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(i) (i) (i) (i)

Coordinates : 10°S 76°W / 10°S 76°W / -10; -76

Republic
Republic
of Peru República del Perú (Spanish )

Flag Coat of arms

MOTTO: "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union"

ANTHEM: Himno Nacional del Perú (Spanish) National Anthem of Peru

NATIONAL SEAL : Gran Sello del Estado (Spanish) Great Seal of the State

Location of Peru
Peru
(dark green)

in South America
South America
(grey)

Capital and largest city Lima
Lima
12°2.6′S 77°1.7′W / 12.0433°S 77.0283°W / -12.0433; -77.0283

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE Spanish

CO-OFFICIAL LANGUAGES

* Quechua * Aymara

ETHNIC GROUPS (2017)

* 45% Amerindian * 37% Mestizo
Mestizo
* 15% White * 1,3% Black (afro-peruvian) * 1,2% Asian (most: chinese and japanese) * 0,5% others

DEMONYM Peruvian

GOVERNMENT Unitary semi-presidential republic

• PRESIDENT Pedro Pablo Kuczynski

• 1ST VICE PRESIDENT Martín Vizcarra

• 2ND VICE PRESIDENT Mercedes Aráoz

• PRIME MINISTER Mercedes Aráoz

LEGISLATURE Congress of the Republic
Republic

INDEPENDENCE FROM THE KINGDOM OF SPAIN

• DECLARED 28 July 1821

• CONSOLIDATED 9 December 1824

• RECOGNIZED 14 August 1879

AREA

• TOTAL 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi) (19th )

• WATER (%) 0.41

POPULATION

• 2018 ESTIMATE 32,553,697 (41rd )

• 2007 CENSUS 28,220,764

• DENSITY 23/km2 (59.6/sq mi)

GDP (PPP ) 2018 estimate

• TOTAL $479.811 billion (38th )

• PER CAPITA $13,962 (92nd )

GDP (NOMINAL) 2018 estimate

• TOTAL $285.412 billion (42nd )

• PER CAPITA $6,892 (87th )

GINI (2015) 44.3 medium

HDI (2015) 0.740 high · 87th

CURRENCY Sol (PEN )

TIME ZONE PET (UTC −5)

DATE FORMAT dd.mm.yyyy (CE )

DRIVES ON THE right

CALLING CODE +51

ISO 3166 CODE PE

INTERNET TLD .pe

* ^ Quechua , Aymara and other indigenous languages are co-official in the areas where they predominate.

PERU (/pəˈruː/ ( listen ); Spanish: Perú ; Quechua : Piruw ; Aymara : Piruw ), officially the REPUBLIC OF PERU (Spanish : República del Perú (help ·info )), is a country in western South America . It is bordered in the north by Ecuador
Ecuador
and Colombia
Colombia
, in the east by Brazil
Brazil
, in the southeast by Bolivia
Bolivia
, in the south by Chile
Chile
, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. Peru
Peru
is an extremely biodiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes
Andes
mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin
Amazon Basin
rainforest in the east with the Amazon river .

Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures , ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas, to the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
, the largest and most sophisticated state in pre-Columbian America . The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima
Lima
. Peru
Peru
formally proclaimed independence in 1821, and following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar , and the decisive battle of Ayacucho
Ayacucho
, Peru
Peru
secured independence in 1824 . In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability , which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific
Pacific
with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru
Peru
endured armed territorial disputes, coups, social unrest, and internal conflicts , as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.

Peru
Peru
is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions . It is a developing country with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent. It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing. The country forms part of The Pacific Pumas
The Pacific Pumas
, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America’s Pacific
Pacific
coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru
Peru
ranks high in social freedom ; it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation , UNASUR , the Pacific Alliance and the World Trade Organization ; and is considered as a middle power .

Peru
Peru
has a multiethnic population of over 31 million, which includes Amerindians , Europeans , Africans and Asians . The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua , Aymara or other native languages . This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Prehistory and pre-Columbian period * 2.2 Conquest and colonial period * 2.3 Independence * 2.4 19th century to present

* 3 Government and politics

* 3.1 Government * 3.2 Foreign relations * 3.3 Military
Military
and law enforcement

* 3.4 Administrative divisions

* 3.4.1 Regions * 3.4.2 Province * 3.4.3 Metropolitan areas

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Climate * 4.2 Wildlife

* 5 Economy and infrastructure

* 5.1 Water
Water
supply and sanitation

* 6 Demographics

* 6.1 Urbanization * 6.2 Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
* 6.3 Population * 6.4 Language * 6.5 Religion

* 7 Toponyms * 8 Culture * 9 See also * 10 Notes and references * 11 Bibliography * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel , Panama
Panama
, in the early 16th century. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú.

An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega , son of an Inca princess and a conquistador. He said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila , and went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language.

The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo , which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru , which became Republic of Peru
Peru
after independence .

HISTORY

Main article: History of Peru

PREHISTORY AND PRE-COLUMBIAN PERIOD

Main article: Ancient Peru A Moche ceramic vessel from the 5th century depicting a man's head. Piquillacta , Wari culture .

The earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC . Andean
Andean
societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing ; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization , flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal and Andean
Andean
regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific
Pacific
Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavin de Huantar . After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell, both on the coast and in the highlands, during the next thousand years. On the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas , Nazca , Wari , and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica . The Mochica, who reached their apogee in the first millennium AD, were renowned for their irrigation system which fertilized their arid terrain, their sophisticated ceramic pottery, their lofty buildings, and clever metalwork. The Chimu were the great city builders of pre-Inca civilization; as loose confederation of cities scattered along the coast of northern Peru
Peru
and southern Ecuador, the Chimu flourished from about 1150 to 1450. Their capital was at Chan Chan
Chan Chan
outside of modern-day Trujillo . In the highlands, both the Tiahuanaco culture, near Lake Titicaca
Lake Titicaca
in both Peru
Peru
and Bolivia
Bolivia
, and the Wari culture , near the present-day city of Ayacucho
Ayacucho
, developed large urban settlements and wide-ranging state systems between 500 and 1000 AD. The citadel of Machu Picchu , an iconic symbol of pre-Columbian Peru
Peru

In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in Cusco
Cusco
. The Incas of Cusco
Cusco
originally represented one of the small and relatively minor ethnic groups, the Quechuas . Gradually, as early as the thirteenth century, they began to expand and incorporate their neighbors. Inca expansion was slow until about the middle of the fifteenth century, when the pace of conquest began to accelerate, particularly under the rule of the great emperor Pachacuti . Under his rule and that of his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui , the Incas came to control most of the Andean
Andean
region, with a population of 9 to 16 million inhabitants under their rule. Pachacuti also promulgated a comprehensive code of laws to govern his far-flung empire, while consolidating his absolute temporal and spiritual authority as the God of the Sun who ruled from a magnificently rebuilt Cusco. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean
Andean
mountain ranges, from southern Colombia
Colombia
to Chile
Chile
, between the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
in the west and the Amazon rainforest
Amazon rainforest
in the east. The official language of the empire was Quechua , although hundreds of local languages and dialects were spoken. The Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu which can be translated as "The Four Regions" or "The Four United Provinces." Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas , but the Inca leadership encouraged the worship of Inti , the sun god and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama
Pachamama
. The Incas considered their King, the Sapa Inca , to be the "child of the sun ."

CONQUEST AND COLONIAL PERIOD

Main articles: Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
and Viceroyalty of Peru
Peru
Cusco
Cusco
Trujillo Main façade of the Cathedral of Lima
Lima
and the Archbishop\'s palace

Atahualpa, the last Sapa Inca became emperor when he defeated and executed his older half-brother Huascar in a civil war sparked by the death of their father, Inca Huayna Capac. In December 1532, a party of conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated and captured the Inca Emperor Atahualpa in the Battle of Cajamarca . The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas
Americas
. After years of preliminary exploration and military conflicts, it was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting but ended in Spanish victory and colonization of the region known as the Viceroyalty of Peru with its capital at Lima
Lima
, which became known as "The City of Kings". The conquest of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
led to spin-off campaigns throughout the viceroyalty as well as expeditions towards the Amazon Basin
Amazon Basin
as in the case of Spanish efforts to quell Amerindian resistance. The last Inca resistance was suppressed when the Spaniards annihilated the Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba in 1572.

The indigenous population dramatically collapsed due to exploitation, socioeconomic change and epidemic diseases introduced by the Spanish. Exploitation and socioeconomic change also contributed to the collapse. Viceroy Francisco de Toledo reorganized the country in the 1570s with gold and silver mining as its main economic activity and Amerindian forced labor as its primary workforce. With the discovery of the great silver and gold lodes at Potosí (present-day Bolivia) and Huancavelica , the viceroyalty flourished as an important provider of mineral resources. Peruvian bullion provided revenue for the Spanish Crown and fueled a complex trade network that extended as far as Europe and the Philippines
Philippines
. Because of lack of available work force, African slaves were added to the labor population. The expansion of a colonial administrative apparatus and bureaucracy paralleled the economic reorganization. With the conquest started the spread of Christianity in South America; most people were forcefully converted to Catholicism, taking only a generation to convert the population. They built churches in every city and replaced some of the Inca temples with churches, such as the Coricancha
Coricancha
in the city of Cusco. The church employed the Inquisition
Inquisition
, making use of torture to ensure that newly converted Catholics did not stray to other religions or beliefs. Peruvian Catholicism follows the syncretism found in many Latin American countries, in which religious native rituals have been integrated with Christian celebrations. In this endeavor, the church came to play an important role in the acculturation of the natives, drawing them into the cultural orbit of the Spanish settlers.

By the 18th century, declining silver production and economic diversification greatly diminished royal income. In response, the Crown enacted the Bourbon Reforms , a series of edicts that increased taxes and partitioned the Viceroyalty. The new laws provoked Túpac Amaru II 's rebellion and other revolts, all of which were suppressed. As a result of these and other changes, the Spaniards and their creole successors came to monopolize control over the land, seizing many of the best lands abandoned by the massive native depopulation. However, the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian. The Treaty of Tordesillas was rendered meaningless between 1580 and 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal . The need to ease communication and trade with Spain led to the split of the viceroyalty and the creation of new viceroyalties of New Granada and Rio de la Plata at the expense of the territories that formed the viceroyalty of Peru; this reduced the power, prominence and importance of Lima
Lima
as the viceroyal capital and shifted the lucrative Andean
Andean
trade to Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
and Bogotá
Bogotá
, while the fall of the mining and textile production accelerated the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

Eventually, the viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish empire, when challenged by national independence movements at the beginning of the nineteenth century. These movements led to the formation of the majority of modern-day countries of South America
South America
in the territories that at one point or another had constituted the Viceroyalty of Peru. The conquest and colony brought a mix of cultures and ethnicities that did not exist before the Spanish conquered the Peruvian territory. Even though many of the Inca traditions were lost or diluted, new customs, traditions and knowledge were added, creating a rich mixed Peruvian culture.

INDEPENDENCE

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Main article: Peruvian War of Independence The Battle of Ayacucho
Ayacucho
was decisive in ensuring Peruvian independence.

In the early 19th century, while most of South America
South America
was swept by wars of independence , Peru
Peru
remained a royalist stronghold. As the elite vacillated between emancipation and loyalty to the Spanish Monarchy, independence was achieved only after the occupation by military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar .

The economic crises, the loss of power of Spain in Europe, the war of independence in North America and native uprisings all contributed to a favorable climate to the development of emancipating ideas among the criollo population in South America. However, the criollo oligarchy in Peru
Peru
enjoyed privileges and remained loyal to the Spanish Crown. The liberation movement started in Argentina
Argentina
where autonomous juntas were created as a result of the loss of authority of the Spanish government over its colonies.

After fighting for the independence of the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata, José de San Martín created the Army of the Andes
Andes
and crossed the Andes
Andes
in 21 days, a great accomplishment in military history. Once in Chile
Chile
he joined forces with Chilean army General Bernardo O’Higgins and liberated the country in the battles of Chacabuco and Maipú in 1818. On 7 September 1820, a fleet of eight warships arrived in the port of Paracas under the command of general Jose de San Martin and Thomas Cochrane , who was serving in the Chilean Navy. Immediately on 26 October they took control of the town of Pisco . San Martin settled in Huacho
Huacho
on 12 November, where he established his headquarters while Cochrane sailed north blockading the port of Callao in Lima. At the same time in the north, Guayaquil was occupied by rebel forces under the command of Gregorio Escobedo. Because Peru
Peru
was the stronghold of the Spanish government in South America, San Martin’s strategy to liberate Peru
Peru
was to use diplomacy. He sent representatives to Lima
Lima
urging the Viceroy that Peru
Peru
be granted independence, however all negotiations proved unsuccessful. San Martín proclaiming the independence of Peru. Painting by Juan Lepiani

The Viceroy of Peru, Joaquin de la Pazuela named Jose de la Serna commander-in-chief of the loyalist army to protect Lima
Lima
from the threatened invasion of San Martin. On 29 January, de la Serna organized a coup against de la Pazuela which was recognized by Spain and he was named Viceroy of Peru. This internal power struggle contributed to the success of the liberating army. In order to avoid a military confrontation San Martin met the newly appointed viceroy, Jose de la Serna, and proposed to create a constitutional monarchy, a proposal that was turned down. De la Serna abandoned the city and on 12 July 1821 San Martin occupied Lima
Lima
and declared Peruvian independence on 28 July 1821. He created the first Peruvian flag. Alto Peru
Peru
(Bolivia) remained as a Spanish stronghold until the army of Simón Bolívar liberated it three years later. Jose de San Martin was declared Protector of Peru. Peruvian national identity was forged during this period, as Bolivarian projects for a Latin American Confederation floundered and a union with Bolivia
Bolivia
proved ephemeral.

Simon Bolivar launched his campaign from the north liberating the Viceroyalty of New Granada
Viceroyalty of New Granada
in the Battles of Carabobo in 1821 and Pichincha a year later. In July 1822 Bolivar and San Martin gathered in the Guayaquil Conference . Bolivar was left in charge of fully liberating Peru
Peru
while San Martin retired from politics after the first parliament was assembled. The newly founded Peruvian Congress named Bolivar dictator of Peru
Peru
giving him the power to organize the military.

With the help of Antonio José de Sucre they defeated the larger Spanish army in the Battle of Junín on 6 August 1824 and the decisive Battle of Ayacucho on 9 December of the same year, consolidating the independence of Peru
Peru
and Alto Peru. Alto Peru was later established as Bolivia
Bolivia
. During the early years of the Republic, endemic struggles for power between military leaders caused political instability.

19TH CENTURY TO PRESENT

The Battle of Angamos , during the War of the Pacific

From the 1840s to the 1860s, Peru
Peru
enjoyed a period of stability under the presidency of Ramón Castilla , through increased state revenues from guano exports. However, by the 1870s, these resources had been depleted, the country was heavily indebted, and political in-fighting was again on the rise. Peru
Peru
embarked on a railroad-building program that helped but also bankrupted the country. In 1879, Peru
Peru
entered the War of the Pacific which lasted until 1884. Bolivia
Bolivia
invoked its alliance with Peru
Peru
against Chile. The Peruvian Government tried to mediate the dispute by sending a diplomatic team to negotiate with the Chilean government, but the committee concluded that war was inevitable. Chile
Chile
declared war on 5 April 1879. Almost five years of war ended with the loss of the department of Tarapacá and the provinces of Tacna and Arica , in the Atacama region. Two outstanding military leaders throughout the war were Francisco Bolognesi and Miguel Grau . Originally Chile
Chile
committed to a referendum for the cities of Arica and Tacna to be held years later, in order to self determine their national affiliation. However, Chile
Chile
refused to apply the Treaty, and neither of the countries could determine the statutory framework. After the War of the Pacific, an extraordinary effort of rebuilding began. The government started to initiate a number of social and economic reforms in order to recover from the damage of the war. Political stability was achieved only in the early 1900s.

Internal struggles after the war were followed by a period of stability under the Civilista Party , which lasted until the onset of the authoritarian regime of Augusto B. Leguía . The Great Depression caused the downfall of Leguía, renewed political turmoil, and the emergence of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA). The rivalry between this organization and a coalition of the elite and the military defined Peruvian politics for the following three decades. A final peace treaty in 1929, signed between Peru
Peru
and Chile
Chile
called the Treaty of Lima
Lima
, returned Tacna to Peru. Between 1932 and 1933, Peru was engulfed in a year-long war with Colombia
Colombia
over a territorial dispute involving the Amazonas department and its capital Leticia . Later, in 1941, Peru
Peru
became involved in the Ecuadorian-Peruvian War , after which the Rio Protocol sought to formalize the boundary between those two countries. In a military coup on 29 October 1948, Gen. Manuel A. Odria became president. Odría's presidency was known as the Ochenio. Momentarily pleasing the oligarchy and all others on the right, but followed a populist course that won him great favor with the poor and lower classes. A thriving economy allowed him to indulge in expensive but crowd-pleasing social policies. At the same time, however, civil rights were severely restricted and corruption was rampant throughout his régime. Odría was succeeded by Manuel Prado Ugarteche . However, widespread allegations of fraud prompted the Peruvian military to depose Prado and install a military junta, led by Ricardo Pérez Godoy
Ricardo Pérez Godoy
. Godoy ran a short transitional government and held new elections in 1963, which were won by Fernando Belaúnde Terry who assumed presidency until 1968. Belaúnde was recognized for his commitment to the democratic process. In 1968, the Armed Forces, led by General Juan Velasco Alvarado , staged a coup against Belaúnde. Alvarado's regime undertook radical reforms aimed at fostering development, but failed to gain widespread support. In 1975, General Francisco Morales Bermúdez forcefully replaced Velasco, paralyzed reforms, and oversaw the reestablishment of democracy. Areas where the Shining Path
Shining Path
was active in Peru
Peru

Peru
Peru
engaged in a brief successful conflict with Ecuador
Ecuador
in the Paquisha War as a result of territorial dispute between the two countries. After the country experienced chronic inflation , the Peruvian currency, the sol , was replaced by the Inti in mid-1985, which itself was replaced by the nuevo sol in July 1991, at which time the new sol had a cumulative value of one billion old soles. The per capita annual income of Peruvians fell to $720 (below the level of 1960) and Peru's GDP dropped 20% at which national reserves were a negative $900 million. The economic turbulence of the time acerbated social tensions in Peru
Peru
and partly contributed to the rise of violent rebel rural insurgent movements, like Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) and MRTA , which caused great havoc throughout the country. Concerned about the economy, the increasing terrorist threat from Sendero Luminoso and MRTA, and allegations of official corruption, Alberto Fujimori assumed presidency in 1990. Fujimori implemented drastic measures that caused inflation to drop from 7,650% in 1990 to 139% in 1991. Faced with opposition to his reform efforts, Fujimori dissolved Congress in the auto-golpe ("self-coup") of 5 April 1992. He then revised the constitution; called new congressional elections; and implemented substantial economic reform, including privatization of numerous state-owned companies, creation of an investment-friendly climate, and sound management of the economy. Fujimori's administration was dogged by insurgent groups, most notably the Sendero Luminoso , who carried out terrorist campaigns across the country throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Fujimori cracked down on the insurgents and was successful in largely quelling them by the late 1990s, but the fight was marred by atrocities committed by both the Peruvian security forces and the insurgents: the Barrios Altos massacre and La Cantuta massacre by Government paramilitary groups, and the bombings of Tarata and Frecuencia Latina by Sendero Luminoso. Those incidents subsequently came to symbolize the human rights violations committed in the last years of violence. Lima, 2009

During early 1995, once again Peru
Peru
and Ecuador
Ecuador
clashed in the Cenepa War , but in 1998 the governments of both nations signed a peace treaty that clearly demarcated the international boundary between them. In November 2000, Fujimori resigned from office and went into a self-imposed exile, avoiding prosecution for human rights violations and corruption charges by the new Peruvian authorities. Since the end of the Fujimori regime, Peru
Peru
has tried to fight corruption while sustaining economic growth. In spite of human rights progress since the time of insurgency, many problems are still visible and show the continued marginalization of those who suffered through the violence of the Peruvian conflict.

A caretaker government presided over by Valentín Paniagua took on the responsibility of conducting new presidential and congressional elections. Afterwards Alejandro Toledo
Alejandro Toledo
became president in 2001 to 2006.

On 28 July 2006 former president Alan García became President of Peru
Peru
after winning the 2006 elections . In May 2008, Peru
Peru
became a member of the Union of South American Nations .

On 5 June 2011, Ollanta Humala was elected President. During his presidency, Prime Minister Ana Jara
Ana Jara
and her cabinet were successfully censured , which was the first time in 50 years that a cabinet had been forced to resign from the Peruvian legislature.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

Main article: Politics of Peru Congress sits in the Palacio Legislativo in Lima.

GOVERNMENT

Main article: Government of Peru

Peru
Peru
is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system . Under the current constitution, the President is both head of state and government ; he or she is elected for five years and cannot serve consecutive terms. The President designates the Prime Minister and, on his or her advice, the rest of the Council of Ministers . The Congress of the Republic
Republic
is unicameral with 130 members elected for five-year terms. Bills may be proposed by either the executive or the legislative branch; they become law after being passed by Congress and promulgated by the President. The judiciary is nominally independent, though political intervention into judicial matters has been common throughout history and arguably continues in modern day.

The Peruvian government is directly elected , and voting is compulsory for all citizens aged 18 to 70. Congress is currently composed of Fuerza Popular (72 seats), Peruanos Por el Kambio (17 seats), Frente Amplio (20 seats), Alianza para el Progreso (9 seats), Acción Popular (5 seats) and APRA (5 seats).

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Main article: Foreign relations of Peru President of Peru, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (left), with Argentina's president Mauricio Macri , 2017

Peruvian foreign relations have historically been dominated by border conflicts with neighboring countries, most of which were settled during the 20th century. Recently, Peru
Peru
disputed its maritime limits with Chile
Chile
in the Pacific
Pacific
Ocean. Peru
Peru
is an active member of several regional blocs and one of the founders of the Andean
Andean
Community of Nations . It is also a participant in international organizations such as the Organization of American States and the United Nations
United Nations
. Javier Pérez de Cuéllar served as UN Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. Former President Fujimori’s tainted re-election to a third term in June 2000 strained Peru's relations with the United States
United States
and with many Latin American and European countries, but relations improved with the installation of an interim government in November 2000 and the inauguration of Alejandro Toledo
Alejandro Toledo
in July 2001 after free and fair elections.

Peru
Peru
is planning full integration into the Andean
Andean
Free Trade Area . In addition, Peru
Peru
is a standing member of APEC
APEC
and the World Trade Organization , and is an active participant in negotiations toward a Free Trade Area of the Americas
Free Trade Area of the Americas
(FTAA).

MILITARY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

Main article: Peruvian Armed Forces

The Peruvian Armed Forces are the military services of Peru, comprising independent Army , Navy and Air Force components. Their primary mission is to safeguard the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country. As a secondary mission they participate in economic and social development as well as in civil defense tasks. Conscription was abolished in 1999 and replaced by voluntary military service . The armed forces are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense and to the President as Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
.

The National Police of Peru is often classified as a part of the armed forces. Although in fact it has a different organization and a wholly civil mission, its training and activities over more than two decades as an anti-terrorist force have produced markedly military characteristics, giving it the appearance of a virtual fourth military service with significant land, sea and air capabilities and approximately 140,000 personnel. The Peruvian armed forces report through the Ministry of Defense, while the National Police of Peru reports through the Ministry of Interior.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Ama zonas Ancash Apurímac Arequipa
Arequipa
Ayacucho
Ayacucho
Caja marca Cusco
Cusco
Huánuco
Huánuco
Huanca velica Ica Junín La Libertad Lamba yeque Lima
Lima
Lima Province Callao
Callao
Loreto Madre de Dios Moquegua Pasco Piura Puno Tacna Tumbes San Martín Ucayali Clickable map of the regions of Peru
Peru
Main article: Administrative divisions of Peru

Peru
Peru
is divided into 25 regions and the province of Lima
Lima
. Each region has an elected government composed of a president and council that serve four-year terms. These governments plan regional development, execute public investment projects, promote economic activities, and manage public property. The province of Lima
Lima
is administered by a city council. The goal of devolving power to regional and municipal governments was among others to improve popular participation. NGOs played an important role in the decentralization process and still influence local politics.

Regions

* Amazonas * Ancash * Apurímac * Arequipa
Arequipa
* Ayacucho
Ayacucho
* Cajamarca * Callao
Callao
* Cuzco * Huancavelica * Huánuco
Huánuco
* Ica * Junín * La Libertad * Lambayeque * Lima
Lima
Region * Loreto * Madre de Dios * Moquegua * Pasco * Piura * Puno * San Martín * Tacna * Tumbes * Ucayali

Province

* Lima
Lima
Province

Metropolitan Areas

See also: List of metropolitan areas of Peru

Several metropolitan areas are defined for Peru
Peru
- these overlap the district areas, and have limited authority. The largest of them, the Lima
Lima
Metropolitan Area , is the seventh largest metropolis in the Americas
Americas
.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Peru Manú National Park , a biosphere reserve in the Peruvian Amazon , and Alpamayo
Alpamayo
, a mountain peak in the Huascarán National Park Peru
Peru
map of Köppen climate classification

Peru
Peru
covers 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi) of western South America. It borders Ecuador
Ecuador
and Colombia
Colombia
to the north, Brazil
Brazil
to the east, Bolivia
Bolivia
to the southeast, Chile
Chile
to the south, and the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the west. The Andes mountains run parallel to the Pacific
Pacific
Ocean; they define the three regions traditionally used to describe the country geographically. The costa (coast), to the west, is a narrow plain, largely arid except for valleys created by seasonal rivers. The sierra (highlands) is the region of the Andes; it includes the Altiplano plateau as well as the highest peak of the country, the 6,768 m (22,205 ft) Huascarán . The third region is the selva (jungle), a wide expanse of flat terrain covered by the Amazon rainforest
Amazon rainforest
that extends east. Almost 60 percent of the country's area is located within this region.

Most Peruvian rivers originate in the peaks of the Andes
Andes
and drain into one of three basins . Those that drain toward the Pacific
Pacific
Ocean are steep and short, flowing only intermittently. Tributaries of the Amazon River
Amazon River
have a much larger flow, and are longer and less steep once they exit the sierra. Rivers that drain into Lake Titicaca
Lake Titicaca
are generally short and have a large flow. Peru's longest rivers are the Ucayali , the Marañón , the Putumayo , the Yavarí , the Huallaga , the Urubamba , the Mantaro , and the Amazon.

The largest lake in Peru
Peru
, Lake Titicaca
Lake Titicaca
between Peru
Peru
and Bolivia high in the Andes, is also the largest of South America
South America
. The largest reservoirs , all in the coastal region of Peru, are the Poechos , Tinajones, San Lorenzo, and El Fraile reservoirs.

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of Peru

The combination of tropical latitude, mountain ranges, topography variations, and two ocean currents (Humboldt and El Niño ) gives Peru a large diversity of climates. The coastal region has moderate temperatures, low precipitations, and high humidity, except for its warmer, wetter northern reaches. In the mountain region, rain is frequent in summer, and temperature and humidity diminish with altitude up to the frozen peaks of the Andes. The Peruvian Amazon is characterized by heavy rainfall and high temperatures, except for its southernmost part, which has cold winters and seasonal rainfall.

WILDLIFE

Main article: Wildlife of Peru Indigenous mother and child with two alpacas in Peru
Peru

Because of its varied geography and climate, Peru
Peru
has a high biodiversity with 21,462 species of plants and animals reported as of 2003, 5,855 of them endemic . Peru
Peru
has over 1,800 species of birds (120 endemic), and 500 species of mammals and over 300 species of reptiles . The hundreds of mammals include rare species like the puma , jaguar and spectacled bear . The Birds of Peru
Peru
produce large amounts of guano , an economically important export. The Pacific
Pacific
holds large quantities of sea bass , flounder , anchovies , tuna , crustaceans , and shellfish , and is home to many sharks , sperm whales , and whales .

Peru
Peru
also has an equally diverse flora . The coastal deserts produce little more than cacti , apart from hilly fog oases and river valleys that contain unique plant life. The Highlands above the tree-line known as puna is home to bushes, cactus , drought-resistant plants such as ichu , and the largest species of bromeliad - the spectacular Puya raimondii .

The cloud-forest slopes of the Andes
Andes
sustain moss , orchids , and bromeliads, and the Amazon rainforest
Amazon rainforest
is known for its variety of trees and canopy plants.

ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

Main article: Economy of Peru Buildings in Lima's financial district of San Isidro , and the Callao
Callao
seaport, Peru's main export outlet

The economy of Peru
Peru
is the 48th largest in the world (ranked by PPP), and the income level is classified as upper middle by the World Bank. Peru
Peru
is, as of 2011 , one of the world's fastest-growing economies owing to the economic boom experienced during the 2000s. It has an above-average Human Development Index
Human Development Index
of .74 which has seen steady improvement over the last 25 years. Historically, the country's economic performance has been tied to exports, which provide hard currency to finance imports and external debt payments. Although they have provided substantial revenue, self-sustained growth and a more egalitarian distribution of income have proven elusive. According to 2015 data, 19.3% of its total population is poor, including 9% that lives in extreme poverty. Inflation
Inflation
in 2012 was the lowest in Latin America at only 1.8%, but increased in 2013 as oil and commodity prices rose; as of 2014 it stands at 2.5%. The unemployment rate has fallen steadily in recent years, and as of 2012 stands at 3.6%.

Peruvian economic policy has varied widely over the past decades. The 1968–1975 government of Juan Velasco Alvarado introduced radical reforms, which included agrarian reform , the expropriation of foreign companies, the introduction of an economic planning system , and the creation of a large state-owned sector. These measures failed to achieve their objectives of income redistribution and the end of economic dependence on developed nations .

Despite these results, most reforms were not reversed until the 1990s, when the liberalizing government of Alberto Fujimori ended price controls , protectionism , restrictions on foreign direct investment , and most state ownership of companies. Reforms have permitted sustained economic growth since 1993, except for a slump after the 1997 Asian financial crisis
1997 Asian financial crisis
.

Services account for 53% of Peruvian gross domestic product, followed by manufacturing (22.3%), extractive industries (15%), and taxes (9.7%). Recent economic growth has been fueled by macroeconomic stability, improved terms of trade , and rising investment and consumption. Trade is expected to increase further after the implementation of a free trade agreement with the United States
United States
signed on 12 April 2006. Peru's main exports are copper, gold, zinc, textiles, and fish meal; its major trade partners are the United States, China, Brazil, and Chile.

WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION

Main articles: Water supply and sanitation in Peru and Water resources management in Peru
Peru

The water and sanitation sector in Peru
Peru
has made important advances in the last two decades, including the increase of water coverage from 30% to 85% between 1980 and 2010. Sanitation coverage has also increased from 9% to 37% from 1985 to 2010 in rural areas. Advances have also been achieved concerning the disinfection of drinking water and in sewage treatment . Nevertheless, many challenges remain, such as:

* Insufficient service coverage; * Poor service quality which puts the population’s health at risk; * Deficient sustainability of built systems; * Tariffs that do not cover the investment and operational costs, as well as the maintenance of services; * Institutional and financial weakness; and, * Excess of human resources, poorly qualified, and high staff turnover.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main articles: Demographics of Peru and Peruvian people

URBANIZATION

* v * t * e

Largest cities or towns in Peru Estimated 2014

RANK NAME REGION POP. RANK NAME REGION POP.

Lima
Lima

Arequipa
Arequipa
1 Lima
Lima
Lima
Lima
9.735.587 (Metro pop. ) 11 Juliaca Puno 267.174

Trujillo

Chiclayo
Chiclayo

2 Arequipa
Arequipa
Arequipa
Arequipa
989.919 (Metro pop. ) 12 Ica Ica 241.903

3 Trujillo La Libertad 935.147 (Metro pop. ) 13 Cajamarca Cajamarca 218.775

4 Chiclayo
Chiclayo
Lambayeque 801.580 (Metro pop. ) 14 Pucallpa Ucayali 211.631

5 Huancayo Junín 501.384 15 Sullana Piura 199.606

6 Iquitos
Iquitos
Loreto 432.476 16 Ayacucho
Ayacucho
Ayacucho
Ayacucho
177.420

7 Piura Piura 430.319 17 Chincha Alta Ica 174.575

8 Cusco
Cusco
Cusco
Cusco
420.137 18 Huánuco
Huánuco
Huánuco
Huánuco
172.924

9 Chimbote Ancash 367.850 19 Tarapoto San Martín 141.053

10 Tacna Tacna 288.698 20 Puno Puno 138.723

ETHNIC GROUPS

Lima's main square, c. 1843. Throughout its history, Peruvian society has been diverse.

Peru
Peru
is a multiethnic nation formed by the combination of different groups over five centuries. Amerindians inhabited Peruvian territory for several millennia before Spanish Conquest in the 16th century; according to historian Noble David Cook their population decreased from nearly 5–9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 in 1620 mainly because of infectious diseases . Spaniards and Africans arrived in large numbers under colonial rule, mixing widely with each other and with indigenous peoples. After independence, there has been gradual immigration from England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Chinese and Japanese arrived in the 1850s as a replacement for slave workers and have since become a major influence in Peruvian society.

POPULATION

A Peruvian family at the food market

With about 31.5 million inhabitants, Peru
Peru
is the fourth most populous country in South America
South America
. Its demographic growth rate declined from 2.6% to 1.6% between 1950 and 2000; population is expected to reach approximately 42 million in 2050. As of 2007 , 75.9% lived in urban areas and 24.1% in rural areas. Major cities include the Lima Metropolitan Area (home to over 9.8 million people), Arequipa
Arequipa
, Trujillo , Chiclayo
Chiclayo
, Piura , Iquitos
Iquitos
, Cusco
Cusco
, Chimbote , and Huancayo ; all reported more than 250,000 inhabitants in the 2007 census . There are 15 uncontacted Amerindian tribes in Peru.

LANGUAGE

Main article: Languages of Peru Casa de Osambela
Casa de Osambela
, headquarters of the Academia Peruana de la Lengua (APL) in Lima
Lima

According to the Peruvian Constitution of 1993, Peru's official languages are Spanish and Quechua , Aymara and other indigenous languages in areas where they predominate. Spanish is spoken by 84.1% of the population and Quechua by 13%, Aymara by 1.7% while other languages make up the remaining 1.2%.

Spanish is used by the government and is the mainstream language of the country, which is used by the media and in educational systems and commerce. Amerindians who live in the Andean
Andean
highlands speak Quechua and Aymara and are ethnically distinct from the diverse indigenous groups who live on the eastern side of the Andes
Andes
and in the tropical lowlands adjacent to the Amazon basin. Peru's distinct geographical regions are mirrored in a language divide between the coast where Spanish is more predominant over the Amerindian languages, and the more diverse traditional Andean
Andean
cultures of the mountains and highlands. The indigenous populations east of the Andes
Andes
speak various languages and dialects. Some of these groups still adhere to traditional indigenous languages, while others have been almost completely assimilated into the Spanish language. There has been an increasing and organized effort to teach Quechua in public schools in the areas where Quechua is spoken. In the Peruvian Amazon, numerous indigenous languages are spoken, including Asháninka , Bora , and Aguaruna .

RELIGION

Main article: Religion in Peru Arequipa
Arequipa
Cathedral , Arequipa
Arequipa

In the 2007 census, 81.3% of the population over 12 years old described themselves as Catholic, 12.5% as Evangelical Protestant , 3.3% as other Protestant
Protestant
, Judaism
Judaism
, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), and Jehovah\'s Witness , and 2.9% as non-religious. Literacy was estimated at 92.9% in 2007; this rate is lower in rural areas (80.3%) than in urban areas (96.3%). Primary and secondary education are compulsory and free in public schools.

Amerindian religious traditions also play a major role in the beliefs of Peruvians. Catholic festivities like Corpus Christi , holy week and Christmas
Christmas
sometimes blend with Amerindian traditions. Amerindian festivities which were celebrated since pre-Columbian times are also widespread throughout the nation. Inti Raymi , which is an old Inca festival, is still celebrated.

The majority of towns, cities and villages have their own official church or cathedral and patron saint.

TOPONYMS

Many of the Peruvian toponyms have indigenous sources. In the Andes communities of Ancash , Cusco
Cusco
and Puno Quechua or Aymara names are overwhelmingly predominat. Their Spanish-based orthography, however, is in conflict with the normalized alphabets of these languages. According to Article 20 of Decreto Supremo No 004-2016-MC (Supreme Decree) which approves the Regulations to Law 29735, published in the official newspaper El Peruano on July 22, 2016, adequate spellings of the toponyms in the normalized alphabets of the indigenous languages must progressively be proposed with the aim of standardizing the namings used by the National Geographic Institute (Instituto Geográfico Nacional, IGN) The National Geographic Institute realizes the necessary changes in the official maps of Peru.

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Peru Mario Vargas Llosa
Mario Vargas Llosa
Inca Garcilaso de la Vega Anonymous Cusco
Cusco
School painting, 18th century

Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian and Spanish traditions, though it has also been influenced by various Asian, African, and other European ethnic groups. Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures . The Incas maintained these crafts and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu . Baroque
Baroque
dominated colonial art, though modified by native traditions.

During this period, most art focused on religious subjects; the numerous churches of the era and the paintings of the Cusco
Cusco
School are representative. Arts stagnated after independence until the emergence of Indigenismo in the early 20th century. Since the 1950s, Peruvian art has been eclectic and shaped by both foreign and local art currents.

Peruvian literature
Peruvian literature
is rooted in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian civilizations. Spaniards introduced writing in the 16th century; colonial literary expression included chronicles and religious literature . After independence, Costumbrism and Romanticism
Romanticism
became the most common literary genres, as exemplified in the works of Ricardo Palma . The early 20th century's Indigenismo movement was led by such writers as Ciro Alegría and José María Arguedas . César Vallejo wrote modernist and often politically engaged verse. Modern Peruvian literature
Peruvian literature
is recognized thanks to authors such as Nobel laureate Mario Vargas Llosa
Mario Vargas Llosa
, a leading member of the Latin American Boom . Ceviche
Ceviche
is a popular lime marinated seafood dish which originated in Peru
Peru

Peruvian cuisine blends Amerindian and Spanish food
Spanish food
with strong influences from Chinese, African, Arab, Italian, and Japanese cooking. Common dishes include anticuchos , ceviche , and pachamanca . Peru's varied climate allows the growth of diverse plants and animals good for cooking. Peru's diversity of ingredients and cooking techniques is receiving worldwide acclaim.

Peruvian music has Andean, Spanish, and African roots. In pre-Hispanic times, musical expressions varied widely in each region; the quena and the tinya were two common instruments. Spaniards introduced new instruments, such as the guitar and the harp, which led to the development of crossbred instruments like the charango . African contributions to Peruvian music include its rhythms and the cajón , a percussion instrument. Peruvian folk dances include marinera , tondero , zamacueca , diablada and huayno .

SEE ALSO

* Peru
Peru
portal

* Outline of Peru

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ In Peru, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages . In each of these, Peru's official name (Spanish: República de Perú, pronounced: ) is as follows:

* Quechua : Piruw Republika * Aymara : Piruw Suyu

* ^ " Ethnic groups
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Studies. United States: University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2017. * ^ A B Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). French Politics. Palgrave Macmillan
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UK. 3 (3): 323–351. doi :10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087  . ISSN 1476-3427 . OCLC 6895745903 . Retrieved 31 August 2017. Only in Latin America
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have all new democracies retained a pure presidential form, except for Peru (president-parliamentary) and Bolivia
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is Perú (see Quechua-language version of Peru
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. – Aboriginal languages of Peru * ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perfil sociodemográfico del Perú, p. 132. * ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perfil sociodemográfico del Perú, p. 93. * ^ Constitución Política del Perú, Article No. 17. * ^ "Decreto Supremo que aprueba el Reglamento de la Ley N° 29735, Ley que regula el uso, preservación, desarrollo, recuperación, fomento y difusión de las lenguas originarias del Perú, Decreto Supremo N° 004-2016-MC". Retrieved July 10, 2017. * ^ Belaunde, Víctor Andrés (1983). Peruanidad. Lima: BCR, p. 472. * ^ Bailey, pp. 72–74. * ^ Bailey, p. 263. * ^ Lucie-Smith, Edward (1993). Latin American art of the 20th century Archived 20 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine
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.. London: Thames and Hudson, ISBN 0500203563 , pp. 76–77, 145–146. * ^ Bayón, Damián (1998). "Art, c. 1920–c. 1980". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, ISBN 0521626269 , pp. 425–428. * ^ Martin, "Literature, music and the visual arts, c. 1820–1870", pp. 37–39. * ^ Martin, "Narrative since c. 1920", pp. 151–152. * ^ Martin, "Narrative since c. 1920", pp. 178–179. * ^ Martin, "Narrative since c. 1920", pp. 186–188. * ^ Custer, pp. 17–22. * ^ Custer, pp. 25–38. * ^ Embassy of Peru
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in the United States, The Peruvian Gastronomy.peruvianembassy.us. * ^ Romero, Raúl (1999). " Andean
Andean
Peru". In: John Schechter (ed.), Music in Latin American culture: regional tradition. New York: Schirmer Books, pp. 385–386. * ^ Olsen, Dale (2002). Music of El Dorado: the ethnomusicology of ancient South American cultures. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, ISBN 0813029201 , pp. 17–22. * ^ Turino, Thomas (1993). "Charango". In: Stanley Sadie (ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. New York: MacMillan Press Limited, vol. I, ISBN 0333378784 , p. 340. * ^ Romero, Raúl (1985). "La música tradicional y popular". In: Patronato Popular y Porvenir, La música en el Perú. Lima: Industrial Gráfica, pp. pp. 243–245, 261–265.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. Art of colonial Latin America. London: Phaidon, 2005, ISBN 0714841579 . * Constitución Política del Perú. 29 December 1993. * Custer, Tony. The Art of Peruvian Cuisine. Lima: Ediciones Ganesha, 2003, ISBN 9972920305 . * Garland, Gonzalo . "Perú Siglo XXI", series of 11 working papers describing sectorial long-term forecasts, Grade, Lima, Peru, 1986-1987. * Garland, Gonzalo. Peru
Peru
in the 21st Century: Challenges and Possibilities in Futures: the Journal of Forecasting, Planning and Policy, Volume 22, Nº 4, Butterworth-Heinemann, London, England, May 1990. * Gootenberg, Paul. (1991) Between silver and guano: commercial policy and the state in postindependence Peru. Princeton: Princeton University Press ISBN 0691023425 . * Gootenberg, Paul. (1993) Imagining development: economic ideas in Peru's "fictitious prosperity" of Guano, 1840–1880. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993, 0520082907. * Higgins, James (editor). The Emancipation of Peru: British Eyewitness Accounts, 2014. Online at https://sites.google.com/site/jhemanperu * Instituto de Estudios Histórico–Marítimos del Perú. El Perú y sus recursos: Atlas geográfico y económico. Lima: Auge, 1996. * Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. "Perú: Compendio Estadístico 2005" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2007. (8.31 MB). Lima: INEI, 2005. * Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Perfil sociodemográfico del Perú. Lima: INEI, 2008. * Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Perú: Estimaciones y Proyecciones de Población, 1950–2050. Lima: INEI, 2001. * Ley N° 27178, Ley del Servicio Militar DOC . 28 September 1999. * Ley N° 27867, Ley Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales. 16 November 2002. * Martin, Gerald. "Literature, music and the visual arts, c. 1820–1870". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 3–45. * Martin, Gerald. "Narrative since c. 1920". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 133–225. * Porras Barrenechea, Raúl. El nombre del Perú. Lima: Talleres Gráficos P.L. Villanueva, 1968. * Thorp, Rosemary and Geoffrey Bertram. Peru
Peru
1890–1977: growth and policy in an open economy. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978, ISBN 0231034334

FURTHER READING

Economy

* (in Spanish) Banco Central de Reserva. Cuadros Anuales Históricos. * (in Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Perú: Perfil de la pobreza por departamentos, 2004–2008. Lima: INEI, 2009. * Concha, Jaime. "Poetry, c. 1920–1950". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 227–260.

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