The Reformation, or, more fully, the
Protestant Reformation, was a
schism in Western
Christianity initiated by
Martin Luther and
continued by John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli,
Jacobus Arminius and other
Protestant Reformers in 16th-century Europe. It is usually considered
to have started with the publication of the
Ninety-five Theses by
Martin Luther in 1517 and lasted until the end of the Thirty Years'
War in 1648.
Although there had been earlier attempts to reform the Catholic Church
– such as those of Jan Hus, Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, and Girolamo
Savonarola – Luther is widely acknowledged to have started the
Reformation with the Ninety-five Theses. Luther began by criticising
the sale of indulgences, insisting that the
Pope had no authority over
purgatory and that the Catholic doctrine of the merits of the saints
had no foundation in the Bible. The
incorporated doctrinal changes such as a complete reliance on
Scripture as the only source of proper belief (sola scriptura) and the
belief that faith in Jesus, and not good works, is the only way to
obtain God's pardon for sin (sola fide). The core motivation behind
these changes was theological, though many other factors played a
part, including the rise of nationalism, the
Western Schism that
eroded loyalty to the Papacy, the perceived corruption of the Roman
Curia, the impact of humanism, and the new learning of the Renaissance
that questioned much traditional thought.
The initial movement within Germany diversified, and other reformers
arose independently of Luther. The spread of Gutenberg's printing
press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious
materials in the vernacular. The largest groups were the Lutherans and
Lutheran churches were founded in Germany, the Baltic and
Reformed ones in Switzerland, Hungary, France, the
Netherlands and Scotland. The movement influenced the Church of
England after 1547, under
Edward VI and Elizabeth I, although the
English Reformation had begun under
Henry VIII in the early 1530s.
Reformation movements throughout continental
Europe known as the
Radical Reformation gave rise to the Anabaptist, Moravian and other
Pietistic movements. Radical Reformers, besides forming communities
outside state sanction, often employed more extreme doctrinal change,
such as the rejection of the tenets of the councils of Nicaea and
Catholic Church responded with a Counter-Reformation, initiated by
the Council of Trent, and a new order, the Jesuits. Northern Europe,
with the exception of most of Ireland,
Poland and Lithuania, came
under the influence of Protestantism, Southern
Catholic, while Central
Europe was a site of a fierce conflict,
culminating in the Thirty Years' War.
1 Origins and early history
1.1 Earlier schisms
Reformation in Germany
1.3 Magisterial Reformation
1.4 Radical Reformation
1.6 Causes of the Reformation
Reformation outside Germany
2.2 Czech Lands
2.2.1 Jan Hus
2.3.1 Huldrych Zwingli
2.3.2 John Calvin
2.4 Nordic countries
2.5.1 Church of England
2.5.2 Puritan movement
Poland and Lithuania
3.1 At its peak
3.2 At its end
4 Conclusion and legacy
4.1 End of the Reformation
4.1.1 Thirty Years' War: 1618–1648
4.2 Consequences of the Reformation
Human capital formation
4.2.3 Economic development
4.2.5 Negative outcomes
4.4 Music and the Reformation
5 See also
8 Further reading
8.2 Scholarly secondary resources
8.3 Primary sources in translation
9 External links
Origins and early history
See also: History of Protestantism
Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and
Moravian Church, date their origins to
Jan Hus (John Huss) in the
early 15th century. As it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, and
recognised, for a time, by the Basel Compacts, the
was Europe's first "Magisterial Reformation" because the ruling
magistrates supported it, unlike the "Radical Reformation", which the
state did not support.
Protestant Churches generally date their doctrinal
separation from the
Catholic Church to the 16th century. The
Reformation began as an attempt to reform the Catholic Church, by
priests who opposed what they perceived as false doctrines and
ecclesiastic malpractice. They especially objected to the teaching and
the sale of indulgences, and the abuses thereof, and to simony, the
selling and buying of clerical offices. The reformers saw these
practices as evidence of the systemic corruption of the Church's
hierarchy, which included the pope.
See also: Bohemian Reformation, Hussites, Lollardy, Waldensians, and
Execution of Jan Hus, an important
Reformation precursor, in 1415.
Unrest due to the Great
Schism of Western
excited wars between princes, uprisings among the peasants, and
widespread concern over corruption in the Church. New perspectives
John Wycliffe at
Oxford University and from
Jan Hus at the
Charles University in Prague. Hus objected to some of the practices of
Catholic Church and wanted to return the church in
Moravia to earlier practices: liturgy in the language of the people
(i.e. Czech), having lay people receive communion in both kinds (bread
and wine – that is, in Latin, communio sub utraque specie), married
priests, and eliminating indulgences and the concept of Purgatory.
Some of these, like the use of local language as the lithurgic
language, were approved by the pope as early as in the 9th century.
Hus rejected indulgences and adopted a doctrine of justification by
grace through faith alone.
Catholic Church officially concluded this debate at the Council of
Constance (1414–1417) by condemning Hus, who was executed by burning
despite a promise of safe-conduct. Wycliffe was posthumously
condemned as a heretic and his corpse exhumed and burned in 1428.
Council of Constance
Council of Constance confirmed and strengthened the traditional
medieval conception of church and empire. The council did not address
the national tensions or the theological tensions stirred up during
the previous century and could not prevent schism and the
in Bohemia.[better source needed]
Pope Sixtus IV (1471–1484) established the practice of selling
indulgences to be applied to the dead, thereby establishing a new
stream of revenue with agents across Europe.
Pope Alexander VI
(1492–1503) was one of the most controversial of the Renaissance
popes. He was the father of seven children, including Lucrezia and
Cesare Borgia.[better source needed] In response to papal
corruption, particularly the sale of indulgences, Luther wrote The
Ninety-Five Theses.[better source needed]
Reformation in Germany
Martin Luther initiated the
Reformation with his Ninety-five Theses
against the Catholic Church
Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, where he refused to recant his
works which were deemed heretical by the
Catholic Church (painting
from Anton von Werner, 1877, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)
Reformation is usually dated to 31 October 1517 in Wittenberg,
Saxony, when Luther sent his Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and
Indulgences to the Archbishop of Mainz. The posting of the
95 Thesis and other attacks on the Church were predicated on Luther's
developing beliefs about Jesus, salvation by faith alone and his study
of bible prophecies. The theses debated and criticised the Church
and the papacy, but concentrated upon the selling of indulgences and
doctrinal policies about purgatory, particular judgment, and the
authority of the pope. He would later in the period 1517–1521 write
works on the Catholic devotion to Virgin Mary, the intercession of and
devotion to the saints, the sacraments, mandatory clerical celibacy,
monasticism, further on the authority of the pope, the ecclesiastical
law, censure and excommunication, the role of secular rulers in
religious matters, the relationship between
Christianity and the law,
and good works.
Reformers made heavy use of inexpensive pamphlets as well as
vernacular Bibles using the relatively new printing press, so there
was swift movement of both ideas and documents.
Main article: Magisterial Reformation
Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in Switzerland under
the leadership of Ulrich Zwingli. These two movements quickly agreed
on most issues, but some unresolved differences kept them separate.
Some followers of Zwingli believed that the
Reformation was too
conservative, and moved independently toward more radical positions,
some of which survive among modern day Anabaptists. Other Protestant
movements grew up along lines of mysticism or humanism, sometimes
breaking from Rome or from the Protestants, or forming outside of the
After this first stage of the Reformation, following the
excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the
Reformation by the
Pope, the work and writings of
John Calvin were influential in
establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland,
Scotland, Hungary, Germany and elsewhere.
Reformation foundations engaged with Augustinianism; both Luther
and Calvin thought along lines linked with the theological teachings
of Augustine of Hippo. The Augustinianism of the
reformers struggled against Pelagianism, a heresy that they perceived
in the Catholic Church. In the course of this religious upheaval, the
German Peasants' War
German Peasants' War of 1524–1525 swept through the Bavarian,
Thuringian and Swabian principalities, including the
Black Company of
Florian Geier, a knight from
Giebelstadt who joined the peasants in
the general outrage against the Catholic hierarchy.
Lutheran ideas had influence with preachers within the regions that
the Peasants' War occurred and upon works such as the Twelve
Articles. Luther, however, condemned the revolt in writings such
as Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants; Zwingli and
Philipp Melanchthon also did not condone the
uprising. Some 100,000 peasants were killed by the end of the
Main article: Radical Reformation
Radical Reformation was the response to what was believed to be
the corruption in the
Catholic Church and the expanding Magisterial
Protestant movement led by
Martin Luther and many others. Beginning in
Germany and Switzerland in the 16th century, the Radical Reformation
gave birth to many radical
Protestant groups throughout Europe. The
term covers radical reformers like
Thomas Müntzer and Andreas
Karlstadt, groups like the Zwickau prophets, and
like the Hutterites and Mennonites.
In parts of Germany, Switzerland and Austria, a majority sympathized
Radical Reformation despite intense persecution. Although
the surviving proportion of the European population that rebelled
Zwinglian churches was small, Radical
Reformers wrote profusely and the literature on the Radical
Reformation is disproportionately large, partly as a result of the
proliferation of the
Radical Reformation teachings in the United
Martin Luther's 1534
Bible translated into German. Luther's
translation influenced the development of the current Standard German.
Reformation was a triumph of literacy and the new printing
press.[a] Luther's translation of the
Bible into German
was a decisive moment in the spread of literacy, and stimulated as
well the printing and distribution of religious books and pamphlets.
From 1517 onward, religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of
By 1530, over 10,000 publications are known, with a total of ten
million copies. The
Reformation was thus a media revolution. Luther
strengthened his attacks on Rome by depicting a "good" against "bad"
church. From there, it became clear that print could be used for
propaganda in the
Reformation for particular agendas. Reform writers
Reformation styles, clichés and stereotypes and changed
items as needed for their own purposes. Especially effective were
writings in German, including Luther's translation of the Bible, his
Smaller Catechism for parents teaching their children, and his Larger
Catechism, for pastors.
Using the German vernacular they expressed the Apostles'
simpler, more personal, Trinitarian language. Illustrations in the
Bible and in many tracts popularised Luther's ideas. Lucas
Cranach the Elder (1472–1553), the great painter patronised by the
electors of Wittenberg, was a close friend of Luther, and he
illustrated Luther's theology for a popular audience. He dramatised
Luther's views on the relationship between the Old and New Testaments,
while remaining mindful of Luther's careful distinctions about proper
and improper uses of visual imagery.
Causes of the Reformation
The following supply-side factors have been identified as causes of
The presence of a printing press in a city by 1500 made Protestant
adoption by 1600 far more likely.
Protestant literature was produced at greater levels in cities where
media markets were more competitive, making these cities more likely
to adopt Protestantism.
Ottoman incursions decreased conflicts between Protestants and
Catholics, helping the
Reformation take root.
Greater political autonomy increased the likelihood that Protestantism
would be adopted.
Protestant reformers enjoyed princely patronage, they were much
more likely to succeed.
Proximity to neighbors who adopted
Protestantism increased the
likelihood of adopting Protestantism.
Cities that had higher numbers of students enrolled in heterodox
universities and lower numbers enrolled in orthodox universities were
more likely to adopt Protestantism.
The following demand-side factors have been identified as causes of
Cities with strong cults of saints were less likely to adopt
Cities where primogeniture was practiced were less likely to adopt
Regions that were poor but had great economic potential and bad
political institutions were more likely to adopt Protestantism.
The presence of bishoprics made the adoption of
The presence of monasteries made the adoption of
Reformation outside Germany
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Reformation also spread widely throughout Europe, starting with
Bohemia (Czech Lands) yet before Luther and over the next few decades
also other countries.
Austria followed the same pattern of the
German-speaking states within
the Holy Roman Empire, and
Lutheranism became the main Protestant
confession among its population.
Lutheranism gained a significant
following in Austria which was concentrated in the eastern half of
present-day Austria, while
Calvinism was less successful. Eventually
the adoption of the
Counter-Reformation reversed the trend.
Main article: Bohemian Reformation
Evolution of the
Hussite movement in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown
from 1419 to 1620, superimposed on modern borders
Hussites were a Christian movement in the Kingdom of Bohemia
following the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus.
Czech reformer and university professor
Jan Hus (c. 1369–1415)
became the best-known representative of the
Bohemian Reformation and
one of the forerunners of the
Jan Hus was declared heretic and executed – burned at stake – at
Council of Constance
Council of Constance in 1415 where he arrived voluntarily to
defend his teachings.
This predominantly religious movement was propelled by social issues
and strengthened Czech national awareness. In 1417, two years after
the execution of Jan Hus, the Czech reformation quickly became the
chief force in the country.
Hussites made up the vast majority of the population, forcing the
Council of Basel to recognize in 1437 a system of two "religions" for
the first time signing the
Compacts of Basel for the kingdom (Catholic
and Czech Ultraquism, a
Bohemia later also elected
Protestant kings (George of Poděbrady).
Habsburgs took control of the region, the
Hussite churches were
prohibited and the kingdom partially recatholicized. Even later
Lutheranism gained a substantial following, after being permitted by
Habsburgs with the continued persecution of the Czech native
Hussite churches. Many
Hussites thus declared themselves Lutherans .
Two churches with
Hussite roots are now second and third biggest
churches in the predominantly agnostic country:
Czech Brethren (which
gave origin to the international church known as the Moravian Church)
Reformation in Switzerland
In Switzerland, the teachings of the reformers and especially those of
Zwingli and Calvin had a profound effect, despite the frequent
quarrels between the different branches of the Reformation.
Main article: Huldrych Zwingli
Huldrych Zwingli launched the
Reformation in Switzerland.
Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in the Swiss
Confederation under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli. Zwingli was a
scholar and preacher who moved to
Zurich – the then-leading city
state – in 1518, a year after
Martin Luther began the
Germany with his Ninety-five Theses. Although the two movements agreed
on many issues of theology, as the recently introduced printing press
spread ideas rapidly from place to place, some unresolved differences
kept them separate. Long-standing resentment between the German states
Swiss Confederation led to heated debate over how much Zwingli
owed his ideas to Lutheranism. Although
Zwinglianism does hold uncanny
Lutheranism (it even had its own equivalent of the
Ninety-five Theses, called the 67 Conclusions), historians have been
unable to prove that Zwingli had any contact with Luther's
publications before 1520, and Zwingli himself maintained that he had
prevented himself from reading them.
The German Prince
Philip of Hesse
Philip of Hesse saw potential in creating an
alliance between Zwingli and Luther, seeing strength in a united
Protestant front. A meeting was held in his castle in 1529, now known
as the Colloquy of Marburg, which has become infamous for its complete
failure. The two men could not come to any agreement due to their
disputation over one key doctrine. Although Luther preached
consubstantiation in the
Eucharist over transubstantiation, he
believed in the spiritual presence of Christ at the Mass. Zwingli,
inspired by Dutch theologian Cornelius Hoen, believed that the mass
was only representative and memorial – Christ was not present.
Luther became so angry that he famously carved into the meeting table
in chalk Hoc Est Corpus Meum – a Biblical quotation from the Last
Supper meaning 'This is my body'. Zwingli countered this saying that
est in that context was the equivalent of the word significant
Some followers of Zwingli believed that the
Reformation was too
conservative and moved independently toward more radical positions,
some of which survive among modern day Anabaptists. One famous
incident illustrating this was when radical Zwinglians fried and ate
sausages during Lent in
Zurich city square by way of protest against
the Church teaching of good works. Other
Protestant movements grew up
along the lines of mysticism or humanism (cf. Erasmus), sometimes
breaking from Rome or from the Protestants, or forming outside of the
Main article: John Calvin
John Calvin was one of the leading figures of the Reformation. His
legacy remains in a variety of churches.
Following the excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the
Reformation by the Pope, the work and writings of
John Calvin were
influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in
Switzerland, Scotland, Hungary, Germany and elsewhere. After the
expulsion of its Bishop in 1526, and the unsuccessful attempts of the
Berne reformer Guillaume (William) Farel, Calvin was asked to use the
organisational skill he had gathered as a student of law to discipline
the "fallen city" of Geneva. His "Ordinances" of 1541 involved a
collaboration of Church affairs with the City council and consistory
to bring morality to all areas of life. After the establishment of the
Geneva academy in 1559,
Geneva became the unofficial capital of the
Protestant movement, providing refuge for
Protestant exiles from all
Europe and educating them as
Calvinist missionaries. These
Calvinism widely, and formed the French
Huguenots in Calvin's own lifetime, as well as causing the conversion
Scotland under the leadership of the cantankerous
John Knox in
1560. The faith continued to spread after Calvin's death in 1563 and
reached as far as Constantinople by the start of the 17th century.
Reformation foundations engaged with Augustinianism. Both Luther
and Calvin thought along lines linked with the theological teachings
of Augustine of Hippo. The Augustinianism of the Reformers struggled
against Pelagianism, a heresy that they perceived in the Catholic
Church of their day. Unfortunately, since Calvin and Luther disagreed
strongly on certain matters of theology (such as double-predestination
and Holy Communion), the relationship between Lutherans and Calvinists
was one of conflict.
Reformation in Denmark-
Norway and Holstein,
Reformation in Norway,
Reformation in Sweden
Johannes Bugenhagen introduced
Protestantism in Denmark.
Scandinavia ultimately adopted
Lutheranism over the course of
the 16th century, as the monarchs of
Denmark (who also ruled Norway
and Iceland) and
Sweden (who also ruled Finland) converted to that
In Sweden, the
Reformation was spearheaded by Gustav Vasa, elected
king in 1523. Friction with the pope over the latter's interference in
Swedish ecclesiastical affairs led to the discontinuance of any
official connection between
Sweden and the papacy from 1523. Four
years later, at the Diet of Västerås, the king succeeded in forcing
the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was
given possession of all church property, church appointments required
royal approval, the clergy were subject to the civil law, and the
"pure Word of God" was to be preached in the churches and taught in
the schools – effectively granting official sanction to Lutheran
Under the reign of Frederick I (1523–33),
officially Catholic. But though Frederick initially pledged to
persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran
preachers and reformers, of whom the most famous was Hans Tausen.
During his reign,
Lutheranism made significant inroads among the
Danish population. Frederick's son, Christian, was openly Lutheran,
which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. In
1536, the authority of the Catholic bishops was terminated by national
assembly. The next year, following his victory in the Count's War, he
became king as Christian III and continued the
Reformation of the
state church with assistance of Johannes Bugenhagen.
Main article: Icelandic Reformation
Luther's influence had already reached
Iceland before King Christian's
Germans fished near Iceland's coast, and the Hanseatic
League engaged in commerce with the Icelanders. These
Germans raised a
Lutheran church in
Hafnarfjörður as early as 1533. Through German
trade connections, many young
Icelanders studied in Hamburg. In
1538, when the kingly decree of the new Church ordinance reached
Iceland, bishop Ögmundur and his clergy denounced it, threatening
excommunication for anyone subscribing to the German 'heresy'. In
1539, the King sent a new governor to Iceland, Klaus von Mervitz, with
a mandate to introduce reform and take possession of church
property. Von Mervitz seized a monastery in
Viðey with the help
of his sheriff, Dietrich of Minden, and his soldiers. They drove the
monks out and seized all their possessions, for which they were
promptly excommunicated by Ögmundur.
Main article: English Reformation
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Church of England
Church of England
Church of England and Anglicanism
Henry VIII broke England's ties with the Catholic Church, becoming the
sole head of the English Church.
The separation of the
Church of England
Church of England from Rome under Henry VIII,
beginning in 1529 and completed in 1537, brought England alongside
Reformation movement; however, religious changes in the
English national church proceeded more conservatively than elsewhere
in Europe. Reformers in the
Church of England
Church of England alternated, for decades,
between sympathies for ancient Catholic tradition and more Reformed
principles, gradually developing, within the context of robustly
Protestant doctrine, a tradition considered a middle way (via media)
between the Catholic and
English Reformation followed a different course from the
Reformation in continental Europe. There had long been a strong strain
of anti-clericalism. England had already given rise to the Lollard
movement of John Wycliffe, which played an important part in inspiring
Hussites in Bohemia.
Lollardy was suppressed and became an
underground movement, so the extent of its influence in the 1520s is
difficult to assess. The different character of the English
Reformation came rather from the fact that it was driven initially by
the political necessities of Henry VIII.
Henry had once been a sincere Catholic and had even authored a book
strongly criticising Luther. His wife, Catherine of Aragon, bore him
only a single child that survived infancy, Mary. Henry strongly wanted
a male heir, and many of his subjects might have agreed, if only
because they wanted to avoid another dynastic conflict like the Wars
of the Roses.
Thomas Cranmer proved essential in the development of the English
King Henry decided to remove the
Church of England
Church of England from the authority
of Rome. In 1534, the
Act of Supremacy recognized Henry as "the only
Supreme Head on earth of the Church of England". Between 1535 and
1540, under Thomas Cromwell, the policy known as the Dissolution of
the Monasteries was put into effect. The veneration of some saints,
certain pilgrimages and some pilgrim shrines were also attacked. Huge
amounts of church land and property passed into the hands of the Crown
and ultimately into those of the nobility and gentry. The vested
interest thus created made for a powerful force in support of the
There were some notable opponents to the Henrician Reformation, such
Thomas More and Cardinal John Fisher, who were executed for their
opposition. There was also a growing party of reformers who were
imbued with the Calvinistic,
Zwinglian doctrines now
current on the Continent. When Henry died he was succeeded by his
Protestant son Edward VI, who, through his empowered councillors (with
the King being only nine years old at his succession and fifteen at
his death) the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of Northumberland,
ordered the destruction of images in churches, and the closing of the
Edward VI the
Church of England
Church of England moved closer to
Yet, at a popular level, religion in England was still in a state of
flux. Following a brief Catholic restoration during the reign of Mary
(1553–1558), a loose consensus developed during the reign of
Elizabeth I, though this point is one of considerable debate among
historians. This "Elizabethan Religious Settlement" largely formed
Anglicanism into a distinctive church tradition. The compromise was
uneasy and was capable of veering between extreme
Calvinism on one
hand and Catholicism on the other. But compared to the bloody and
chaotic state of affairs in contemporary France, it was relatively
successful, in part because Queen Elizabeth lived so long, until the
Puritan Revolution or
English Civil War
English Civil War in the 17th century.
Main article: Puritans
Oliver Cromwell was a devout Puritan and military leader, who became
Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
The success of the
Counter-Reformation on the Continent and the growth
of a Puritan party dedicated to further
Protestant reform polarised
the Elizabethan Age, although it was not until the 1640s that England
underwent religious strife comparable to what its neighbours had
suffered some generations before.
The early Puritan movement (late 16th–17th centuries) was Reformed
Calvinist and was a movement for reform in the Church of England.
Its origins lay in the discontent with the Elizabethan Religious
Settlement. The desire was for the
Church of England
Church of England to resemble more
Protestant churches of Europe, especially Geneva. The
Puritans objected to ornaments and ritual in the churches as
idolatrous (vestments, surplices, organs, genuflection), which they
castigated as "popish pomp and rags". (See Vestments controversy.)
They also objected to ecclesiastical courts. Their refusal to endorse
completely all of the ritual directions and formulas of the
Common Prayer and the imposition of its liturgical order by legal
force and inspection sharpened Puritanism into a definite opposition
The later Puritan movement, often referred to as dissenters and
nonconformists, eventually led to the formation of various reformed
The most famous emigration to America was the migration of Puritan
separatists from the Anglican Church of England. They fled first to
Holland, and then later to America to establish the English colony of
Massachusetts in New England, which later became one of the original
United States. These Puritan separatists were also known as "the
Pilgrims". After establishing a colony at Plymouth (which became part
of the colony of Massachusetts) in 1620, the Puritan pilgrims received
a charter from the
King of England
King of England that legitimised their colony,
allowing them to do trade and commerce with merchants in England, in
accordance with the principles of mercantilism. The Puritans
persecuted those of other religious faiths.
Mary Dyer was
hanged in Boston for repeatedly defying a Puritan law banning Quakers
from the colony. She was one of the four executed
Quakers known as
the Boston martyrs. Executions ceased in 1661 when King Charles II
explicitly forbade Massachusetts from executing anyone for professing
Quakerism. In 1647, Massachusetts passed a law prohibiting any
Jesuit Roman Catholic priests from entering territory under Puritan
jurisdiction. Any suspected person who could not clear himself was
to be banished from the colony; a second offense carried a death
The Pilgrims held radical
Protestant disapproval of Christmas, and its
celebration was outlawed in Boston from 1659 to 1681. The ban was
revoked in 1681 by the English-appointed governor Edmund Andros, who
also revoked a Puritan ban on festivities on Saturday nights.
Nevertheless, it was not until the mid-19th century that celebrating
Christmas became fashionable in the Boston region.
Bishop Richard Davies and dissident
Protestant cleric John Penry
Calvinist theology to Wales. In 1588, the Bishop of
Llandaff published the entire
Bible into the Welsh language. The
translation had a significant impact upon the Welsh population and
helped to firmly establish
Protestantism among the Welsh people.
The Welsh Protestants used the model of the
Synod of Dort
Synod of Dort of
Calvinism developed through the Puritan period, following
the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II, and within Wales'
Calvinistic Methodist movement. However few copies of Calvin's were
available before mid 19th century.
Scottish Reformation and Church of Scotland
John Knox was a leading figure in the Scottish Reformation.
Reformation in Scotland's case culminated ecclesiastically in the
establishment of a church along reformed lines, and politically in the
triumph of English influence over that of France.
John Knox is
regarded as the leader of the Scottish reformation.
Reformation Parliament of 1560 repudiated the pope's authority by
the Papal Jurisdiction Act 1560, forbade the celebration of the Mass
and approved a
Protestant Confession of Faith. It was made possible by
a revolution against French hegemony under the regime of the regent
Mary of Guise, who had governed
Scotland in the name of her absent
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots (then also Queen of France).
Protestantism triumphed relatively easily in Scotland, the
exact form of
Protestantism remained to be determined. The 17th
century saw a complex struggle between
the Covenanters) and Episcopalianism. The Presbyterians eventually won
control of the Church of Scotland, which went on to have an important
influence on Presbyterian churches worldwide, but
Scotland retained a
relatively large Episcopalian minority.
Main articles: Huguenot,
Reformed Church of France, and French Wars of
Although a Catholic clergyman himself,
Cardinal Richelieu allied
Protestantism also spread from the German lands into France, where the
Protestants were nicknamed Huguenots; this eventually led to decades
of civil warfare.
Though not personally interested in religious reform, Francis I
(reigned 1515–1547) initially maintained an attitude of tolerance,
in accordance with his interest in the humanist movement. This changed
in 1534 with the Affair of the Placards. In this act, Protestants
Catholic Mass in placards that appeared across France,
even reaching the royal apartments. The issue of religious faith
having been thrown into the arena of politics, Francis came to view
the movement as a threat to the kingdom's stability. This led to the
first major phase of anti-
Protestant persecution in France, in which
Chambre Ardente ("Burning Chamber") was established (1535) within
Parlement of Paris
Parlement of Paris to deal with the rise in prosecutions for
heresy. Several thousand French Protestants fled the country, most
notably John Calvin, who emigrated to Basel in 1535 before eventually
Geneva in 1536.
Calvin continued to take an interest in the religious affairs of his
native land and, from his base in Geneva, beyond the reach of the
French kings, regularly trained pastors to lead congregations in
France. Despite heavy persecution by King
Henry II of France
Henry II of France (reigned
Reformed Church of France, largely
direction, made steady progress across large sections of the nation,
in the urban bourgeoisie and parts of the aristocracy, appealing to
people alienated by the obduracy and the complacency of the Catholic
Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre, painting by François Dubois
French Protestantism, though its appeal increased under persecution,
came to acquire a distinctly political character, made all the more
obvious by the conversions of nobles during the 1550s. This
established the preconditions for a series of destructive and
intermittent conflicts, known as the Wars of Religion. The civil wars
gained impetus with the sudden death of Henry II in 1559, which began
a prolonged period of weakness for the French crown. Atrocity and
outrage became the defining characteristics of the time, illustrated
at their most intense in the
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of August
1572, when the Catholic party annihilated between 30,000 and 100,000
Huguenots across France. The wars only concluded when Henry IV,
himself a former Huguenot, issued the
Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes (1598),
promising official toleration of the
Protestant minority, but under
highly restricted conditions. Catholicism remained the official state
religion, and the fortunes of French Protestants gradually declined
over the next century, culminating in Louis XIV's Edict of
Fontainebleau (1685), which revoked the
Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes and made
Catholicism the sole legal religion of France. In response to the
Edict of Fontainebleau, Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg
Edict of Potsdam
Edict of Potsdam (October 1685), giving free passage to
Huguenot refugees and tax-free status to them for ten years.
In the late 17th century many
Huguenots fled to England, the
Netherlands, Prussia, Switzerland, and the English and Dutch overseas
colonies. A significant community in
France remained in the Cévennes
region. A separate
Protestant community, of the
existed in the newly conquered (1639– ) province of Alsace, its
status not affected by the Edict of Fontainebleau.
New Testament translated by Enzinas, published in
New Testament translated by
Joanes Leizarraga into the Basque
language (1571) on the orders of Navarre's
Calvinist queen, Jeanne III
In the early 16th century, Spain had a different political and
cultural milieu from its Western and Central European neighbors in
several respects, which affected the mentality and the reaction of the
nation towards the Reformation. Spain, which had only recently managed
to complete the reconquest of the Peninsula from the
Moors in 1492,
had been preoccupied with converting the Muslim and Jewish population
of the newly conquered regions through the establishment of the
Spanish Inquisition in 1478. The rulers of the nation stressed
political, cultural, and religious unity, and by the time of the
Lutheran Reformation, the
Spanish Inquisition was already 40 years old
and had the capability of quickly dealing with any new movement that
Catholic Church perceived or interpreted to be religious
heterodoxy. Charles V did not wish to see Spain or the rest of
Europe divided, and in light of continual threat from the
Ottomans, preferred to see the
Catholic Church reform itself from
within. This led to a
Counter-Reformation in Spain in the 1530s.
During the 1520s, the
Spanish Inquisition had created an atmosphere of
suspicion and sought to root out any religious thought seen as
suspicious. As early as 1521, the
Pope had written a letter to the
Spanish monarchy warning against allowing the unrest in Northern
Europe to be replicated in Spain. Between 1520 and 1550, printing
presses in Spain were tightly controlled and any books of Protestant
teaching were prohibited.
Between 1530 and 1540,
Protestantism in Spain was still able to gain
followers clandestinely, and in cities such as
Seville and Valladolid
adherents would secretly meet at private houses to pray and study the
Bible. Protestants in Spain were estimated at between 1000 and
3000, mainly among intellectuals who had seen writings such as those
of Erasmus. Notable reformers included Dr. Juan Gil and Juan Pérez de
Pineda who subsequently fled and worked alongside others such as
Francisco de Enzinas
Francisco de Enzinas to translate the Greek
New Testament into the
Spanish language, a task completed by 1556.
Protestant teachings were
smuggled into Spain by Spaniards such as Julián Hernández, who in
1557 was condemned by the
Inquisition and burnt at the stake. Under
Philip II, conservatives in the Spanish church tightened their grip,
and those who refused to recant such as Rodrigo de Valer were
condemned to life imprisonment. In May 1559, sixteen Spanish Lutherans
were burnt at the stake: fourteen were strangled before being burnt,
while two were burnt alive. In October another thirty were executed.
Spanish Protestants who were able to flee the country were to be found
in at least a dozen cities in Europe, such as Geneva, where some of
Calvinist teachings. Those who fled to England were
given support by the Church of England.
The Kingdom of Navarre, although by the time of the Protestant
Reformation a minor principality territorially restricted to southern
France, had French
Huguenot monarchs, including
Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France and
his mother, Jeanne III of Navarre, a devout Calvinist.
Upon the arrival of the
Calvinism reached some
Basques through the translation of the
Bible into the Basque language
by Joanes Leizarraga. As Queen of Navarre, Jeanne III commissioned the
translation of the
New Testament into Basque[c] and Béarnese for the
benefit of her subjects.
Reformation did not succeed in Portugal, as its spread was
frustrated for similar reasons to those in Spain.
Main article: History of religion in the Netherlands
Erasmus was a Catholic priest who inspired some of the Protestant
Reformation in the Netherlands, unlike in many other countries,
was not initiated by the rulers of the Seventeen Provinces, but
instead by multiple popular movements, which in turn were bolstered by
the arrival of
Protestant refugees from other parts of the continent.
Anabaptist movement enjoyed popularity in the region in the
early decades of the Reformation, Calvinism, in the form of the Dutch
Reformed Church, became the dominant
Protestant faith in the country
from the 1560s onward.
Harsh persecution of Protestants by the Spanish government of Philip
II contributed to a desire for independence in the provinces, which
led to the
Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War and, eventually, the separation of the
Dutch Republic from the Catholic-dominated Southern
Netherlands (present-day Belgium).
Luxembourg, a part of the Spanish Netherlands, remained Catholic.
Stephen Bocskay prevented the Holy Roman Emperor from imposing
Catholicism on Hungarians.
Much of the population of the
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary adopted Protestantism
during the 16th century. After the 1526 Battle of Mohács, the
Hungarian people were disillusioned by the inability of the government
to protect them and turned to the faith they felt would infuse them
with the strength necessary to resist the invader. They found this in
the teaching of
Protestant reformers such as Martin Luther. The spread
Protestantism in the country was assisted by its large ethnic
German minority, which could understand and translate the writings of
Martin Luther. While
Lutheranism gained a foothold among the German-
and Slovak-speaking populations,
Calvinism became widely accepted
among ethnic Hungarians.
Jiří Třanovský (1592–1637), the "Luther of the Slavs" who was
active in Bohemia, Moravia, and Poland
In the more independent northwest, the rulers and priests, protected
now by the Habsburg Monarchy, which had taken the field to fight the
Turks, defended the old Catholic faith. They dragged the Protestants
to prison and the stake wherever they could. Such strong measures only
fanned the flames of protest, however. Leaders of the Protestants
included Mátyás Dévai Bíró, Mihály Sztárai, István Szegedi
Kis, and Ferenc Dávid.
Protestants likely formed a majority of Hungary's population at the
close of the 16th century, but
Counter-Reformation efforts in the 17th
century reconverted a majority of the kingdom to Catholicism. A
Protestant minority remained, most of it adhering to the
In 1558 the Transylvanian Diet of
Turda decreed the free practice of
both the Catholic and
Lutheran religions, but prohibited Calvinism.
Ten years later, in 1568, the Diet extended this freedom, declaring
that "It is not allowed to anybody to intimidate anybody with
captivity or expulsion for his religion". Four religions were declared
to be "accepted" (recepta) religions (the fourth being Unitarianism,
which became official in 1583 as the faith of the only Unitarian king,
John II Sigismund Zápolya, r. 1540–1571), while Eastern Orthodox
Christianity was "tolerated" (though the building of stone Orthodox
churches was forbidden). During the Thirty Years' War, Royal
(Habsburg) Hungary joined the Catholic side, until
Between 1604 and 1711, there was a series of anti-Habsburg uprisings
calling for equal rights and freedom for all Christian denominations,
with varying success; the uprisings were usually organised from
Transylvania. The Habsburg-sanctioned
Counter-Reformation efforts in
the 17th century reconverted the majority of the kingdom to
The centre of
Protestant learning in Hungary has for some centuries
been the University of Debrecen. Founded in 1538, the University was
situated in an area of Eastern Hungary under Ottoman Turkish rule
during the 1600s and 1700s, being allowed Islamic toleration and thus
Reformation in Ireland
A devout Catholic,
Mary I of England
Mary I of England started the first Plantations of
Ireland, which, ironically, soon came to be associated with
Reformation in Ireland
Reformation in Ireland was a movement for the reform of religious
life and institutions that was introduced into
Ireland by the English
administration at the behest of King
Henry VIII of England. His desire
for an annulment of his marriage was known as the King's Great Matter.
Pope Clement VII refused the petition; consequently it
became necessary for the King to assert his lordship over the Catholic
Church in his realm to give legal effect to his wishes. The English
Parliament confirmed the King's supremacy over the Church in the
Kingdom of England. This challenge to
Papal supremacy resulted in a
breach with the Catholic Church. By 1541, the Irish Parliament had
agreed to the change in status of the country from that of a Lordship
to that of Kingdom of Ireland.
Unlike similar movements for religious reform on the continent of
Europe, the various phases of the
English Reformation as it developed
Ireland were largely driven by changes in government policy, to
which public opinion in England gradually accommodated itself.
However, a number of factors complicated the adoption of the religious
innovations in Ireland; the majority of the population there adhered
to the Catholic Church. However, in the city of
Dublin the reformation
took hold under the auspices of George Browne.
Reformation in Italy
Waldensian symbol Lux lucet in tenebris ("Light glows in the
Word of the
Protestant reformers reached Italy in the 1520s but never
caught on. Its development was stopped by the Counter-Reformation, the
Inquisition and also popular disinterest. Not only was the Church
highly aggressive in seeking out and suppressing heresy, but there was
a shortage of
Protestant leadership. No one translated the
Italian; few tracts were written. No core of
The few preachers who did take an interest in "Lutheranism," as it was
called in Italy, were suppressed or went into exile to northern
countries where their message was well received. As a result, the
Reformation exerted almost no lasting influence in Italy, except for
Catholic Church and motivating the
Some Protestants left Italy and became outstanding activists of the
European Reformation, mainly in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
(e.g. Giorgio Biandrata, Bernardino Ochino, Giovanni Alciato, Giovanni
Battista Cetis, Fausto Sozzini,
Francesco Stancaro and Giovanni
Valentino Gentile), who propagated
Nontrinitarianism there and were
chief instigators of the movement of Polish Brethren.
In 1532 the
Waldensians adhered to the Reformation, adopting the
Calvinist theology. The
Waldensian Church survived in the Western Alps
through many persecutions and remains a
Protestant church in
Poland and Lithuania
Reformation in Poland
Jan Łaski sought unity between various Christian churches in the
Commonwealth, and participated in the English Reformation.
In the first half of the 16th century, the enormous
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was a country of many creeds, but
Catholicism remained the dominating religion.
Poland in the 1520s and quickly gained popularity among mostly
German-speaking inhabitants of such major cities as Gdańsk, Toruń
and Elbląg. In Koenigsberg, in 1530, a Polish-language edition of
Luther's Small Catechism
Luther's Small Catechism was published. The Duchy of Prussia, which
was a Polish fief, emerged as a key center of the movement, with
numerous publishing houses issuing not only Bibles, but also
catechisms, in German, Polish and Lithuanian.
Lutheranism gained popularity in the northern part of the country,
Calvinism caught the interest of the nobility (known as
szlachta), mainly in Lesser
Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Several publishing houses were opened in Lesser
Poland in the mid-16th
century in such locations as
Słomniki and Raków. At that time,
Mennonites and Czech Brothers came to Poland, with the latter settling
mostly in Greater
Poland around Leszno. In 1565, the Polish Brethren
appeared as yet another reformation movement.
The Commonwealth was unique in
Europe in the 16th century for its
widespread tolerance confirmed by the Warsaw Confederation. In 1563,
Bible was published (see also
Bible translations into
Polish). The period of tolerance ended during the reign of King
Sigismund III Vasa, who was under the strong influence of Piotr Skarga
and other Jesuits. After the Deluge, and other wars of the mid-17th
century in which all enemies of
Poland were either
Orthodox Christians, the Poles' attitude changed, and the
Counter-Reformation prevailed: in 1658 the
Polish Brethren were forced
to leave the country, and in 1666, the
Sejm banned apostasy from
Catholicism to any other religion, under punishment of death. Finally,
in 1717, the Silent
Sejm banned non-Catholics from becoming deputies
of the Parliament.
Among most important Protestants of the Commonwealth were Mikołaj
Rej, Marcin Czechowic,
Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski
Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski and Symon Budny.
Primož Trubar, a
Lutheran reformer in Slovenia
Primož Trubar is notable for consolidating the
Slovene language and
is considered to be the key figure of Slovenian cultural history and
in many aspects a major Slovene historical personality. He was the
key figure of the
Protestant Church of the Slovene Lands, as he was
its founder and its first superintendent. The first books in Slovene,
Catechismus and Abecedarium, were written by Trubar.
Lutheranism reached northern parts of the country.
Vojvodina turned partially Lutheran.
Protestant teachings of the Western Church were also briefly
adopted within the
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church through the Greek Patriarch
Cyril Lucaris in 1629 with the publishing of the Confessio
(Calvinistic doctrine) in Geneva. Motivating factors in their decision
to adopt aspects of the
Reformation included the historical rivalry
and mistrust between the Greek Orthodox and Catholic church along with
their concerns of
Jesuit priests entering Greek lands in their
attempts to propagate the teachings of the
Counter-Reformation to the
Greek populace. He subsequently sponsored Maximos of Gallipoli's
translation of the
New Testament into the
Modern Greek language
Modern Greek language and
was published in
Geneva in 1638. Upon Lucaris's death in 1638, the
conservative factions within the
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church held two
synods: the Synod of Constantinople (1638) and
Synod of Jassy
Synod of Jassy (1642)
criticizing the reforms and in the 1672 convocation led by Dositheos,
they officially condemned the Calvinistic doctrines.
Reformation spread throughout
Europe beginning in 1517, reaching
its peak between 1545 and 1620, and ending in 1648.
At its peak
The high point of the
Reformation occurred at some point between 1545
and 1620. In 1545, it was first considered a serious threat to the
Catholic Church and the
Papacy at the Council of Trent, prompting
counterreformational measures by Catholic religious hierarchy. In
1620, the Battle of White Mountain put an end to
Bohemia (now the Czech Republic). The
Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War began in 1618
and brought a drastic territorial and demographic decline when the
House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg introduced counterreformational measures throughout
their vast possessions in Central Europe.
Reformation at its peak, superimposed on modern European borders
At its end
In 1545, the
Council of Trent
Council of Trent officially launched the
Europe to restore unity
in the Catholic Church. This effort concluded in 1648, as did the
Reformation itself. Common historical consensus holds that the
Reformation and the
Counter-Reformation both ended in 1648, when the
Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War concluded with the Peace of Westphalia.
Reformation & the Counter-Reformation—both at their
end—and superimposed on modern European borders
Conclusion and legacy
End of the Reformation
There is no universal agreement on the exact or approximate date the
Reformation ended. Various interpretations emphasize different dates,
entire periods, or argue that the
Reformation never really ended.
However, there are a few popular interpretations that are used by
large groups of observers.
Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia is considered to be the event
that ended the Reformation. This is the most commonly held
According to other historical interpretation, the
truly be considered to have ended in the middle 18th century, as the
Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia did not specify, nor did it mean that it
concluded; that is around time the First
Great Awakening (1730–1755)
took place. People who hold this interpretation often argue that the
Pietism prolonged the
Reformation up to this point;
Some argue that the
Reformation never ended as new groups have
splintered from the
Catholic Church (e.g., Old Catholics, Polish
National Catholic Church, etc.), as well as all the various Protestant
churches that exist today. No group splintering from the Catholic
Church since the 17th century has done so on the basis of the same
issues animating the Reformation, however.
Thirty Years' War: 1618–1648
Treaty of Westphalia
Treaty of Westphalia allowed
Calvinism to be freely exercised
Reformation led to a series of religious wars that culminated in
Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), which devastated much of Germany,
killing between 25% and 40% of its entire population. Catholic
House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg and its allies fought against the
of Germany, supported at various times by Denmark,
Sweden and France.
The Habsburgs, who ruled Spain, Austria, the Crown of Bohemia,
Hungary, Slovene Lands, the
Spanish Netherlands and much of Germany
and Italy, were staunch defenders of the Catholic Church. Some
historians believe that the era of the
Reformation came to a close
France allied itself with
Protestant states against the
Habsburg dynasty. For the first time since the days of Martin Luther,
political and national convictions again outweighed religious
convictions in Europe.
Two main tenets of the Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty
Years' War, were:
All parties would now recognise the
Peace of Augsburg
Peace of Augsburg of 1555, by
which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of
his own state, the options being Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now
Calvinism (the principle of cuius regio, eius religio).
Christians living in principalities where their denomination was not
the established church were guaranteed the right to practice their
faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will.
The treaty also effectively ended the Papacy's pan-European political
Pope Innocent X declared the treaty "null, void, invalid,
iniquitous, unjust, damnable, reprobate, inane, empty of meaning and
effect for all times" in his bull Zelo Domus Dei. European sovereigns,
Protestant alike, ignored his verdict.
Consequences of the Reformation
The following outcomes of the
Reformation regarding human capital
Protestant ethic, economic development, governance, and
"dark" outcomes have been identified by scholars:
Human capital formation
Higher literacy rates.
Lower gender gap in school enrollment and literacy rates.
Higher primary school enrollment.
Higher public spending on schooling and better educational performance
of military conscripts.
Higher capability in reading, numeracy, essay writing, and
More hours worked.
Divergent work attitudes of
Protestant and Catholics.
Fewer referenda on leisure, state intervention, and redistribution in
Swiss cantons with more Protestants.
Lower life satisfaction when unemployed.
Income differences between Protestants and Catholics.
Different levels of income tax revenue per capita, % of labor
force in manufacturing and services, and incomes of male elementary
Greater entrepreneurship among religious minorities in Protestant
Different social ethics.
Reformation has been credited as a key factor in the development
of the state system.
Reformation has been credited as a key factor in the formation of
transnational advocacy movements.
Reformation impacted the Western legal tradition.
Establishment of State churches.
Poor relief and social welfare regimes.
Witch trials became more common in areas where Protestants and
Catholics contested the religious market.
Protestants were far more likely to vote for Nazis than their Catholic
German counterparts. Christopher J. Probst, in his book Demonizing
the Jews: Luther and the
Protestant Church in Nazi Germany (2012),
shows that a large number of German
Lutheran clergy and theologians
during the Nazi Third Reich used Luther's hostile publications towards
the Jews and Judaism to justify at least in part the anti-Semitic
policies of the National Socialists.
Higher suicide rate and greater suicide acceptability.
Margaret C. Jacob argues that there has been a dramatic shift in the
historiography of the Reformation. Until the 1960s, historians focused
their attention largely on the great leaders and theologians of the
16th century, especially Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. Their ideas were
studied in depth. However, the rise of the new social history in the
1960s look at history from the bottom up, not from the top down.
Historians began to concentrate on the values, beliefs and behavior of
the people at large. She finds, "in contemporary scholarship, the
Reformation is now seen as a vast cultural upheaval, a social and
popular movement, textured and rich because of its diversity."
Music and the Reformation
Partly due to Martin Luther's love for music, music became important
in Lutheranism. The study and practice of music was encouraged in
Protestant countries. Songs such as the
Lutheran hymns, or the
Calvinist Psalter became tools for the spread of
Protestant ideas and
beliefs, as well as identity flags. Similar attitudes developed among
Catholics, who in turn encouraged the creation and use of music for
Criticism of Protestantism
Book of Concord
Concordat of Worms
Counter-Reformation, the Catholic response
Free Grace theology
Historiography of religion
Propaganda during the Reformation
^ In the end, while the
Reformation emphasis on Protestants reading
the Scriptures was one factor in the development of literacy, the
impact of printing itself, the wider availability of printed works at
a cheaper price, and the increasing focus on education and learning as
key factors in obtaining a lucrative post, were also significant
^ In the first decade of the Reformation, Luther's message became a
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^ See the entry on Joanes Leizarraga, the priest who did the
translation. His manuscript is considered to be a cornerstone in
Basque literature, and a pioneering attempt towards Basque language
^ Mahoney, William (2011). The History of the Czech Republic and
Slovakia. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood.
^ Oberman and Walliser-Schwarzbart Luther: Man between God and the
^ Douglas (ed.) "Wycliffe, John" New International Dictionary of the
^ Lützow, František (1911). "Hussites". In Chisholm, Hugh.
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^ Atkinson Fitzgerald "Printing,
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Short History of Copyright pp. 15–22
^ Whaley, pp. 222–23, 226
^ Whaley, pp. 222–23
^ Yarnell III, pp. 95–6
^ Whaley, p. 220
^ Horsch, John (1995). Mennonites in Europe. Herald Press.
p. 299. ISBN 978-0836113952.
^ Euan Cameron (1991). The European Reformation. New York: Oxford
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^ a b "Media, Markets and Institutional Change: Evidence from the
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^ a b Edwards Printing, Propaganda, and Martin
^ Pettegree and Hall "
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^ Weimer "Luther and Cranach"
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^ Iyigun, Murat (1 November 2008). "Luther and Suleyman". The
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^ Pfaff, Steven (12 March 2013). "The true citizens of the city of
God: the cult of saints, the Catholic social order, and the urban
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^ Estep, p. 150
^ Jón R. Hjálmarsson, History of Iceland: From the Settlement to the
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Iceland Review, 1993), p. 69.
^ a b Jón R. Hjálmarsson, History of Iceland: From the Settlement to
the Present Day, (
Iceland Review, 1993), p. 70.
^ Bray (ed.) Documents of the
English Reformation pp. 113–
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^ Pat, Perrin (1 January 1970). Crime and Punishment: The Colonial
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^ Mahoney, Kathleen A. (10 September 2003). Catholic Higher Education
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^ The Church in Wales: The
^ D. Densil Morgan, "
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