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The Reformation, or, more fully, the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, was a schism in Western Christianity
Christianity
initiated by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
and continued by John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Jacobus Arminius
Jacobus Arminius
and other Protestant Reformers
Protestant Reformers
in 16th-century Europe. It is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses
Ninety-five Theses
by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
in 1517 and lasted until the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648. Although there had been earlier attempts to reform the Catholic Church – such as those of Jan Hus, Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, and Girolamo Savonarola – Luther is widely acknowledged to have started the Reformation
Reformation
with the Ninety-five Theses. Luther began by criticising the sale of indulgences, insisting that the Pope
Pope
had no authority over purgatory and that the Catholic doctrine of the merits of the saints had no foundation in the Bible. The Protestant
Protestant
Reformation incorporated doctrinal changes such as a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper belief (sola scriptura) and the belief that faith in Jesus, and not good works, is the only way to obtain God's pardon for sin (sola fide). The core motivation behind these changes was theological, though many other factors played a part, including the rise of nationalism, the Western Schism
Western Schism
that eroded loyalty to the Papacy, the perceived corruption of the Roman Curia, the impact of humanism, and the new learning of the Renaissance that questioned much traditional thought. The initial movement within Germany diversified, and other reformers arose independently of Luther. The spread of Gutenberg's printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. The largest groups were the Lutherans and Calvinists. Lutheran
Lutheran
churches were founded in Germany, the Baltic and Scandinavia, and Reformed
Reformed
ones in Switzerland, Hungary, France, the Netherlands and Scotland. The movement influenced the Church of England after 1547, under Edward VI
Edward VI
and Elizabeth I, although the English Reformation
English Reformation
had begun under Henry VIII
Henry VIII
in the early 1530s. Reformation
Reformation
movements throughout continental Europe
Europe
known as the Radical Reformation
Radical Reformation
gave rise to the Anabaptist, Moravian and other Pietistic movements. Radical Reformers, besides forming communities outside state sanction, often employed more extreme doctrinal change, such as the rejection of the tenets of the councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon. The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
responded with a Counter-Reformation, initiated by the Council of Trent, and a new order, the Jesuits. Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, Poland
Poland
and Lithuania, came under the influence of Protestantism, Southern Europe
Europe
remained Catholic, while Central Europe
Europe
was a site of a fierce conflict, culminating in the Thirty Years' War.

Contents

1 Origins and early history

1.1 Earlier schisms 1.2 Early Reformation
Reformation
in Germany 1.3 Magisterial Reformation 1.4 Radical Reformation 1.5 Literacy 1.6 Causes of the Reformation

2 Reformation
Reformation
outside Germany

2.1 Austria 2.2 Czech Lands

2.2.1 Jan Hus 2.2.2 Hussite
Hussite
movement

2.3 Switzerland

2.3.1 Huldrych Zwingli 2.3.2 John Calvin

2.4 Nordic countries

2.4.1 Sweden 2.4.2 Denmark 2.4.3 Iceland

2.5 England

2.5.1 Church of England 2.5.2 Puritan movement

2.6 Wales 2.7 Scotland 2.8 France 2.9 Spain 2.10 Portugal 2.11 Netherlands 2.12 Belgium 2.13 Luxembourg 2.14 Hungary 2.15 Ireland 2.16 Italy 2.17 Poland
Poland
and Lithuania 2.18 Slovenia 2.19 Croatia 2.20 Serbia 2.21 Greece

3 Spread

3.1 At its peak 3.2 At its end

4 Conclusion and legacy

4.1 End of the Reformation

4.1.1 Thirty Years' War: 1618–1648

4.2 Consequences of the Reformation

4.2.1 Human capital
Human capital
formation 4.2.2 Protestant
Protestant
ethic 4.2.3 Economic development 4.2.4 Governance 4.2.5 Negative outcomes

4.3 Historiography 4.4 Music and the Reformation

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

7.1 Bibliography

8 Further reading

8.1 Surveys 8.2 Scholarly secondary resources 8.3 Primary sources in translation 8.4 Historiography

9 External links

Origins and early history[edit] See also: History of Protestantism The oldest Protestant
Protestant
churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, date their origins to Jan Hus
Jan Hus
(John Huss) in the early 15th century. As it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, and recognised, for a time, by the Basel Compacts, the Hussite
Hussite
Reformation was Europe's first "Magisterial Reformation" because the ruling magistrates supported it, unlike the "Radical Reformation", which the state did not support. The later Protestant
Protestant
Churches generally date their doctrinal separation from the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
to the 16th century. The Reformation
Reformation
began as an attempt to reform the Catholic Church, by priests who opposed what they perceived as false doctrines and ecclesiastic malpractice. They especially objected to the teaching and the sale of indulgences, and the abuses thereof, and to simony, the selling and buying of clerical offices. The reformers saw these practices as evidence of the systemic corruption of the Church's hierarchy, which included the pope. Earlier schisms[edit] See also: Bohemian Reformation, Hussites, Lollardy, Waldensians, and Arnoldists

Execution of Jan Hus, an important Reformation
Reformation
precursor, in 1415.

Unrest due to the Great Schism
Schism
of Western Christianity
Christianity
(1378–1416) excited wars between princes, uprisings among the peasants, and widespread concern over corruption in the Church. New perspectives came from John Wycliffe
John Wycliffe
at Oxford University
Oxford University
and from Jan Hus
Jan Hus
at the Charles University in Prague. Hus objected to some of the practices of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and wanted to return the church in Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia
Moravia
to earlier practices: liturgy in the language of the people (i.e. Czech), having lay people receive communion in both kinds (bread and wine – that is, in Latin, communio sub utraque specie), married priests, and eliminating indulgences and the concept of Purgatory. Some of these, like the use of local language as the lithurgic language, were approved by the pope as early as in the 9th century.[1] Hus rejected indulgences and adopted a doctrine of justification by grace through faith alone.[citation needed] The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
officially concluded this debate at the Council of Constance (1414–1417) by condemning Hus, who was executed by burning despite a promise of safe-conduct.[2] Wycliffe was posthumously condemned as a heretic and his corpse exhumed and burned in 1428.[3] The Council of Constance
Council of Constance
confirmed and strengthened the traditional medieval conception of church and empire. The council did not address the national tensions or the theological tensions stirred up during the previous century and could not prevent schism and the Hussite
Hussite
Wars in Bohemia.[4][better source needed] Pope
Pope
Sixtus IV (1471–1484) established the practice of selling indulgences to be applied to the dead, thereby establishing a new stream of revenue with agents across Europe.[5] Pope
Pope
Alexander VI (1492–1503) was one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes. He was the father of seven children, including Lucrezia and Cesare Borgia.[6][better source needed] In response to papal corruption, particularly the sale of indulgences, Luther wrote The Ninety-Five Theses.[7][better source needed] Early Reformation
Reformation
in Germany[edit]

Martin Luther
Martin Luther
initiated the Reformation
Reformation
with his Ninety-five Theses against the Catholic Church

Martin Luther
Martin Luther
at the Diet of Worms, where he refused to recant his works which were deemed heretical by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(painting from Anton von Werner, 1877, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)

The Reformation
Reformation
is usually dated to 31 October 1517 in Wittenberg, Saxony, when Luther sent his Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences
Indulgences
to the Archbishop of Mainz. The posting of the 95 Thesis and other attacks on the Church were predicated on Luther's developing beliefs about Jesus, salvation by faith alone and his study of bible prophecies.[8] The theses debated and criticised the Church and the papacy, but concentrated upon the selling of indulgences and doctrinal policies about purgatory, particular judgment, and the authority of the pope. He would later in the period 1517–1521 write works on the Catholic devotion to Virgin Mary, the intercession of and devotion to the saints, the sacraments, mandatory clerical celibacy, monasticism, further on the authority of the pope, the ecclesiastical law, censure and excommunication, the role of secular rulers in religious matters, the relationship between Christianity
Christianity
and the law, and good works.[9] Reformers made heavy use of inexpensive pamphlets as well as vernacular Bibles using the relatively new printing press, so there was swift movement of both ideas and documents.[10][11] Magisterial Reformation[edit] Main article: Magisterial Reformation Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in Switzerland under the leadership of Ulrich Zwingli. These two movements quickly agreed on most issues, but some unresolved differences kept them separate. Some followers of Zwingli believed that the Reformation
Reformation
was too conservative, and moved independently toward more radical positions, some of which survive among modern day Anabaptists. Other Protestant movements grew up along lines of mysticism or humanism, sometimes breaking from Rome or from the Protestants, or forming outside of the churches. After this first stage of the Reformation, following the excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the Reformation
Reformation
by the Pope, the work and writings of John Calvin
John Calvin
were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, Scotland, Hungary, Germany and elsewhere. The Reformation
Reformation
foundations engaged with Augustinianism; both Luther and Calvin thought along lines linked with the theological teachings of Augustine of Hippo.[citation needed] The Augustinianism of the reformers struggled against Pelagianism, a heresy that they perceived in the Catholic Church. In the course of this religious upheaval, the German Peasants' War
German Peasants' War
of 1524–1525 swept through the Bavarian, Thuringian and Swabian principalities, including the Black Company
Black Company
of Florian Geier, a knight from Giebelstadt
Giebelstadt
who joined the peasants in the general outrage against the Catholic hierarchy. Zwinglian
Zwinglian
and Lutheran
Lutheran
ideas had influence with preachers within the regions that the Peasants' War occurred and upon works such as the Twelve Articles.[12] Luther, however, condemned the revolt in writings such as Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants; Zwingli and Luther's ally Philipp Melanchthon
Philipp Melanchthon
also did not condone the uprising.[13][14] Some 100,000 peasants were killed by the end of the war.[15] Radical Reformation[edit] Main article: Radical Reformation The Radical Reformation
Radical Reformation
was the response to what was believed to be the corruption in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the expanding Magisterial Protestant
Protestant
movement led by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
and many others. Beginning in Germany and Switzerland in the 16th century, the Radical Reformation gave birth to many radical Protestant
Protestant
groups throughout Europe. The term covers radical reformers like Thomas Müntzer
Thomas Müntzer
and Andreas Karlstadt, groups like the Zwickau prophets, and Anabaptist
Anabaptist
groups like the Hutterites and Mennonites. In parts of Germany, Switzerland and Austria, a majority sympathized with the Radical Reformation
Radical Reformation
despite intense persecution.[16] Although the surviving proportion of the European population that rebelled against Catholic, Lutheran
Lutheran
and Zwinglian
Zwinglian
churches was small, Radical Reformers wrote profusely and the literature on the Radical Reformation
Reformation
is disproportionately large, partly as a result of the proliferation of the Radical Reformation
Radical Reformation
teachings in the United States.[17] Literacy[edit]

Martin Luther's 1534 Bible
Bible
translated into German. Luther's translation influenced the development of the current Standard German.

The Reformation
Reformation
was a triumph of literacy and the new printing press.[18][a][10][20] Luther's translation of the Bible
Bible
into German was a decisive moment in the spread of literacy, and stimulated as well the printing and distribution of religious books and pamphlets. From 1517 onward, religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of Europe.[21][b] By 1530, over 10,000 publications are known, with a total of ten million copies. The Reformation
Reformation
was thus a media revolution. Luther strengthened his attacks on Rome by depicting a "good" against "bad" church. From there, it became clear that print could be used for propaganda in the Reformation
Reformation
for particular agendas. Reform writers used pre- Reformation
Reformation
styles, clichés and stereotypes and changed items as needed for their own purposes.[21] Especially effective were writings in German, including Luther's translation of the Bible, his Smaller Catechism for parents teaching their children, and his Larger Catechism, for pastors. Using the German vernacular they expressed the Apostles' Creed
Creed
in simpler, more personal, Trinitarian language. Illustrations in the German Bible
Bible
and in many tracts popularised Luther's ideas. Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553), the great painter patronised by the electors of Wittenberg, was a close friend of Luther, and he illustrated Luther's theology for a popular audience. He dramatised Luther's views on the relationship between the Old and New Testaments, while remaining mindful of Luther's careful distinctions about proper and improper uses of visual imagery.[23] Causes of the Reformation[edit] The following supply-side factors have been identified as causes of the Reformation:[24]

The presence of a printing press in a city by 1500 made Protestant adoption by 1600 far more likely.[10] Protestant
Protestant
literature was produced at greater levels in cities where media markets were more competitive, making these cities more likely to adopt Protestantism.[20] Ottoman incursions decreased conflicts between Protestants and Catholics, helping the Reformation
Reformation
take root.[25] Greater political autonomy increased the likelihood that Protestantism would be adopted.[10][26] Where Protestant
Protestant
reformers enjoyed princely patronage, they were much more likely to succeed.[27] Proximity to neighbors who adopted Protestantism
Protestantism
increased the likelihood of adopting Protestantism.[26] Cities that had higher numbers of students enrolled in heterodox universities and lower numbers enrolled in orthodox universities were more likely to adopt Protestantism.[27]

The following demand-side factors have been identified as causes of the Reformation:[24]

Cities with strong cults of saints were less likely to adopt Protestantism.[28] Cities where primogeniture was practiced were less likely to adopt Protestantism.[29] Regions that were poor but had great economic potential and bad political institutions were more likely to adopt Protestantism.[30] The presence of bishoprics made the adoption of Protestantism
Protestantism
less likely.[10] The presence of monasteries made the adoption of Protestantism
Protestantism
less likely.[30]

Reformation
Reformation
outside Germany[edit]

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The Reformation
Reformation
also spread widely throughout Europe, starting with Bohemia
Bohemia
(Czech Lands) yet before Luther and over the next few decades also other countries. Austria[edit] Austria followed the same pattern of the German-speaking
German-speaking
states within the Holy Roman Empire, and Lutheranism
Lutheranism
became the main Protestant confession among its population. Lutheranism
Lutheranism
gained a significant following in Austria which was concentrated in the eastern half of present-day Austria, while Calvinism
Calvinism
was less successful. Eventually the adoption of the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
reversed the trend. Czech Lands[edit] Main article: Bohemian Reformation

Evolution of the Hussite
Hussite
movement in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown from 1419 to 1620, superimposed on modern borders

The Hussites
Hussites
were a Christian movement in the Kingdom of Bohemia following the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus. Jan Hus[edit] Czech reformer and university professor Jan Hus
Jan Hus
(c. 1369–1415) became the best-known representative of the Bohemian Reformation
Bohemian Reformation
and one of the forerunners of the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation. Jan Hus
Jan Hus
was declared heretic and executed – burned at stake – at the Council of Constance
Council of Constance
in 1415 where he arrived voluntarily to defend his teachings. Hussite
Hussite
movement[edit] This predominantly religious movement was propelled by social issues and strengthened Czech national awareness. In 1417, two years after the execution of Jan Hus, the Czech reformation quickly became the chief force in the country. Hussites
Hussites
made up the vast majority of the population, forcing the Council of Basel to recognize in 1437 a system of two "religions" for the first time signing the Compacts of Basel for the kingdom (Catholic and Czech Ultraquism, a Hussite
Hussite
movement). Bohemia
Bohemia
later also elected two Protestant
Protestant
kings (George of Poděbrady). After Habsburgs
Habsburgs
took control of the region, the Hussite
Hussite
churches were prohibited and the kingdom partially recatholicized. Even later Lutheranism
Lutheranism
gained a substantial following, after being permitted by the Habsburgs
Habsburgs
with the continued persecution of the Czech native Hussite
Hussite
churches. Many Hussites
Hussites
thus declared themselves Lutherans . Two churches with Hussite
Hussite
roots are now second and third biggest churches in the predominantly agnostic country: Czech Brethren
Czech Brethren
(which gave origin to the international church known as the Moravian Church) and Czechoslovak Hussite
Hussite
Church. Switzerland[edit] Main article: Reformation
Reformation
in Switzerland In Switzerland, the teachings of the reformers and especially those of Zwingli and Calvin had a profound effect, despite the frequent quarrels between the different branches of the Reformation. Huldrych Zwingli[edit] Main article: Huldrych Zwingli

Huldrych Zwingli
Huldrych Zwingli
launched the Reformation
Reformation
in Switzerland.

Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in the Swiss Confederation under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli. Zwingli was a scholar and preacher who moved to Zurich
Zurich
– the then-leading city state – in 1518, a year after Martin Luther
Martin Luther
began the Reformation
Reformation
in Germany with his Ninety-five Theses. Although the two movements agreed on many issues of theology, as the recently introduced printing press spread ideas rapidly from place to place, some unresolved differences kept them separate. Long-standing resentment between the German states and the Swiss Confederation
Swiss Confederation
led to heated debate over how much Zwingli owed his ideas to Lutheranism. Although Zwinglianism
Zwinglianism
does hold uncanny resemblance to Lutheranism
Lutheranism
(it even had its own equivalent of the Ninety-five Theses, called the 67 Conclusions), historians have been unable to prove that Zwingli had any contact with Luther's publications before 1520, and Zwingli himself maintained that he had prevented himself from reading them. The German Prince Philip of Hesse
Philip of Hesse
saw potential in creating an alliance between Zwingli and Luther, seeing strength in a united Protestant
Protestant
front. A meeting was held in his castle in 1529, now known as the Colloquy of Marburg, which has become infamous for its complete failure. The two men could not come to any agreement due to their disputation over one key doctrine. Although Luther preached consubstantiation in the Eucharist
Eucharist
over transubstantiation, he believed in the spiritual presence of Christ at the Mass. Zwingli, inspired by Dutch theologian Cornelius Hoen, believed that the mass was only representative and memorial – Christ was not present.[31] Luther became so angry that he famously carved into the meeting table in chalk Hoc Est Corpus Meum – a Biblical quotation from the Last Supper meaning 'This is my body'. Zwingli countered this saying that est in that context was the equivalent of the word significant (signifies).[32] Some followers of Zwingli believed that the Reformation
Reformation
was too conservative and moved independently toward more radical positions, some of which survive among modern day Anabaptists. One famous incident illustrating this was when radical Zwinglians fried and ate sausages during Lent in Zurich
Zurich
city square by way of protest against the Church teaching of good works. Other Protestant
Protestant
movements grew up along the lines of mysticism or humanism (cf. Erasmus), sometimes breaking from Rome or from the Protestants, or forming outside of the churches. John Calvin[edit] Main article: John Calvin

John Calvin
John Calvin
was one of the leading figures of the Reformation. His legacy remains in a variety of churches.

Following the excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the Reformation
Reformation
by the Pope, the work and writings of John Calvin
John Calvin
were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, Scotland, Hungary, Germany and elsewhere. After the expulsion of its Bishop in 1526, and the unsuccessful attempts of the Berne reformer Guillaume (William) Farel, Calvin was asked to use the organisational skill he had gathered as a student of law to discipline the "fallen city" of Geneva. His "Ordinances" of 1541 involved a collaboration of Church affairs with the City council and consistory to bring morality to all areas of life. After the establishment of the Geneva
Geneva
academy in 1559, Geneva
Geneva
became the unofficial capital of the Protestant
Protestant
movement, providing refuge for Protestant
Protestant
exiles from all over Europe
Europe
and educating them as Calvinist
Calvinist
missionaries. These missionaries dispersed Calvinism
Calvinism
widely, and formed the French Huguenots
Huguenots
in Calvin's own lifetime, as well as causing the conversion of Scotland
Scotland
under the leadership of the cantankerous John Knox
John Knox
in 1560. The faith continued to spread after Calvin's death in 1563 and reached as far as Constantinople by the start of the 17th century. The Reformation
Reformation
foundations engaged with Augustinianism. Both Luther and Calvin thought along lines linked with the theological teachings of Augustine of Hippo. The Augustinianism of the Reformers struggled against Pelagianism, a heresy that they perceived in the Catholic Church of their day. Unfortunately, since Calvin and Luther disagreed strongly on certain matters of theology (such as double-predestination and Holy Communion), the relationship between Lutherans and Calvinists was one of conflict. Nordic countries[edit]

See also: Reformation
Reformation
in Denmark- Norway
Norway
and Holstein, Reformation
Reformation
in Iceland, Reformation
Reformation
in Norway, Reformation
Reformation
in Sweden

Johannes Bugenhagen
Johannes Bugenhagen
introduced Protestantism
Protestantism
in Denmark.

All of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
ultimately adopted Lutheranism
Lutheranism
over the course of the 16th century, as the monarchs of Denmark
Denmark
(who also ruled Norway and Iceland) and Sweden
Sweden
(who also ruled Finland) converted to that faith. Sweden[edit] In Sweden, the Reformation
Reformation
was spearheaded by Gustav Vasa, elected king in 1523. Friction with the pope over the latter's interference in Swedish ecclesiastical affairs led to the discontinuance of any official connection between Sweden
Sweden
and the papacy from 1523. Four years later, at the Diet of Västerås, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was given possession of all church property, church appointments required royal approval, the clergy were subject to the civil law, and the "pure Word of God" was to be preached in the churches and taught in the schools – effectively granting official sanction to Lutheran ideas. Denmark[edit] Under the reign of Frederick I (1523–33), Denmark
Denmark
remained officially Catholic. But though Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, of whom the most famous was Hans Tausen. During his reign, Lutheranism
Lutheranism
made significant inroads among the Danish population. Frederick's son, Christian, was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. In 1536, the authority of the Catholic bishops was terminated by national assembly. The next year, following his victory in the Count's War, he became king as Christian III and continued the Reformation
Reformation
of the state church with assistance of Johannes Bugenhagen. Iceland[edit] Main article: Icelandic Reformation Luther's influence had already reached Iceland
Iceland
before King Christian's decree. The Germans
Germans
fished near Iceland's coast, and the Hanseatic League engaged in commerce with the Icelanders. These Germans
Germans
raised a Lutheran
Lutheran
church in Hafnarfjörður
Hafnarfjörður
as early as 1533. Through German trade connections, many young Icelanders
Icelanders
studied in Hamburg.[33] In 1538, when the kingly decree of the new Church ordinance reached Iceland, bishop Ögmundur and his clergy denounced it, threatening excommunication for anyone subscribing to the German 'heresy'.[34] In 1539, the King sent a new governor to Iceland, Klaus von Mervitz, with a mandate to introduce reform and take possession of church property.[34] Von Mervitz seized a monastery in Viðey
Viðey
with the help of his sheriff, Dietrich of Minden, and his soldiers. They drove the monks out and seized all their possessions, for which they were promptly excommunicated by Ögmundur. England[edit] Main article: English Reformation

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Church of England[edit] Main articles: Church of England
Church of England
and Anglicanism

Henry VIII
Henry VIII
broke England's ties with the Catholic Church, becoming the sole head of the English Church.

The separation of the Church of England
Church of England
from Rome under Henry VIII, beginning in 1529 and completed in 1537, brought England alongside this broad Reformation
Reformation
movement; however, religious changes in the English national church proceeded more conservatively than elsewhere in Europe. Reformers in the Church of England
Church of England
alternated, for decades, between sympathies for ancient Catholic tradition and more Reformed principles, gradually developing, within the context of robustly Protestant
Protestant
doctrine, a tradition considered a middle way (via media) between the Catholic and Protestant
Protestant
traditions. The English Reformation
English Reformation
followed a different course from the Reformation
Reformation
in continental Europe. There had long been a strong strain of anti-clericalism. England had already given rise to the Lollard movement of John Wycliffe, which played an important part in inspiring the Hussites
Hussites
in Bohemia. Lollardy
Lollardy
was suppressed and became an underground movement, so the extent of its influence in the 1520s is difficult to assess. The different character of the English Reformation
Reformation
came rather from the fact that it was driven initially by the political necessities of Henry VIII. Henry had once been a sincere Catholic and had even authored a book strongly criticising Luther. His wife, Catherine of Aragon, bore him only a single child that survived infancy, Mary. Henry strongly wanted a male heir, and many of his subjects might have agreed, if only because they wanted to avoid another dynastic conflict like the Wars of the Roses.

Thomas Cranmer
Thomas Cranmer
proved essential in the development of the English Reformation.

King Henry decided to remove the Church of England
Church of England
from the authority of Rome. In 1534, the Act of Supremacy recognized Henry as "the only Supreme Head
Supreme Head
on earth of the Church of England".[35] Between 1535 and 1540, under Thomas Cromwell, the policy known as the Dissolution of the Monasteries was put into effect. The veneration of some saints, certain pilgrimages and some pilgrim shrines were also attacked. Huge amounts of church land and property passed into the hands of the Crown and ultimately into those of the nobility and gentry. The vested interest thus created made for a powerful force in support of the dissolutions. There were some notable opponents to the Henrician Reformation, such as Thomas More
Thomas More
and Cardinal John Fisher, who were executed for their opposition. There was also a growing party of reformers who were imbued with the Calvinistic, Lutheran
Lutheran
and Zwinglian
Zwinglian
doctrines now current on the Continent. When Henry died he was succeeded by his Protestant
Protestant
son Edward VI, who, through his empowered councillors (with the King being only nine years old at his succession and fifteen at his death) the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of Northumberland, ordered the destruction of images in churches, and the closing of the chantries. Under Edward VI
Edward VI
the Church of England
Church of England
moved closer to continental Protestantism. Yet, at a popular level, religion in England was still in a state of flux. Following a brief Catholic restoration during the reign of Mary (1553–1558), a loose consensus developed during the reign of Elizabeth I, though this point is one of considerable debate among historians. This "Elizabethan Religious Settlement" largely formed Anglicanism
Anglicanism
into a distinctive church tradition. The compromise was uneasy and was capable of veering between extreme Calvinism
Calvinism
on one hand and Catholicism on the other. But compared to the bloody and chaotic state of affairs in contemporary France, it was relatively successful, in part because Queen Elizabeth lived so long, until the Puritan Revolution or English Civil War
English Civil War
in the 17th century. Puritan movement[edit] Main article: Puritans

Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
was a devout Puritan and military leader, who became Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

The success of the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
on the Continent and the growth of a Puritan party dedicated to further Protestant
Protestant
reform polarised the Elizabethan Age, although it was not until the 1640s that England underwent religious strife comparable to what its neighbours had suffered some generations before. The early Puritan movement (late 16th–17th centuries) was Reformed or Calvinist
Calvinist
and was a movement for reform in the Church of England. Its origins lay in the discontent with the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. The desire was for the Church of England
Church of England
to resemble more closely the Protestant
Protestant
churches of Europe, especially Geneva. The Puritans
Puritans
objected to ornaments and ritual in the churches as idolatrous (vestments, surplices, organs, genuflection), which they castigated as "popish pomp and rags". (See Vestments controversy.) They also objected to ecclesiastical courts. Their refusal to endorse completely all of the ritual directions and formulas of the Book
Book
of Common Prayer and the imposition of its liturgical order by legal force and inspection sharpened Puritanism into a definite opposition movement. The later Puritan movement, often referred to as dissenters and nonconformists, eventually led to the formation of various reformed denominations. The most famous emigration to America was the migration of Puritan separatists from the Anglican Church of England. They fled first to Holland, and then later to America to establish the English colony of Massachusetts in New England, which later became one of the original United States. These Puritan separatists were also known as "the Pilgrims". After establishing a colony at Plymouth (which became part of the colony of Massachusetts) in 1620, the Puritan pilgrims received a charter from the King of England
King of England
that legitimised their colony, allowing them to do trade and commerce with merchants in England, in accordance with the principles of mercantilism. The Puritans persecuted those of other religious faiths.[36] Quaker
Quaker
Mary Dyer
Mary Dyer
was hanged in Boston for repeatedly defying a Puritan law banning Quakers from the colony.[37] She was one of the four executed Quakers
Quakers
known as the Boston martyrs. Executions ceased in 1661 when King Charles II explicitly forbade Massachusetts from executing anyone for professing Quakerism.[38] In 1647, Massachusetts passed a law prohibiting any Jesuit
Jesuit
Roman Catholic priests from entering territory under Puritan jurisdiction.[39] Any suspected person who could not clear himself was to be banished from the colony; a second offense carried a death penalty.[40] The Pilgrims held radical Protestant
Protestant
disapproval of Christmas, and its celebration was outlawed in Boston from 1659 to 1681.[41] The ban was revoked in 1681 by the English-appointed governor Edmund Andros, who also revoked a Puritan ban on festivities on Saturday nights.[41] Nevertheless, it was not until the mid-19th century that celebrating Christmas
Christmas
became fashionable in the Boston region.[42] Wales[edit] Bishop Richard Davies and dissident Protestant
Protestant
cleric John Penry introduced Calvinist
Calvinist
theology to Wales. In 1588, the Bishop of Llandaff published the entire Bible
Bible
into the Welsh language. The translation had a significant impact upon the Welsh population and helped to firmly establish Protestantism
Protestantism
among the Welsh people.[43] The Welsh Protestants used the model of the Synod of Dort
Synod of Dort
of 1618–1619. Calvinism
Calvinism
developed through the Puritan period, following the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II, and within Wales' Calvinistic Methodist movement. However few copies of Calvin's were available before mid 19th century.[44] Scotland[edit] Main articles: Scottish Reformation
Scottish Reformation
and Church of Scotland

John Knox
John Knox
was a leading figure in the Scottish Reformation.

The Reformation
Reformation
in Scotland's case culminated ecclesiastically in the establishment of a church along reformed lines, and politically in the triumph of English influence over that of France. John Knox
John Knox
is regarded as the leader of the Scottish reformation. The Reformation
Reformation
Parliament of 1560 repudiated the pope's authority by the Papal Jurisdiction Act 1560, forbade the celebration of the Mass and approved a Protestant
Protestant
Confession of Faith. It was made possible by a revolution against French hegemony under the regime of the regent Mary of Guise, who had governed Scotland
Scotland
in the name of her absent daughter Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots
(then also Queen of France). Although Protestantism
Protestantism
triumphed relatively easily in Scotland, the exact form of Protestantism
Protestantism
remained to be determined. The 17th century saw a complex struggle between Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
(particularly the Covenanters) and Episcopalianism. The Presbyterians eventually won control of the Church of Scotland, which went on to have an important influence on Presbyterian churches worldwide, but Scotland
Scotland
retained a relatively large Episcopalian minority. France[edit] Main articles: Huguenot, Reformed
Reformed
Church of France, and French Wars of Religion

Although a Catholic clergyman himself, Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
allied France
France
with Protestant
Protestant
states.

Protestantism
Protestantism
also spread from the German lands into France, where the Protestants were nicknamed Huguenots; this eventually led to decades of civil warfare. Though not personally interested in religious reform, Francis I (reigned 1515–1547) initially maintained an attitude of tolerance, in accordance with his interest in the humanist movement. This changed in 1534 with the Affair of the Placards. In this act, Protestants denounced the Catholic Mass
Catholic Mass
in placards that appeared across France, even reaching the royal apartments. The issue of religious faith having been thrown into the arena of politics, Francis came to view the movement as a threat to the kingdom's stability. This led to the first major phase of anti- Protestant
Protestant
persecution in France, in which the Chambre Ardente ("Burning Chamber") was established (1535) within the Parlement of Paris
Parlement of Paris
to deal with the rise in prosecutions for heresy. Several thousand French Protestants fled the country, most notably John Calvin, who emigrated to Basel in 1535 before eventually settling in Geneva
Geneva
in 1536. Calvin continued to take an interest in the religious affairs of his native land and, from his base in Geneva, beyond the reach of the French kings, regularly trained pastors to lead congregations in France. Despite heavy persecution by King Henry II of France
Henry II of France
(reigned 1547–1559), the Reformed
Reformed
Church of France, largely Calvinist
Calvinist
in direction, made steady progress across large sections of the nation, in the urban bourgeoisie and parts of the aristocracy, appealing to people alienated by the obduracy and the complacency of the Catholic establishment.

Saint
Saint
Bartholomew's Day massacre, painting by François Dubois

French Protestantism, though its appeal increased under persecution, came to acquire a distinctly political character, made all the more obvious by the conversions of nobles during the 1550s. This established the preconditions for a series of destructive and intermittent conflicts, known as the Wars of Religion. The civil wars gained impetus with the sudden death of Henry II in 1559, which began a prolonged period of weakness for the French crown. Atrocity and outrage became the defining characteristics of the time, illustrated at their most intense in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
of August 1572, when the Catholic party annihilated between 30,000 and 100,000 Huguenots
Huguenots
across France. The wars only concluded when Henry IV, himself a former Huguenot, issued the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
(1598), promising official toleration of the Protestant
Protestant
minority, but under highly restricted conditions. Catholicism remained the official state religion, and the fortunes of French Protestants gradually declined over the next century, culminating in Louis XIV's Edict of Fontainebleau (1685), which revoked the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
and made Catholicism the sole legal religion of France. In response to the Edict of Fontainebleau, Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg declared the Edict of Potsdam
Edict of Potsdam
(October 1685), giving free passage to Huguenot
Huguenot
refugees and tax-free status to them for ten years. In the late 17th century many Huguenots
Huguenots
fled to England, the Netherlands, Prussia, Switzerland, and the English and Dutch overseas colonies. A significant community in France
France
remained in the Cévennes region. A separate Protestant
Protestant
community, of the Lutheran
Lutheran
faith, existed in the newly conquered (1639– ) province of Alsace, its status not affected by the Edict of Fontainebleau. Spain[edit]

The New Testament
New Testament
translated by Enzinas, published in Antwerp
Antwerp
(1543)

The New Testament
New Testament
translated by Joanes Leizarraga
Joanes Leizarraga
into the Basque language (1571) on the orders of Navarre's Calvinist
Calvinist
queen, Jeanne III of Navarre

In the early 16th century, Spain had a different political and cultural milieu from its Western and Central European neighbors in several respects, which affected the mentality and the reaction of the nation towards the Reformation. Spain, which had only recently managed to complete the reconquest of the Peninsula from the Moors
Moors
in 1492, had been preoccupied with converting the Muslim and Jewish population of the newly conquered regions through the establishment of the Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
in 1478. The rulers of the nation stressed political, cultural, and religious unity, and by the time of the Lutheran
Lutheran
Reformation, the Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
was already 40 years old and had the capability of quickly dealing with any new movement that the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
perceived or interpreted to be religious heterodoxy.[45] Charles V did not wish to see Spain or the rest of Habsburg Europe
Europe
divided, and in light of continual threat from the Ottomans, preferred to see the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
reform itself from within. This led to a Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
in Spain in the 1530s. During the 1520s, the Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
had created an atmosphere of suspicion and sought to root out any religious thought seen as suspicious. As early as 1521, the Pope
Pope
had written a letter to the Spanish monarchy warning against allowing the unrest in Northern Europe
Europe
to be replicated in Spain. Between 1520 and 1550, printing presses in Spain were tightly controlled and any books of Protestant teaching were prohibited. Between 1530 and 1540, Protestantism
Protestantism
in Spain was still able to gain followers clandestinely, and in cities such as Seville
Seville
and Valladolid adherents would secretly meet at private houses to pray and study the Bible.[46] Protestants in Spain were estimated at between 1000 and 3000, mainly among intellectuals who had seen writings such as those of Erasmus. Notable reformers included Dr. Juan Gil and Juan Pérez de Pineda who subsequently fled and worked alongside others such as Francisco de Enzinas
Francisco de Enzinas
to translate the Greek New Testament
New Testament
into the Spanish language, a task completed by 1556. Protestant
Protestant
teachings were smuggled into Spain by Spaniards such as Julián Hernández, who in 1557 was condemned by the Inquisition
Inquisition
and burnt at the stake. Under Philip II, conservatives in the Spanish church tightened their grip, and those who refused to recant such as Rodrigo de Valer were condemned to life imprisonment. In May 1559, sixteen Spanish Lutherans were burnt at the stake: fourteen were strangled before being burnt, while two were burnt alive. In October another thirty were executed. Spanish Protestants who were able to flee the country were to be found in at least a dozen cities in Europe, such as Geneva, where some of them embraced Calvinist
Calvinist
teachings. Those who fled to England were given support by the Church of England. The Kingdom of Navarre, although by the time of the Protestant Reformation
Reformation
a minor principality territorially restricted to southern France, had French Huguenot
Huguenot
monarchs, including Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
and his mother, Jeanne III of Navarre, a devout Calvinist. Upon the arrival of the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, Calvinism
Calvinism
reached some Basques
Basques
through the translation of the Bible
Bible
into the Basque language by Joanes Leizarraga. As Queen of Navarre, Jeanne III commissioned the translation of the New Testament
New Testament
into Basque[c] and Béarnese for the benefit of her subjects. Portugal[edit] The Reformation
Reformation
did not succeed in Portugal, as its spread was frustrated for similar reasons to those in Spain. Netherlands[edit] Main article: History of religion in the Netherlands

Erasmus
Erasmus
was a Catholic priest who inspired some of the Protestant reformers.

The Reformation
Reformation
in the Netherlands, unlike in many other countries, was not initiated by the rulers of the Seventeen Provinces, but instead by multiple popular movements, which in turn were bolstered by the arrival of Protestant
Protestant
refugees from other parts of the continent. While the Anabaptist
Anabaptist
movement enjoyed popularity in the region in the early decades of the Reformation, Calvinism, in the form of the Dutch Reformed
Reformed
Church, became the dominant Protestant
Protestant
faith in the country from the 1560s onward. Belgium[edit] Harsh persecution of Protestants by the Spanish government of Philip II contributed to a desire for independence in the provinces, which led to the Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
and, eventually, the separation of the largely Protestant
Protestant
Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
from the Catholic-dominated Southern Netherlands (present-day Belgium). Luxembourg[edit] Luxembourg, a part of the Spanish Netherlands, remained Catholic. Hungary[edit]

Stephen Bocskay
Stephen Bocskay
prevented the Holy Roman Emperor from imposing Catholicism on Hungarians.

Much of the population of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
adopted Protestantism during the 16th century. After the 1526 Battle of Mohács, the Hungarian people were disillusioned by the inability of the government to protect them and turned to the faith they felt would infuse them with the strength necessary to resist the invader. They found this in the teaching of Protestant
Protestant
reformers such as Martin Luther. The spread of Protestantism
Protestantism
in the country was assisted by its large ethnic German minority, which could understand and translate the writings of Martin Luther. While Lutheranism
Lutheranism
gained a foothold among the German- and Slovak-speaking populations, Calvinism
Calvinism
became widely accepted among ethnic Hungarians.

Jiří Třanovský
Jiří Třanovský
(1592–1637), the "Luther of the Slavs" who was active in Bohemia, Moravia, and Poland

In the more independent northwest, the rulers and priests, protected now by the Habsburg Monarchy, which had taken the field to fight the Turks, defended the old Catholic faith. They dragged the Protestants to prison and the stake wherever they could. Such strong measures only fanned the flames of protest, however. Leaders of the Protestants included Mátyás Dévai Bíró, Mihály Sztárai, István Szegedi Kis, and Ferenc Dávid. Protestants likely formed a majority of Hungary's population at the close of the 16th century, but Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
efforts in the 17th century reconverted a majority of the kingdom to Catholicism. A significant Protestant
Protestant
minority remained, most of it adhering to the Calvinist
Calvinist
faith. In 1558 the Transylvanian Diet of Turda
Turda
decreed the free practice of both the Catholic and Lutheran
Lutheran
religions, but prohibited Calvinism. Ten years later, in 1568, the Diet extended this freedom, declaring that "It is not allowed to anybody to intimidate anybody with captivity or expulsion for his religion". Four religions were declared to be "accepted" (recepta) religions (the fourth being Unitarianism, which became official in 1583 as the faith of the only Unitarian king, John II Sigismund Zápolya, r. 1540–1571), while Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Christianity
was "tolerated" (though the building of stone Orthodox churches was forbidden). During the Thirty Years' War, Royal (Habsburg) Hungary joined the Catholic side, until Transylvania
Transylvania
joined the Protestant
Protestant
side. Between 1604 and 1711, there was a series of anti-Habsburg uprisings calling for equal rights and freedom for all Christian denominations, with varying success; the uprisings were usually organised from Transylvania. The Habsburg-sanctioned Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
efforts in the 17th century reconverted the majority of the kingdom to Catholicism. The centre of Protestant
Protestant
learning in Hungary has for some centuries been the University of Debrecen. Founded in 1538, the University was situated in an area of Eastern Hungary under Ottoman Turkish rule during the 1600s and 1700s, being allowed Islamic toleration and thus avoiding Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
persecution. Ireland[edit] Main article: Reformation
Reformation
in Ireland

A devout Catholic, Mary I of England
Mary I of England
started the first Plantations of Ireland, which, ironically, soon came to be associated with Protestantism.

The Reformation in Ireland
Reformation in Ireland
was a movement for the reform of religious life and institutions that was introduced into Ireland
Ireland
by the English administration at the behest of King Henry VIII
Henry VIII
of England. His desire for an annulment of his marriage was known as the King's Great Matter. Ultimately Pope
Pope
Clement VII refused the petition; consequently it became necessary for the King to assert his lordship over the Catholic Church in his realm to give legal effect to his wishes. The English Parliament confirmed the King's supremacy over the Church in the Kingdom of England. This challenge to Papal supremacy
Papal supremacy
resulted in a breach with the Catholic Church. By 1541, the Irish Parliament had agreed to the change in status of the country from that of a Lordship to that of Kingdom of Ireland. Unlike similar movements for religious reform on the continent of Europe, the various phases of the English Reformation
English Reformation
as it developed in Ireland
Ireland
were largely driven by changes in government policy, to which public opinion in England gradually accommodated itself. However, a number of factors complicated the adoption of the religious innovations in Ireland; the majority of the population there adhered to the Catholic Church. However, in the city of Dublin
Dublin
the reformation took hold under the auspices of George Browne. Italy[edit] Further information: Reformation
Reformation
in Italy

Waldensian symbol Lux lucet in tenebris ("Light glows in the darkness")

Word of the Protestant
Protestant
reformers reached Italy in the 1520s but never caught on. Its development was stopped by the Counter-Reformation, the Inquisition
Inquisition
and also popular disinterest. Not only was the Church highly aggressive in seeking out and suppressing heresy, but there was a shortage of Protestant
Protestant
leadership. No one translated the Bible
Bible
into Italian; few tracts were written. No core of Protestantism
Protestantism
emerged. The few preachers who did take an interest in "Lutheranism," as it was called in Italy, were suppressed or went into exile to northern countries where their message was well received. As a result, the Reformation
Reformation
exerted almost no lasting influence in Italy, except for strengthening the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and motivating the Counter-Reformation.[47][48] Some Protestants left Italy and became outstanding activists of the European Reformation, mainly in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (e.g. Giorgio Biandrata, Bernardino Ochino, Giovanni Alciato, Giovanni Battista Cetis, Fausto Sozzini, Francesco Stancaro
Francesco Stancaro
and Giovanni Valentino Gentile), who propagated Nontrinitarianism
Nontrinitarianism
there and were chief instigators of the movement of Polish Brethren.[49] In 1532 the Waldensians
Waldensians
adhered to the Reformation, adopting the Calvinist
Calvinist
theology. The Waldensian Church
Waldensian Church
survived in the Western Alps through many persecutions and remains a Protestant
Protestant
church in Italy.[50] Poland
Poland
and Lithuania[edit] Main article: Reformation
Reformation
in Poland

Jan Łaski
Jan Łaski
sought unity between various Christian churches in the Commonwealth, and participated in the English Reformation.

In the first half of the 16th century, the enormous Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
was a country of many creeds, but Catholicism remained the dominating religion. Reformation
Reformation
reached Poland
Poland
in the 1520s and quickly gained popularity among mostly German-speaking
German-speaking
inhabitants of such major cities as Gdańsk, Toruń and Elbląg. In Koenigsberg, in 1530, a Polish-language edition of Luther's Small Catechism
Luther's Small Catechism
was published. The Duchy of Prussia, which was a Polish fief, emerged as a key center of the movement, with numerous publishing houses issuing not only Bibles, but also catechisms, in German, Polish and Lithuanian. Lutheranism
Lutheranism
gained popularity in the northern part of the country, while Calvinism
Calvinism
caught the interest of the nobility (known as szlachta), mainly in Lesser Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Several publishing houses were opened in Lesser Poland
Poland
in the mid-16th century in such locations as Słomniki
Słomniki
and Raków. At that time, Mennonites and Czech Brothers came to Poland, with the latter settling mostly in Greater Poland
Poland
around Leszno. In 1565, the Polish Brethren appeared as yet another reformation movement. The Commonwealth was unique in Europe
Europe
in the 16th century for its widespread tolerance confirmed by the Warsaw Confederation. In 1563, the Brest Bible
Bible
was published (see also Bible
Bible
translations into Polish). The period of tolerance ended during the reign of King Sigismund III Vasa, who was under the strong influence of Piotr Skarga and other Jesuits. After the Deluge, and other wars of the mid-17th century in which all enemies of Poland
Poland
were either Protestant
Protestant
or Orthodox Christians, the Poles' attitude changed, and the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
prevailed: in 1658 the Polish Brethren
Polish Brethren
were forced to leave the country, and in 1666, the Sejm
Sejm
banned apostasy from Catholicism to any other religion, under punishment of death. Finally, in 1717, the Silent Sejm
Sejm
banned non-Catholics from becoming deputies of the Parliament. Among most important Protestants of the Commonwealth were Mikołaj Rej, Marcin Czechowic, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski
Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski
and Symon Budny. Slovenia[edit]

Primož Trubar, a Lutheran
Lutheran
reformer in Slovenia

Primož Trubar
Primož Trubar
is notable for consolidating the Slovene language
Slovene language
and is considered to be the key figure of Slovenian cultural history and in many aspects a major Slovene historical personality.[51] He was the key figure of the Protestant
Protestant
Church of the Slovene Lands, as he was its founder and its first superintendent. The first books in Slovene, Catechismus
Catechismus
and Abecedarium, were written by Trubar.[52] Croatia[edit] Lutheranism
Lutheranism
reached northern parts of the country. Serbia[edit] Vojvodina
Vojvodina
turned partially Lutheran. Greece[edit] The Protestant
Protestant
teachings of the Western Church were also briefly adopted within the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
through the Greek Patriarch Cyril Lucaris
Cyril Lucaris
in 1629 with the publishing of the Confessio (Calvinistic doctrine) in Geneva. Motivating factors in their decision to adopt aspects of the Reformation
Reformation
included the historical rivalry and mistrust between the Greek Orthodox and Catholic church along with their concerns of Jesuit
Jesuit
priests entering Greek lands in their attempts to propagate the teachings of the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
to the Greek populace. He subsequently sponsored Maximos of Gallipoli's translation of the New Testament
New Testament
into the Modern Greek language
Modern Greek language
and was published in Geneva
Geneva
in 1638. Upon Lucaris's death in 1638, the conservative factions within the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
held two synods: the Synod of Constantinople (1638) and Synod of Jassy
Synod of Jassy
(1642) criticizing the reforms and in the 1672 convocation led by Dositheos, they officially condemned the Calvinistic doctrines. Spread[edit] The Reformation
Reformation
spread throughout Europe
Europe
beginning in 1517, reaching its peak between 1545 and 1620, and ending in 1648. At its peak[edit] The high point of the Reformation
Reformation
occurred at some point between 1545 and 1620. In 1545, it was first considered a serious threat to the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the Papacy
Papacy
at the Council of Trent, prompting counterreformational measures by Catholic religious hierarchy. In 1620, the Battle of White Mountain put an end to Protestantism
Protestantism
in Bohemia
Bohemia
(now the Czech Republic). The Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
began in 1618 and brought a drastic territorial and demographic decline when the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
introduced counterreformational measures throughout their vast possessions in Central Europe.

The Reformation
Reformation
at its peak, superimposed on modern European borders

At its end[edit] In 1545, the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
officially launched the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
against Protestantism
Protestantism
in Europe
Europe
to restore unity in the Catholic Church. This effort concluded in 1648, as did the Reformation
Reformation
itself. Common historical consensus holds that the Reformation
Reformation
and the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
both ended in 1648, when the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
concluded with the Peace of Westphalia.

The Reformation
Reformation
& the Counter-Reformation—both at their end—and superimposed on modern European borders

Conclusion and legacy[edit] End of the Reformation[edit] There is no universal agreement on the exact or approximate date the Reformation
Reformation
ended. Various interpretations emphasize different dates, entire periods, or argue that the Reformation
Reformation
never really ended. However, there are a few popular interpretations that are used by large groups of observers.

Historically, the Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
is considered to be the event that ended the Reformation. This is the most commonly held interpretation; According to other historical interpretation, the Reformation
Reformation
could truly be considered to have ended in the middle 18th century, as the Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
did not specify, nor did it mean that it concluded; that is around time the First Great Awakening
Great Awakening
(1730–1755) took place. People who hold this interpretation often argue that the emergence of Pietism
Pietism
prolonged the Reformation
Reformation
up to this point; Some argue that the Reformation
Reformation
never ended as new groups have splintered from the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(e.g., Old Catholics, Polish National Catholic Church, etc.), as well as all the various Protestant churches that exist today. No group splintering from the Catholic Church since the 17th century has done so on the basis of the same issues animating the Reformation, however.

Thirty Years' War: 1618–1648[edit]

Treaty of Westphalia
Treaty of Westphalia
allowed Calvinism
Calvinism
to be freely exercised

The Reformation
Reformation
led to a series of religious wars that culminated in the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
(1618–1648), which devastated much of Germany, killing between 25% and 40% of its entire population.[53] Catholic House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
and its allies fought against the Protestant
Protestant
princes of Germany, supported at various times by Denmark, Sweden
Sweden
and France. The Habsburgs, who ruled Spain, Austria, the Crown of Bohemia, Hungary, Slovene Lands, the Spanish Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
and much of Germany and Italy, were staunch defenders of the Catholic Church. Some historians believe that the era of the Reformation
Reformation
came to a close when Catholic France
France
allied itself with Protestant
Protestant
states against the Habsburg dynasty. For the first time since the days of Martin Luther, political and national convictions again outweighed religious convictions in Europe.[citation needed] Two main tenets of the Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, were:

All parties would now recognise the Peace of Augsburg
Peace of Augsburg
of 1555, by which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state, the options being Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now Calvinism
Calvinism
(the principle of cuius regio, eius religio). Christians living in principalities where their denomination was not the established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will.

The treaty also effectively ended the Papacy's pan-European political power. Pope
Pope
Innocent X declared the treaty "null, void, invalid, iniquitous, unjust, damnable, reprobate, inane, empty of meaning and effect for all times" in his bull Zelo Domus Dei. European sovereigns, Catholic and Protestant
Protestant
alike, ignored his verdict.[54] Consequences of the Reformation[edit] The following outcomes of the Reformation
Reformation
regarding human capital formation, the Protestant
Protestant
ethic, economic development, governance, and "dark" outcomes have been identified by scholars:[24] Human capital
Human capital
formation[edit]

Higher literacy rates.[55] Lower gender gap in school enrollment and literacy rates.[56] Higher primary school enrollment.[57] Higher public spending on schooling and better educational performance of military conscripts.[58] Higher capability in reading, numeracy, essay writing, and history.[59]

Protestant
Protestant
ethic[edit]

More hours worked.[60] Divergent work attitudes of Protestant
Protestant
and Catholics.[61] Fewer referenda on leisure, state intervention, and redistribution in Swiss cantons with more Protestants.[62] Lower life satisfaction when unemployed.[63] Pro-market attitudes.[64] Income differences between Protestants and Catholics.[55]

Economic development[edit]

Different levels of income tax revenue per capita, % of labor force in manufacturing and services, and incomes of male elementary school teachers.[55] Growth of Protestant
Protestant
cities.[65][66] Greater entrepreneurship among religious minorities in Protestant states.[67][68] Different social ethics.[69]

Governance[edit]

The Reformation
Reformation
has been credited as a key factor in the development of the state system.[70][71] The Reformation
Reformation
has been credited as a key factor in the formation of transnational advocacy movements.[72] The Reformation
Reformation
impacted the Western legal tradition.[73] Establishment of State churches.[74] Poor relief and social welfare regimes.[75][76]

Negative outcomes[edit]

Witch trials became more common in areas where Protestants and Catholics contested the religious market.[77] Protestants were far more likely to vote for Nazis than their Catholic German counterparts.[78] Christopher J. Probst, in his book Demonizing the Jews: Luther and the Protestant
Protestant
Church in Nazi Germany (2012), shows that a large number of German Lutheran
Lutheran
clergy and theologians during the Nazi Third Reich used Luther's hostile publications towards the Jews and Judaism to justify at least in part the anti-Semitic policies of the National Socialists.[79] Higher suicide rate and greater suicide acceptability.[80][81]

Historiography[edit] Margaret C. Jacob argues that there has been a dramatic shift in the historiography of the Reformation. Until the 1960s, historians focused their attention largely on the great leaders and theologians of the 16th century, especially Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. Their ideas were studied in depth. However, the rise of the new social history in the 1960s look at history from the bottom up, not from the top down. Historians began to concentrate on the values, beliefs and behavior of the people at large. She finds, "in contemporary scholarship, the Reformation
Reformation
is now seen as a vast cultural upheaval, a social and popular movement, textured and rich because of its diversity."[82] Music and the Reformation[edit] Partly due to Martin Luther's love for music, music became important in Lutheranism. The study and practice of music was encouraged in Protestant
Protestant
countries. Songs such as the Lutheran
Lutheran
hymns, or the Calvinist
Calvinist
Psalter became tools for the spread of Protestant
Protestant
ideas and beliefs, as well as identity flags. Similar attitudes developed among Catholics, who in turn encouraged the creation and use of music for religious purposes.[83] See also[edit]

Religion portal Christianity
Christianity
portal Anabaptism
Anabaptism
portal Anglicanism
Anglicanism
portal Arminianism
Arminianism
portal Baptist portal Calvinism
Calvinism
portal Lutheranism
Lutheranism
portal

Anti-Catholicism Criticism of Protestantism Book
Book
of Concord Concordat of Worms Confessionalization Counter-Reformation, the Catholic response Free Grace theology Historiography of religion List of Protestant
Protestant
Reformers Propaganda during the Reformation Protestant
Protestant
culture

Notes[edit]

^ In the end, while the Reformation
Reformation
emphasis on Protestants reading the Scriptures was one factor in the development of literacy, the impact of printing itself, the wider availability of printed works at a cheaper price, and the increasing focus on education and learning as key factors in obtaining a lucrative post, were also significant contributory factors.[19] ^ In the first decade of the Reformation, Luther's message became a movement, and the output of religious pamphlets in Germany was at its height.[22] ^ See the entry on Joanes Leizarraga, the priest who did the translation. His manuscript is considered to be a cornerstone in Basque literature, and a pioneering attempt towards Basque language standardization.

References[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

Atkinson, Benedict; Fitzgerald, Brian (2014). "Printing, Reformation and Information Control". A Short History of Copyright: The Genie of Information. Springer. pp. 15–22. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-02075-4_3. ISBN 978-3-319-02074-7.  Bertoglio, Chiara (2017). Reforming Music. Music and the Religious Reformations of the Sixteenth Century. De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-052081-1.  Bray, Gerald (ed.). Documents of the English Reformation. James Clarke.  Cameron, Euan (2012). The European Reformation
Reformation
(Second ed.). Oxford University Press.  Cameron, Euan (1984). The Reformation
Reformation
of the Heretics: The Waldenses of the Alps, 1480–1580. Clarendon Press.  Church, Frederic C. (1931). "The Literature of the Italian Reformation". Journal of Modern History. 3 (3): 457–473. doi:10.1086/235763. JSTOR 1874959.  Cross, F. L., ed. (2005). "Westphalia, Peace of". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. [page needed] Douglas, J. D., ed. (1974). "Wycliffe, John". The New International Dictionary of the Christian Church. Paternoster Press.  Edwards, Jr.; Mark U. (1994). Printing, Propaganda, and Martin Luther.  Estep, William R (1986). Renaissance
Renaissance
& Reformation. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-0050-5.  Firpo, Massimo (2004). "The Italian Reformation". In Hsia, R. Po-chia. A Companion to the Reformation
Reformation
World. Blackwell. pp. 169–184.  Jacob, Margaret C. (1991). Living the Enlightenment: Freemasonry and Politics in Eighteenth-century Europe. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press.  MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2005). The Reformation.  Oberman, Heiko Augustinus; Walliser-Schwarzbart, Eileen (2006) [1982]. Luther: Man between God and the Devil. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10313-1.  Patrick, James (2007). Renaissance
Renaissance
and Reformation. New York: Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 9780761476504.  Pettegree, Andrew (2000). The Reformation
Reformation
World. Routledge. ISBN 9780203445273.  Pettegree, Andrew; Hall, Matthew (December 2004). "The Reformation
Reformation
and the Book: A Reconsideration". The Historical Journal. 47 (4): 785–808. doi:10.1017/S0018246X04003991. JSTOR 4091657. Retrieved 26 February 2014.  Rublack, Ulinka (2010). Dressing Up: Cultural Identity in Renaissance Europe. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press.  Rubin, Jared (2014). "Printing and Protestants: An Empirical Test of the Role of Printing in the Reformation". Review of Economics and Statistics. 96 (2): 270–286. doi:10.1162/REST_a_00368.  Schofield, John (2011). Martin Luther: A Concise History of His Life and Works. History Press Limited.  Weimer, Christoph (2004). "Luther and Cranach on Justification in Word and Image". Lutheran
Lutheran
Quarterly. 18 (4): 387–405.  Whaley, Joachim (2012). Germany and the Holy Roman Empire: Volume I: Maximilian I to the Peace of Westphalia, 1493–1648 (Oxford History of Early Modern Europe). Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0198731016.  Yarnell III, Malcolm B. (2014). Royal Priesthood in the English Reformation. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0199686254. 

Further reading[edit] Surveys[edit]

Appold, Kenneth G. The Reformation: A Brief History (2011) online Elton, G. R., ed. The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 2: The Reformation, 1520–1559 (1st ed. 1958) online free Gassmann, Günther, and Mark W. Oldenburg. Historical dictionary of Lutheranism
Lutheranism
(Scarecrow Press, 2011). Spalding, Martin (2010). The History of the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation; In Germany and Switzerland, and in England, Ireland, Scotland, the Netherlands, France, and Northern Europe. General Books LLC.  Sascha O. Becker, Steven Pfaff and Jared Rubin. Causes and Consequences of the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation
Reformation
(2015) online

Scholarly secondary resources[edit]

Bagchi, David, and David C. Steinmetz, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Reformation
Reformation
Theology (2004) Bainton, Roland (1952). The Reformation
Reformation
of the Sixteenth Century. Boston: The Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-1301-3.  Braaten, Carl E. and Robert W. Jenson. The Catholicity of the Reformation. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996. ISBN 0-8028-4220-8. Collinson, Patrick. The Reformation: A History (2006) Elton, Geoffrey R. and Andrew Pettegree, eds. Reformation
Reformation
Europe: 1517–1559 (1999) excerpt and text search Hillerbrand, Hans J. The Protestant
Protestant
Reformation
Reformation
(2nd ed. 2009) Hsia, R. Po-chia, ed. A Companion to the Reformation
Reformation
World (2006) Lindberg, Carter. The European Reformations (2nd ed. 2009) Naphy, William G. (2007). The Protestant
Protestant
Revolution: From Martin Luther to Martin Luther
Martin Luther
King Jr. BBC Books. ISBN 978-0-563-53920-9.  Payton, James R., Jr. Getting the Reformation
Reformation
Wrong: Correcting Some Misunderstandings (IVP Academic, 2010) Pelikan, Jaroslav (1984). Reformation
Reformation
of Church and Dogma (1300–1700). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-65377-3.  Spitz, Lewis William (2003). The Protestant
Protestant
Reformation: 1517–1559.

Primary sources in translation[edit]

Fosdick, Harry Emerson, ed. Great Voices of the Reformation
Reformation
[and of other putative reformers before and after it]: an Anthology, ed., with an introd. and commentaries, by Harry Emerson Fosdick. New York: Modern Library, 1952. xxx, 546 p. Janz, Denis, ed. A Reformation
Reformation
Reader: Primary Texts with Introductions (2008) excerpt and text search Luther, Martin Luther's Correspondence and Other Contemporary Letters, 2 vols., tr. and ed. by Preserved Smith, Charles Michael Jacobs, The Lutheran
Lutheran
Publication Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 1913, 1918. vol.2 (1521–1530) from Google Books. Reprint of Vol. 1, Wipf & Stock Publishers (March 2006). ISBN 1-59752-601-0. Spitz, Lewis W. The Protestant
Protestant
Reformation: Major Documents. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1997. ISBN 0-570-04993-8.

Historiography[edit]

Bates, Lucy (2010). "The Limits of Possibility in England's Long Reformation". Historical Journal. 53 (4): 1049–1070. doi:10.1017/S0018246X10000403. JSTOR 40930369.  Bradshaw, Brendan (1983). "The Reformation
Reformation
and the Counter-Reformation". History Today. 33 (11): 42–45.  Brady, Thomas A., Jr. (1991). "People's Religions in Reformation Europe". The Historical Journal. 24 (1): 173–182. JSTOR 2639713.  de Boer, Wietse (2009). "An Uneasy Reunion The Catholic World in Reformation
Reformation
Studies". Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte. 100 (1): 366–387. doi:10.14315/arg-2009-100-1-366.  Dickens, A. G.; Tonkin, John M., eds. (1985). The Reformation
Reformation
in Historical Thought. Harvard University Press,  443 pp. excerpt Dixon, C. Scott (2012). Contesting the Reformation.  Fritze, Ronald H. (2005). "The English Reformation: Obedience, Destruction and Cultural Adaptation". Journal of Ecclesiastical History. 56 (1): 107–115. doi:10.1017/S0022046904002106.  Haigh, Christopher (1982). "The recent historiography of the English Reformation". The Historical Journal. 25 (4): 995–1007. doi:10.1017/s0018246x00021385. JSTOR 2638647.  Haigh, Christopher (1990). "The English Reformation: A Premature Birth, a Difficult Labour and a Sickly Child". The Historical Journal. 33 (2): 449–459. doi:10.1017/s0018246x0001342x. JSTOR 2639467.  Haigh, Christopher (2002). "Catholicism in Early Modern England: Bossy and Beyond". The Historical Journal. 45 (2): 481–494. doi:10.1017/S0018246X02002479. JSTOR 3133654.  Heininen, Simo; Czaika, Otfried (2010). " Wittenberg
Wittenberg
Influences on the Reformation
Reformation
in Scandinavia". European History Online. Mainz: Institute of European History. Retrieved 17 December 2012.  Hsia, Po-Chia, ed. (2006). A Companion to the Reformation
Reformation
World.  Hsia, R. Po-chia (2004). " Reformation
Reformation
on the Continent: Approaches Old and New". Journal of Religious History. 28 (2): 162–170. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9809.2004.00212.x.  Hsia, R. Po-Chia (1987). "The Myth of the Commune: Recent Historiography on City and Reformation
Reformation
in Germany". Central European History. 20 (3): 203–215. doi:10.1017/s0008938900012061. JSTOR 4546103.  Karant-Nunn, Susan C. (2005). "Changing One's Mind: Transformations in Reformation
Reformation
History from a Germanist's Perspective". Renaissance Quarterly. 58 (2): 1101–1127. doi:10.1353/ren.2008.0933. JSTOR 10.1353/ren.2008.0933.  MacCulloch, Diarmaid (1995). "The Impact of the English Reformation". The Historical Journal. 38 (1): 151–153. doi:10.1017/s0018246x00016332. JSTOR 2640168.  MacCulloch, Diarmaid; Laven, Mary; Duffy, Eamon (2006). "Recent Trends in the Study of Christianity
Christianity
in Sixteenth-Century Europe". Renaissance Quarterly. 59 (3): 697–731. JSTOR 10.1353/ren.2008.0381.  Marnef, Guido (2009). "Belgian and Dutch Post-war Historiography on the Protestant
Protestant
and Catholic Reformation
Reformation
in the Netherlands". Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte. 100 (1): 271–292. doi:10.14315/arg-2009-100-1-271.  Marshall, Peter (2009). "(Re)defining the English Reformation". Journal of British Studies. 48 (3): 564–586. doi:10.1086/600128. JSTOR 27752571.  Menchi, Silvana Seidel (2009). "The Age of Reformation
Reformation
and Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
in Italian Historiography, 1939–2009". Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte. 100 (1): 193–217. doi:10.14315/arg-2009-100-1-193.  Nieden, Marcel (2012). "The Wittenberg
Wittenberg
Reformation
Reformation
as a Media Event". European History Online. Mainz: Institute of European History. Retrieved 17 December 2012.  Scott, Tom (1991). "The Common People in the German Reformation". The Historical Journal. 24 (1): 183–192. JSTOR 2639714.  Scott, Tom (2008). "The Reformation
Reformation
between Deconstruction and Reconstruction: Reflections on Recent Writings on the German Reformation". German History. 26 (3): 406–422. doi:10.1093/gerhis/ghn027.  Walsham, Alexandra (2008). "The Reformation
Reformation
and 'The Disenchantment of the World' Reassessed". Historical Journal. 51 (2): 497–528. doi:10.1017/S0018246X08006808. JSTOR 20175171.  Wiesner-Hanks, Merry (2009). "Gender and the Reformation". Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte. 100 (1): 350–365. doi:10.14315/arg-2009-100-1-350. 

External links[edit]

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Timeline Henry VIII Cranmer Settlement 39 Articles Common Prayer Puritans Civil War

Anabaptism

Radical Reformation Grebel Swiss Brethren Müntzer Martyrs' Synod Menno Simons Smyth

1640–1789

Revivalism English denominations Baptists Congregationalism First Great Awakening Methodism Millerism Pietism Neo- and Old Lutherans

1789–present

Camp meeting Holiness movement Independent Catholic denominations Second Great Awakening Restoration Movement Jehovah's Witnesses Mormonism Seventh-day Adventist Adventism Third Great Awakening Azusa Revival Fundamentalism Ecumenism Evangelicalism Jesus
Jesus
movement Mainline Protestant Pentecostalism Charismatics Liberation theology Christian right Christian left Genocide by ISIL

Timeline Missions Timeline Martyrs Theology Eastern Orthodoxy Oriental Orthodoxy Protestantism Catholicism

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Martin Luther

Works (hymns)

Ninety-five Theses
Ninety-five Theses
(1517) Sermon
Sermon
on Indulgences
Indulgences
and Grace (1518) To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (1520) On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church
On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church
(1520) On the Freedom of a Christian (1520) Against Henry, King of the English (1522) Luther Bible
Luther Bible
(1522, 1534) The Adoration of the Sacrament (1523) Formula missae (1523) Hymns

First Lutheran
Lutheran
hymnal (1524) Erfurt Enchiridion (1524) Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn
Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn
(1524)

Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants (1525) On the Bondage of the Will
On the Bondage of the Will
(1525) The Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ—Against the Fanatics (1526) Deutsche Messe
Deutsche Messe
(1526) Confession Concerning Christ's Supper (1528) On War Against the Turk (1529) Small Catechism (1529) Large Catechism (1529) "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" (1529) Smalcald Articles
Smalcald Articles
(1537) On the Councils and the Church (1539) "Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam" (1543) On the Jews and Their Lies
On the Jews and Their Lies
(1543) Vom Schem Hamphoras
Vom Schem Hamphoras
(1543) List of hymns by Martin Luther Luther's Table Talk (1566) Weimar edition of Luther's works

Topics and events

Reformation Lutheranism Heidelberg Disputation, 1518 Leipzig Debate, 1519 Exsurge Domine, 1520 Diet of Worms, 1521 Decet Romanum Pontificem, 1521 Marburg Colloquy, 1529 Augsburg Confession, 1530 Luther's canon Theology of Martin Luther

Theology of the Cross Universal priesthood Sola scriptura Two kingdoms Law and Gospel Marian theology

Eucharist
Eucharist
in Lutheranism

Sacramental union Words of Institution

Antisemitism Propaganda during the Reformation Die Lügend von S. Johanne Chrysostomo (1537 edition)

People

Hans and Margarethe Luther (parents) Katharina von Bora
Katharina von Bora
(wife) Magdalena Luther
Magdalena Luther
(daughter) Paul Luther
Paul Luther
(son) Albert of Brandenburg Bartholomaeus Arnoldi Erasmus Georg Rörer Johann Cochlaeus Johann von Staupitz Justus Jonas Karl von Miltitz Andreas Karlstadt Philip Melanchthon Pope
Pope
Leo X Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick the Wise

Luther sites

All Saints' Church, Wittenberg Lutherhaus Lutherstädte Martin Luther's Birth House Martin Luther's Death House Melanchthonhaus (Wittenberg) St. Augustine's Monastery Veste Coburg
Veste Coburg
(Fortress) Wartburg
Wartburg
Castle

Film and theatre

Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1923 film) Luther (1928 film) Luther (1964 film) Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1953 film) Luther (1973 film) Martin Luther, Heretic (1983 film) Luther (2003 film) Luther (1961 play)

Related

Martin Luther
Martin Luther
bibliography Book:Martin Luther Luther rose Theologia Germanica

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History of Europe

Prehistory

Paleolithic Europe Neolithic Europe Bronze Age Europe Iron Age Europe

Classical antiquity

Classical Greece Roman Republic Hellenistic period Roman Empire Early Christianity Crisis of the Third Century Fall of the Western Roman Empire Late antiquity

Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages Migration Period Christianization Francia Byzantine Empire Maritime republics Viking Age Kievan Rus' Holy Roman Empire High Middle Ages Feudalism Crusades Mongol invasion Late Middle Ages Hundred Years' War Kalmar Union Renaissance

Early modern

Reformation Age of Discovery Baroque Thirty Years' War Absolute monarchy Ottoman Empire Portuguese Empire Spanish Empire Early modern France Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Swedish Empire Dutch Republic British Empire Habsburg Monarchy Russian Empire Age of Enlightenment

Modern

Great Divergence Industrial Revolution French Revolution Napoleonic Wars Nationalism Revolutions of 1848 World War I Russian Revolution Interwar period World War II Cold War European integration

See also

Art of Europe Genetic history of Europe History of the Mediterranean region History of the European Union History of Western civilization Maritime history of Europe Military history of Europe

Authority control

LCCN: sh85112228 GND: 4048946-2 HDS: 1

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