RAINER WERNER FASSBINDER (pronounced ; 31 May 1945 – 10 June 1982) was a West German filmmaker, actor, playwright and theatre director, part of the New German Cinema movement.
Although Fassbinder's career lasted less than fifteen years, he was highly prolific. He completed forty feature length films, two television film series, three short films , four video productions, twenty-four stage plays , and four radio plays . He had thirty-six acting roles in his own and others' films, and also worked as a cameraman , composer , designer , editor , and theater manager.
Fassbinder died on 10 June 1982 at the age of 37 from a lethal cocktail of cocaine and barbiturates .
* 1 Early life * 2 Beginnings * 3 Theater career * 4 Early films and acclaim
* 5 Film career
* 5.1 Avant-garde films (1969–1971)
* 5.1.1 Love is Colder than Death (1969)
Gods of the Plague
* 5.2 German melodramas (1971–1975)
* 5.2.1 The Merchant of Four Seasons (1971) * 5.2.2 The Bitter Tears of Petra von Kant (1972) * 5.2.3 Jailbait (1973) * 5.2.4 World on a Wire (1973) * 5.2.5 Ali: Fear Eats the Soul (1974) * 5.2.6 Martha (1974) * 5.2.7 Effi Briest (1974) * 5.2.8 Like a Bird on a Wire (1975) * 5.2.9 Fox and His Friends (1975) * 5.2.10 Mother Küsters Goes to Heaven (1975) * 5.2.11 Fear of Fear (1975) * 5.2.12 I Only Want You to Love Me (1976) * 5.2.13 Satan\'s Brew (1976)
* 5.3 International films (1976–1982)
Chinese Roulette (1976)
* 5.3.2 The Stationmaster\'s Wife (1977)
Germany in Autumn (1978)
* 5.3.4 Despair (1978)
In a Year of Thirteen Moons (1978)
The Marriage of Maria Braun (1979)
* 5.3.7 The Third Generation (1979)
Berlin Alexanderplatz (1980)
Lili Marleen (1981)
* 5.3.10 Theater In Trance (1981)
* 5.3.11 Lola (1981)
Veronika Voss (1982)
* 6 Personal life * 7 Controversy * 8 Death * 9 Filmography * 10 Plays * 11 Documentaries about Fassbinder * 12 Notes * 13 References
* 14 Further reading
* 14.1 Archival sources
* 15 External links
Fassbinder was born in
Fassbinder's parents were cultured members of the bourgeoisie. His
father mainly concentrated on his career, which he saw as a means to
indulge his passion for writing poetry. His mother largely ignored him
as well, spending the majority of her time helping her husband with
his medical practice. In 1951, Liselotte Pempeit and Helmut Fassbinder
divorced. Helmut moved to
As a teen, Fassbinder was sent to boarding school. His time there was marred by his repeated escape attempts and he eventually left school before any final examinations. At the age of 15, he moved to Cologne with his father. The arrangement was less than ideal as they argued frequently. Nonetheless, he stayed with his father for a couple of years while attending night school. To earn money, he worked small jobs and helped his father who rented shabby apartments to immigrant workers. Around this time, Fassbinder began writing short plays and stories and poems.
In 1963, aged eighteen, Fassbinder returned to
He returned to
In 1967 Fassbinder joined the
The style of his stage directing closely resembled that of his early films, a mixture of choreographed movement and static poses, taking its cues not from the traditions of stage theater, but from musicals, cabaret, films and the student protest movement.
After he made his earliest feature films in 1969, Fassbinder centered his efforts in his career as film director, but he maintained an intermittent foothold in the theater until his death. He worked in various productions throughout Germany and made a number of radio plays in the early 1970s. In 1974 Fassbinder took directorial control over the Theater am Turm (TAT) of Frankfurt; when this project ended in failure and controversy, Fassbinder became less interested in theater.
EARLY FILMS AND ACCLAIM
Fassbinder used his theatrical work as a springboard for making films; and many of the Anti-Theater actors and crew worked with him throughout his entire career (for instance, he made 20 films each with actresses Hanna Schygulla and Irm Herrmann). He was strongly influenced by Brecht's Verfremdungseffekt (alienation effect) and the French New Wave cinema, particularly the works of Jean-Luc Godard . Fassbinder developed his rapid working methods early. Because he knew his actors and technicians so well, Fassbinder was able to complete as many as four or five films per year on extremely low budgets. This allowed him to compete successfully for the government grants needed to continue making films.
Unlike the other major auteurs of the New German Cinema, Volker Schlöndorff , Werner Herzog and Wim Wenders , who started out making movies, Fassbinder's stage background was evident throughout his work. Additionally, he learned how to handle all phases of production, from writing and acting to direction and theater management. This versatility surfaced in his films too where, in addition to some of the aforementioned responsibilities, Fassbinder served as composer, production designer, cinematographer, producer and editor. He also appeared in thirty projects of other directors.
By 1976, Fassbinder had gained international prominence, prizes at
major film festivals , premieres and retrospectives in Paris, New York
and Los Angeles, and a study of his work by
Tony Rayns had been
published. All these factors helped make him a familiar name among
cinephiles and campus audiences throughout the world. He lived in
Starting at age 21, Fassbinder made over forty films and TV dramas in fifteen years, along with directing numerous plays for the theatre. These films were largely written or adapted for the screen by Fassbinder. He was also art director on most of the early films, editor or co-editor on many of them (often credited as Franz Walsh, though the spelling varies), and he acted in nineteen of his own films as well as for other directors. He wrote fourteen plays, created new versions of six classical plays, and directed or co-directed twenty-five stage plays. He wrote and directed four radio plays and wrote song lyrics. In addition, he wrote thirty-three screenplays and collaborated with other screenwriters on thirteen more. On top of this, he occasionally performed many other roles such as cinematographer and producer on a small number of them. Working with a regular ensemble of actors and technicians, he was able to complete films ahead of schedule and often under budget and thus compete successfully for government subsidies. He worked fast, typically omitting rehearsals and going with the first take.
Fassbinder first ten films (1969–1971) were said to be an extension of his work in the theater, shot usually with a static camera and with deliberately unnaturalistic dialogue.
In 1971 through 1977, his films brought him international attention,
with films modeled, to ironic effect, on the melodramas Douglas Sirk
The final films, from around 1977 until his death, were more varied,
with international actors sometimes used and the stock company
disbanded, although the casts of some films were still filled with
Fassbinder regulars. He became increasingly more idiosyncratic in
terms of plot, form and subject matter in movies like The Marriage of
Maria Braun (1979), The Third Generation (1979) and
"I would like to build a house with my films," Fassbinder once remarked. "Some are the cellars, others the walls, still others the windows. But I hope in the end it will be a house."
AVANT-GARDE FILMS (1969–1971)
Working simultaneously in theater and film, Fassbinder created his own style from a fusion of the two artforms. His ten early films are characterized by a self-conscious and assertive formalism . Influenced by Jean-Luc Godard , Jean-Marie Straub and the theories of Bertolt Brecht , these films are austere and minimalist in style. Although praised by many critics, they proved too demanding and inaccessible for a mass audience. Fassbinder's rapid working methods had begun by this stage.
Love Is Colder Than Death (1969)
Shot in black and white with a shoestring budget in April 1969, Fassbinder's first feature-length film, Love is Colder than Death (1969) (Liebe ist kälter als der Tod), was a deconstruction of the American gangster films of the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. Fassbinder plays the lead role of Franz, a small-time pimp who is torn between his mistress Joanna, a prostitute played by Hanna Schygulla, and his friend Bruno, a gangster sent after Franz by the syndicate that he has refused to join. Joanna informs the police of a bank robbery the two men have planned. Bruno is killed in the shootout, but Franz and Joanna escape.
Love is Colder than Death is a low key film with muted tone, long sequences, non-naturalistic acting and little dialogue. Success was not immediate. Love is Colder than Death was ill-received at its premiere at the Berlin Film Festival . The film, however, already displays the themes that were to remain present through the director's subsequent work: loneliness, the longing for companionship and love, and the fear and reality of betrayal.
Fassbinder's second film,
Katzelmacher (1969), (Bavarian pejorative
slang term for a foreign worker from the Mediterranean), was received
more positively, garnering five prizes after its debut at
Gods Of The Plague (1970)
Gods of the Plague
Similar in plot and characters to both Love is Colder than Death
The American Soldier
The last of the four films Fassbinder shot in 1969, was his first in
Why Does Herr R. Run Amok?
Why Does Herr R. Run Amok?
The main theme of the gangster film
The American Soldier
The Niklashausen Journey (1970)
In The Niklashausen Journey (de) (Die Niklashauser Fahrt),
Fassbinder co-writes and co-directs with Michael Fengler. This
avant-garde film, commissioned by the WDR television network, was shot
in May 1970 and it was broadcast in October the same year. The
Niklashausen Journey was loosely based on the real-life of Hans Boehm,
a shepherd who in 1476 claimed that the Virgin Mary called him to
foment an uprising against the church and upper classes. Despite a
temporary success, Boehm's followers were eventually massacred and he
was burned at the stake. Fassbinder's intention was to show how and
why revolutions fail. His approach was to compare the political and
sexual turmoil of feudal Germany with that of the contraculture
movement and the protests of 1968 . Fassbinder did not clarify the
time frame of the action mixing medieval elements (including some
costumes, settings, speech and music) with those from other time
periods, like the Russian Revolution, the
The Niklashausen Journey, influenced by Jean-Luc Godard 's Weekend and Glauber Rocha 's Antonio das Mortes , consists of only about a dozen or so scenes, most of which are either theatrical tableaux where there is no movement of the characters and the camera darts from speaker to speaker or are shots where characters pace back and forth while giving revolutionary speeches about Marxist struggles and debates on economic theories.
Set in 1876, Whity centers on the title character, a mulatto who works as the obsequious servant in the mansion of a dysfunctional family in the American South. He is the illegitimate son of the family patriarch and the black cook. Whity tries to carry out all their orders, however demeaning, until several of the family members ask him to kill some of the others. He eventually kills them all and runs away to the desert with a prostitute from the local bar.
The film was shot in
Rio Das Mortes (1971)
A whimsical comedy,
Rio das Mortes follows two young men without
prospects who try to raise money in order to realize their dream of
finding a buried treasure in
Based on an idea by
Volker Schlondorff ,
Rio das Mortes was shot in
January 1970 following
Why Does Herr R. Run Amok?
Pioneers In Ingolstadt (1971)
Pioneers in Ingolstadt (Pioniere in Ingolstadt) was adapted from an eponymous play by Marieluise Fleißer written in 1927. It follows two young women whose lives are transformed when army engineers (the pioneers of the title) arrive to their town to build a bridge. One of the women flirts from soldier to soldier, but her friend falls in love only to be abandoned.
Shot in November 1970, Pioneers in Ingolstaldt was commissioned for television. Fassbinder wanted to bring the plot from the 1920s to contemporary Germany, but the producers, fearing to offend the German army, refused. A compromise did not satisfy any of the parts and midway onto the project Fassbinder lost interest on it. The film suffered as a consequence and it ranks among Fassbinder's weakest films. The tensions and bitterness that had surrounded the making of Whity lead Fassbinder to dismantle the collective project of the anthiteather as a production company. Instead, he founded his own production company: Tango films. Pioneers in Ingolstadt, although broadcast before the theatrical release of Beware of a Holy Whore, was the last film made by Fassbinder during his formative period. In the following year, 1971, Fassbinder shot only one film: The Merchant of Four Seasons.
Beware Of A Holy Whore (1971)
Beware of a Holy Whore was based, like many of Fassbinder's films, on a personal experience – the shooting of his earlier film, the revisionist western Whity (1970). The film shows an egomaniacal director, beset by a stalled production, temperamental actors, and a frustrated crew. When asked what the movie he is making is about, he replies: "brutality." The film ends with a typical Fassbinder-esque irony, as the crew gang up on the director. Beware of a Holy Whore marked the end of Fassbinder's avant-garde period. It presented such an embittered and radical self-critique that his future films would have to be quite different from the ones made before. After spinning out ten films in not much more than a year (this film was shot only a few months after Whity) in a frenzied burst of creativity, his anti-film anti-theater drive seemed to conclude.
GERMAN MELODRAMAS (1971–1975)
After Pioneers in Ingolstadt, Fassbinder took an eight-month break
from filmmaking. During this time, Fassbinder turned for a model to
The Merchant Of Four Seasons (1971)
Fassbinder scored his first domestic commercial success with The Merchant of Four Seasons (Händler der vier Jahreszeiten, 1971). The film portrays a married couple who are fruit sellers. Hans faces rejection from his family after he violently assaults his wife for not bending to his will. She leaves him, but after he suffers a heart attack they reunite, though he now has to employ other men. His restricted ability to function leads him to ponder his own futility. He literally drinks himself to death.
The Merchant of Four Seasons uses melodrama as a style to create critical studies of contemporary German life for a general audience. It was Fassbinder's first effort to create what he declared he aspired to: a cinematic statement of the human condition that would transcend national boundaries as the films of Michelangelo Antonioni , Ingmar Bergman and Federico Fellini had done. It is also his first realization of what he learned from Sirk: that people, however small they may be, and their emotions, however insignificant they may seem, could be big on the movie screen.
The Bitter Tears Of Petra Von Kant (1972)
Loneliness is a common theme in Fassbinder's work, together with the idea that power becomes a determining factor in all human relationships. His characters yearn for love, but seem condemned to exert an often violent control over those around them. A good example is The Bitter Tears of Petra von Kant (Die bitteren Tränen der Petra von Kant, 1972) which was adapted by Fassbinder from his plays. The title character is a fashion designer who lives in a self-created dreamland and the action is restricted mostly to her lavish bedroom. After the failure of her second marriage, Petra falls hopelessly and obsessively in love with Karin, a cunning working-class young woman who wants a career in modeling. The model's exploitation of Petra mirrors Petra's extraordinary psychological abuse of her silent assistant, Marlene. Fassbinder portrays the slow meltdown of these relationships as inevitable, and his actresses (there are no men in the film) move in a slow, trance-like way that hints at a vast world of longing beneath the beautiful, brittle surface.
Jailbait (de) (Wildwechsel, 1973), also known as Wild Game Crossing, is a bleak story of teenage angst, set in industrial northern Germany during the 1950s. Like in many other of his films, Fassbinder analyses lower middle class life with characters who, unable to articulate their feelings, bury them in inane phrases and violent acts. Love turns into a power struggle of deception and betrayal. The story centers on Hanni, a precocious fourteen-year-old schoolgirl who starts a relationship with Franz, a nineteen-year-old worker in a chicken processing plant. Their romance faces the opposition of the girl's conservative parents. Franz is sentenced to nine months in prison for having sex with a minor. When he is released on probation, they continue their relationship and Hanni becomes pregnant. Afraid of her father's anger, she persuades Franz to kill him. Back in prison, Franz is told by Hanni that their child died at birth and that their love was "only physical".
Originally made for German television, Jailbait was based on a play by Franz Xaver Kroetz who violently disagreed with Fassbinder's adaptation, calling it pornographic. The luridness of its theme furthered the controversy.
World On A Wire (1973)
His only science fiction film , World on a Wire (Welt am Draht, 1973) was a departure for Fassbinder. An adaptation of the pulp sci-fi novel Simulacron-3 by Daniel F. Galouye , it was made as a two-part, 205 minute production for television using 16 mm film stock during a hiatus from the lengthy production of Effi Briest and in the same year as Martha and Ali: Fear Eats the Soul.
A story of realities within realities,
World on a Wire follows a
researcher, working at the institute of cybernetics and future
science, who begins to investigate the mysterious death of his mentor.
He falls deep into the cover up behind a computer capable of creating
an artificial world with units living as human beings unaware that
their world is just a computer projection. Made in contemporary Paris,
the film was stylistically inspired by
Jean-Luc Godard 's Alphaville
(1965) and in its theme of artificial humans wanting to reach real
Ali: Fear Eats The Soul (1974)
Fassbinder first gained international success with Fear Eats the Soul (Angst essen Seele auf, 1974). This film was shot in fifteen days in September 1973 with a very-low budget ranking among Fassbinder's quickest and cheapest. Nevertheless, the impact on Fassbinder's career and in overseas release remains cemented as a great and influential work. It won the International Critics Prize at Cannes and was acclaimed by critics everywhere as one of 1974's best films.
Fear Eats the Soul was loosely inspired by Sirk's All That Heaven Allows (1955). It details the vicious response of family and community to a lonely aging white cleaning lady who marries a muscular, much younger black Moroccan immigrant worker. The two are drawn to each other out of mutual loneliness. When their relationship becomes known, they experience various forms of hostility and public rejection. Gradually, their relationship is tolerated, not out of real acceptance, but because those around the good-hearted old lady realize their ability to exploit her is threatened. As the external pressures over the couple begin to subside, internal conflicts surface.
Fassbinder's main characters tend to be naifs, either men or women, who are rudely, sometimes murderously disabused of their romantic illusions. Shot on 16 mm film and made for television, Martha (1974) is a melodrama about cruelty in a traditional marriage.
The plot focuses on the title character, a spinster librarian. Soon
after the death of her father while on vacation in
Effi Briest (1974)
Effi Briest was Fassbinder's dream film and the one in which he invested the most work. While he normally took between nine and 20 days to make a film, this time it required 58 shooting days, dragged out over two years. The film is a period piece adapted from Theodor Fontane 's classic novel of 1894, concerning the consequences of betrayed love. Set in the closed, repressive Prussian society of the Bismarck era, the film paints a portrait of a woman's fate completely linked to an unbending and utterly unforgiving code of social behavior. The plot follows the story of Effi Briest, a young woman who seeks to escape her stifling marriage to a much older man by entering into a brief affair with a charming soldier. Six years later, Effi's husband discovers her affair with tragic consequences.
The film served as a showpiece for Fassbinder's muse and favorite actress Hanna Schygulla , whose detached acting style fitted the roles the director created for her. Fassbinder made her a star, but artistic differences while making Effi Briest created a split that lasted for some years, until Fassbinder called her back to take the role of Maria Braun.
Like A Bird On A Wire (1975)
Like a Bird on a Wire (Wie ein Vogel auf dem Draht) is a forty-minute television production featuring Brigitte Mira , the main actress in Fear eats the Soul, singing cabaret songs and love ballads from the 1940s and 1950s. Between songs, she drinks and talks about her husbands. The title is borrowed from Leonard Cohen 's song "Bird on the Wire ", with which the program ends.
Fassbinder considered this project "an attempt to do a show about the Adenauer era . For us it certainly wasn't entirely successful. But the film does reveal the utter repulsiveness and sentimentality of the time" he explained.
Fox And His Friends (1975)
Many of Fassbinder's films deal with homosexuality, in keeping with his interest in characters who are social outsiders, but he drew away from most representations of homosexuals in films. In an interview at the 1975 Cannes Film Festival , Fassbinder said about Fox and His Friends : "It is certainly the first film in which the characters are homosexuals, without homosexuality being made into a problem. In films, plays or novels, if homosexuals appear, the homosexuality was the problem, or it was a comic turn. But here homosexuality is shown as completely normal, and the problem is something quite different, it's a love story, where one person exploits the love of the other person, and that's the story I always tell".
In Fox and His Friends (Faustrecht der Freiheit, 1974) a sweet but unsophisticated working-class homosexual wins the lottery and falls in love with the elegant son of an industrialist. His lover tries to mold him into a gilt-edged mirror of upper-class values, all the while appropriating Fox' lottery winnings for his own ends. He ultimately destroys his illusions, leaving him heartbroken and destitute.
Fassbinder worked within the limits of
Fox and His Friends has been deemed homophobic by some and overly pessimistic by others. The film's homosexuals are not, surprisingly, any different from the film's equally lecherous heterosexuals. The film's pessimism is far outweighed by Fassbinder's indictment of Fox as an active participant in his own victimization, a familiar critique found in many of the director's films.
Mother Küsters Goes To Heaven (1975)
In Mother Küsters Goes to Heaven (Mutter Küsters Fahrt zum Himmel), a melodrama , Emma Küsters becomes the center of media and political attention after her husband, a factory worker, killed his supervisor or his supervisor's son and then himself when lay offs were announced. The film drew on both Sirk's melodramas and Weimar era workers' films, connecting the genres to tell a political coming of age story about Mother Küsters, who seeks to understand what led to her husband's actions and how to respond. The film is very critical of the era's politics and media, as the people to whom Emma Küsters turns all exploit her and her experience. The media, communists, anarchists and even her own family members all take advantage of Mother Küsters's tragedy to advance their own agendas.
Fear Of Fear (1975)
Made for German television, Fear of Fear (de) (Angst vor der Angst) is a physiological drama about a middle class house wife, locked into a dull life with a distracted husband, two small children and openly hostile in laws. She becomes addicted to valium and alcohol overwhelmed by an irrational anxiety and fear of her inexorable descent into madness.
Fear of Fear is similar in theme to Martha, which also portrays the effect of a dysfunctional marriage in an oppressed housewife, the central role was again played by Margit Carstensen .
I Only Want You To Love Me (1976)
I Only Want You To Love Me (Ich will doch nur, daß ihr mich liebt, 1976) tells the story of Peter, a construction worker in jail for manslaughter. His life is recounted in a series of flashbacks. A hard working man, Peter spends his spare time building a house for his cold unloving parents. He marries and finds a job in another city, but in his desperate yearning for affection he tries to buy the love of those around him with expensive gifts which soon makes him fall into a spiral of debt. When he sees his own unrequited love for his parents reflected during an argument in a bar, he kills a man who serves as a proxy for his father.
The film was made for television and shot during a pause while making Satan's Brew. Based on a true account taken from For Life, a book of interviews edited by Klaus Antes and Christiane Erhardt, it was Fassbinder's personal reflections on childhood and adolescence.
Satan\'s Brew (1976)
In a time of professional crisis, Fassbinder made Satan\'s Brew
(Satansbraten, 1976) a bleak amoral comedy that pays homage to Antonin
Artaud 's theatre of cruelty . Stylistically far from the melodramas
that made him known internationally,
Satan's Brew gave way to a new
phase in his career. In Satan's Brew, a neurotic poet suffering from
writer's block struggles to make ends meet while dealing with a
frustrated long suffering wife, a half witted brother and various
prostitutes and masochist women who drift in and out of his life. He
convinces himself to be the reincarnation of the gay romantic poet
INTERNATIONAL FILMS (1976–1982)
Enthusiasm for Fassbinder's films grew quickly after Fear Eats the Soul. Vincent Canby paid tribute to Fassbinder as "the most original talent since Godard". In 1977, the New Yorker Theater in Manhattan held a Fassbinder Festival.
However, as enthusiasm for Fassbinder grew outside of Germany, his films still failed to impress the native audience. At home, he was better known for his television work and for his open homosexuality. Coupled with the controversial issues of his films — terrorism, state violence , racism , sexual politics — it seemed that everything Fassbinder did provoked or offended someone.
After completing in 1978 his last low-budget and very personal
In a Year of 13 Moons and The Third Generation ) he would
concentrate on making films that were becoming increasingly garish and
stylized. But Fassbinder's TV series
Berlin Alexanderplatz was a
naturalistic adaptation of the two-volume novel by
Chinese Roulette (1976)
Chinese Roulette (Chinesisches Roulette) is a gothic thriller with an
ensemble cast. The film follows a twelve-year-old crippled girl,
Angela, who, due to her parents' lack of affection, arranges an
encounter between them with their respective lovers at the family
country estate. The film climaxes with a truth guessing game. The
players divide into two teams, which take it in turn to pick out one
member of the other side and ask them question about people and
objects. The game is played at the suggestion of Angela, who plays
against her mother. When the mother asks: "In the
The Stationmaster\'s Wife (1977)
There are no happy endings in Fassbinder's films. His protagonists, usually weak men or women with masochistic tendencies, pay a heavy price for their victimization. The Stationmaster\'s Wife (de) (Bolwieser) is based on a 1931 novel, Bolwieser: The Novel Of a Husband by the Bavarian writer Oskar Maria Graf . The plot follows the downfall of Xaver Bolwieser, a railway stationmaster submitted to the will of his domineering and unfaithful wife, whose repeated infidelities completely ruin Bolwieser's life. Broadcast initially as a two-part television series, The Stationmaster's Wife was shortened to a 112-minute feature film and released in the first anniversary of Fassbinder's death. The film stars Kurt Raab , Fassbinder's close friend who the director usually cast as a pathetic man. Raab was also set designer of Fassbinder's films until their friendship and professional relationship broke up after making this film.
Germany In Autumn (1978)
Germany in Autumn (Deutschland im Herbst) is an omnibus film , a collective work of eight German filmmakers including Fassbinder, Alf Brustellin , Volker Schlöndorff , Bernhard Sinkel and Alexander Kluge , the main organizer behind the project. They took a look at the wave of guilt and paranoia that afflicted West Germany 's society and its authorities in the months between the kidnapping and murder of industrialist Hanns Martin Schleyer by Red Army Faction members and the deaths of Andreas Baader , Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe in Stammheim Prison . The film is a document about terrorism and its sociopolitical aftermath. It begins with Schleyer's wake, a segment filmed by Alexander Kluge and Volker Schlöndorff, and it ends with the tumultuous joint funeral of Baader, Ensslin, and Raspe in Stuttgart.
Fassbinder made three films in English , a language in which he was not proficient: Despair (1978), Lili Marleen (1980) and Querelle (1982). All three films have international actors and are very ambitious, yet each faced artistic and commercial problems. Despair is based upon the 1936 novel of the same name by Vladimir Nabokov , adapted by Tom Stoppard and featuring Dirk Bogarde . It was made on a budget of 6,000,000 DEM , exceeding the total cost of Fassbinder's first fifteen films.
Despair – A journey into the Light (Despair – Eine Reise ins Licht) tells the story of Hermann Hermann, an unbalanced Russian émigré and chocolate magnate, whose business and marriage have both grown bitter. The factory is close to bankruptcy, and his vulgar wife is chronically unfaithful. He hatches an elaborate plot to take a new identity in the belief it will free him of all his worries. The story of Hermann's descent into madness is juxtaposed against the rise of National Socialism in the Germany of the 1930s.
In A Year Of Thirteen Moons (1978)
In a Year of Thirteen Moons (In einem Jahr mit 13 Monden, 1978) is Fassbinder most personal and bleakest work. The film follows the tragic life of Elvira, a transsexual formerly known as Erwin. In the last few days before her suicide, she decides to visit some of the important people and places in her life. In one sequence, Elvira wanders through the slaughterhouse where she worked as Erwin, recounting her history amid the meat-hooked corpses of cattle whose slit throats rain blood onto the floor. In another scene, Elvira returns to the orphanage where she was raised by nuns and hears the brutal story of her childhood. Fassbinder's camera tracks the nun (played by his mother) telling Elvira's story; she moves with a kind of military precision through the grounds, recounting the story in blazing detail, unaware that Elvira had collapsed and can no longer hear it.
In a Year of Thirteen Moons was explicitly personal, a reaction to his former lover Armin Meier's suicide. In addition to writing, directing, and editing, Fassbinder also designed the production and worked as the cameraman. When the film played in the New York Film Festival in October 1979, critic Vincent Canby (who championed Fassbinder's work in the United States) wrote, "Its only redeeming feature is genius."
The Marriage Of Maria Braun (1979)
The Marriage of Maria Braun (Die Ehe der Maria Braun), his
greatest success, Fassbinder finally attained the popular acceptance
he sought with German audiences. The title character is an ambitious
and strong willed woman separated from her husband towards the end of
World War II. The plot follows Maria Braun's steady rise as a
successful business woman during the Adenauer era. Maria's dream of a
happy life with her husband remains unfulfilled. Her professional
achievements are not accompanied by personal happiness. The film,
constructed in the
The film was the first part of a trilogy centered on women during the post-war "economic miracle " which was completed with Lola (1981) and Veronika Voss (1982).
The Third Generation (1979)
The economic success of The Marriage of Maria Braun allowed Fassbinder to pay his debts and to embark on a personal project, The Third Generation (Die Dritte Generation, 1979), a black comedy about terrorism. Fassbinder found financial backing for this film difficult to acquire and it was ultimately made on a small budget and borrowed money. As he did with In a Year of Thirteen Moons, Fassbinder worked again as the film's cameraman.
The film concerns a group of aspiring terrorists from leftist bourgeois backgrounds who kidnap an industrialist during carnival season unaware that they have been manipulated by the capitalist and the authorities whose hidden agenda is for terrorism to create a demand for security hardware and to gain support for harsher security measures. The actions of the ineffectual cell of underground terrorists are overlaid with a soundtrack filled with newscast, voiceovers, music and gibberish. The political theme of the film aroused controversy.
Berlin Alexanderplatz (1980)
Returning to his explorations of German history, Fassbinder finally
realized his dream of adapting
Berlin Alexanderplatz centers on Franz Biberkopf, a former convict
and minor pimp, who tries to stay out of trouble but is dragged down
by crime, poverty and the duplicity of those around him. His best
friend, Reinhold, makes him lose an arm and murders Franz' prostitute
girlfriend, Mieze. The love triangle of Franz, Reinhold and Mieze is
staged against the rising tide of Nazism in Germany. The film
emphasized the sadomasochist relationship between Biberkopf and
Reinhold stressing its homoerotic nature. Fassbinder had read the book
at age fourteen; later claiming that it helped him survive a
"murderous puberty". The influence of Döblin's novel can be seen in
many of Fassbinder's films most of whose protagonists are named Franz,
some with the surname Biberkopf like the naïve working class lottery
winner in Fox and his friends, who is played by Fassbinder. He also
took the pseudonym of Franz Walsch for his work as editor on his own
films: Walsch was an oblique homage to director
Lili Marleen (1981)
Fassbinder took on the
Fassbinder presents the period of the
Theater In Trance (1981)
Theater In Trance is a documentary which Fassbinder shot in Cologne in June 1981 at the "Theaters of the World" Festival. Over scenes from groups such as the Squat Theatre and the Tanztheater Wuppertal Pina Bausch Fassbinder spoke passages from Antonin Artaud as well as his own commentary.
Lola tells the story of an upright, new building commissioner who arrives in a small town. He falls in love with Lola, innocently unaware of the fact that she is a famed prostitute and the mistress of an unscrupulous developer. Unable to reconcile his idealistic image of Lola with reality, the commissioner spirals into the very corruption he had sought to fight out.
Veronika Voss (1982)
Fassbinder won the
Golden Bear at the 32nd Berlin International Film
Veronika Voss . The original German title, Die Sehnsucht
der Veronika Voss, translates as "The longing of Veronika Voss". Set
in the 1950s, the film depicts the twilight years of the title
character, a faded
Fassbinder did not live to see the premiere of his last film,
Fassbinder had sexual relationships with both men and women. He rarely kept his professional and personal life separate and was known to cast family, friends and lovers in his films. Early in his career, he had a lasting, but fractured relationship with Irm Hermann , a former secretary whom he forced to become an actress. Fassbinder usually cast her in unglamorous roles, most notably as the unfaithful wife in The Merchant of Four Seasons and the silent abused assistant in The Bitter Tears of Petra von Kant .
Irm Hermann idolized him, but Fassbinder tormented and tortured her
for over a decade. This included domestic violence : "He couldn't
conceive of my refusing him, and he tried everything. He almost beat
me to death on the streets of
In 1969, while portraying the lead role in the T.V film Baal under the direction of Volker Schlöndorff , Fassbinder met Günther Kaufmann , a black Bavarian actor who had a minor role in the film. Despite the fact that Kaufmann was married and had two children, Fassbinder fell madly in love with him. The two began a turbulent affair which ultimately affected the production of Baal. Fassbinder tried to buy Kaufmann's love by casting him in major roles in his films and buying him expensive gifts.
Kaufmann relished the attention and became more demanding. Fassbinder bought Kaufmann four Lamborghinis over the period of a year; Kauffmann wrecked one and sold the others if they failed to meet his expectations. The relationship came to an end when Kaufmann became romantically involved with composer Peer Raben . After the end of their relationship, Fassbinder continued to cast Kaufmann in his films, albeit in minor roles. Kaufmann appeared in fourteen of Fassbinder's films, with the lead role in Whity (1971).
Although he claimed to be opposed to matrimony as an institution, in 1970 Fassbinder married Ingrid Caven , an actress who regularly appeared in his films. Their wedding reception was recycled in the film he was making at that time, The American Soldier. Their relationship of mutual admiration survived the complete failure of their two-year marriage. "Ours was a love story in spite of the marriage," Caven explained in an interview, adding about her former husband's sexuality : "Rainer was a homosexual who also needed a woman. It's that simple and that complex." The three most important women of Fassbinder's life, Irm Hermann , Ingrid Caven and Juliane Lorenz , his last partner, were not disturbed by his homosexuality.
In 1971, Fassbinder began a relationship with
El Hedi ben Salem , a
Moroccan Berber who had left his wife and five children the previous
year, after meeting him at a gay bathhouse in Paris. Over the next
three years, Salem appeared in several Fassbinder productions. His
best known role was "Ali" in Ali: Fear Eats the Soul (1974). Their
three-year relationship was punctuated with jealousy, violence and
heavy drug and alcohol use. Fassbinder finally ended the relationship
in 1974 due to Salem's chronic alcoholism and tendency to become
violent when he drank. Shortly after the breakup, Salem stabbed three
people (none fatally) in Berlin and had to be smuggled out of Berlin.
Salem eventually made his way to France where he was arrested and
imprisoned. He hanged himself while in custody in 1977. News of
Salem's suicide was kept from Fassbinder for years. He eventually
found out about his former lover's death shortly before his own death
in 1982 and dedicated his last film,
Fassbinder's next lover was Armin Meier. Meier was a near illiterate former butcher who had spent his early years in an orphanage. He also appeared in several Fassbinder films in this period. A glimpse into their troubled relationship can be seen in Fassbinder's episode for Germany in Autumn (1978). Fassbinder ended the relationship in April 1978. During the week of Fassbinder's birthday (31 May), Meier deliberately consumed four bottles of sleeping pills and alcohol in the kitchen of the apartment he and Fassbinder had previously shared. His body was found a week later.
In the last four years of his life, his companion was Juliane Lorenz (born 1957), the editor of his films during the last years of his life. She can be seen in a small role as the film producer's secretary in Veronika Voss . According to Lorenz, they considered getting married but never did so. Although they were reported drifting apart in his last year, an accusation Lorenz has denied, they were still living together at the time of his death.
Media scandals and controversies ensured that in Germany itself Fassbinder was permanently in the news, making calculatedly provocative remarks in interviews. His work often received mixed reviews from the national critics, many of whom only began to take him seriously after the foreign press had hailed him as a major director.
There were frequent exposés of his lifestyle in the press, and attacks from all sides from the groups his films offended. His television series Eight Hours Do Not Make a Day was cut from eight to five episodes after pressure from conservatives. The playwright Franz Xaver Kroetz sued over Fassbinder's adaptation of his play Jail Bait, alleging that it was obscene . Lesbians and feminists accused Fassbinder of misogyny (in presenting women as complicit in their own oppression) in his 'Women's Picture'. The Bitter Tears of Petra von Kant has been cited by some feminist and gay critics as both homophobic and sexist .
Gay critics also complained of misrepresentation in Fox and his Friends. Conservatives attacked him for his association with the radical left . Marxists said he had sold out his political principles in his depictions of left-intellectual manipulations in Mother Küsters\' Trip to Heaven and of a late-blooming terrorist in The Third Generation. Berlin Alexanderplatz was moved to a late night television slot amid widespread complaints that it was unsuitable for children. The most heated criticism came for his play Garbage, the City, and Death, whose scheduled performance at the Theater am Turm in Frankfurt was cancelled early in 1975 amid charges of anti-semitism . Though published at the time, and quickly withdrawn, the play was not performed until 1987, after Fassbinder's death. In the turmoil, Fassbinder resigned from his directorship of that prestigious theater complex, complaining that the play had been misinterpreted.
Fassbinder did little to discourage the personalized nature of the attacks on himself and his work. He seemed to provoke them by his aggressively non-conformist lifestyle, symbolized in his black leather jacket, battered hat, dark glasses and perennial scowl.
By the time he made his last film,
The cause of death was reported as a lethal combination of cocaine and barbiturates . The notes for Rosa L were found next to his body. Fassbinder's remains were interred at Bogenhausener Friedhof in Munich.
All titles written and directed by
Rainer Werner Fassbinder
YEAR ENGLISH TITLE ORIGINAL TITLE NOTES
1965 This Night This Night Short film Lost
1966 The City Tramp Der Stadtstreicher Short film
1966/67 The Little Chaos Das kleine Chaos Short
1969 Love Is Colder Than Death Liebe ist kälter als der Tod
1969 Katzelmacher Katzelmacher Based on Fassbinder's play English title: Cock Artist
Gods of the Plague
The Coffee House
Video recording for German TV
Based on La bottega del caffè (1750), by
Why Does Herr R. Run Amok?
The American Soldier
1970 The Niklashausen Journey (de) Die Niklashauser Fahrt TV film Co-directed with Michael Fengler
1971 Rio das Mortes Rio das Mortes TV film
1971 Whity Whity
1971 Beware of a Holy Whore Warnung vor einer heiligen Nutte
1972 The Merchant of Four Seasons Händler der vier Jahreszeiten
1972 The Bitter Tears of Petra von Kant Die bitteren Tränen der Petra von Kant Based on Fassbinder's play
1972–1973 Eight Hours Are Not a Day Acht Stunden sind kein Tag TV series, 5 episodes
1972 Bremen Freedom Bremer Freiheit TV film Based on Fassbinder's play
1973 Jail Bait (de) Wildwechsel TV film Based on Franz Xaver Kroetz 's 1971 play
1974 Nora Helmer Nora Helmer Video recording for German TV Based on A Doll\'s House by Ibsen (German translation by Bernhard Schulze)
1974 Ali: Fear Eats the Soul Angst essen Seele auf Inspired by Douglas Sirk's All That Heaven Allows
1974 Martha Martha 16mm TV film Based on the story "For the Rest of Her Life" by Cornell Woolrich
1974 Effi Briest Fontane – Effi Briest oder: Viele, die eine Ahnung haben von ihren Möglichkeiten und Bedürfnissen und dennoch das herrschende System in ihrem Kopf akzeptieren durch ihre Taten und es somit festigen und durchaus bestätigen Based on Theodor Fontane 's 1894 novel of the same name
1975 Like a Bird on a Wire Wie ein Vogel auf dem Draht TV film Co-written with Christian Hohoff and Anja Hauptmann
1975 Fox and His Friends Faustrecht der Freiheit Co-written with Christian Hohoff
1975 Mother Küsters\' Trip to Heaven Mutter Küsters Fahrt zum Himmel Co-written with Kurt Raab Based on the short story "Mutter Krausens Fahrt Ins Glück" by Heinrich Zille
1975 Fear of Fear (de) Angst vor der Angst TV film Based on Asta Scheib 's 1974 novel Langsame Tage
1976 I Only Want You To Love Me Ich will doch nur, daß ihr mich liebt TV film Based on the book Lebenslänglich by Klaus Antes and Christiane Erhardt
1976 Satan\'s Brew Satansbraten
1976 Chinese Roulette Chinesisches Roulette
1977 Women in New York Frauen in New York TV film Based on Clare Boothe Luce 's The Women
1977 The Stationmaster\'s Wife (de) Bolwieser TV film in two parts Based on Oskar Maria Graf 's 1931 novel Bolwieser: The Novel of a Husband
1978 Germany in Autumn Deutschland im Herbst Short omnibus film
1978 In a Year of 13 Moons In einem Jahr mit 13 Monden
1979 The Third Generation Die dritte Generation
1981 Theater in Trance Theater im Trance Documentary
1981 Lola Lola Co-written with Pea Fröhlich and Peter Märthesheimer
* 1965: Nur eine Scheibe Brot (1995, Volkstheater Wien as part of
the Bregenzer Festspielen)
* 1966: Tropfen auf heiße Steine (1985, Theaterfestival München;
filmed in 2000 by
François Ozon as Gouttes d\'eau sur pierres
Katzelmacher (Action-Theater in Munich, filmed by Fassbinder
1969; received Gerhart-Hauptmann-Preis )
* 1968: Der amerikanische Soldat (Antiteater in Munich, filmed by
* 1969: Preparadise sorry now (Based on the case of
Myra Hindley and
Ian Brady , Antiteater in München)
* 1969: Anarchie in Bayern (Antiteater in Munich)
* 1969: Gewidmet
Rosa von Praunheim (Antiteater in Munich)
* 1969: Das Kaffeehaus (it) (based on
DOCUMENTARIES ABOUT FASSBINDER
Rainer Werner Fassbinder
* ^ (Hayman 1984 , p. 1) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 2) * ^ A B C D (Thomsen 2004 , p. 3) * ^ (Hayman 1984 , p. 2) * ^ A B (Watson 1996 , p. 13) * ^ (Hayman 1984 , p. 3) * ^ (Watson 1996 , pp. 14–15) * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 15) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 5) * ^ A B C (Lorenz 1997 , p. 248) * ^ (Hayman 1984 , p. 27) * ^ (Lorenz 1997 , p. 3) * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 43) * ^ (Hayman 1984 , p. 29) * ^ (Hayman 1984 , p. 26) * ^ A B C (Elsaesser 1996 , p. 301) * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 111) * ^ (Elsaesser 1996 , p. 348) * ^ A B Nicodemus, Katja (31 May 2007). "No morals without style". signandsight.com. * ^ "Berlinale 1977: Juries" (in German). berlinale.de. Retrieved 19 July 2010. * ^ A B (Watson 1992 , p. 13) * ^ A B C Joe Ruffell. "» Rainer Werner Fassbinder". sensesofcinema.com. * ^ Ehrenstein, David (9 July 2002). "Rainer\'s Parade". The Advocate . Here Publishing (867): 64. ISSN 0001-8996 . * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 69) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 66) * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 71) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 67) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 69) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 80) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 79) * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 72) * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 73) * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 82) * ^ A B (Watson 1996 , p. 83) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 71) * ^ A B (Watson 1996 , p. 87) * ^ A B (Iden 1981 , p. 129) * ^ A B (Watson 1996 , p. 88) * ^ (Sanford 1982 , p. 72) * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 294) * ^ Clark, Jim (7 December 2002). "Fassbinder\'s Rio das Mortes". jclarkmedia.com. Retrieved 21 June 2013. * ^ A B (Thomsen 2004 , p. 86) * ^ A B (Sanford 1982 , p. 74) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 97) * ^ A B C (Sanford 1982 , p. 75) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 95) * ^ (Hayman 1984 , p. IX) * ^ (Lorenz 1997 , p. 326) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 326) * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 117) * ^ A B (Pipolo 2004 , pp. 18–25) * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 118) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 120) * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 119) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 136) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 145) * ^ (Kardish 1997 , p. 57) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 181) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 182) * ^ Gerhardt, Christina (28 June 2017). "Fassbinder\'s Mothers Küsters Goes to Heaven in a Genealogy of the Arbeiterfilme". Film Criticism . Retrieved 28 June 2017. * ^ (Hayman 1984 , p. 142) * ^ (Watson 1996 , pp. 206–207) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 34) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 257) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 255) * ^ Canby, Vincent (18 October 1979). " In a Year of 13 Moons (1978) Film: Fassbinder\'s \'Year of 13 Moons\': Unalterable Condition". nytimes.com. * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 209) * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 243) * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 164) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 263) * ^ Buruma, Ian (January 17, 2008). "The Genius of Berlin". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved February 16, 2017. * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 215) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 295) * ^ "Theatre In Trance". kinowelt-international.de. * ^ "Prizes & Honours 1982" (in German). berlinale.de. Retrieved 14 November 2010. * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 221) * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 256) * ^ (Lorenz 1997 , p. 20) * ^ (Hayman 1984 , p. 22) * ^ (Baer 1986 , p. 65) * ^ (Hayman 1984 , p. 24) * ^ (Hayman 1984 , p. 62) * ^ (Katz 1987 , p. 46) * ^ A B (Watson 1996 , p. 94) * ^ (Lorenz 1997 , pp. 243–244) * ^ (Lorenz 1997 , p. 45) * ^ (Lorenz 1997 , pp. 245–246) * ^ Harvey, Dennis (3 September 2012). "My Name Is Not Ali". variety.com. Retrieved 13 January 2015. * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 19) * ^ A B (Watson 1996 , p. 107) * ^ (Cappello 2007 , p. 102) * ^ (Hayman 1984 , p. 682) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 20) * ^ (Silverman 1992 , p. 214) * ^ (Watson 1996 , p. 222) * ^ (Lorenz 1997 , p. 244) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 41) * ^ Hodgkiss, Rosalind (8 January 1999). "The bitter tears of Fassbinder\'s women". theguardian.com. * ^ Maslin, Janet (11 June 1982). "Rainer Werner Fassbinder, 36, Filmmaker, Dead". nytimes.com. Retrieved 13 January 2015. * ^ (Vincendeau 1995 , p. 138) * ^ A B C D E F G H (Watson 1992 , p. 25) * ^ (Watson 1996 , pp. 17, 119, 130) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 155) * ^ A B (Hayman 1984 , p. 135) * ^ A B C (Watson 1996 , p. 1) * ^ (Thomsen 2004 , p. 43) * ^ "O du verhaßt-geliebtes Gift" (in German). spiegel.de. 21 June 1982. * ^ King, Susan (30 May 2012). "An L.A. love letter to Rainer Werner Fassbinder". latimes.com. Retrieved 13 January 2015. * ^ Sontag, Susan (25 February 2003). "The Imperfect Storm". The Village Voice . Retrieved 4 June 2009.
* Baer, Harry (1986). Ya Dormiré cuando este Muerto. Seix Barrall. ISBN 84-322-4572-0 . * Cappello, Mary (2007). Awkward: A Detour. Bellevue Literary Press. ISBN 1-934137-01-4 . * Elsaesser, Thomas (1996). Fassbinder's Germany. History Identity Subject. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 90-5356-059-9 . * Hayman, Ronald (1984). Fassbinder: Film Maker. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-52380-5 . * Hermes, Manfred (2014). Hystericizing Germany. Fassbinder, Alexanderplatz. Sternberg Press. ISBN 3-95679-004-9 . * Iden, Peter (1981). Fassbinder (1 ed.). Tanam Press. ISBN 0-934378-17-7 . * Kardish, Laurence; Lorenz, Juliane, eds. (1997). Rainer Werner Fassbinder: The Museum of Modern Art, New York, January 23 - March 20, 1977. Museum of Modern Art. ISBN 0-87070-109-6 . * Katz, Robert (1987). Love Is Colder Than Death : The Life and Times of Rainer Werner Fassbinder. Random House. ISBN 0-394-53456-5 . * Lorenz, Juliane; Schmid, Marion; Gehr, Herbert, eds. (1997). Chaos as Usual: Conversations About Rainer Werner Fassbinder. Applause Books. ISBN 1-55783-262-5 . * Pipolo, Tony (September 2004). "Straight from the Heart: Reviewing the Films of Rainer Werner Fassbinder". Cineaste . 29 (4): 18–25. ISSN 0009-7004 . * Rufell, Joe (2002). Rainer Werner Fassbinder. Senses of Cinema: Great Directors Critical Database * Sandford, Joe (1982). The New German Cinema. Da Capo Paperback. ISBN 0-306-80177-9 . * Silverman, Kaja (1992). Male Subjectivity at the Margins. Psychology Press. ISBN 0-415-90419-6 . * Thomsen, Christian Braad (2004). Fassbinder: Life and Work of a Provocative Genius. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-4364-4 . * Encyclopedia of European Cinema. Cassell. 1995. ISBN 0-304-34164-9 . * Watson, Wallace Steadman (July 1992). "The Bitter Tears of RWF". Sight & Sound . British Film Institute: 24–29. ISSN 0037-4806 . * Watson, Wallace Steadman (1996). Understanding Rainer Werner Fassbinder: Film as Private and Public Art. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 1-57003-079-0 .
* Various manuscript items are held at a number of repositories
Wikimedia Commons has media related to RAINER WERNER FASSBINDER .
* Fassbinder Foundation (in German) * Rainer Werner