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The Pyrenees
Pyrenees
(/ˈpɪrɪniːz/; Spanish: Pirineos [piɾiˈneos], French: Pyrénées [piʁene], Aragonese: Pirineus, Catalan: Pirineus [piɾiˈnɛus], Occitan: Pirenèus, Basque: Pirinioak [piˈɾinioˌak]) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe
Europe
that forms a natural border between Spain
Spain
and France. Reaching a height of 3,404 metres (11,168 ft) altitude at the peak of Aneto, the range separates the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
from the rest of continental Europe, and extends for about 491 km (305 mi) from the Bay of Biscay (Cap Higuer) to the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
(Cap de Creus). For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between Spain
Spain
and France, with the microstate of Andorra
Andorra
sandwiched in between. The Principality of Catalonia
Principality of Catalonia
alongside with the Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
in the Crown of Aragon, the Occitania
Occitania
and the Kingdom of Navarre
Kingdom of Navarre
have historically extended on both sides of the mountain range, with smaller northern portions now in France
France
and larger southern parts now in Spain.[1][2] The demonym for the noun "Pyrenees" in English is Pyrenean.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Political divisions 2.2 Physiographical divisions

2.2.1 Foothills

3 Geology 4 Landscape 5 Natural resources 6 Climate 7 Flora and fauna

7.1 Flora 7.2 Fauna

8 Protected areas 9 Demographics and culture 10 Sports and leisure

10.1 Ski resorts

11 Highest summits

11.1 Notable summits below 3,000 metres

12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Etymology[edit] In Greek mythology, Pyrene is a princess who gave her name to the Pyrenees. The Greek historian Herodotus
Herodotus
says Pyrene is the name of a town in Celtic Europe.[3] According to Silius Italicus,[4] she was the virgin daughter of Bebryx, a king in Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Gaul by whom the hero Hercules
Hercules
was given hospitality during his quest to steal the cattle of Geryon[5] during his famous Labors. Hercules, characteristically drunk and lustful, violates the sacred code of hospitality and rapes his host's daughter. Pyrene gives birth to a serpent and runs away to the woods, afraid that her father will be angry. Alone, she pours out her story to the trees, attracting the attention of wild beasts who tear her to pieces. After his victory over Geryon, Hercules
Hercules
passes through the kingdom of Bebryx again, finding the girl's lacerated remains. As is often the case in stories of this hero, the sober Hercules
Hercules
responds with heartbroken grief and remorse at the actions of his darker self, and lays Pyrene to rest tenderly, demanding that the surrounding geography join in mourning and preserve her name:[6] "struck by Herculean voice, the mountaintops shudder at the ridges; he kept crying out with a sorrowful noise 'Pyrene!' and all the rock-cliffs and wild-beast haunts echo back 'Pyrene!' … The mountains hold on to the wept-over name through the ages." Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
connects the story of Hercules and Pyrene to Lusitania, but rejects it as fabulosa, highly fictional.[7] Other classical sources derived the name from the Greek word for fire, Ancient Greek: πῦρ.[8] According to Greek historian Diodorus Siculus "..in ancient times, we are told, certain herdsmen left a fire and the whole area of the mountains was entirely consumed; and due to this fire, since it raged continuously day after day, the surface of the earth was also burned and the mountains, because of what had taken place, were called the Pyrenees."[9] Geography[edit] Political divisions[edit] The Spanish Pyrenees
Spanish Pyrenees
are part of the following provinces, from east to west: Girona, Barcelona, Lleida (all in Catalonia), Huesca (in Aragon), Navarra
Navarra
(in Navarre) and Gipuzkoa
Gipuzkoa
(in the Basque Country). The French Pyrenees
French Pyrenees
are part of the following départements, from east to west: Pyrénées-Orientales
Pyrénées-Orientales
(North Catalonia
Catalonia
and Fenolheda), Aude, Ariège, Haute-Garonne, Hautes-Pyrénées, and Pyrénées-Atlantiques (the latter two of which include the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
National Park). The independent principality of Andorra
Andorra
is sandwiched in the eastern portion of the mountain range between the Spanish Pyrenees
Spanish Pyrenees
and French Pyrenees.

Composite satellite image of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
(NASA)

Pico de Aneto, the highest mountain of the Pyrenees

Pic de Bugatet
Pic de Bugatet
in the Néouvielle massif

Pedraforca

Baretous Valley and Piedmont plain, in the French western Pyrénées

Sant Maurici lake in the Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici National Park, Spain

Physiographical divisions[edit]

Monte Perdido, Aragon
Aragon
(Spain)

Physiographically, the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
may be divided into three sections: the Atlantic (or Western), the Central, and the Eastern Pyrenees. Together, they form a distinct physiographic province of the larger Alpine System division. In the Western Pyrenees, from the Basque mountains
Basque mountains
near the Bay of Biscay of the Atlantic Ocean, the average elevation gradually increases from west to east. The Central Pyrenees
Pyrenees
extend eastward from the Somport
Somport
pass to the Aran Valley, and they include the highest summits of this range:

Pico d' Aneto
Aneto
3,404 metres (11,168 ft) in the Maladeta
Maladeta
ridge, Pico Posets
Pico Posets
3,375 metres (11,073 ft), Monte Perdido
Monte Perdido
3,355 metres (11,007 ft).

In the Eastern Pyrenees, with the exception of one break at the eastern extremity of the Pyrénées Ariègeoises in the Ariège area, the mean elevation is remarkably uniform until a sudden decline occurs in the easternmost portion of the chain known as the Albères. Foothills[edit] Main article: Pre-Pyrenees Most foothills of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
are on the Spanish side, where there is a large and complex system of ranges stretching from Spanish Navarre, across northern Aragon
Aragon
and into Catalonia, almost reaching the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast with summits reaching 2,600 m (8,500 ft).[10] At the eastern end on the southern side lies a distinct area known as the Sub-Pyrenees.[11] On the French side the slopes of the main range descend abruptly and there are no foothills except in the Corbières Massif
Corbières Massif
in the northeastern corner of the mountain system.[12] Geology[edit] See also: Geology of the Pyrenees The Pyrenees
Pyrenees
are older than the Alps: their sediments were first deposited in coastal basins during the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
and Mesozoic
Mesozoic
eras. Between 100 and 150 million years ago, during the Lower Cretaceous Period, the Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
fanned out, pushing present-day Spain against France
France
and applying intense compressional pressure to large layers of sedimentary rock. The intense pressure and uplifting of the Earth's crust first affected the eastern part and moved progressively to the entire chain, culminating in the Eocene
Eocene
Epoch. The eastern part of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
consists largely of granite and gneissose rocks, while in the western part the granite peaks are flanked by layers of limestone. The massive and unworn character of the chain comes from its abundance of granite, which is particularly resistant to erosion, as well as weak glacial development. The upper parts of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
contain low-relief surfaces forming a peneplain. This peneplain originated no earlier than in Late Miocene times. Presumably it formed at height as extensive sedimentation raised the local base level considerably.[13] Landscape[edit] Conspicuous features of Pyrenean scenery are:

the absence of great lakes, such as those that fill the lateral valleys of the Alps the rarity and relative high elevation of usable passes the large number of the mountain torrents locally called gaves, which often form lofty waterfalls, surpassed in Europe
Europe
only by those of Scandinavia the frequency with which the upper end of a valley assumes the form of a semicircle of precipitous cliffs, called a cirque.

The highest waterfall is Gavarnie (462 m or 1,515 ft), at the head of the Gave de Pau; the Cirque
Cirque
de Gavarnie, in the same valley, together with the nearby Cirque
Cirque
de Troumouse and Cirque d'Estaubé, are notable examples of the cirque formation. Low passes are lacking, and the principal roads and the railroads between France
France
and Spain
Spain
run only in the lowlands at the western and eastern ends of the Pyrenees, near sea level. The main passes of note are:

the Col de la Perche (1581m), towards the east, between the valley of the Têt and the valley of the Segre, the Pas de la Casa
Pas de la Casa
or Port d'Envalira, the highest road pass in the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
at 2408m, and one of the highest points of the European road network, which provides the route from France
France
to Andorra, the nearby Col de Puymorens
Col de Puymorens
(1920m), on European route E09
European route E09
between France
France
and Spain. the Port de la Bonaigua
Port de la Bonaigua
(2070m), in the middle of the range at the head of the Aran Valley, although the nearly col at Plan de Beret (1870m) is the lowest point in the main ridge between the Col de la Perche, almost 100km to the east and the Col du Pourtalet
Col du Pourtalet
(1794m), over 100km to the west. the Col de Somport
Somport
or Port de Canfranc (1632m), where there were old Roman roads.

Because of the lack of low passes a number of tunnels have been created, beneath the passes at Somport, Envalira, and Puymorens and new routes in the center of the range at Bielsa
Bielsa
and Vielha. A notable visual feature of this mountain range is La Brèche de Roland, a gap in the ridge line, which – according to legend – was created by Roland.

Ibón (glacial lake) Basa Mora, in Gistain valley, Aragon.

Natural resources[edit] The metallic ores of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
are not in general of much importance now, though there were iron mines at several locations in Andorra, as well as at Vicdessos
Vicdessos
in Ariège, and the foot of Canigou in Pyrénées-Orientales
Pyrénées-Orientales
long ago. Coal
Coal
deposits capable of being profitably worked are situated chiefly on the Spanish slopes, but the French side has beds of lignite. The open pit of Trimoun close to the commune of Luzenac
Luzenac
(Ariège) is one of the greatest sources of talc in Europe. Mineral springs are abundant and remarkable, and especially noteworthy are the hot springs, of which the Alps
Alps
are very deficient. The hot springs, among which those of Les Escaldes
Les Escaldes
in Andorra, Panticosa
Panticosa
and Lles in Spain, Ax-les-Thermes, Bagnères-de-Luchon
Bagnères-de-Luchon
and Eaux-Chaudes
Eaux-Chaudes
in France
France
may be mentioned, are sulphurous and mostly situated high, near the contact of the granite with the stratified rocks. The lower springs, such as those of Bagnères-de-Bigorre
Bagnères-de-Bigorre
(Hautes-Pyrénées), Rennes-les-Bains
Rennes-les-Bains
(Aude) and Campagne-sur- Aude
Aude
(Aude), are mostly selenitic and not very cold. Climate[edit] The amount of precipitation the range receives, including rain and snow, is much greater in the western than in the eastern Pyrenees because of the moist air that blows in from the Atlantic Ocean over the Bay of Biscay. After dropping its moisture over the western and central Pyrenees, the air is left dry over the eastern Pyrenees. The winter average temperature is -2 °C (28.4 °F). Sections of the mountain range vary in more than one respect. There are some glaciers in the western and snowy central Pyrenees, but there are no glaciers in the eastern Pyrenees
Pyrenees
because there is insufficient snowfall to cause their development. Glaciers are confined to the northern slopes of the central Pyrenees, and do not descend, like those of the Alps, far down into the valleys but rather have their greatest lengths along the direction of the mountain chain. They form, in fact, in a narrow zone near the crest of the highest mountains. Here, as in the other great mountain ranges of central Europe, there is substantial evidence of a much wider expanse of glaciation during the glacial periods. The best evidence of this is in the valley of Argeles Gazost, between Lourdes and Gavarnie, in the département of Hautes-Pyrénées. The annual snow-line varies in different parts of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
from about 2,700 to 2,800 metres above sea level. In average the seasonal snow is observed at least 50% of the time above 1,600 metres between December and April.[14] Flora and fauna[edit]

Aigualluts cascade in Benasque Valley, Aragon
Aragon
(Spain)

See also: Forests of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
- Eurosiberian region Flora[edit] Main page: Category:Flora of the Pyrenees A still more marked effect of the preponderance of rainfall in the western half of the chain is seen in the vegetation. The lower mountains in the extreme west are wooded, but the extent of forest declines as one moves eastwards. The eastern Pyrenees
Pyrenees
are peculiarly wild and barren, all the more since it is in this part of the chain that granitic masses prevail. Also moving from west to east, there is a change in the composition of the flora, with the change becoming most evident as one passes the centre of the mountain chain from which point the Corbières stretch north-eastwards towards the central plateau of France. Though the difference in latitude is only about 1°, in the west the flora resembles that of central Europe
Europe
while in the east it is distinctly Mediterranean
Mediterranean
in character. The Pyrenees
Pyrenees
are nearly as rich in endemic species as the Alps, and among the most remarkable instances of that endemism is the occurrence of the monotypic genus Xatardia (family Apiaceae), which grows only on a high alpine pass between the Val d'Eynes and Catalonia. Other examples include Arenaria montana, Bulbocodium vernum, and Ranunculus glacialis. The genus most abundantly represented in the range is that of the saxifrages, several species of which are endemic here. Fauna[edit] In their fauna the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
present some striking instances of endemism. The Pyrenean desman
Pyrenean desman
is found only in some of the streams of the northern slopes of these mountains; the only other desmans are confined to the rivers of the Caucasus
Caucasus
in southern Russia. The Pyrenean euprocte (Euproctus pyrenaicus), an endemic relative of the salamander, also lives in streams and lakes located at high altitudes. Among other peculiarities of Pyrenean fauna are blind insects in the caverns of Ariège, the principal genera of which are Anophthalmus
Anophthalmus
and Adelops. The Pyrenean ibex
Pyrenean ibex
mysteriously became extinct in January 2000; the native Pyrenean brown bear was hunted to near-extinction in the 1990s, but it was re-introduced in 1996 when three bears were brought from Slovenia. The bear population has bred successfully, and there are now believed to be about 15 brown bears in the central region around Fos, but only four native ones are still living in the Aspe Valley. Protected areas[edit] Principal nature reserves and national parks:

Ordesa y Monte Perdido
Monte Perdido
National Park (Spain) Pyrénées National Park (France) Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici National Park
Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici National Park
(Spain) Posets- Maladeta
Maladeta
Natural Park (Spain)

Ibón de Barrancs (glacial lake) in Posets- Maladeta
Maladeta
Natural Park, Aragon
Aragon
(Spain)

Demographics and culture[edit]

Some Blonde d'Aquitaine
Blonde d'Aquitaine
on summer pasture near the Pic du Midi d'Ossau

The Pyrenean region possesses a varied ethnology, folklore and history: see Andorra; Aragon; Ariège; Basque Country; Béarn; Catalonia; Navarre; Roussillon. For their history, see also Almogavars, Marca Hispanica. The principal languages spoken in the area are Spanish, French, Aragonese, Catalan (in Catalonia
Catalonia
and Andorra), and Basque. Also spoken, to a lesser degree, are the Occitan language
Occitan language
(the Gascon and Languedocien dialects in France
France
and the Aranese dialect in the Aran Valley). An important feature of rural life in the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
is 'transhumance', the moving of livestock from the farms in the valleys up to the higher grounds of the mountains for the summer.[15] In this way the farming communities could keep larger herds than the lowland farms could support on their own. The principal animals moved were cows and sheep, but historically most members of farming families also moved to the higher pastures along with their animals, so they also took with them pigs, horses[16] and chickens.[15] Transhumance
Transhumance
thus took the form of a biannual mass annual migration, moving uphill in May or June[17] and returning to the farms in September or October. During the summer period, the families would live in basic stone cabins[15] in the high mountains. Nowadays, industrialisation and changing agriculture practices have diminished the custom. However, the importance of transhumance continues to be recognised through its celebration in popular festivals.[16][17][18] Sports and leisure[edit] Both sides of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
are popular spots for winter sports such as alpine skiing and mountaineering. The Pyrenees
Pyrenees
are also a good place for athletes to do high-altitude training in the summertime, such as by bicycling and cross-country running. In the summer and the autumn, the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
are usually featured in two of cycling's grand tours, the Tour de France
France
held annually in July and the Vuelta a España
Vuelta a España
held in September. The stages held in the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
are often crucial legs of both tours, drawing hundreds of thousands of spectators to the region. Three main long-distance footpaths run the length of the mountain range: the GR 10 across the northern slopes, the GR 11 across the southern slopes, and the HRP which traverses peaks and ridges along a high altitude route. In addition, there are numerous marked and unmarked trails throughout the region. Pirena is a dog-mushing competition held in the Pyrenees. Ski resorts[edit]

Ski Center, Cerler
Cerler
(Spain)

Ski resorts in the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
include:

Alp 2500
Alp 2500
(Spain) Arette
Arette
(France) Astún
Astún
(Spain) Artouste (France) Ax-les-Thermes
Ax-les-Thermes
(France) Baqueira-Beret
Baqueira-Beret
(Spain) Boí Taüll Resort
Boí Taüll Resort
(Spain) Bareges- La Mongie
La Mongie
(Tourmalet) (France) Luz Ardiden
Luz Ardiden
(France) Bourg-d'Oueil
Bourg-d'Oueil
(France) Cauterets
Cauterets
(France) Candanchú
Candanchú
(Spain) Cerler
Cerler
(Spain) Espot Esquí
Espot Esquí
(Spain) Font-Romeu
Font-Romeu
(France) Formigal
Formigal
(Spain) Gavarnie Gèdre[19] (France) Gourette
Gourette
(France) Guzet-Neige
Guzet-Neige
(France) Hautacam
Hautacam
(France) La Molina (Spain) La Pierre Saint Martin Le Mourtis (France) Les Angles (France) Luchon-Superbagnères
Luchon-Superbagnères
(France) Luz-Ardiden
Luz-Ardiden
(France) Nistos cap nestes (France) Panticosa-Los Lagos
Panticosa-Los Lagos
(Spain) Pas de la Casa
Pas de la Casa
(Andorra) Peyragudes
Peyragudes
(France) Piau-Engaly (France) Port Ainé (Spain) Port del Comte (Spain) Somport
Somport
(France-Spain) Saint Lary (France) Soldeu
Soldeu
/ El Tarter (Andorra) Superbagnères
Superbagnères
(France) Tavascan
Tavascan
(Spain) Vall de Núria
Vall de Núria
(Spain) Vallnord
Vallnord
(Andorra) Vallter 2000
Vallter 2000
(Spain)

Highest summits[edit] Main article: List of Pyrenean three-thousanders The following is the complete list of the summits of the Pyrenees above three-thousand meters:

Aneto
Aneto
(3,404 m) (Aragon) Posets (3,375 m) (Aragon) Monte Perdido
Monte Perdido
(3,355 m) (Aragon) Punta de Astorg (3,355 m) (Aragon) Pico Maldito (3,350 m) (Aragon) Espalda del Aneto
Aneto
(3,350 m) (Aragon) Pico del Medio (3,346 m) (Aragon) Espadas Peak
Espadas Peak
(3,332 m) (Aragon) Cilindro de Marboré
Cilindro de Marboré
(3,325 m) (Aragon) Maladeta
Maladeta
(3,312 m) (Aragon) Vignemale
Vignemale
(3,298 m) (Aragon-France) Pico Coronas (3,293 m) (Aragon) Pico Tempestades (3,290 m) (Aragon) Clot de la Hount
Clot de la Hount
(3,289 m) (Aragon-France) Soum de Ramond
Soum de Ramond
(3,259 m) (Aragon) 1st Western Peak Maladeta
Maladeta
(3,254 m) (Aragon) Pic de Marboré
Pic de Marboré
(3,252 m) (Aragon-France) Cerbillona
Cerbillona
(3,247 m) (Aragon-France) Perdiguero
Perdiguero
(3,221 m) (Aragon-France) 2nd Western Peak Maladeta
Maladeta
(3,220 m) (Aragon) Pic de Montferrat
Pic de Montferrat
(3,219 m) (Aragon-France) Pico Russell (3,205 m) (Aragon) Pointe Chausenque
Pointe Chausenque
(3,204 m) (France) Piton Carré
Piton Carré
(3,197 m) (France) Pic Long
Pic Long
(3,192 m) (France) 3rd Western Peak Maladeta
Maladeta
(3,185 m) (Aragon) Pic Schrader
Pic Schrader
(3,177 m) (Aragon-France) Campbieil
Campbieil
(3,173 m) (France) Pic de la cascade oriental
Pic de la cascade oriental
(3,161 m) (Aragon-France) Les Jumeaux Ravier (3,160 m) (Aragon) Grand Tapou (3,160 m) (Aragon-France) Pic Badet (3,150 m) (France) Balaïtous
Balaïtous
(3,144 m) (Aragon-France) Pic du Taillon
Pic du Taillon
(3,144 m) (Aragon-France) Pica d'Estats
Pica d'Estats
(3,143 m) (Catalonia-France) Punta del Sabre (3,136 m) (Aragon) Diente de Alba (3,136 m) (Aragon) Pic de la Munia
Pic de la Munia
(3,134 m) (Aragon-France) Pointe de Literole (3,132 m) (Aragon-France) Pic Verdaguer
Pic Verdaguer
(3,131 m) (Catalonia-France) Pic du Milieu (3,130 m) (Aragon-France) Pic des Gourgs Blancs (3,129 m) (Aragon-France) Les Veterans (3,125 m) (Aragon) Pico Pavots (3,121 m) (Aragon) Pic de Royo (3,121 m) (Aragon-France) Punta Ledormeur (3,120 m) (Aragon-France) Pico Alba (3,118 m) (Aragon) Pic des Crabioules (3,116 m) (Aragon-France) Seil Dera Baquo (3,110 m) (Aragon-France) Pic de Maupas
Pic de Maupas
(3,109 m) (Aragon-France) Pic Lézat (3,107 m) (France) Western Crabioules (3,106 m) (Aragon-France) Pico Brulle (3,106 m) (Aragon-France) Pic de la cascade occidental
Pic de la cascade occidental
(3,095 m) (Aragon-France) Pic de Néouvielle
Pic de Néouvielle
(3,091 m) (France) Serre Mourene
Serre Mourene
(3,090 m) (Aragon-France) Pic de Troumouse (3,085 m) (Aragon-France) Pico Posets
Pico Posets
(3,085 m) (Aragon) Infierno central (3,083 m) (Aragon) Pics d'Enfer (3,082 m) (France) Pico de Bardamina (3,079 m) (Aragon) Pic de la Paul (3,078 m) (Aragon) Pic de Montcalm
Pic de Montcalm
(3,077 m) (France) Infierno oriental (3,076 m) (Aragon) Pic Maou (3,074 m) (France) Infierno occidental (3,073 m) (Aragon) Épaule du Marboré
Épaule du Marboré
(3,073 m) (Aragon-France) Pic du port de Sullo (3,072 m) (Catalonia-France) Frondella NE (3,071 m) (Aragon) Grand pic d' Astazou (3,071 m) (Aragon-France) Pico de Vallibierna (3,067 m) (Aragon) Pico Marcos Feliu (3,067 m) (Aragon-France) Pic des Spijeoles
Pic des Spijeoles
(3,066 m) (France) Pico Jean Arlaud (3,065 m) (Aragon) Tuca de Culebras (3,062 m) (Aragon-France) Grand Quayrat
Grand Quayrat
(3,060 m) (France) Pic Maubic (3,058 m) (France) Pico Gran Eriste (3,053 m) (Aragon) Garmo negro (3,051 m) (Aragon) Pic du Portillon (3,050 m) (Aragon-France) Pico Argualas (3,046 m) (Aragon) Baudrimont NW) (3,045 m) (Aragon) Pic de Eristé sur (3,045 m) (Aragon) Pic Camboue (3,043 m) (France) Trois Conseillers
Trois Conseillers
(3,039 m) (France) Pico Aragüells (3,037 m) (Aragon) Pico Algas (3,036 m) (Aragon) Turon de Néouvielle
Turon de Néouvielle
(3,035 m) (France) Pic de Batoua (3,034 m) (Aragon) Gabietou occidental (3,034 m) (Aragon-France) Comaloforno
Comaloforno
(3,033 m) (Catalonia) Petit Vignemale
Vignemale
(3,032 m) (France) Gabietou oriental (3,031 m) (Aragon-France) Pic de Bugarret (3,031 m) (France) South Besiberri Massif
South Besiberri Massif
(3,030 m) (Catalonia) Pic de l'Abeille (3,029 m) (Aragon-France) Baudrimont SE (3,026 m) (Aragon) Pic Béraldi (3,025 m) (Aragon) Pico de la Pez (3,024 m) (Aragon) Pic de Lustou (3,023 m) (France) Pic Heid (3,022 m) (France) Pic de Crabounouse (3,021 m) (France) Pico de Clarabide (3,020 m) (Aragon-France) Pico del puerto de la pez (3,018 m) (Aragon-France) Dent d'Estibère male (3,017 m) (France) North Besiberri Massif (3,014 m) (Catalonia) Punta Alta Massif (3,014 m) (Catalonia) Petit Astazou (3,012 m) (Aragon-France) Pic Ramougn
Pic Ramougn
(3,011 m) (France) Pico de Gias (3,011 m) (Aragon) Tuc de Molières
Tuc de Molières
(3,010 m) (Catalonia-Aragon) Tour du Marboré
Tour du Marboré
(3,009 m) (Aragon-France) Pic Belloc (3,008 m) (France) Pic Forqueta (3,007 m) (Aragon) Pic d'Estaragne (3,006 m) (France) Pico de Boum (3,006 m) (Aragon-France) Casque du Marboré
Casque du Marboré
(3,006 m) (Aragon-France) Arnales (3,006 m) (Aragon) Grande Fache
Grande Fache
(3,005 m) (Aragon-France) Pico Robiñera (3,005 m) (Aragon) Pic de Saint Saud (3,003 m) (France) Middle Besiberri S (3,003 m) (Catalonia) Middle Besiberri N (3,002 m) (Catalonia) Pointe Célestin Passet (3,002 m) (Catalonia) Punta de las Olas (3,002 m) (Aragon) Frondella SW (3,001 m) (Aragon)

Notable summits below 3,000 metres[edit]

Pic du Midi d'Ossau
Pic du Midi d'Ossau
reflected in the lac Gentau

Aiguilles d'Ansabère and Mesa de los Tres Reyes
Mesa de los Tres Reyes
reflected in the lake of Ansabère

Pic de Palas (2,974 m) Pic de Comapedrosa (2,942 m) - highest point of Andorra Pic Carlit (2,921 m) Puigmal
Puigmal
(2,913 m) Cotiella (2,912 m) Pic de Sanfonts
Pic de Sanfonts
(2,894 m) Pic d'Envalira (2,827 m) Collarada
Collarada
(2,886 m) Pic du Midi d'Ossau
Pic du Midi d'Ossau
(2,885 m) Pic du Midi de Bigorre
Pic du Midi de Bigorre
(2,876 m) Mont Valier
Mont Valier
(2,838 m) Petit Pic du Midi d'Ossau
Pic du Midi d'Ossau
(2,812 m) Pic du Canigou
Canigou
(2,786 m) Peña Telera (2,764 m) Casamanya (2,740 m) Cap de la cometa del forn (2,691 m)[20] Visaurin
Visaurin
(2,668 m) Pic del Port Vell
Pic del Port Vell
(2,655 m) Aspe peak
Aspe peak
(2,645 m) Pic dels Aspres
Pic dels Aspres
(2,562 m) Pedraforca
Pedraforca
(2,506 m) Pic d'Anie
Pic d'Anie
(2,504 m) Pic de Pedraforca
Pedraforca
(2,498 m) Pic de Madrès
Pic de Madrès
(2,469 m) Mesa de los Tres Reyes
Mesa de los Tres Reyes
(2,428 m) Grande Aiguille d'Ansabère (2,376 m) Pic du Soularac (2,368 m) Pic du Saint Barthélémy (2,348 m) Peña Montañesa
Peña Montañesa
(2,291 m) Peña Foratata (2,282 m) Pic des Trois Seigneurs (2,199 m) Pic d'Orhy
Pic d'Orhy
(2,017 m) Chamanchoya
Chamanchoya
(1,935 m) Otsogorrigaina (1,922 m)[21] Pic de Cagire (1,912 m) Pic du Gar
Pic du Gar
(1,785 m) Urkulu
Urkulu
(1,419 m) Larrun
Larrun
(905 m)

See also[edit]

Pico Posets
Pico Posets
seen from Viadós, Aragon

Pre-Pyrenees Sub-Pyrenees Mountain passes of the Pyrenees Montcalm Massif

References[edit]

^ Preamble of the "Charter of the Catalan Language" Archived 2009-03-25 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Collins Road Atlas of Europe. London: Harper Collins. 1995. pp. 28–29. ISBN 0-00-448148-8.  ^ Herodotus, Histories 2.33. ^ Silius Italicus, Punica 3.415–441. ^ Although Geryon
Geryon
was usually located in the mythical west of the setting sun, he was also associated with Iberia; according to Strabo, his triple-body was preserved at Cadiz
Cadiz
in the form of a tree. ^ Ben Tipping, Exemplary Epic: Silius Italicus' Punica (Oxford University Press, 2010), pp. 20–21 online. ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural History 3.3. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) William Smith, LLD, Ed.[1] ^ Diodorus Siculus, 'The Library of History' Vol III, 35[2] ^ Pirineus-Prepirineus Archived 2008-07-23 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Jordi Sacasas i Lluís, Geografía de Catalunya, Publicacions L'Abadia de Montserrat. ISBN 978-84-8415-915-5 ^ Christophe Neff : Les Corbières maritimes – forment-elles un étage de végétation méditerranéenne thermophile masqué par la pression humaine ? In: Eric Fouache (Edit.): The Mediterranean World Environment and History. IAG Working Group on Geo-archeology, Symposium Proceedings. Environmental Dynamics and History in Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Areas, Paris, Université de Paris – Sorbonne 24 – 26 avril 2002. Paris, 2003, 191 – 202, (Elsevier France, ISBN 2-84299-452-3). ^ Babault, Julien; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Bonnet, Stephanie; Castelltort, Sébastien; Crave, Alain (2005). "Origin of the highly elevated Pyrenean peneplain". Tectonics. 24. doi:10.1029/2004TC001697.  ^ Gascoin, S.; Hagolle, O.; Huc, M.; Jarlan, L.; Dejoux, J.F.; Szczypta, C.; Marti, R.; Sánchez, R. (2015). "A snow cover climatology for the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
from MODIS snow products". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (19): 2337–2351. doi:10.5194/hess-19-2337-2015.  ^ a b c "The Transhumance". Ariege.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01.  ^ a b "The traditional transhumance of pyrenean horses". Retrieved 2016-02-01.  ^ a b " Transhumance
Transhumance
in the Midi- Pyrenees
Pyrenees
region of south west France". Retrieved 2016-02-01.  ^ "Transhumances dans les Hautes-Pyrénées : un peu de civisme, SVP !" (in French). Retrieved 2016-02-01.  ^ Pays Toy Ski Resort (archive) ^ 1 of 3 summits (archive) ^ "El monte del lobo rojo. Otsogorrigaina (1.922 m). El Correo". El Correo. 

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Further reading[edit]

Belloc, Hilaire (1909). The Pyrenees. Methuen & Co., London.  Edelmayer, Friedrich (2012). The Pyrenees
Pyrenees
Region (in German and English). Institute of European History.  Paegelow, Claus (2008). Pyrenäen Bibliografie. Andorra, spanische & französische Pyrenäen, Pyrenees
Pyrenees
Bibliography. Andorra, Spain & French Pyrenees
French Pyrenees
(in German and English). Verlag Claus Paegelow. ISBN 978-3-00-023936-6. 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Pyrenees". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Milne, Tony (2015). 10 Manuels and a Manolete. Handmaid Books, Herblay. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pyrenees.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pyrenees.

(in English) Official website of France's Pyrenees
Pyrenees
National Park (in French) Archives of Pyrenees-Atlantiques department Great Routes: Pirineos[permanent dead link], from a website of the Instituto de Turismo de España Les Amis du Livre Pyrénéen (bibliography and history of the Pyrenees) Photography Panoramics 360° website

v t e

Mountain ranges of France

Alps Armorican Massif Ardennes Corsica Jura Mountains Massif Central Morvan Pyrenees Vosges

v t e

Mountain ranges of Spain

Cordillera Cantábrica Cordilleras Costeras Catalanas Macizo Galaico Montes de Toledo Pirineos Sistema Bético Sistema Central Sistema Ibérico

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 241428861 GND: 4047911-0 BNF: cb11981535s (d

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