Sabah
Sabah
also features 11 traditional sports.[456]

Likas Stadium
Likas Stadium
which is the home stadium for Sabah
Sabah
FA.

There are 12 sports complex within the state together with three main stadiums.[457] Likas Stadium
Likas Stadium
is the main stadium for the state football association of Sabah
Sabah
FA, followed by Penampang Stadium and Tawau
Tawau
Stadium. Sabah FA
Sabah FA
was founded in 1963 with the association have won one title each on the Malaysia
Malaysia
FA Cup in 1995, Malaysia
Malaysia
Premier League in 1996, President Cup Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1999, 13 titles in the past Borneo
Borneo
Cup and 11 titles in the women's football Tun Sharifah Rodziah Cup.[458][459] The association was returned to private sector in early 1996, which had long under the purview of the state government.[460] But following the argument between the association and Sabah
Sabah
Sports Board, Sabah FA
Sabah FA
was suspended by the state sports council on 15 January 1998 and the management was put under the national sport ministry.[461] The move was seen as breaching FIFA
FIFA
rules that stated there should be no government interference on football organisations.[461] The persistent problems plaguing the Sabah
Sabah
FA since 1980s have significantly deteriorating the team performances and demoralising players in addition to the scandals that have embroiling the Malaysian football in 1994.[462] See also[edit]

List of people from Sabah

Notes[edit]

^ Accounts from the British explorations in northern Borneo: “The next pirate horde we meet with is a mixed community of Illanuns and Badjows (or sea-gipsies) located at Tampasuk, a few miles up a small river; they are not formidable in number, and their depredations are chiefly committed on the Spanish territory; their market, until recently, being Bruni, or Borneo
Borneo
Proper. They might readily be dispersed and driven back to their own country; and the Dusuns, or villagers (as the name signifies), might be protected and encouraged. Seriff Houseman, a half-bred Arab, is located in Maludu Bay, and has, by account, from fifteen hundred to two thousand men with him. He is beyond doubt a pirate direct and indirect, and occasionally commands excursions in person, or employs the Illanuns of Tampasuk, and others to the eastward, who for their own convenience make common cause with him. He has no pretension to the territory he occupies; and the authority he exerts (by means of his piratical force) over the interior tribes in his vicinity, and on the island of Palawan, is of the worst and most oppressive. This Seriff has probably never come in contact with any Europeans, and consequently openly professes to hold their power in scorn. The Seriff seized and sold into slavery a boat's crew (about twenty men) of the Sultana, a merchant ship, which was burned in the Palawan
Palawan
passage. Within the last few months he has plundered and burned a European vessel stranded near the Mangsi Isles; and to shew his entire independence of control, his contempt for European power, and his determination to continue in his present course, he has threatened to attack the city of Bruni, in consequence of the Bruni government having entered into a treaty with her Majesty's government for the discouragement and suppression of piracy. This fact speaks volumes; an old-established and recognised Malay government is to be attacked by a lawless adventurer, who has seized on a portion of its territory, and lives by piracy, for venturing to treat with a foreign power for the best purposes”.[70] ^ Although North Borneo
North Borneo
(Sabah) became part of the Federation of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963, all British Crown stamps were maintained until 30 June 1964; the newly-printed Sabah
Sabah
stamps arrived on 1 July 1964. ^ Heath presumably means the communist insurgency along the border of Malaysia–Thailand, further Indonesia
Indonesia
infiltration and the Philippines
Philippines
who had not dropped their claim to Sabah
Sabah
until this day. As well with the Vietnam
Vietnam
War that was raging at the time, raising fears of South-East Asian dominoes toppling to Soviet-aligned communism.[144] ^ See List of hospitals in Malaysia.

References[edit]

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Tsinghua University
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staff have carried out excavations in the Madai and Baturong limestone massifs, at caves and open sites dated back 30,000 years. Baturong is surrounded by large area of alluvial deposits, formed by the damming of the Tingkayu River by a lava flow. The Tingkayu stone industry shows a unique level of skills for its period. The remains of many mammals, snakes, and tortoises were found, all food items collected by early occupants of the rock shelters.  ^ a b c d "About Sabah". Sabah
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from 1841 to 1946. Cambridge University Press. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-0-521-12899-5.  ^ Edward Gibbon (1788). "Fall In The East — The Decline And Fall Of The Roman Empire [Chapter 64]". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved 18 October 2017. Hundred thousand Chinese imitated his example; and the whole empire, from Tonkin
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to the great wall, submitted to the dominion of Cublai. His boundless ambition aspired to the conquest of Japan: his fleet was twice shipwrecked; and the lives of a hundred thousand Moguls and Chinese were sacrificed in the fruitless expedition. But the circumjacent kingdoms, Corea, Tonkin, Cochinchina, Pegu, Bengal, and Thibet, were reduced in different degrees of tribute and obedience by the effort or terror of his arms. He explored the Indian Ocean with a fleet of a thousand ships: they sailed in sixty-eight days, most probably to the Isle of Borneo, under the equinoctial line; and though they returned not without spoil or glory, the emperor was dissatisfied that the savage king had escaped from their hands.  ^ Henry Miers Elliot (21 March 2013). The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians: The Muhammadan Period. Cambridge University Press. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-1-108-05585-7.  ^ a b c d e Mohammad Al-Mahdi Tan Kho; Hurng-yu Chen (July 2014). "Malaysia- Philippines
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