Nickname(s): Oxford of the East, Queen of Deccan

creative city[1][2]
Pune is located in India
Pune is located in Maharashtra
Pune (Maharashtra)
Coordinates: 18°31′13″N 73°51′24″E / 18.52028°N 73.85667°E / 18.52028; 73.85667Coordinates: 18°31′13″N 73°51′24″E / 18.52028°N 73.85667°E / 18.52028; 73.85667 Country  India State Maharashtra District Pune Government  • Type Mayor–Council  • Mayor Mukta Tilak (BJP)[3][4]  • Municipal Commissioner Mr. Kunal Kumar  • Member of Parliament Anil Shirole (BJP, Lok Sabha)[5] Area[6]  • Metropolis 243.84 km2 (94.15 sq mi) Area rank 9th Elevation 560 m (1,840 ft) Population (2011)[7]  • Metropolis 3,124,458  • Rank

9th: India

2nd: Maharashtra  • Density 13,000/km2 (33,000/sq mi)  • Metro[8] 5,057,709  • Metro rank 8th Demonym(s) Punekar. Time zone IST (UTC+5:30) Postal Index Number 411001 – 411062[9] Area code(s) +91-20 Vehicle registration

MH-12(Pune City) MH-14(Pimpri-Chinchwad) MH-54(Pune district North)

MH-55 (Pune district South) Official language Marathi Website



Pune (Marathi pronunciation: [puɳe] English: /ˈpnə/;[10][11][12][13] spelled Poona during British rule) is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and the seventh most populous city in the country. Situated 560 metres (1,837 feet) above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river,[14] Pune is the administrative headquarters of Pune district and was once the centre of power of the Maratha Empire established by Shivaji. In the 18th century, Pune was the political centre of the Indian subcontinent, as the seat of the Peshwas who were the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire.[15]

Considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra,[16] Pune is known as "Oxford of the East" due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions in the city.[17][18] The city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total international students in the country studying in Pune.[19] Since the 1950s and 1960s, Pune has had a traditional old-economic base as most of the old industries continue to grow. The city is known for its manufacturing and automobile industries, as well as for research institutes of information technology (IT), education, management and training, which attracts students, and professionals from India, South East Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Several colleges in Pune have student-exchange programs with colleges in Europe. The game of Badminton was developed in Pune and the game's earlier name was Poona.[20][21]

Pune is one of the fastest growing cities in the Asia-Pacific region. The ‘Mercer 2017 Quality of Living Rankings’ evaluated living conditions in more than 440 cities around the world and ranked Pune at 145, second in India after Hyderabad at 144.[22] The same source highlights Pune among evolving business centres and nine emerging cities around the world with the citation "Hosts IT and automotive companies".[23] The 2017 Annual Survey of India’s City-Systems (ASICS) report release by Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy, adjudged Pune as the best governed city amongst 23 major cities across 20 states [24].


The oldest reference to the place is found inscribed on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated AD 937, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya, meaning Sacred News.[25]

By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi (पुनवडी).[26]


Early and medieval

The circular Nandi mandapa at the Pataleshwar cave temple, built during the Rashtrakuta dynasty.

Copper plates dated 858 AD and 868 AD show that by the 8th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed where Pune is today. The plates indicate that this region was ruled by the Rashtrakuta dynasty. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era.[27]

Pune was part of the territory ruled by Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327. In 1595, Maloji Raje Bhosale was granted the jagirdari (Fiefdom) of Pune by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate until it was annexed by the Mughals in the 17th century.

Maratha era

Pune was part of the Jagir (fiefdom) granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar.[28] His grandson, Shivaji, the founder of Maratha confederate, was born in Shivneri fort not far from Pune. Shivaji was brought up by his mother in Pune. Pune changed hands several times between the Mughals and the Marathas in the period between 1660 and 1705. When Chhatrapati Shahu succeeded to the Maratha throne in 1707, he wanted to declare Satara the capital but his chief administrators, the Peshwa who were the real power behind the throne, decided Pune was to be their headquarters.

Bhosale Jahagir era

After the destruction of the town in raids by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 AD and again between 1636 AD and 1647 AD, Dadoji Konddeo, the successor to Dhadphale, oversaw the reconstruction of the town. He stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of areas around Pune and in neighbouring area of the Maval region. In addition, he developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order.[29] Construction on the Lal Mahal began in 1631 AD. The Lal Mahal was completed in 1640 AD.[25] Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple. The Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity (gramadevata) of the city.[30]

During the 27-year-long conflict between the Marathas and the Mughals, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb from 1703 to 1705; during this time, the name of the town was changed to "Muhiyabad".[31] Two years later, once again the Marathas recaptured Sinhagad fort and later Pune from the Mughals.

Peshwa rule

An equestrian statue of Baji Rao I (श्रीमंत बाजीराव पेशवे.) outside the Shaniwar Wada, who is credited with successful expansion of Maratha power in North India (circa 1730 CE)[32][33]
A memorial commemorating the Peshwa, Shrimant Madhavrao I, who (with assistance from Maharaja Mahadaji Shinde) resurrected Maratha power in North India (circa 1770 CE)[34]

In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa (Prime Minister) of the Maratha Empire by Chhatrapati Shahu.[35] He moved his base from Saswad to Pune in 1728 and, in the process, laid the foundation for turning what was a Kasbah into a large city.,[36][37] Bajirao also started construction of Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha River The construction was completed in 1730, ushering in the era of Peshwa control of the city. The patronage of the Maratha Peshwas resulted in great expansion of Pune with the construction of around 250 temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill.[38] Many of the Maruti, Vithoba, Vishnu, Mahadeo, Rama, Krishna and Ganesh temples were built during this era. The building of temples led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city's economy during this period.,[39][40]

Bajirao Peshwa constructed a lake at Katraj on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada.[41] The aqueduct is still operational. Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa. He developed Saras Baug, Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial, trading, and residential localities. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed in this era. The Peshwa's influence in India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces in the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained the seat of power. In 1802, Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Pune, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805. The Peshwa rule ended with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II by the British East India Company in 1818.

British rule (1818–1947)

The then Poona district 1896
Government House of the British authority to Gunesh Khind at Poona in India, seen from the east, around 1875. Leiden University Library, Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies.
Fergusson College, founded in 1885 during the British Raj, the first privately governed college in India.[42]

The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British East India Company in 1817. The Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki (then spelled Kirkee) on 5 November near Pune and the city was seized by the British. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city (now used by the Indian Army).

The city was known as Poona during British rule. The Poona Municipality was established in 1858. A railway line from Bombay to the city opened in 1858, run by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR).[43][44] Navi Peth, Ganj Peth (now renamed Mahatma Phule Peth) were developed during the British Raj.

Centre of social reform and nationalism

Pune was prominently associated with the struggle for Indian independence. In the period between 1875 and 1910, the city was a major centre of agitation led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The city was also a centre for social reform led by Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, feminist Tarabai Shinde, Dhondo Keshav Karve and Pandita Ramabai. They demanded the abolition of caste prejudice, equal rights for women, harmony between the Hindu and Muslim communities, and better schools for the poor.[45] Mohandas Gandhi was imprisoned at Yerwada Central Jail several times and placed under house arrest at the Aga Khan Palace in 1942–44, where both his wife and aide Mahadev Desai died.

Pune since Indian independence

After Indian independence in 1947 from Britain, Pune saw a lot of development, such as the establishment of the National Defence Academy at Khadakwasla and the National Chemical Laboratory at Pashan. Pune serves as the headquarters of the Southern Command of the Indian Army.[46] Industrial development started in the 1950s and '60s in Hadapsar, Bhosari, Pimpri and Parvati.[47] Telco (now Tata Motors) started operations in 1961, which gave a huge boost to the automobile sector.

In 1990, Pune began to attract foreign capital, particularly in the information technology and engineering industries. New businesses like floriculture, food processing, and wineries started to take root in and around the city. In 1998, work on the six-lane Mumbai-Pune expressway began, and was completed in 2001.[48] IT Parks were established in Aundh, Hinjawadi and Wagholi. In 2008, the Commonwealth Youth Games took place in Pune, which encouraged additional development in the northwest region of the city.[49]

On 13 February 2010, a bomb exploded at the German Bakery in the upmarket Koregaon Park neighbourhood on the east side of Pune, killing 17 and injuring 60.[50] The explosion is now suspected to be an IED using an ammonium nitrate fuel oil mix.[51] The blast was a first in what was until then the relatively safe environment of Pune.[52]


Aerial view of Pune near its airport

Pune is at a height of 560 m (1,840 ft) above sea level on the western margin of the Deccan plateau. It is on the leeward side of the Sahyadri mountain ranges, which forms a barrier from the Arabian Sea. It is a hilly city, with its highest hill, Vetal Hill, rising to 800 m (2,600 ft) above sea level. Just outside the city, the Sinhagad fort is at an altitude of 1,300 metres (4,300 feet). It lies between 18° 32" North latitude and 73° 51" East longitude. Pune is 1,173 kilometres (729 mi) south of Delhi, 734 kilometres (456 mi) north of Bangalore, and 149 kilometres (93 mi) south-east of Mumbai by road.

Central Pune is at the confluence of the Mula and Mutha Rivers. The Pavana and Indrayani Rivers, tributaries of the Bhima River, traverse the northwestern outskirts of metropolitan Pune. The city's total area is 729 square kilometres (281 square miles).


Pune lies very close to the seismically active zone around Koyna Dam, about 100 km (62 mi) south of the city, and has been rated in Zone 3 (on a scale of 2 to 5, with 5 being the most prone to earthquakes) by the India Meteorological Department. Pune has experienced some moderate- and many low-intensity earthquakes in its history.


Pune has a hot semi-arid climate (BSh) bordering with tropical wet and dry (Aw) with average temperatures ranging between 19 to 33 °C (66 to 91 °F). Pune experiences three seasons: summer, monsoon, and winter. Typical summer months are from mid-March to June often extending until 15 June, with maximum temperatures sometimes reaching 42 °C (108 °F). The warmest month in Pune is May; although summer doesn't end until mid-June. The city often receives heavy dusty winds in May (and humidity remains high). Even during the hottest months, the nights are usually cool due to Pune's high altitude. The highest temperature ever recorded was 43.3 °C (109.9 °F) on 30 April 1897.[53]

The monsoon lasts from June to October, with moderate rainfall and temperatures ranging from 22 to 28 °C (72 to 82 °F). Most of the 722 mm (28.43 in) of annual rainfall in the city falls between June and September, and July is the wettest month of the year. Hailstorms are not unheard of in this region.

The daytime temperature hovers around 26 °C (79 °F) while night temperature is below 9 °C (48 °F) for most of December and January, often dropping to 5 to 6 °C (41 to 43 °F). The lowest temperature ever recorded was 1.7 °C (35 °F) on 17 January 1935.[54]

Climate data for Pune
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.3
Average high °C (°F) 30.3
Daily mean °C (°F) 20.5
Average low °C (°F) 11.4
Record low °C (°F) 1.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0
Average precipitation days 0.0 0.1 0.6 1.1 2.8 7.5 12.8 10.6 7.4 4.6 2.0 0.4 49.9
Average relative humidity (%) 56 46 36 36 48 70 79 82 78 64 58 58 59.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 291.4 282.8 300.7 303.0 316.2 186.0 120.9 111.6 177.0 248.0 270.0 288.3 2,895.9
Source #1: Temperature and Precipitation: IMD (1951–1980)[55][56]
Source #2: Sun hours and Humidity: NOAA (1971–1990)[57]



The population of the Pune city is 3,124,458 and Pune Urban Agglomeration (Pune Metropolitan Area) is 5,057,709 as of the 2011 census.[58] The same was about 4,485,000 in 2005. The migrating population rose from 43,900 in 2001 to 88,200 in 2005.[59] The estimated population in 2016 for the Pune metro region is 6,226,959. According to the Pune Municipal Corporation, 40% of the population lived in slums in 2001.[60] The sharp increase in censorial decade of 1991–2001 can be attributed to the absorption of 38 fringe villages into the city.[61] The average literacy rate of Pune was 86.15 in 2011 compared to 80.45 in 2001.[62][63] Marathi is the official and most widely spoken language, while English, Hindi and Kannada are understood by a significant part of the population. Since Pune is a major industrial metropolis, it has attracted migrants from all parts of India to come and settle here. The top five areas of migration are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. The Sindhis in the city are mostly refugees and their descendants, who came to the area after the partition of India in 1947.[64] They settled in Pimpri area initially and are still present there in large numbers, however they are also present in the rest of the city.[65]

As the agriculture has dwindled in recent decades, immigration from erstwhile tribal peoples now accounts for seventy percent of population growth and education syllabi have not adjusted in accordance with other industrialised regions.[66][67]


Hinduism is the dominant religion in Pune. Major communities by religion include Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists, Christians and Zoroashtrians. Many Temples, Churches, Mosque, Gurudwaras, Buddhist Viharas, Jewish synagogues, Jain temples, Zoroashtrian Fire Temples and other religious buildings are found throughout the city.[68]

Islam is the second largest religion in Pune.[69] Pune has a large number of Mosques, the most prominent of which are Chand Tara Masjid, Jaama Masjid, and Azam Campus Masjid. Chand Tara Masjid, located in Nana Peth, is one of the biggest and most important mosques in Pune as it is the city headquarters (markaz) for the Tablighi Jamaat. The Eid-gah Maidan located near Golibar Maidan on Shankar Sheth Road witnesses a large gathering of people for Eid namaz on Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.

Pune has over 20 Gurdwaras. Gurdwara Guru Nanak Darbar, Camp and Gurdwara Shri Guru Singh Sabha, Ganesh Peth being the ones situated in the heart of the city. Sikhism is one of the major religions of Pune and Sikhs have become an integral part of the society. In the past a Sikh has been elected mayor of Pune. The community also runs 2 schools. The Sikh community in Pune celebrates Gurpurabs with a lot of enthusiasm. They also organise Kirtan Darbars yearly which are attended by many important religious figures of the Sikh community as well as other communities. They serve Langar to all irrespective of the caste, creed or race of a person.

Other important religious places of other religions in Pune are the Ohel David Synagogue, St. Patrick's Cathedral, St. Anthony Shrine, Dapodi Church, and the Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy Agiary Agiary, or JJ Agiary, a Zoroastrian temple.

The Shrutisagar Ashram, located at Phulgaon off the Nagar road, houses the Vedanta Research Centre and a unique temple of Dakshinamurthy, located near the confluence of the Bhima, Bhama, and Indrayani rivers. It was established in 1989 by Swami Swaroopanand Saraswati. Here one can find detailed explanations of śruti and smriti (including the Vedas, Bhagavad Gita, Upanishads and Puranas) in Marathi and English. As of the 2011 census, the population of Pune is as follows.[70]

Religion Total Percentage
Hindu 2,481,627 79.43%
Muslims 344,571 11.03%
Buddhist 123,179 3.94%
Jain 76,441 2.45%
Christian 67,808 2.17%
Sikh 13,558 0.43%
Not Stated 10,906 0.35%
Others 6,368 0.20%


With 200,000 visitors annually, the Osho International Meditation Resort in Pune is one of the largest spiritual centres in the world
Main meditation Dome at Triveni Ashram

The metropolitan Pune area has two of the most important pilgrimage centers for Marathi Hindu people.These are the towns of Alandi where the Samadhi of the 13th century sant Dnyaneshwar is located and Dehu where 17th century sant Tukaram lived.The annual Vari (foot procession) of the paduka (symbolic sandals) for both these saints in the month of Ashadh (June/July) make a stopover in the city on their way to Pandharpur and attracts hundreds of thousand of devotees

Pune has been associated with several significant recent spiritual teachers. The controversial Guru Osho (formerly self-styled Bhagwan Rajneesh) lived and taught in Pune for much of the 1970s and 1980s. The Osho International Meditation Resort, one of the world's largest spiritual centres, is located in the Koregaon Park area. It has visitors from over a hundred countries. Pune is also the birthplace of Meher Baba, although his followers usually travel to Meherabad to visit his tomb. Hazrat Babajan, identified by Meher Baba as one of the five Perfect Masters, lived the final 25 years of her life in Pune. She was an Afghan Muslim noted for her great age and outdoor existence. She established her final residence first under an Azadirachta indica tree near Bukhari Shah's mosque in Rasta Peth and later under another A. indica tree in the then-dilapidated section of Pune called Char Bawdi, where she remained for the rest of her life. There is a shrine erected in her honour in Pune, around the tree under which she made her final home.[71][better source needed]

Pune is also home to the temples of some other saints who had a large inter-religious following. The Shankar Maharaj Math on Satara road is the place where the great spiritual master 'Shri Shankar Maharaj' rests.[72] The Jangli Maharaj Mandir is the final resting place of Jangli Maharaj. The Mali Maharaj Mandir in Somwar Peth is a very important place of worship of the Nath Pai Sect of Hinduism. The Ramkrishna Mission Ashram at the start of Sinhgad Road is famous for its teachings of Vedanta. The ISKCON temple in the Camp area and the Hare Rama Hare Krishna Mission in the Model Colony Area.

There is a significant Sikh population in Pune. There are a number of Gurudwaras (Sikh Temples) for Sikhs. Gurudwaras in Camp, Kharki, Aundh, Pimpri, Akrudi, and Budhwar Peth are the prominent ones. The Camp Gurudwara is one of the main gurudwaras, with hundreds of people visiting it every day. It is named as "Guru Nanak Darbar" and some people also call it "Hollywood Gurudwara". This complex includes a charitable hospital, community kitchen for Langar and Sarai for refugees.[73]

Urban structure

A crowded street in Pune in 2004
The new Pune suburb of Baner

The modern city of Pune has many distinct neighbourhoods.These includes the numerous peths of the old city on the East bank of the Mutha river,the British built cantonment areas of Khadki and Pune, old suburbs such as Deccan Gymkhana and the newer ones such as Kothrud on the west bank of the Mutha river. The Pune metropolitan area was defined in 1967. It includes Pune, the three cantonment areas,and villages then on the fringe.Industrial developments started in the 1950s in the outlining areas of the city such as Hadapsar in the east, and Bhosari, and Pimpri in the west respectively.[47] The industrial growth in the Pimpri Chinchwad and Bhosari areas allowed these areas to incorporate as the separate city of Pimpri-Chinchwad.[74][75] Many other villages on the fringe have been absorbed by the cities of Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad in recent decades.Some of the villages included in the metropolitan area have now grown into fully fledged suburbs such as Kothrud, Katraj, Hadapsar, Hinjawadi,Aundh and Baner[76]

The Panshet Dam flood of 1961 damaged or destroyed a lot of old housing close to the river bank in the Narayan, Shanwar and Kasba peth areas of the city.However,the traditional houses in the city center, the ‘wadas’ and the ‘chawls’ still have significant percentage of population residing in them.[77] The damage caused by the 1961 disaster spurred development of new suburbs and housing complexes in the city such as Maharshinagar, Sahakarnagar, and Lokmanyanagar to the south of the old city and Gokhalenagar to the west of the city.[78]

The rapid industrialization since the 1960s has led to huge influx of new people to the city with housing supply not keeping pace with demand and therefore there has been a great increase in slum dwellings.[79] Approximately 36% of the population is living in 486 slum areas.Out of these, 55% of slum households have in-house toilet facilities and 90% have electricity connection.One third of slums are on mixed ownership land. Overall, the living conditions in slums vary considerably, depending on their status (formal/informal) and in how far NGOs, CBOs and government facilities are involved and committed to improving the local living conditions.[77]

In the post-Panshet period since early 1960s, new housing has been in the form of bungalows and apartment buildings.However, in the last twenty years, due to heavy demand for housing there is a trend towards knocking down bungalows and converting them into multi-storey apartment buildings under co-operative housing societies.[77] The consequent increase in population density has led to severe pressure on utilities such as water supply.[80]

Since the 1990s,a number of integrated townships and gated communities[81] have come into being on the outskirts of the city on former agriculture land such as Magarpatta, Nanded, Amanora, Blue Ridge, Life Republic, and Lavasa. Most of these were built by private developers and also managed privately.Besides housing, they offer business opportunities and access to infrastructure, which (by law) has to be significantly better than in the rest of the city, e.g., with 24/7 provision of electricity and water. The largest and most prestigious of these townships, Magarpatta City, was developed by a local farmers’ community and described as ‘self-sustainable ecological habitat.Integrated townships provide essential infrastructure services like schools, health care and recreational facilities.According to PMC,six townships with up to 15,000 housing units already existed in Pune in 2012 and 25 more were in the planning process.[77]

Peths in Pune

Peth is a general term, in the Marathi language, for a locality in the Indian city of Pune. Up to seventeen peths are located in central Pune, and were mostly established during the Maratha empire era under the Peshwa rule of the city in the 18th century. Seven of them are named after the days of the week in Marathi: traders and craftsmen in a given locality mainly conducted business only on that day of the week.

Today the peths form the heart of Pune city, and are referred to as the old city, or simply city. They are considered to be the cultural heart of Pune.


Volkswagen India Plant and offices in Pune
Cognizant's Delivery Centre in Pune
Infosys Pune

As one of the largest cities of India and major centre of learning with several colleges and universities, Pune is emerging as a prominent location for IT and manufacturing. Pune has the eighth largest metropolitan economy [82] and the sixth highest per capita income in the country.[83]

Automotive companies such as Bajaj Auto, Tata Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra, Mercedes Benz, Force Motors (Firodia-Group), Kinetic Motors, General Motors, Land Rover, Jaguar, Renault, Volkswagen, and Fiat have set up greenfield facilities near Pune, leading The Independent to cite Pune as India's "Motor City".[84]

The Kirloskar Group, was the first to bring industry to Pune by setting up Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. in 1945 at Kirkee in Pune. The Group was originally set up in Kirloskarwadi.[85] Kirloskar Brothers Limited (One of India's largest manufacturer and exporter of pumps and the largest infrastructure pumping project contractor in Asia[86][87]), Kirloskar Oil Engines (India's largest diesel engine company[88]), Kirloskar Pneumatics Co. Ltd., and other Kirloskar companies are based in Pune.

The Hinjawadi IT Park (officially called the Rajeev Gandhi IT Park) is a project being started by MIDC to house the IT sector in Pune. When completed, the Hinjawadi IT Park is expected to encompass an area of about 2,800 acres (11 km2). The estimated investment in the project is 600 billion (US$9.2 billion).[89] To facilitate economic growth, the government made liberal incentives in its IT and ITES Policy, 2003 and leased properties on MIDC land.[90] The IT sector employs more than 70,000 people. Software giant Microsoft intends to set up a 7 billion (US$110 million) project in Hinjawadi.[90]

World Trade Centre in Pune, Maharashtra

Pune Food Cluster development project is an initiative funded by the World Bank. It is being implemented with the help of SIDBI, Cluster Craft to facilitate the development of the fruit and vegetable processing industries in and around Pune.[91][92]

Pune has also emerged as a new startup hub in India with tech startups like Pubmatic, Firstcry.com, Storypick.com, TripHobo,[93] TastyKhana.com (acquired by Foodpanda),[94] Swipe setting up base in Pune.[95] NASSCOM in association with MIDC have started a co-working space for city based startups under its '10,000 startup' initiative at Kharadi MIDC.[96] It will incubate startup such as Kandawale from OhMyDealer in first batch.

The Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions trade is expected to get a boost once the Pune International Exhibition and Convention Centre (PIECC) completes in 2017. The 97-hectare PIECC will boast a seating capacity of 20,000 with a floor area of 13,000 m2 (139,931 sq ft). It will have seven exhibition centres, a convention centre, a golf course, a five-star hotel, a business complex, shopping malls, and residences. The US$115 million project is developed by the Pimpri-Chinchwad New Town Development Authority.[97] Nowadays a growing number of automotive dealerships are springing up all over the city. They include luxury car makers like Jaguar Land Rover, Mercedes Benz, BMW, Audi, and motorcycle manufacturers like Kawasaki, KTM, Benelli, Ducati, BMW and Harley Davidson.


Serum Institute of India, the world's fifth largest vaccine producer by volume has a manufacturing plant located in Pune.[98]

Pune is the largest hub in India for German companies.[99] According to the Indo-German Chamber of Commerce, Pune has been the single largest hub for German companies for the last 60 years. Over 225 German companies have set up their businesses here.[100]

Government and Public Services

Civic administration

Pune Municipal Corporation Building

Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) (पुणे महानगरपालिका) is the civic body responsible for local government in the city of Pune.It is headed by a Municipal Commissioner, who is an IAS officer appointed by the Government of Maharashtra.The commissioner wields the executive power in the city.The corporation has 162 members.They are elected every five years from 48 multi-member constituencies or wards.,[101][102] Corporation Members or corporators are responsible for overseeing that their constituencies have the basic civic infrastructure in place, and that there is no failure of duty on the part of the authorities.The corporators also elect the Mayor of Pune.The Mayor has a ceremonial role and wields no executive power.

The Pune Police is headed by the Police Commissioner of Pune, an officer of the Indian Police Service. The Pune Police report to the state ministry.

The Pune Municipal Corporation was ranked 8th out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 3.5 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.[103]

Pune Metropolitan Region Development Authority (PMRDA) formed in 2015 is responsible for the integrated development of the metro region. Currently its jurisdiction extends over 3,500 km2 (1,351 sq mi).[104]

Apart from the PMC,four other municipal or cantonment boards are responsible for governing in their respective areas of the Pune metropolitan region:

Many newly urbanized areas on the fringe of the city such as Baner are governed by their own Gram panchayat(rural councils). A plan to establish a single Pune Metropolitan Region Development Authority (PMRDA), consisting of the combined municipal councils, corporations, and other local governments of Pune, Pimpri-Chinchwad, Lonavala, Talegaon Dabhade, Bhor, Shirur, Saswad, the three cantonments and hundred villages near the city, has been in consideration since 1997.[108] This body is the executing authority which would acquire and develop reserve land to improve the infrastructure of the Pune metropolitan area.

Utility services

The PMC supplies the city with potable water that is sourced from the Khadakwasla dam.There are five other dams in the area that supply water to the city and the greater metropolitan areas for residential,industrial and agricultural use.[109]

The city lacks capacity to treat all the generated sewerage.This leads to the Mutha river water containing only sewage outside the monsoon months.[110].At present only 655 of the sewage is treated and then discharged into the rivers.[111]

PMC is also responsible for collecting solid waste.Around 1600 tons of municipal solid waste is generated in Pune on a daily basis, varying from 350 to 750 grams per person per day. The waste consists of 53% organic, compostable material and 47% inorganic material, of which around half is recyclable (e.g., glass, paper, plastic).The unrecovered solid waste is transported to the dumping grounds in Urali devachi.[112]

The Maharashtra state owned Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Limited supplies electricity to the city.The power comes from thermal, hydro, gas and renewable sources such as solar, wind,and sugarcane bagasse.

Indian government owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, or BSNL, as well as private enterprises, among them Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Aircel, Tata DoCoMo, Tata Teleservices, Virgin Mobile, and MTS India, are the leading telephone and cell phone service providers in the city[113]:25–26:179.

Military establishments

Pune was the largest military camp for the British forces during the Raj era, and the architecture in the Cantonment area is reminiscent of that era. The majority of the old Cantonment land in the city is now occupied by the Indian Army for housing its garrisons and officers.[114] The Southern Command, a World War II Indian Army formation, has its headquarters in Pune cantonment. The city is home to Lohegaon Aerodrome (previously RAF Station Pune), the city's airport and Indian Air Force airfield. Due to its strategic location and close proximity to Mumbai, it houses advanced fighter aircraft of the Indian Air Force such as the Sukhoi-30MKI multi-role strike fighters.

The National Defence Academy (NDA) is an integrated military training centre that provides education up to the graduation level and joint training for cadets of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force.[115] The NDA estate is spread over 8,028 acres (3,249 ha) of land in Khadakwasla near Pune and contains apart from NDA facilities, a mini sanctuary and Peacock Bay, a thumb-shaped inlet into the VIP residential area of the Faculty at the Academy, where the NDA sailing/boating facilities are housed. The lake itself is now known as Khadakvasla Lake, earlier known as Lake Fife in the British era, and is one of the lakes that provide water to Pune city.[116]

Pune hosts the Military Intelligence Training School and Depot which offers diploma courses in Counter Intelligence, Combat Intelligence, Aerial Imagery and Interpretation, and others.[117]



Departure Lounge at Pune Airport

Pune International Airport is an international Airport at Lohegaon, operated by the Airports Authority of India. It shares its runways with the neighbouring Indian Air Force base.[118] In addition to domestic flights to all major Indian cities, this airport serves international direct flights to Dubai (operated by Air India Express)[119] and to Frankfurt (operated by Lufthansa).[120]

The Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation is responsible for the design and construction of a New Pune International Airport. The area between Chakan and Rajgurunagar, around the villages of Chandus and Shiroli, is being considered as a construction site. If constructed here, it will be at a distance of 40 km (25 mi) from central Pune. With the construction of this new International Airport, Pune city will be connected to many important international destinations such as London, New York, Singapore, Hong Kong and Tokyo.[121]


Pune railway station – Entrance

Local trains (EMUs) connect Pune to the industrial town of Pimpri-Chinchwad and the hill station of Lonavala, while daily express trains connect Pune to Mumbai, Hyderabad, Delhi, Jaipur, Nagpur, Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, Coimbatore, Chennai, Bangalore, Allahabad, Kanpur, Howrah, Jammu Tawi, Darbhanga, Goa, Gwalior, Varanasi, Bhubaneswar, Ranchi, Patna, and Jamshedpur. At Pune, there is a diesel locomotive shed and an electric trip shed.[122]

The Pune Railway Station is administered by the Pune Railway Division of the Central Railways.[123] All the railway lines to Pune are broad gauge. The city also has a Motive power depot located at Ghorpadi. It is operated for Diesel Locomotives.

Road Transport

The Mumbai-Pune Expressway India's first Expressway as seen from Khandala
A highway leading into Pune

Pune is well-connected to other cities by Indian highways and state highways. National Highway 4 (NH 4) connects it to Mumbai, Bangalore and Kolhapur. NH 65 to Hyderabad, Suryapet, Vijayawada and NH 50 to Nashik. State highways connect it to Ahmednagar, Aurangabad, and Alandi.

The Mumbai-Pune Expressway is India's first six-lane high-speed expressway, and it was built in 2002. This expressway has reduced travel time between Pune and Mumbai to almost two hours. A ring road is being planned for the convenience of heavy traffic.[124] On the express highway only four wheelers are allowed, thus only private cars, buses and taxis can travel on this route.

Pune is served by two intra-city highways: Old Pune-Mumbai Highway and Katraj-Dehu Road Bypass, a part of National Highway 4. The Nashik City-Pune Highway NH 50 will be part of the golden triangle (Nashik-Pune-Mumbai).

Bus Service

Public buses within the city and its suburbs are operated by the Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited (PMPML). The PMPML operates the Rainbow BRTS system, the first of its kind in India, in which dedicated bus lanes were supposed to allow buses to travel quickly through the city. In reality the project has turned out to be a failure, receiving little to no patronage from the local citizenry.[125] Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation runs buses from its main stations in Shivajinagar, Pune station, and Swargate to all major cities and towns in Maharashtra and neighbouring states. Private companies also run buses to major cities throughout India.[126]

Taxi Service

The motorized three wheeler Autorickshaw is the most popular form of transport for intermediate public transport in the city. In recent years, since the advent of smart phones, App based services like Ola Cabs & Uber have started playing an important role in providing taxi service in Pune.

Personal transport

Previously,Pune was known as cycle city of India.However,in the recent decades, motorized two wheelers have started replacing the cycle as a popular mode of transport.[127]


A mass transit system called Pune Metro has been proposed for the city.[128] and is being planned in consultation with Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited, the corporation which built and operates the Delhi Metro. It will be a combination of elevated and underground sections, with initial routes being planned between Pimpri-Swargate and Vanaz-Ramwadi. Surveying and design work has begun as of June 2017.


B.J. Medical college,the oldest Medical college in Pune.It is associated with Sassoon Hospital

Healthcare in Pune metro region, as in other regions of India is provided by private and Public facilities.Primary care is provided by practitioners of Western or the traditional alternative medicine (i.e.Ayurved,Homeopathy and Unani ) respectively.For minor and chronic ailments,people in the region have preference for practitioners of the traditional medicine.[129].

Pune and the metropolitan area is served by three government hospitals, Sassoon Hospital, Budhrani and Dr. Ambedkar Hospital.There are also a number of big private hospitals such as Sahyadri, Jahangir Nursing home,Sancheti Hospital, Aditya Birla Memorial Hospital, KEM Hospital, Ruby Hall and Dinanath Mangeshkar Hospital.

Education and research

Pune has over a hundred educational institutes and more than nine deemed universities apart from the University of Pune, which is the second largest University in the country (based on total number of colleges),[130] students from all over the world studying at the colleges of the University of Pune.

Basic and special education

Public schools (known locally as "municipality schools") are run by the Pune Municipal Corporation, and are affiliated with the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education. Private schools are run by educational trusts or individuals. Notable schools include Jnana Prabodhini Prashala.

Pune is the largest centre for Japanese learning in India.[131] Other languages taught in the city include German, which is taught at the Goethe-Institut, and French, which is taught at Alliance Française.

University education

Most colleges in Pune are affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune University (formerly University of Pune), established in 1948. Seven other universities have also been established in the city.[132]

The College of Engineering Pune, now an autonomous institute of the government of Maharashtra, founded in 1854, is the third oldest engineering college in Asia. The Deccan Education Society was founded by several local citizens in 1884, including social and political activist Bal Gangadhar Tilak,[133] and was responsible for founding Fergusson College in 1885.

Symbiosis International University, which operates 33 colleges and institutions in the city, includes colleges such as Symbiosis Institute of Business Management (SIBM, Pune), Symbiosis Institute of Management Studies (SIMS), Symbiosis Centre for Management and Human Resource Development (SCMHRD),Symbiosis Law School (SLS) and Symbiosis Institute of International Business (SIIB) which are ranked among the top management and law institutes in the country,[134][135] and Symbiosis Institute of Computer Studies and Research (SICSR) which is one of the few colleges in India that promotes open source technology. Pune is also home to Symbiosis Institute of Technology of the Symbiosis family.[136]

ILS Law College, established by the Indian Law Society, is one of the top ten law schools in India.[137] Established medical schools such as the Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) and Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College train students from all over Maharashtra and India and are among the top medical colleges in India. The AFMC consistently ranks among the top five medical colleges in India.[138] The Film and Television Institute of India, one of only three Indian institutions in the global CILECT film school network, is located on Law College Road.

The Lalit Kala Kendra is an undergraduate department of Music, Dance and Drama on the Savitribai Phule Pune University campus that has been operational since 1987. This department features a combination of Gurukul and formal education systems.[139]

Research Institutes

Pune is home to some of India's important research institutes. Some of the major research centres are:



Shinde Chhatri in Wanowrie, Pune. Photo taken January 2013.

In addition to its temples, historical attractions in and around Pune include the rock-cut Pataleshwar cave temple, Aga Khan Palace, Shaniwarwada, Lal Mahal, and Sinhagad fort. Shinde Chhatri, located at Wanowrie, is a memorial dedicated to the Great Maratha Sardar, Mahadaji Shinde (Scindia) who was instrumental in establishing the Maratha supremacy over North India.[143] The city is also known for its British Raj "bungalow architecture" and the Garden Cities Movement layout of the Cantonment in the early Twentieth Century. Christopher Charles Benninger landmark architectural works surround the city, including the Mahindra United World College of India, the Centre for Development Studies and Activities, the YMCA Retreat at Nilshi and the Samundra Institute of Maritime Studies.

Museums, parks and zoos

Pu. La. Deshpande Garden

Prominent museums in Pune include the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Museum of Indian History, Mahatma Phule Museum, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Museum, Joshi's Museum of Miniature Railway and the Pune Tribal Museum. Pune also houses Blades of Glory Cricket Museum which is the biggest cricket museum in the world. The College of Military Engineering has an archive and an equipment museum which has a rail exhibit with a metre-gauge train.

Pune has public gardens such as the Kamala Nehru Park, Sambhaji Park, Shahu Udyan, Peshwe Park, Saras Baug, Empress Garden, Taljai Hills, and Bund Garden Pune. The Pu La Deshpande Udyan is a replica of the Korakuen Garden in Okayama, Japan.[144] The Aga Khan Palace was built in 1892 by Sultan Muhammed Shah Aga Khan III in Pune. The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park is located at Katraj, close to the city.[145] The zoo, earlier located at Peshwe Park, was merged with the reptile park at Katraj in 1999. Besides this, certain spots in Pune such as Hanuman Tekdi, Vetal Tekdi, and Taljai forest are popular haunts for nature lovers.

Pune City Expansion (Kharadi)


A number of Marathi language newspapers from the British era continued publishing decades after independence.These included Kesari, Tarun Bharat,Prabhat and Sakal.Sakal under the leadership of Nanasaheb Parulekar maintained a politically neutral stand.[146] It has remained the most popular Marathi daily during Parulekar's stewardship and later since the 1980s under the Pawar family control.[147][148] Kesari is now only published as an online newspaper.Mumbai based Maharashtra times, Loksatta and Lokmat all introduced Pune based editions in the last fifteen years.The Mumbai-based popular English newspaper Indian express has a Pune edition. Its rival the times of India introduced a tabloid called Pune mirror in 2008.Mid day, Daily news and analysis and Sakak times are other local English newspapers

The government owned All India radio (AIR) has been broadcasting from Pune since 1952.[149] There are many FM service are received in Pune. AIR Doordarshan DD Sahyadri and Zee Marathi are Marathi language TV channels received in the city.There are also numerous other TV channels in Hindi, English and other languages received in the city by cable.

Performing arts

Both experimental and professional theatre receive extensive patronage from the Marathi community.The Tilak Smarak Ranga Mandir, Bal Gandharva Ranga Mandir, Bharat Natya Mandir, Yashwantrao Chavan Natya Gruha, and Sudarshan Rangmanch are prominent theatres in the city.[150][151][152]

Ganesh Kala Krida Rangamanch is the largest closed theatre in the city, with a seating capacity of 45,000.[153]

The Sawai Gandharva Sangeet Mahotsav, one of the most prominent and sought-after Indian classical music festivals in India, is held in Pune every year in December. It commemorates the life and achievements of Pt. Sawai Gandharva.[154] The concept of Diwāḷī Pahāṭ originated in Pune as a music festival on the morning of the festival of Diwali.[155]


Popular games and sports in Pune include athletics, cricket, basketball, badminton, field hockey, football, tennis, kabaddi, paragliding, kho-kho, rowing, and chess. The Pune International Marathon is an annual marathon conducted in Pune. The 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games were held in the city at the Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex in Balewadi.The Chhatrapati Shivaji Stadium in the mangalwar peth area of the city is the venue for hosting wrestling and other traditional sports.


Cricket is played between clubs affiliated with the Maharashtra Cricket Association, which maintains a domestic cricket team (the Maharashtra cricket team). This team, one of three based in the state of Maharashtra, competes in interstate matches and leagues such as the Ranji Trophy. The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium used to be the venue for National and One Day International matches until 2012. This stadium is named after the first Prime Minister of Independent India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.

An Indian Premier League cricket team based in Pune began play in 2011. The team, named Pune Warriors India, was bought for ₹17.02 billion or $370 million. It was the most expensive team in the Indian Premier League, and was owned by the Sahara Group. This team was later expelled from the league before the 7th season of the IPL started due to financial issues between Sahara Group and IPL.[156] As a home ground for the Pune Warriors, the Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium (with a seating capacity of 37,000) was built in Gahunje on the Mumbai – Pune express way and was inaugurated on 1 April 2012. Called the Subrata Roy Sahara Stadium earlier (after the founder of Sahara Group), it was renamed to Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium in 2013. The stadium has since been used by the Maharashtra state team and also hosted international cricket – T20s, ODIs, and a Test Match.[157]

In Indian Premier League, a new franchise from Pune, Rising Pune Supergiant, played for two seasons, 2016 and 2017. The team is owned by Sanjiv Goenka's RPG Group.


FC Pune City is an Indian Super League football club in Pune, Maharashtra.which plays in the Indian Super League. The club was formed in 2014 with a philosophy to provide stimulus to the growth and development of football in the state of Maharashtra and to participate in the inaugural season of the Indian Super League.The team is owned by Rajesh Wadhawan Group, its promoters Mr. Kapil Wadhawan and Mr. Dheeraj Wadhawan and actor Arjun Kapoor.

The philosophy behind the inception of the club was to promote and develop the game of football in the city of Pune right from the grassroots levels onwards. FC Pune City aims to be the club which players passionately aspire to be a part of and a club to whom fans pledge their loyalties.

In 2016, FC Pune City became the only professional football club in India to have teams which participated at all levels of professional football; Senior Team (ISL), U-18 Team (I-League U-18), U- 16 Team, U-14 Team and the Women’s Team.

Bharat FC was a football based in Pune. The club, which played Indian Football League, was founded by Kalyani Group in 2014.

DSK Shivajians Football Club is an Indian football club based in Pune, Maharashtra. DSK Shivajians was founded in 1987 and in 2013 they played their first ever national season in the 2013 I-League 2nd Division, their intention was to place the team in the top tier of Indian football (the I-League). English club Liverpool announced a partnership with DSK Shivajians in India. The partnership is pertinent in the academy setup, with academy players trained by coaches representing Liverpool playing for DSK Shivajians U19.

Poona District Football Association (PDFA) is established in year 1972 with motive to create a platform for youths for developing, nurturing and to promote the game at grass root level. PDFA is successful in nurturing and producing many young aspirants. At present there are 4 divisions under the PDFA with the total of about more than 100 teams registered.[158]

Other sports

Pune has basketball at the Deccan Gymkhana club and at Fergusson College.[159] The city is home to the Pune Peshwas, runners-up at the 2015 UBA Pro Basketball League season.The 2008 Common wealth youth games were also conducted in Pune in the Balewadi stadium.

The National Education Foundation organises Enduro3, a cross country adventure race in Pune. It is normally a two- or three-day event with activities like cycling, trekking, river-crossing, and rifle shooting.[160] The city has been host to the 2009 FIVB Men's Junior World Championship.

Pune Race Course, located in Pune Cantonment, was built in 1830 over 118.5 acres (0.480 km2) of land. The land is controlled by the Indian Army. The racing season is from July to October every year. The Royal Western India Turf Club manages the racecourse. The course has two training tracks and two racing surfaces. Major racing events include the Pune Derby, RWITC Invitational, Independence Cup, and the Southern Command Cup.[161]

Pune Skatepark is a skateboarding park built in the Sahakarnagar area, consisting of an eight-foot bowl in a 3,000 square foot flatground. It is the first skatepark in India built by the government with approximately seventy lakhs spent on the project.[162]

Names of various sports teams which represent Pune in sports leagues across India :

Club Sport League Home Ground Duration
FC Pune City Football Indian Super League Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex 2014 –
Maharashtra cricket team Cricket Ranji Trophy and Vijay Hazare Trophy Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium 1934 –
Pune Marathas American Football Elite Football League of India Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex 2011 –
Pune Marathas Tennis Champions Tennis League Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex 2014 –
Puneri Paltan Kabaddi Star Sports Pro Kabaddi League Balewadi Sports Complex 2014–
Pune Peshwas Basketball UBA Pro Basketball League 2015 –
Pune Pistons Badminton Indian Badminton League Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex 2013 –
Pune Strykers Field Hockey World Series Hockey PCMC Hockey Stadium 2012 –
Rising Pune Supergiants Cricket Indian Premier League Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium 2016–2017
Bharat FC Football I-League Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex 2014–2015
DSK Shivajians F.C. Football I-League Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex 2013–2015
Pune F.C. Football I-League Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex 2007–2015
Pune Warriors India Cricket Indian Premier League Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium 2010–2013

Sports institutions

Prominent sporting institutions in Pune include the Nehru Stadium, the Deccan Gymkhana, the PYC Hindu Gymkhana, The Poona Golf Club, The Poona Cricket Club, and the Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex at Balewadi. The Nehru Stadium was the home ground of the Maharashtra Cricket Team, and has hosted many prominent cricket events, including one of the matches in the 1996 Cricket World Cup. Now the home ground of Maharashtra Cricket Team is the State-of-Art Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium at Gahunje which is also the headquarters of Maharashtra Cricket Association. The Deccan Gymkhana has hosted Davis Cup matches on several occasions. The facility at Balewadi hosted the National Games in 1994 as well as the 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games. The Royal Connaught Boat Club is one of several boating clubs on the Mula-Mutha river.

Prominent sportspersons hailing from Pune include cricketer D. B. Deodhar, Chandu Borde, father-son cricketing duo Hemant and Hrishikesh Kanitkar, tennis players Radhika Tulpule, Gaurav Natekar and Nitin Kirtane, and table-tennis player Sujay Ghorpade. Abhijit Kunte, Isar Qureshi, and Pravin Thipsay are chess grandmasters and national champions. Dhanraj Pillay is ex-captain of the Indian national field hockey team.

When the Elite Football League of India was introduced in August 2011, Pune was noted as one of eight cities to be awarded a team for the inaugural season, although the team's games will be played in Balewadi. All 56 games of EFLI's opening season will be played at the Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex, which will be retrofitted to host the sport. Named the Pune Marathas, it will be Pune's first professional American football franchise.[163][164]

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities
"Informal" relationship

Notable people

This includes people who had a lifelong association with the place, or made their significant contribution during their residency here.

Maratha rule

British era

Post-independence era

See also


  1. ^ Choudhuri, Debjani Pal. Community Planning for Intervention for Victims of Domestic Violence. Kassel University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-3-89958-346-5. 
  2. ^ Diddee, Jaymala. Pune: Queen of the Deccan. Elephant Design Pvt. Limited. ISBN 8187693002. 
  3. ^ "Mukta Tilak, MBA, is Pune's first BJP mayor". The Hindu. Retrieved 16 March 2017. 
  4. ^ "Bal Gangadhar Tilak descendant, Mukta Tilak files nomination for Mayor post". The Financial Express (India). Retrieved 8 March 2017. 
  5. ^ "Fifteenth Lok Sabha Members Bioprofile". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  6. ^ "About Pune Municipal Corporation". Pune Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015. 
  7. ^ "District Census Handbook – Pune" (PDF). Census of India. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner. p. 28. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  8. ^ "Urban agglomerations/cities having population 1 million and above" (PDF). Provisional population totals, census of India 2011. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2012. 
  9. ^ "PIN Code: Pune, Maharashtra, India". findpincode.net. 
  10. ^ "Definition of Pune". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  11. ^ "Definition of Poona". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  12. ^ "Define Pune". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  13. ^ "Define Poona". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  14. ^ Nalawade, S.B. "Geography of Pune Urban Area". Ranwa. Archived from the original on 22 December 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2008. 
  15. ^ "Shaniwarwada was centre of Indian politics: Ninad Bedekar". Daily News and Analysis. 29 November 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  16. ^ "Pune". Maharashtratourism.gov.in. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  17. ^ "The 'Oxford of the East' goes West". The Indian Express. Retrieved 24 January 2017. 
  18. ^ "Truly the Oxford of the East". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 24 January 2017. 
  19. ^ "Serial Blasts Rock Oxford of the East". Little India. Archived from the original on 4 April 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2017. 
  20. ^ Guillain (2004), p. 47.
  21. ^ Connors, et al. (1991), p. 195.
  22. ^ "Mercer Quality of Living Rankings". Mercer. Retrieved 28 April 2017. 
  23. ^ "Quality of Living City Rankings". Mercer Information Solutions business. Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  24. ^ SHARMA, NIDHI (2018-03-15). "Pune adjudged best governed city". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2018-03-26. 
  25. ^ a b "Some Important Years in the History of Pune". Retrieved 4 April 2008.  Pune's Timeline
  26. ^ "Pune History – Origin & History of Pune – History of Puna India – History of Pune City". Pune.org.uk. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  27. ^ JOGLEKAR, P.P.; DEO, SUSHAMA G.; BALAKAWADE, PANDURANG; DESHPANDE-MUKHERJEE, ARATI; RAJAGURU, S.N; KULKARNI, AMOL N (2007). "A NEW LOOK AT ANCIENT PUNE THROUGH SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY (2004–2006)". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 66/67: 211–225. JSTOR 42931448. 
  28. ^ Govind Sakharam Sardesai (1957). New History of the Marathas: Shivaji and his line (1600–1707). Phoenix Publications. p. 58. 
  29. ^ Government, of Bombay (1885). Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Poona (2 pts.). p. 321. 
  30. ^ "Monuments in Pune". Pune district administration. Archived from the original on 25 March 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2008. 
  31. ^ "The history of Muhiyabad err...Pune". 
  32. ^ S. N. Sen (2006). History Modern India. New Age International. p. 12. ISBN 978-81-224-1774-6. 
  33. ^ "Shrimant Bajirao Peshwa : Great warrior and protector of Hindu Dharma Hindu Janajagruti Samiti". Hindujagruti.org. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  34. ^ N. G. Rathod (1994). The Great Maratha Mahadaji Scindia. Sarup & Sons. p. 8. ISBN 978-81-85431-52-9. 
  35. ^ "पुणे जिल्हा ऐतिहासिक महत्त्वाचे". Manase.org. Archived from the original on 15 May 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  36. ^ Kosambi, Meera (1989). "Glory of Peshwa Pune". Economic and Political Weekly. 24 (5): 247. 
  37. ^ Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind (1985). "The Religious Complex in Eighteenth-Century Poona". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 105 (4): 720. JSTOR 602730. 
  38. ^ Preston, Laurence W. "Shrines and neighbourhood in early nineteenth-century Pune, India." Journal of Historical Geography 28.2 (2002): 203–215.
  39. ^ Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind (1985). "The Religious Complex in Eighteenth-Century Poona". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 105 (4): 719–724. JSTOR 602730. 
  40. ^ "Shaniwarwada was centre of Indian politics: Ninad Bedekar – Mumbai – DNA". Dnaindia.com. Retrieved 17 October 2013. 
  41. ^ Khare, K. C., and M. S. Jadhav. "Water Quality Assessment of Katraj Lake, Pune (Maharashtra, India): A Case Study." Proceedings of Taal2007: The 12th World Lake Conference. Vol. 292. 2008.
  42. ^ History of Foundation Archived 12 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  43. ^ Gazetteer of The Bombay Presidency: Poona (Part 2). Government Central press. 1885. p. 156. 
  44. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Poona (2 pts.). Government Central Press. 1885. p. 308. 
  45. ^ Ramachandra Guha, "The Other Liberal Light," New Republic 22 June 2012
  46. ^ "Southern Command in India". 
  47. ^ a b "Historical Events in Pune". NIC – District-Pune. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2009. 
  48. ^ "The Mumbai-Pune expressway". The Financial Express. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2009. 
  49. ^ "Pune to get piped compressed natural gas before CYG". The Punekar. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2009. 
  50. ^ Harmeet Singh (13 February 2010). "Eight killed in India restaurant blast". CNN. Retrieved 14 February 2010. 
  51. ^ PTI (13 February 2010). "9 killed, 40 injured in Pune bomb blast". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 14 February 2010. 
  52. ^ Sakaal news service (14 February 2010). "पुण्यावर दहशतवादी हल्ला; नऊ ठार, ५७ जखमी" (in Marathi). sSakal.com. Retrieved 14 February 2010. [permanent dead link]
  53. ^ "City sweats as mercury hits season's high". The Times of India. 17 April 2003. Retrieved 10 May 2008. 
  54. ^ "Brrr... it's almost March, and Pune's shivering!". The Times of India. 23 February 2005. Retrieved 10 May 2008. 
  55. ^ "Pune Climatological Information 1951–1980". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 5 May 2014. 
  56. ^ "Extreme Temperatures in India up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  57. ^ "Pune Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 24 December 2012. 
  58. ^ "Demographics of Pune". Punepages.com. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  59. ^ "Pune's GDP at Rs 46,000 is 50 pc higher than India's". The Indian Express. 28 July 2006. Archived from the original on 10 January 2008. Retrieved 24 March 2007. 
  60. ^ "Annexure I" (PDF). Fire Hazards Response and Mitigation Plan. Pune Municipal Corporation. 2001. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  61. ^ "Revised Action Plan for Control of Air Pollution in Pune" (PDF). Census of India, Government of India (2001). Maharashtra Pollution Control Board. Retrieved 29 December 2008. 
  62. ^ "Pune to become 7th metro city in India: Assocham – Economy and Politics". livemint.com. 30 October 2008. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  63. ^ "Pune District Population Census 2011, Maharashtra literacy sex ratio and density". Census2011.co.in. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  64. ^ Khairkar, V.P., 2008. Segregation of Migrants Groups in Pune City, India. Anthropologist, 10(2), pp.155–161.
  65. ^ Barnouw, V., 1966. The Sindhis, Mercantile Refugees in India: Problems of their assimilation. Phylon (1960–), 27(1), pp.40–49.[1]
  66. ^ Pordié, Laurent; Lalitha, N. (24 May 2006). "Research Update: Transversal Themes of Indian Society and Medicines" (PDF). Department of Social Sciences, The French Institute of Pondicherry. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2008. 
  67. ^ "Indian Urban Resource Millennium Assessment by Naturalists" (PDF).  (183 KB)
  68. ^ "Pune Religions". Retrieved 14 November 2010. 
  69. ^ "Socio – Economic Survey Of Pune City" (PDF). p. 273. Retrieved 6 November 2014. 
  70. ^ "Pune City Population Census 2011 Maharashtra". www.census2011.co.in. Retrieved 2016-08-26. 
  71. ^ "Photo of Babajan's Samadhi tomb shrine in Pune". Trustmeher.com. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  72. ^ http://www.shankarmaharaj.org/dhan.shtml
  73. ^ "Gurudwara in Pune List of Pune Gurudwara". Punetrip.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  74. ^ Menon, Sudha (March 30, 2002). "Pimpri-Chinchwad industrial belt: Placing Pune at the front". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 29 January 2012. 
  75. ^ Heitzman, James (2008). The City in South Asia. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-134-28963-9. 
  76. ^ Joshi, Ashutosh (2008). Town planning regeneration of cities. New Delhi: New India Pub. Agency. pp. 73–84. ISBN 9788189422820. 
  77. ^ a b c d Butsch, Carsten; Kumar, Shamita; Wagner, Paul D.; Kroll, Mareike; Kantakumar, Lakshmi N.; Bharucha, Erach (2017). "Growing 'Smart'? Urbanization Processes in the Pune Urban Agglomeration". Sustainability. 9 (12): 2335. 
  78. ^ Singh, Vijay P. (1996). Dam Breach Modeling Technology. Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 89–91. ISBN 978-94-015-8747-1. 
  79. ^ Bapat, Meera (2009). Poverty Lines and Lives of the Poor: Underestimation of Urban Poverty – the Case of India. London: International Institute for Environment and Development. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-84369-724-4. 
  80. ^ Marinos, P.G. (editor); Deolankar, S; Kulkarni, H; Lalwani, A (2001). Engineering geology and the environment : proceedings International Symposium on Engineering Geology and the Environment, organized by the Greek National Group of IAEG, Athens, Greece, 23–27 June 1997. Rotterdam [u.a.]: Balkema. pp. 1327–1333. ISBN 9054108819. 
  81. ^ SINGH, T. LALITH (2012). "What are integrated townships?". The Hindu (October 27). Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  82. ^ Top universities of Largest metropolitan economy -Pune, January −31, 2015, AICTE David 
  83. ^ "Top Ten Wealthiest Towns of India". Maps of India. Retrieved 1 March 2012. 
  84. ^ "The boom is over in Detroit. But now India has its own motor city". The Independent. London. 20 April 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2008. 
  85. ^ "K. K. Swamy appointed MD of Volkswagen India". The Indian Express. Retrieved 14 December 2009. 
  86. ^ "Kirloskar Brothers restructure group". CNBC-TV18. Retrieved 14 December 2009. 
  87. ^ "Pump Industry in India – Overview, Market, Manufacturers, Opportunities". Indian Pumps And Valves. Retrieved 2017-11-14. 
  88. ^ "Kirloskar Oil Engines". India Business Insight. 31 August 2004. Retrieved 14 December 2009. 
  89. ^ "Hinjawadi IT park". The MegaPolis. Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2009. 
  90. ^ a b Bari, Prachi (7 December 2007). "Hinjawadi, the land of opportunity". The Economic times. India. Retrieved 13 November 2009. 
  91. ^ "PuneFoodHub.com – Food Cluster Pune". Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  92. ^ "PuneFoodHub.com – Project Partners". Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  93. ^ "Pune Based TripHobo Raises $3 Mln Series B Funding". 
  94. ^ "Food delivery service Foodpanda acquires rival TastyKhana". 
  95. ^ "Startups find Pune a fertile ground". 
  96. ^ "Start-up Warehouses set up in Navi Mumbai and Pune NASSCOM". www.nasscom.in. Archived from the original on 7 December 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2016. 
  97. ^ "Pune gets green light for massive MICE centre". TTGmice. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  98. ^ "Serum Institute of India to invest Rs 1,000 crore to set up new facility". The Economic Times. Retrieved 1 February 2015. 
  99. ^ "DNA 17th Nov 2010". 
  100. ^ "Business Standard 26th Oct 2011". 
  101. ^ "Pune Municipal Corporation - About Page". Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  102. ^ "PMC ELECTION 2017 WINNING CANDIDATE LIST". Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  103. ^ Nair, Ajesh. "Annual Survey of India's City-Systems" (PDF). Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy. Retrieved 7 March 2015. 
  104. ^ "PMRDA formed to push projects on fast track". Retrieved 2015-10-07. 
  105. ^ "Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation Web Portal". Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008. 
  106. ^ "Kirkee Cantonment Board: A Brief Profile". Archived from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2008. 
  107. ^ "Pune Cantonment Board: Overview". Archived from the original on 1 April 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2008. 
  108. ^ "Just hold on, PMRDA not far off". The Indian Express. 5 January 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2008. 
  109. ^ Tirthkar, S.N., 2009. Master plan 2025 of Pune Municipal Corporation for sewage treatment and disposal. J Inst Public Health Eng, 2, pp.13-19.[2]
  110. ^ Wagh, G.K. and Ghate, H.V., 2003. Freshwater fish fauna of the rivers Mula and Mutha, Pune, Maharashtra. Zoos’ Print Journal, 18(1), pp.977-981.
  111. ^ Tirthkar, S.N., 2009. Master plan 2025 of Pune Municipal Corporation for sewage treatment and disposal. J Inst Public Health Eng, 2, pp.13-19.[3]
  112. ^ Butsch, C., Kumar, S., Wagner, P.D., Kroll, M., Kantakumar, L.N., Bharucha, E., Schneider, K. and Kraas, F., 2017. Growing ‘Smart’? Urbanization Processes in the Pune Urban Agglomeration. Sustainability, 9(12), p.2335[4].
  113. ^ "Annual report 2010–11" (PDF). Telecom Regulatory Authority of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  114. ^ "Pune: Gap year destination". GapGuru.com. Archived from the original on 6 June 2009. 
  115. ^ Makoto Iokibe (27 February 2010). "Trip to Indian defense academy bring thought-provoking discussions on Asian security". The Mainichi Daily News. Archived from the original on 5 March 2010. 
  116. ^ Lyla Bavadam (13 March 1999). "The evolution of the NDA". Khadakwasla: The Frontline. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  117. ^ "Military Intelligence Training School and Depot". Bcud.unipune.ac.in. Retrieved 2015-05-30. 
  118. ^ "Pune City". St. Thomas Evangelical Church of India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011. 
  119. ^ "Pune goes global". The Times of India. 13 December 2005. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  120. ^ Express News Service (1 July 2008). "City gears up for its first all-biz class Frankfurt-Pune flight". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  121. ^ "Chakan airport gets state nod". Times of India. 19 February 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2010. 
  122. ^ "Accolades for Pune division of Central Railway". The Indian Express. 21 April 2009. 
  123. ^ "Welcome to Central Railways" (in Hindi). Central Railways. Archived from the original on 5 July 2011. 
  124. ^ "PCMC grants Rs 6 crore for ring road project". The Times of India. 19 June 2003. 
  125. ^ Manish Umbrajkar (5 March 2009). "2 years on, country's first BRTS remains incomplete". Times of India. 
  126. ^ "Maharashtra State Road Transport". IndiaTransit.com. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2010. 
  127. ^ MAUNDER, D, C PALMER, A ASTROP AND M BABU (1 997). Attitudes and travel behaviour of residents in Pune, India. Transportation Research Board, 76th Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., January 12–17, 1997 [5].
  128. ^ "Three routes for metro rail in city identified". The Times of India. 27 September 2007. Retrieved 24 April 2008. 
  129. ^ Warner, Koko; Bohle, Hans-Georg (Editors); Butsch, Carsten (Author) (2008). Megacities Resilience and Social Vulnerability, Section 2: Access to Healthcare in the Fragmented Setting of India’s Fast Growing Agglomerations – a Case Study of Pune (PDF). UNU Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS). p. 70. ISBN 978-3-939923-12-1. 
  130. ^ Kaul, Sanat (May 2006). "Higher Education in India: Seizing the Opportunity (working paper)" (PDF). Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, New Delhi, India. Retrieved 4 April 2008. 
  131. ^ "Express India". Cities.expressindia.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2006. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  132. ^ "List of Deemed Universities". University Grants Commission. Retrieved January 1, 2014. 
  133. ^ "History". Deccan Education Society. Archived from the original on 7 June 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2008. 
  134. ^ "India's best B-schools". Business Today. 10 September 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  135. ^ "India's best law schools". 
  136. ^ "Symbiosis Institute of technology" 
  137. ^ "ILS Law College Best Law Colleges 2014 India Today Survey". Indiatoday.intoday.in. Retrieved 2015-05-30. 
  138. ^ "Chap". Sainik Samachar. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. 
  139. ^ Devayani Shahane (17 June 2003). "Performing arts degree slowly taking centre stage". Times of India. Retrieved 12 February 2010. 
  140. ^ "C-DAC: Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, DeitY, India". 
  141. ^ diat.ac.in
  142. ^ "Iitm-Home". Tropmet.res.in. Retrieved 15 June 2011. 
  143. ^ N. G. Rathod (1994). The Great Maratha Mahadaji Scindia. Sarup & Sons. p. 156. ISBN 978-81-85431-52-9. 
  144. ^ "A Japanese paradise in Pune". The Times of India. 4 September 2004. Retrieved 24 July 2008. 
  145. ^ "By July, bigger enclosures, battery-operated vehicles for Katraj zoo". The Indian Express. 29 March 2007. Archived from the original on 13 August 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2008. 
  146. ^ Jeffrey, Robin (22 February 1997). "Marathi: Big newspapers are elephants". Economic and Political Weekly. 32, No. 8, ... (22–28 Feb., 1997). JSTOR 4405111. 
  148. ^ Pal, R. "Smt. Claude-Lila Parulekar vs M/S. Sakal Papers Pvt. Ltd. & Ors on 18 March, 2005". /indiankanoon.org. Retrieved 28 April 2016. 
  149. ^ http://www.sakaaltimes.com/NewsDetails.aspx?NewsId=4738872096124627297&SectionId=5131376722999570563&SectionName=Features&NewsTitle=Its%20in%20the%20AIR
  150. ^ Deshpande, Devidas. "Theatre producers twist plot for drama bookings". Times of India. 
  151. ^ S. Kumar (2002). Journal of the Indian Institute of Architects, Volume 67. Indian Institute of Architects. 
  152. ^ Kasbekar, Asha (2006). Pop culture India! : media, arts, and lifestyle. Oxford: ABC-Clio. ISBN 9781851096367. 
  153. ^ Abhijit Atre (19 June 1998). "City's largest open-air theatre gets a roof". The Indian Express. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  154. ^ TNN  (25 November 2008). "Sawai Gandharva music fest to start from Dec 11 – Pune – City – The Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  155. ^ Prachi Bari. "Diwali Pahat puts Pune in the mood". Indiatimes. Archived from the original on 19 May 2006. Retrieved 12 February 2010. 
  156. ^ Pune Warriors India – The Team Archived 17 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  157. ^ http://indianexpress.com/article/sports/cricket/india-vs-england-test-series-odi-t20-fixtures-schedule-2915628/
  158. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-17. 
  159. ^ "Pune Basketball". Open Salon. Archived from the original on 25 October 2013. 
  160. ^ "Pump up the adrenaline – Pune Times". Times of India. 23 January 2003. 
  161. ^ "RWITC – The Pune Race Course". Archived from the original on 23 February 2010. 
  162. ^ "Skateboarding enthusiasts cheer civic body for opening a park in city". Retrieved 29 April 2015. 
  163. ^ "Topic Galleries". Chicago Tribune. [dead link]
  164. ^ Sean Gregory (4 August 2011). "'They Need TV Product': Why American Football Is Coming To India". Time. 
  165. ^ "US-India Sister City Relationships". Asia matters for America. Retrieved 2017-04-10. 
  166. ^ "Sister City Program". San José City Hall. Retrieved 2015-10-21. 
  167. ^ "Annual Report 2012" (PDF). http://www.vacoasphoenix.org/. Municipal Council of Vacoas-Phoenix. Archived from the original on 14 April 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015.  External link in website= (help)
  168. ^ "Sister in progress". Times of India – Pune Times. 30 August 2001. 
  169. ^ "Profile: Mrs. Vandana H. Chavan (Ex Mayor of Pune)". Pune Diary. Retrieved 2016-02-10. 
  170. ^ "Pune, twin cities to get pollution lab". Times of India – Pune Times. 4 September 2001. 
  171. ^ Chaurasia, R.S. (2004). History of the Marathas. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 9. ISBN 978-81-269-0394-8. 
  172. ^ Wolpert, Stanley A. (April 1991). Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0195623925.
  173. ^ Wolpert, Stanley A. (April 1991). Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0195623925. 
  174. ^ KAVLEKAR, K., 1983. POLITICS OF SOCIAL REFORM IN MAHARASHTRA. Political Thought and Leadership of Lokmanya Tilak, p.202 [6].
  175. ^ Echenberg, Myron (2006). Plague ports : the global urban impact of bubonic plague,1894–1901 ([ ed.). New York [u. a.]: New York Univ. Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-8147-2232-9. 
  176. ^ Anagol, Padma (2006). The emergence of feminism in India, 1850–1920. Aldershot: Ashgate. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-7546-3411-9. 
  177. ^ Das, Sisir Kumar (1991). A history of Indian literature, 1800-1910 : western impact: Indian response (Reprint. ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 250. ISBN 978-81-7201-006-5. 
  178. ^ Karve, Dinakar D. (1963). The New Brahmans: Five Maharashtrian Families (First ed.). Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 13 – via Questia.
  179. ^ Jeffrey, R., 1997. Marathi: Big Newspapers Are Elephants. Economic and Political Weekly, pp.384–38
  180. ^ a b Kosambi, Meera. "Women, Emancipation and Equality: Pandita Ramabai's Contribution to Women's Cause." Economic and political weekly (1988): WS38-WS49.
  181. ^ Forbes, Geraldine (1998). Women in modern India (1st South Asian ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 162. ISBN 9780521612401. 
  182. ^ SRI NARASIMHA CHINTAMAN "ALIAS" TATYASAHEB KELKAR, K. N. Watve, Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol. 28, No. 1/2 (January–April 1947), pp. 156–158, published by Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute [7]
  183. ^ Wolf, Siegfried O. "Vinayak Damodar Savarkar: Public Enemy or national Hero?" (PDF). Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  184. ^ Wolf, Siegfried (Editor) (2009). Heidelberg Student papers, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar:: Public Enemy or national Hero (PDF). Dresden: Heidelberg University. p. 10. ISBN 978-3-86801-076-3. 
  185. ^ Wolpert, Stanley A. (April 1991). Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0195623925.
  186. ^ Wolpert, Stanley A. (April 1991). Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0195623925. 
  187. ^ Pinney, Christopher (2004). Photos of the gods : the printed image and political struggle in India. London: Reaktion. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-86189-184-6. 
  188. ^ Bayly, Susan (2000). Caste, society and politics in India from the eighteenth century to the modern age (1. Indian ed.). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-521-79842-6. 
  189. ^ Pinney, Christopher (2004). Photos of the gods : the printed image and political struggle in India. London: Reaktion. pp. 46–47. ISBN 978-1-86189-184-6. 
  190. ^ Feinberg, Miriam P.; Shapiro, Miriam Klein (2010). Hear Her Voice! Twelve Jewish Women Who Changed the World (First ed.). Pitspopany Press. ISBN 978-1936068029. 
  191. ^ Subramanian, L., 2000. The master, muse and the nation: The new cultural project and the reification of colonial modernity in India∗. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 23(2), pp.1–32.
  192. ^ Kulkarni, A.R., 2002. Trends in Maratha Historiography: Vishwanath Kashinath Rajwade (1863–1926). Indian Historical Review, 29(1–2), pp.115–144.
  193. ^ "Former CJI Chandrachud dead", Sify News, 4 July 2008.
  194. ^ Rajadhyaksha, Mukta (2004-10-09). "Breath of hope". Frontline. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  195. ^ "Neera Chopra: My Husband threw us out". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 26 April 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2012. 
  196. ^ Maloni, edited by Mariam Dossal, Ruby (1999). State intervention and popular response : western India in the nineteenth century. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. p. 79. ISBN 978-81-7154-855-2. 
  197. ^ Jaffrelot, C., 1999. The Hindu nationalist movement and Indian politics: 1925 to the 1990s: strategies of identity-building, implantation and mobilisation (with special reference to central India). Penguin Books India.
  198. ^ Dutt, Kartik Chandra (1999). Volume 1 of Who's who of Indian Writers. Sahitya Akademi. p. 532. ISBN 81-260-0873-3. 
  199. ^ Zelliot, E., 2004. Caste in contemporary India. Contemporary Hinduism, p.243.
  200. ^ "The secret of my acting is that I'm a thief: Dr Shreeram Lagoo Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". dna. 2016-01-03. Retrieved 2018-01-02. 
  201. ^ http://library.isical.ac.in:8080/jspui/bitstream/10263/5211/2/P%20V%20Sukhatme.pdf
  202. ^ "फोटो आणि रिमा लागूंची पुण्यातली एक आठवण" (in Marathi). Zee News. 18 May 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017. ज्येष्ठ अभिनेत्री रिमा लागू १९७० ते १९७४ या कालावधीत हुजुरपागा शाळेत शिकत होत्या 
  203. ^ "Nutan Marathi Vidyalaya High School Pune – Pune, Maharashtra, India" Archived 14 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine., Names Database, accessed 10 September 2009.
  204. ^ Srivastava, Gouri (2000). Women's higher education in the 19th century. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. p. 190. ISBN 978-81-7022-823-3. 
  205. ^ "'Thank you for teaching us laughter,' say friends of late cartoonist Mangesh Tendulkar". Hindustan Times. 2017-07-12. Retrieved 2017-12-22. 

External links