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The Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
(French: Château
Château
de Versailles), or simply Versailles (English: /vɛərˈsaɪ/ vair-SY or /vərˈsaɪ/ vər-SY; French: [vɛʁsaj]), is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France
Île-de-France
region of France. It is now open as a museum and is a very popular tourist attraction. When the château was built, the community of Versailles was a small village dating from the 11th century. Today, however, it is a wealthy suburb of Paris, some 20 kilometres (12 mi) southwest of the centre of the French capital.[1] Versailles was the seat of political power in the Kingdom of France
France
from 1682, when King Louis XIV
Louis XIV
moved the royal court from Paris, until the royal family was forced to return to the capital in October 1789, within three months after the beginning of the French Revolution. Versailles is therefore famous not only as a building, but as a symbol of the system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime. Especially under Louis XIV, the senior nobility were pressured to spend large amounts of time at Versailles, as a form of political control. Louis XIV
Louis XIV
evolved a rigid routine of court life as a performance, much of which took place in front of large groups of people, at some points in the day including tourists. Building the château and maintaining the court there was phenomenally expensive, but did a good deal to establish the dominance of French style and taste in the whole of Europe, giving French luxury manufacturing advantages that long outlasted the fall of the Ancien Régime. Louis XIV's expansion of the building was begun around 1661, with Louis Le Vau
Louis Le Vau
as architect. It was not completed until about 1715, having been worked on by architects including François d'Orbay, Charles Le Brun
Charles Le Brun
(interiors especially), Jules Hardouin-Mansart
Jules Hardouin-Mansart
and Robert de Cotte. André Le Nôtre
André Le Nôtre
began the gardens and structures in them. There were a range of satellite buildings around the grounds. While the main château building remains essentially intact, though without much of its contents, some of these other buildings have been destroyed.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Architectural history

1.1.1 17th century 1.1.2 Cost 1.1.3 18th century 1.1.4 19th century 1.1.5 20th century 1.1.6 21st century

1.2 Social history

1.2.1 Politics of display 1.2.2 Life at Court 1.2.3 Political and ceremonial functions

2 Palace and grounds

2.1 Architecture 2.2 Interior

2.2.1 Grands appartements (State Apartments) 2.2.2 Appartement du roi
Appartement du roi
(King's Apartment) 2.2.3 Petit appartement du roi
Petit appartement du roi
(King's Private Apartment) 2.2.4 Petit appartement de la reine
Petit appartement de la reine
(Queen's Private Apartment) 2.2.5 Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors) 2.2.6 Chapels of Versailles 2.2.7 Royal Opera 2.2.8 Museum of the History of France 2.2.9 Gallery

2.3 Gardens of Versailles 2.4 Subsidiary structures

3 In popular culture 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

7.1 Footnotes 7.2 Works cited

8 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of the Palace of Versailles Architectural history[edit] 17th century[edit]

The construction of the Palace of Versailles

First built by Louis XIII
Louis XIII
in 1624 as a hunting lodge of brick and stone, and designed by the architect Jacques Lemercier, the edifice was enlarged into a royal palace by Louis XIV.[2] The first phase of the expansion (c. 1661–1678) was designed and supervised by the architect Louis Le Vau. It culminated in the addition of three new wings of stone (the enveloppe), which encompassed Louis XIII's original building on the north, south, and west (the garden side). André-Charles Boulle, the most famous French cabinetmaker and the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry,[3] was engaged in 1669 to create ouvrages de peinture, and Boulle was employed for many years at Versailles, where the mirrored walls, floors of wood mosaic, inlaid paneling and marquetry in the Cabinet du Dauphin (1682–1686) was regarded as his most remarkable work.[4] The rooms were dismantled in the late 18th century and their unfashionable art broken up.[5] More recently, a partial inventory of the Grand Dauphin's decorations at the Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
has come to light at the National Archives in Paris.[6] After Le Vau's death in 1670, the work was taken over and completed by his assistant François d'Orbay.[7] Charles Le Brun
Charles Le Brun
designed and supervised the elaborate interior decoration, and André Le Nôtre landscaped the extensive Gardens of Versailles. Le Brun and Le Nôtre collaborated on the numerous fountains, and Le Brun supervised the design and installation of countless statues.[8] During the second phase of expansion of the mansion (c. 1678–1715), two enormous wings north and south of the wings flanking the Cour Royale (Royal Courtyard) were added by the architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart. He also replaced Le Vau's large terrace, facing the garden on the west, with what became the most famous room of the palace, the Hall of Mirrors. Mansart also built the Petites Écuries and Grandes Écuries (stables) across the Place d'Armes, on the eastern side of the château, and, in 1687, the Grand Trianon, or Trianon de Marbre (Marble Trianon), replacing Le Vau's 1668 Trianon de Porcelaine in the northern section of the park. Work was sufficiently advanced by 1682, that Louis XIV
Louis XIV
was able to proclaim Versailles his principal residence and the seat of the government of the Kingdom of France
France
and also to give rooms in the palace to almost all of his courtiers. After the death of his consort Maria Theresa of Spain
Maria Theresa of Spain
in 1683, Louis XIV
Louis XIV
undertook the enlargement and remodeling of the royal apartments in the original part of the palace, the former hunting lodge built by his father. The Royal Chapel of Versailles, located at the south end of the north wing, was begun by Mansart in 1688, and after his death in 1708 completed by his assistant Robert de Cotte
Robert de Cotte
in 1710.[9] Cost[edit]

Bust of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
by Bernini
Bernini
in the Diana Salon
Diana Salon
of the Palace of Versailles

One of the most baffling aspects to the study of Versailles is the cost – how much Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and his successors spent on Versailles. Owing to the nature of the construction of Versailles and the evolution of the role of the palace, construction costs were essentially a private matter. Initially, Versailles was planned to be an occasional residence for Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and was referred to as the "king's house".[10] Accordingly, much of the early funding for construction came from the king's own purse, funded by revenues received from his appanage as well as revenues from the province of New France
France
(Canada), which, while part of France, was a private possession of the king and therefore exempt from the control of the Parliaments.[11] Once Louis XIV
Louis XIV
embarked on his building campaigns, expenses for Versailles became more of a matter for public record, especially after Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
assumed the post of finance minister. Expenditures on Versailles have been recorded in the compendium known as the Comptes des bâtiments du roi sous le règne de Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and which was edited and published in five volumes by Jules Guiffrey in the 19th century. These volumes provide valuable archival material pursuant to the financial expenditures of all aspects of Versailles from the payments disbursed for many trades as varied as artists and mole catchers.[12] To counter the costs of Versailles during the early years of Louis XIV's personal reign, Colbert decided that Versailles should be the "showcase" of France.[13] Accordingly, all materials that went into the construction and decoration of Versailles were manufactured in France. Even the mirrors used in the decoration of the Hall of Mirrors were made in France. While Venice
Venice
in the 17th century had the monopoly on the manufacture of mirrors, Colbert succeeded in enticing a number of artisans from Venice
Venice
to make the mirrors for Versailles. However, owing to Venetian proprietary claims on the technology of mirror manufacture, the Venetian government ordered the assassination of the artisans to keep the secrets proprietary to the Venetian Republic.[13] To meet the demands for decorating and furnishing Versailles, Colbert nationalised the tapestry factory owned by the Gobelin
Gobelin
family, to become the Manufacture royale des Gobelins.[13]

Louis XIV
Louis XIV
visits the Gobelins with Colbert, 15 October 1667. Tapestry from the series, "Histoire du roi" designed by Charles Le Brun
Charles Le Brun
and woven between 1667 and 1672. Articles of Louis XIV's silver furniture are seen in this tapestry.

In 1667, the name of the enterprise was changed to the Manufacture royale des Meubles de la Couronne. The Gobelins were charged with all decoration needs of the palace, which was under the direction of Charles Le Brun.[13] One of the most costly elements in the furnishing of the grands appartements during the early years of the personal reign of Louis XIV was the silver furniture, which can be taken as a standard – with other criteria – for determining a plausible cost for Versailles. The Comptes meticulously list the expenditures on the silver furniture – disbursements to artists, final payments, delivery – as well as descriptions and weight of items purchased. Entries for 1681 and 1682 concerning the silver balustrade used in the salon de Mercure serve as an example:

Year 1681

II. 5 In anticipation: For the silver balustrade for the king's bedroom: 90,000 livres II. 7 18 November to Sieur du Metz, 43,475 livres 5 sols for delivery to Sr. Lois and to Sr. de Villers for payment of 142,196 livres for the silver balustrade that they are making for the king's bedroom and 404 livres for tax: 48,861 livres 5 sol. II. 15 16 June 1681 – 23 January 1682 to Sr. Lois and Sr. de Villers silversmiths on account for the silver balustrade that they are making for the king's use (four payments): 88,457 livres 5 sols. II. 111 25 March – 18 April to Sr. Lois and Sr. de Villers silversmiths who are working on a silver balustrade for the king, for continued work (two payments): 40,000 livres

Year 1682

II. 129 21 March to Sr. Jehannot de Bartillay 4,970 livres 12 sols for the delivery to Sr. Lois and de Villers silversmiths for, with 136,457 livres 5 sol to one and 25,739 livres 10 sols to another, making the 38 balusters, 17 pilasters, the base and the cornice for the balustrade for the château of Versailles weighing 4,076 marc at the rate of 41 livres the marc[a] including 41 livres 2 sols for tax: 4,970 livres 12 sols.[12]

Accordingly, the silver balustrade, which contained in excess of one ton of silver, cost in excess of 560,000 livres. It is difficult – if not impossible – to give an accurate rate of exchange between 1682 and today.[b] However, Frances Buckland provides valuable information that provides an idea of the true cost of the expenditures at Versailles during the time of Louis XIV. In 1679, Mme de Maintenon stated that the cost of providing light and food for twelve people for one day amounted to slightly more than 14 livres.[14] In December 1689, to defray the cost of the War of the League of Augsburg, Louis XIV
Louis XIV
ordered all the silver furniture and articles of silver at Versailles – including chamber pots – sent to the mint to be melted.[15] Clearly, the silver furniture alone represented a significant outlay in the finances of Versailles. While the decoration of the palace was costly, certain other costs were minimised. For example, labour for construction was often low, due largely to the fact that the army during times of peace and during the winter, when wars were not waged, was pressed into action at Versailles. Additionally, given the quality and uniqueness of the items produced at the Gobelins for use and display at Versailles, the palace served as a venue to showcase not only the success of Colbert's mercantilism, but also to display the finest that France
France
could produce.[16] Estimates of the amount spent to build Versailles are speculative. An estimate in 2000 placed the amount spent during the Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
as US$2 billion,[17] this figure being, in all probability, an under-evaluation. France's Fifth Republic expenditures alone, directed to restoration and maintenance at Versailles, undoubtedly surpass those of the Sun King. 18th century[edit] In 1738, Louis XV
Louis XV
remodeled the king's petit appartement on the north side of the Cour de Marbre, originally the entrance court of the old château, and built a pavilion not far from the Grand Trianon, the Petit Trianon, designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel
Ange-Jacques Gabriel
and completed in 1768. At the north end of the north wing, Gabriel also built a theatre, the Opéra, completed in 1770, in time for the marriage of Louis-Auguste Dauphin of France
France
to the Austrian Archduchess Marie Antoinette. After his accession to the throne, Louis XVI
Louis XVI
made few changes to the palace, primarily to the royal private apartments.[18] However, after Louis XVI gave Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
the Petit Trianon
Petit Trianon
in 1774, the queen made extensive changes to the interior, added a theater, the Théâtre de la Reine. She also totally transformed the arboretum planted during the reign of Louis XV
Louis XV
into what became known as the Hameau de la Reine.[19] (The trees removed from the Trianon arboretum were brought & replanted in the Jardin des Plantes
Jardin des Plantes
in Paris.) 19th century[edit] During the French Revolution, after the royal family's forced move to Paris
Paris
on 6 October 1789, three years before the fall of the monarchy, Versailles fell into disrepair and most of the furniture was sold. Some restoration work was undertaken by Napoleon
Napoleon
in 1810 and Louis XVIII in 1820, but the principal effort to restore and maintain Versailles was initiated by Louis-Philippe, when he created the Musée de l'Histoire de France, dedicated to "all the glories of France". The museum is located in the Aile du Midi (South Wing), which during the Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
had been used to lodge the members of the royal family. It was begun in 1833 and inaugurated on 30 June 1837. Its most famous room is the Galerie des Batailles
Galerie des Batailles
(Hall of Battles), which lies on most of the length of the second floor.[18] 20th century[edit]

One of the fountains on the château grounds

Neglect after October 1789, when the royal family had to leave Versailles, and the ravages of war in parts of the 19th and 20th centuries have left their mark on the palace and its park. Post-World War II governments have sought to repair these damages. On the whole, they have been successful, but some of the more costly items, such as the vast array of fountains, have yet to be put back completely in service. As spectacular as they might seem now, they were even more extensive in the 18th century. The 18th-century waterworks at Marly— the Machine de Marly
Machine de Marly
that fed the fountains— was possibly the biggest mechanical system of its time. The water came in from afar on monumental stone aqueducts which have long ago fallen into disrepair or been torn down. Some aqueducts, such as the unfinished Canal de l'Eure, which passes through the gardens of the château de Maintenon, were never completed for want of resources or due to the exigencies of war. The search for sufficient supplies of water was never fully realised even during the apogee of the reign of the Sun King, as the fountains could not be operated together satisfactorily for any significant periods of time.[20] The restoration initiatives launched by the Fifth Republic have proven to be perhaps more costly than the expenditures of the palace in the Ancien Régime. Starting in the 1950s, when the museum of Versailles was under the directorship of Gérald van der Kemp, the objective was to restore the palace to its state – or as close to it as possible – in 1789 when the royal family left the palace. Among the early projects was the repair of the roof over the Hall of Mirrors; the publicity campaign brought international attention to the plight of post-war Versailles and garnered much foreign money including a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. Concurrently, in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
( Russia
Russia
since 26 December 1991), the restoration of the Pavlovsk Palace
Pavlovsk Palace
located 25 kilometers from the center of Leningrad – today's Saint Petersburg – brought the attention of French Ministry of Culture, including that of the curator of Versailles.[21]

The "Gate of Honour" restored in 2009

Pavlovsk Palace
Pavlovsk Palace
was built by Catherine the Great's son Paul. The czarevitch and his wife, Marie Feodorovna, were ardent francophiles, who, on a visit to France
France
and Versailles in May and June 1782, purchased great quantities of silk, which they later used to upholster furniture in Pavlovsk. The palace survived the Russian Revolution intact – descendants of Paul I were living in the palace at the time the communists evicted them – however, during the Second World War, the furniture and artifacts housed in the palace, which had been transformed into a museum, were removed. In the process of evacuation the museum collections, remnants of the silks purchased by Paul I of Russia
Russia
and Marie Feodorovna were found and preserved. After the war when Soviet authorities were restoring the palace, which had been gutted by the retreating Nazi forces, they recreated the silk fabrics by using the preserved 18th-century remnants.[21] When these results and high quality achieved were brought to the attention of the French Minister of Culture, he revived 18th-century weaving techniques so as to reproduce the silks used in the decoration of Versailles.[21] The two greatest achievements of this initiative are seen today in wall hangings used in the restoration of the chambre de la reine in the grand appartement de reine and the chambre du roi in the appartement du roi. While the design used for the chambre du roi was, in fact, from the original design to decorate the chambre de la reine, it nevertheless represents a great achievement in the ongoing restoration at Versailles. Additionally, this project, which took over seven years to achieve, required several hundred kilograms of silver and gold to complete.[22] One of the more costly endeavours for the museum and France's Fifth Republic has been to repurchase as much of the original furnishings as possible. However, because furniture with a royal provenance – and especially furniture that was made for Versailles – is a highly sought after commodity on the international market, the museum has spent considerable funds on retrieving much of the palace's original furnishings.[23] 21st century[edit] The Fifth Republic has enthusiastically promoted the museum as one of France's foremost tourist attractions, with recent figures stating that nearly five million people visit the château, and 8 to 10 million walk in the gardens, every year.[24][25] In 2003, a new restoration initiative – the "Grand Versailles" project – was started, which necessitated unexpected repair and replantation of the gardens, which had lost over 10,000 trees during Hurricane Lothar on 26 December 1999. The project will be on-going for the next seventeen years, funded with a state endowment of €135 million allocated for the first seven years. It will address such concerns as security for the palace and continued restoration of the bosquet des trois fontaines. Vinci SA
Vinci SA
underwrote the €12 million restoration project for the Hall of Mirrors, which was completed in 2006.[26] Social history[edit] Politics of display[edit]

Reception of the Grand Condé
Grand Condé
at Versailles following his victory at Seneffe. Condé advances towards Louis XIV
Louis XIV
in a respectful manner with laurel wreaths on his path, while captured enemy flags are displayed on both sides of the stairs. It marked the end of Condé's exile, following his participation to the Fronde.

On 6 May 1682, Versailles became officially the seat of the government of the kingdom of France, the home of the French King Louis XIV, and the location of the royal court. Symbolically, the central room of the long extensive symmetrical range of buildings was the King's Bedchamber (appartement du roi), which itself was centred on the lavish and symbolic state bed, set behind a rich railing. Indeed, even the principal axis of the gardens themselves was conceived to radiate from this fulcrum. All the power of France
France
emanated from this centre: there were government offices here; as well as the homes of thousands of courtiers, their retinues and all the attendant functionaries of court.[citation needed] By requiring that nobles of a certain rank and position spend time each year at Versailles, Louis XIV
Louis XIV
prevented them from developing their own regional power at the expense of his own and kept them from countering his efforts to centralize the French government in an absolute monarchy.[citation needed] At various periods before Louis XIV
Louis XIV
established absolute rule, France, like the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
lacked central authority and was not the unified state it was to become during subsequent centuries.[citation needed] During the Middle Ages, French nobles were often more powerful than the King of France
France
and, although technically loyal to him, they possessed their own provincial seats of power and government, the loyalty of culturally influential courts and armies, and the right to levy their own taxes on their subjects.[citation needed] Some families were so powerful they achieved international prominence and contracted marriage alliances with foreign royal houses to further their own political ambitions.[citation needed] Although nominally Kings of France, de facto royal power had at times been limited purely to the region around Paris.[citation needed] Life at Court[edit] Life at Versailles was determined by position, favour, and, above all, one's birth. The chateau was a sprawling cluster of lodgings for which courtiers vied and manipulated. Today, Versailles is seen as unparalleled in its magnificence and splendour, yet few know of the actual living conditions many of Versailles' privileged residents had to endure.[citation needed]. Many modern historians have compared the palace to a vast, crowded apartment block.[citation needed] Apart from the royal family, the majority of the residents were senior members of the household.[citation needed] On each floor apartments of varying size, 350 in all, were arranged along tiled corridors and given a number and a key. Many courtiers traded lodgings and grouped themselves together with their allies, families or friends. The Noailles family took over so much of the northern wing's attic that floor was nicknamed rue de Noailles (Noailles Street).[27] Louis XIV
Louis XIV
envisaged Versailles as a seat for all the Bourbons, as well as his troublesome nobles. These nobles were, so to say, placed within a "gilded cage".[28] Many of the apartments were far from luxurious with many nobles having to make do with one or two room apartments, forcing many of them to build or buy town-houses in Versailles proper while keeping their palace rooms for changes of clothes or entertaining guests, rarely sleeping there.[citation needed] Rooms at Versailles were immensely useful for ambitious courtiers, as they allowed palace residents easy access to the monarch.[citation needed] Political and ceremonial functions[edit] See also: Treaties of Versailles

Proclamation of the German Empire, 18 January 1871, 1877 by Anton von Werner

Two of the three treaties of the Peace of Paris
Paris
(1783), in which the United Kingdom recognized the independence of the United States, were signed at Versailles. After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, with the Siege of Paris
Paris
dragging on, the palace was the main headquarters of the Prussian army from 5 October 1870 until 13 March 1871. On 18 January 1871, Prussian King Wilhelm I
Wilhelm I
was proclaimed German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors
Hall of Mirrors
and the German Empire
German Empire
was founded.[29]

The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28 June 1919 by William Orpen

After the First World War, it was the site of the opening of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, also on 18 January. Germany was blamed for causing the First World War in the Treaty of Versailles, which was signed in the same room on 28 June 1919. The palace, however, still serves political functions. Heads of state are regaled in the Hall of Mirrors; the bicameral French Parliament—consisting of the Senate (Sénat) and the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale)—meet in joint session (a congress of the French Parliament) in Versailles[30] to revise or otherwise amend the French Constitution, a tradition that came into effect with the promulgation of the 1875 Constitution.[32] For example, the Parliament met in joint session at Versailles to pass constitutional amendments in June 1999 (for domestic applicability of International Criminal Court decisions and for gender equality in candidate lists), in January 2000 (ratifying the Treaty of Amsterdam), and in March 2003 (specifying the "decentralized organization" of the French Republic).[30] In 2009, President Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
addressed the global financial crisis before a congress in Versailles, the first time that this had been done since 1848, when Charles-Louis Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte gave an address before the French Second Republic.[33][34][35] Following the November 2015 Paris
Paris
attacks, President François Hollande
François Hollande
gave a speech before a rare joint session of parliament at the Palace of Versailles.[36] This was the third time since 1848 that a French president addressed a joint session of the French Parliament
French Parliament
at Versailles.[37] The president of the National Assembly has an official apartment at the Palace of Versailles.[38] Palace and grounds[edit] Architecture[edit] The palace that we recognize today was largely completed by the death of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
in 1715. The eastern facing palace has a U-shaped layout, with the corps de logis and symmetrical advancing secondary wings terminating with the Dufour Pavilion on the south and the Gabriel Pavilion to the north, creating an expansive cour d'honneur known as the Royal Court (Cour Royale). Flanking the Royal Court are two enormous asymmetrical wings that result in a facade of 402 metres (1,319 ft) in length.[39] Encompassing 67,000 square metres (721,182 sq ft) the palace has 700 rooms, more than 2,000 windows, 1,250 fireplaces and 67 staircases.[40] The façade of the original lodge is preserved on the entrance front. Built of red brick and cut stone embellishments, the U-shaped layout surrounds a black-and-white marble courtyard. In the center, a 3-storey avant-corps fronted with eight red marble columns supporting a gilded wrought-iron balcony is surmounted with a triangle of lead statuary surrounding a large clock, whose hands were stopped upon the death of Louis XIV. The rest of the façade is completed with columns, painted and gilded wrought-iron balconies and dozens of stone tables decorated with consoles holding marble busts of Roman emperors. Atop the mansard slate roof are elaborate dormer windows and gilt lead roof dressings that were added by Hardouin-Mansart in 1679–1681. Inspired by the architecture of baroque Italian villas, but executed in the French classical style, the garden front and wings were encased in white cut ashlar stone known as the enveloppe in 1661-1678. The exterior features an arcaded, rusticated ground floor, supporting a main floor with round-headed windows divided by reliefs and pilasters or columns. The attic storey has square windows and pilasters and crowned by a balustrade bearing sculptured trophies and flame pots dissimulating a flat roof.

Plan of the main floor (c. 1837, with north to the right), showing the Hall of Mirrors
Hall of Mirrors
in red, the Hall of Battles in green, the Royal Chapel in yellow, and the Royal Opera in blue

Interior[edit] Grands appartements (State Apartments)[edit] Main articles: Grand appartement du roi
Grand appartement du roi
and Grand appartement de la reine As a result of Le Vau's enveloppe of Louis XIII's former hunting lodge transforming it, between 1631 and 1634, into a red brick and white stone small château, with a black tile roof, the king and the queen had new apartments in the new addition, known at the time as the château neuf. The grands appartements (Grand Apartments, also referred to as the State Apartments[41]) are known respectively as the grand appartement du roi and the grand appartement de la reine. They occupied the main or principal floor of the château neuf, with three rooms in each apartment facing the garden to the west and four facing the garden parterres to the north and south, respectively. Le Vau's design for the state apartments closely followed Italian models of the day, as evidenced by the placement of the apartments on the next floor up from the ground level—the piano nobile—a convention the architect borrowed from 16th- and 17th-century Italian palace design.[42] The king's apartment consisted of an enfilade of seven rooms, each dedicated to one of the then known planets and their associated titular Roman deity. The queen's apartment formed a parallel enfilade with that of the grand appartement du roi. It served as the residence of three queens of France
France
- Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche, wife of Louis XIV, Marie Leczinska, wife of Louis XV, and Marie-Antoinette, wife of Louis XVI. Additionally, Louis XIV's granddaughter-in-law, Princess Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy, duchesse de Bourgogne, wife of the Petit Dauphin, occupied these rooms from 1697 (the year of her marriage) to her death in 1712.[c] After the addition of the Hall of Mirrors (1678–1684) the king's apartment was reduced to five rooms (until the reign of Louis XV, when two more rooms were added) and the queen's to four.

Plan of the main floor in the central part of the palace (c. 1742),[43] showing the grand appartement du roi in dark blue, the appartement du roi in medium blue, the petit appartement du roi in light blue, the grand appartement de la reine in yellow, and the petit appartement de la reine in red

Appartement du roi
Appartement du roi
(King's Apartment)[edit] Main article: Appartement du roi The appartement du roi is a suite of rooms originally set aside for the personal use of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
in 1683. His successors, Louis XV
Louis XV
and Louis XVI, used these rooms for such ceremonies as the lever and the coucher. Petit appartement du roi
Petit appartement du roi
(King's Private Apartment)[edit] Main article: Petit appartement du roi The petit appartement du roi is a suite of rooms that were reserved for the private use of the king. Occupying the site on which rooms were originally arranged for Louis XIII
Louis XIII
on the first floor of the château, the space was radically modified by Louis XIV. His successors, Louis XV
Louis XV
and Louis XVI
Louis XVI
had these rooms drastically modified and remodeled for their personal use. Petit appartement de la reine
Petit appartement de la reine
(Queen's Private Apartment)[edit] Main article: Petit appartement de la reine The petit appartement de la reine is a suite of rooms that were reserved for the personal use of the queen. Originally arranged for the use of the Marie-Thérèse, consort of Louis XIV, the rooms were later modified for use by Marie Leszczyńska and finally for Marie-Antoinette. Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors)[edit] Main article: Hall of Mirrors The Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors), is perhaps the most celebrated room in the château of Versailles. The length of the gallery is more than 70 metres (230 ft) and there are 17 wide arcaded mirrors. Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun
Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun
painted 30 scenes as a testimony of early reign years of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
on the ceiling.[2] Setting for many of the ceremonies of the French Court during the Ancien Régime, the Galerie des Glaces has also inspired numerous copies and renditions throughout the world. The room's construction began in 1678 and finished in 1689. Chapels of Versailles[edit] Main article: Chapels of Versailles In the evolution of the palace, there have been five chapels. The current chapel, which was the last major building project of Louis XIV, represents one of the finest examples of French Baroque architecture and ecclesiastical decoration. The palace chapel is located in the north wing and its construction was started by Hardouin-Mansart in 1699, but was completed by de Corte. Daily meetings, wedding ceremonies and baptisms were held in this chapel until 1789.[2] Royal Opera[edit] Main article: Royal Opera of Versailles Ange-Jacques Gabriel's Royal Opera (Opéra Royal) was perhaps the most ambitious building project of Louis XV
Louis XV
for the château of Versailles. Completed in 1770, the Opéra was inaugurated at the time of the wedding festivities of Louis XV's grandson, the Dauphin, future Louis XVI, and Marie-Antoinette. On October 1789, a banquet for royal guardsmen was held in this place. The Opera served as a host to the National Assembly from 1871 until 1875 when the Third Republic was proclaimed.[2] Museum of the History of France[edit] Main article: Galerie des Batailles In the 19th century the Museum of the History of France
France
was founded in Versailles, at the behest of Louis-Philippe I, who ascended to the throne in 1830. The entire second floor (premier étage) of the Aile du Midi (South Wing) of the palace was transformed into the Galerie des Batailles to house the newly created collection of paintings and sculptures depicting milestones battles of French history. The collections display painted, sculpted, drawn and engraved images illustrating events or personalities of the history of France
France
since its inception. The museum occupies the lateral wings of the Palace. Most of the paintings date back to the 19th century and have been created specially for the museum by major painters of the time such as Delacroix, Horace Vernet
Horace Vernet
or François Gérard
François Gérard
but there are also much older artworks which retrace French History. Notably the museum displays works by Philippe de Champaigne, Pierre Mignard, Laurent de La Hyre, Charles Le Brun, Adam Frans van der Meulen, Nicolas de Largillière, Hyacinthe Rigaud, Jean Antoine Houdon, Jean Marc Nattier, Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun, Hubert Robert, Thomas Lawrence, Jacques-Louis David, Antoine Jean Gros
Antoine Jean Gros
and also Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Gallery[edit]

Hall of Mirrors

Queen's bedchamber in the grand appartement de la reine

Galerie des Batailles

Chapel

Opéra

A Dripping Fountain, Versailles

La Galerie des Glaces, Versailles, 1927

Salon de la Paix, Versailles, 1927

Gardens of Versailles[edit]

The Orangerie of Versailles

Main article: Gardens of Versailles Evolving with the château, the gardens of Versailles represent one of the finest extant examples of the jardin à la française created by André Le Nôtre. Subsidiary structures[edit] Main article: Subsidiary structures of the Palace of Versailles Located in proximity to the château, these smaller structures served the needs of the royal family and court officials during the Ancien Régime. They include the Ménagerie royale (1664), demolished; the Trianon de porcelaine (1670), demolished; the Grand Trianon
Grand Trianon
or Trianon de marbre (Marble Trianon) (1689); the Petit Trianon
Petit Trianon
(1768); and the Pavillon de la Lanterne (1787), a hunting lodge. In popular culture[edit] Main article: List of films shot at the Palace of Versailles

Films

Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted (2012) is an animated film in which sophisticated chimpanzees Mason and Phil dress up as "King of Versailles" in reference to the Palace of Versailles " Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
(2006 film)" (2006) is a film written and directed by Sofia Coppola
Sofia Coppola
and starring Kirsten Dunst. It is based on the life of Queen Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
in the years leading up to the French Revolution, filmed on location at the Palace of Versailles.

Music

"The Palace of Versailles" is a song by singer-songwriter Al Stewart, detailing the French Revolution, The Terror, and Napoléon Bonaparte's military coup, from the perspective of "the lonely Palace of Versailles" On 2 July 2005, the French Live 8
Live 8
was held in the courtyard of Versailles

Television

In the Doctor Who
Doctor Who
episode, "Girl in the Fire Place" (2005), The Doctor met the Madame de Pompadour in the Palace of Versailles Let Them Eat Cake, a 1999 BBC
BBC
comedy starring Jennifer Saunders
Jennifer Saunders
and Dawn French, is set within the Palace. Versailles is a 2015 British-American-Franco-Canadian television series set during the construction of Versailles Palace during the reign of Louis XIV

Video games

Assassin's Creed Rogue
Assassin's Creed Rogue
is set in Versailles at the end of the game Assassin's Creed Unity
Assassin's Creed Unity
is set in Versailles at the beginning of the game Castlevania: Bloodlines is a Konami
Konami
video game in which Versailles is the fifth stage

Gallery[edit]

Panoramic view from the park

Panoramic view from the city

Garden facade from the southwest

Salle du Sacre with a view toward Salle des Gardes in the Queen's Grand Apartment

View of the upper southwest corner of the south wing

View of the Palace from the southern part of the Parterre d'Eau, with the bronze statue of the Rhône
Rhône
River by Jean-Baptiste Tuby
Jean-Baptiste Tuby
(1687)

Marble Court

See also[edit]

Bureau du Roi Châteaux of the Loire Valley List of Baroque residences Paris
Paris
Peace Conference, 1919 Peterhof Palace Style Louis XIV Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(French: serment du jeu de paume) in the Saint-Louis district Treaty of Versailles Versailles Cathedral

Kingdom of France
France
portal

Notes[edit]

^ The marc, a unit equal to 8 ounces, was used to weigh silver and gold. ^ As of 4 April 2008, silver has been trading in New York at US$17.83 an ounce. ^ Six kings were born in this room: Philip V of Spain, Louis XV, Louis XVI, Louis XVII, Louis XVIII, and Charles X.

References[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ point zero at square in front of Notre Dame ^ a b c d " Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
palace, Versailles, France". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ "The French cabinetmaker who is generally considered to be the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry, even "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers."". Google Arts and Culture.  ^ Jean Nérée Ronfort, "André-Charles Boulle. Commandes pour le Grand Dauphin à Versailles" Dossier de l'Art, Nr 124, November 2005, pp. 38-63, Editions Faton, Dijon. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica Eleventh Edition[full citation needed] ^ Jean Nérée Ronfort, "Inventaire d'un des magasins de la Direction Générale des Bâtiments du Roy à Versailles (c.1744-1746)", Dossier de l'Art, Nr 124, November 2005, pp. 64-65, Editions Faton, Dijon. ^ Ayers 2004, pp. 334–336. ^ Berger 1985a, pp. 17–19. ^ Ayers 2004, pp. 336–339; Maral 2010, pp. 215–229. ^ La Varende 1959[page needed] ^ Bluche 1986[page needed]; Bluche 1991[page needed]; Chouquette 1997[page needed] ^ a b Guiffrey 1880–1890[page needed] ^ a b c d Bluche 1991[page needed] ^ Buckland 1983[page needed] ^ Dangeau 1854–1860[page needed] ^ Bluche 1986[page needed]; Bluche 1991[page needed] ^ Littell 2000[page needed] ^ a b Hoog 1996. ^ Hoog 1996, pp. 373–374. ^ The magic of the “Great Waters” of Versailles ^ a b c Massie 1990[page needed] ^ Meyer 1989[page needed] ^ Kemp 1976[page needed] ^ At the Court of the Sun King, Some All-American Art, New York Times (September 11, 2008). ^ Opperman 2004[page needed] ^ Leloup 2006[page needed] ^ Da Vinha, Mathieu & Masson, Raphaël: Versailles: Histoire, Dictionnaire & Anthologie - Chapter: Aile du Nord, Publisher: Robert Laffont, Paris, 10 September 2015, [1](no page number available). ISBN 978-2221115022 ^ Duc de Saint-Simon[page needed] ^ Wawro 2003, p. 282 ^ a b William Safran, "France" in Politics in Europe (M. Donald Hancock et al., CQ Sage: 5th ed. 2012). ^ Constitution of 1875 ^ Article 9: Le siège du pouvoir exécutif et des deux chambres est à Versailles.[31] ^ Associated Press, Breaking tradition, Sarkozy speaks to parliament (June 22, 2009). ^ Jerry M. Rosenberg, "France" in The Concise Encyclopedia of The Great Recession 2007-2012 (Scarecrow Press: 2012), p. 262. ^ Associated Press, The Latest: US Basketball Player James Not Going to France
France
(November 16, 2015). ^ Associated Press, The Latest: Brother Linked to Paris
Paris
Attacks in Disbelief (November 16, 2015). ^ Francois Hollande: ' France
France
is at war', CNN (November 16, 2015). ^ Georges Bergougnous, Presiding Officers of National Parliamentary Assemblies: A World Comparative Study (Inter-Parliamentary Union: Geneva, 1997), p. 39. ^ "History of Art". Visual Arts Cork. Retrieved August 10, 2016.  ^ "Palace of Versailles". Dimensions Info. Retrieved August 10, 2016.  ^ Saule & Meyrer 2000, pp. 18, 22; Michelin Tyre 1989, p. 182. ^ Berger 1985b[page needed]; Verlet 1985[page needed] ^ Blondel 1752–1756, vol. 4 (1756), book 7, plate 8; Nolhac 1898, p. 49 (dates Blondel's plan to c. 1742).

Works cited[edit]

Ayers, Andrew (2004). The Architecture of Paris. Stuttgart, London: Edition Axel Menges. ISBN 9783930698967.  Berger, Robert W. (1985a). In the Garden of the Sun King: Studies on the Park of Versailles Under Louis XIV. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library.  Berger, Robert W. (1985b). Versailles: The Château
Château
of Louis XIV. University Park: The College Arts Association.  Blondel, Jacque-François (1752–1756). Architecture françoise, ou Recueil des plans, élévations, coupes et profils des églises, maisons royales, palais, hôtels & édifices les plus considérables de Paris. 4 vols. Paris: Charles-Antoine Jombert.  Bluche, François (1986). Louis XIV. Paris: Arthème Fayard.  Bluche, François (1991). Dictionnaire du Grand Siècle. Paris: Arthème Fayard.  Buckland, Frances (May 1983). " Gobelin
Gobelin
tapestries and paintings as a source of information about the silver furniture of Louis XIV". The Burlington Magazine. 125 (962): 272–283.  Dangeau, Philippe de Courcillon, marquis de (1854–60). Journal. Paris.  Gady, Alexandre (2010). "Édifices royaux, Versailles: Transformations des logis sur cour". In Gady, Alexandre. Jules hardouin-Mansart 1646–1708. Paris: Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l'homme. pp. 171–176. ISBN 9782735111879.  Guiffrey, Jules (1880–1890). Comptes des bâtiments du roi sous le règne de Louis XIV. 5 vols. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.  Hoog, Simone (1996). "Versailles". In Turner, Jane. The Dictionary of Art. 32. New York: Grove. pp. 369–374. ISBN 9781884446009.  Also at Oxford Art Online (subscription required). Kemp, Gerard van der (1976). "Remeubler Versailles". Revue du Louvre. 3: 135–137.  La Varende, Jean de (1959). Versailles. Paris: Henri Lefebvre.  Leloup, Michèle (7 August 2006). "Versailles en grande toilette". L'Express. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008.  Littell, McDougal (2001). World History: Patterns of Interactions. New York: Houghton Mifflin.  Maral, Alexandre (2010). "Chapelle royale". In Gady, Alexandre. Jules hardouin-Mansart 1646–1708. Paris: Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l'homme. pp. 215––228. ISBN 9782735111879.  Massie, Suzanne (1990). Pavlosk: The Life of a Russian Palace. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.  ——— (February 1989). "L'ameublement de la chambre de Louis XIV à Versailles de 1701 à nos jours". Gazette des Beaux-Arts (6th ed.). 113: 79–104.  Michelin Tyre PLC (1989). Île-de-France: The Region Around Paris. Harrow [England]: Michelin Tyre Public Ltd. Co. ISBN 9782060134116. Nolhac, Pierre de (1898). La création de Versailles sous Louis Quinze. Paris: H. Champion.  Oppermann, Fabien (2004). Images et usages du château de Versailles au XXe siècle (Thesis). École des Chartes.  Saule, Béatrix; Meyer, Daniel (2000). Versailles Visitor's Guide. Versailles: Éditions Art-Lys. ISBN 9782854951172.  Verlet, Pierre (1985). Le château de Versailles. Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard.  Wawro, Geoffrey (2003). The Franco-Prussian War: the German conquest of France
France
in 1870–1871. Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Palace of Versailles.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Versailles.

Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
Official Site Virtual Tour of the Palace (fullscreen panoramic tour) Large Versailles photo gallery Flickr : Le Parc de Versailles Versailles on Paper (exhibition website) 3D evolution of the Palace of Versailles

v t e

World Heritage Sites in France

Île-de-France

Palace and Park of Versailles Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
Palace and Park Paris: Banks of the Seine Provins

Parisian basin

Amiens Cathedral Belfries of Belgium and France1 Bourges Cathedral Champagne hillsides, houses and cellars Chartres Cathedral Climats and terroirs of Burgundy Reims: Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Abbey of Saint-Remi, Palace of Tau Abbey of Fontenay Le Havre Vézelay Church and hill

Nord-Pas-de-Calais

Belfries of Belgium and France1 Nord-Pas de Calais Mining Basin

East

Great Saltworks of Salins-les-Bains
Salins-les-Bains
and Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans Nancy: Place Stanislas, Place de la Carrière and Place d'Alliance Strasbourg: Grande Île, Neustadt Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3

West

Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
and its bay

South West

Episcopal city, Albi Port of the Moon, Bordeaux Prehistoric sites and decorated caves of the Vézère valley Pyrénées – Mont Perdu2 Saint-Émilion

Centre East

Chauvet Cave Lyon

Mediterranean

Roman and Romanesque monuments, Arles Carcassonne citadel Gulf of Porto: Calanches de Piana, Gulf of Girolata, Scandola Reserve Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble, Avignon Bridge Pont du Gard Orange: Roman Theatre and environs, Triumphal Arch

Multiple regions

The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier Canal du Midi Fortifications of Vauban Loire Valley
Loire Valley
between Sully-sur-Loire
Sully-sur-Loire
and Chalonnes-sur-Loire Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France

Overseas departments and territories

Lagoons of New Caledonia Pitons, cirques and remparts of Réunion Taputapuātea

1Shared locally with other region/s and with Belgium 2Shared with Spain 3Shared with Austria, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland

v t e

French royal residences

Versailles (including the Grand Trianon
Grand Trianon
and Petit Trianon)

Paris: Palais de la Cité Palais du Louvre Palais des Tuileries Palais du Luxembourg Palais Royal Château
Château
de la Muette

Elsewhere: Blois Chambord Choisy Compiègne Fontainebleau Marly Meudon Saint Cloud Saint Germain en Laye

v t e

Tourism in Paris

Landmarks

Arc de Triomphe Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
du Carrousel Arènes de Lutèce Bourse Catacombs Conciergerie Eiffel Tower Flame of Liberty Grand Palais
Grand Palais
and Petit Palais Institut de France Jeanne d'Arc Les Invalides Louvre
Louvre
Pyramid Luxor Obelisk Odéon Opéra Bastille Opéra Garnier Panthéon Philharmonie de Paris Porte Saint-Denis Porte Saint-Martin Sorbonne Tour Montparnasse

Museums

Bibliothèque nationale Carnavalet Centre Pompidou/Beaubourg Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie Jeu de Paume Louis Vuitton Foundation Musée des Arts Décoratifs Musée des Arts et Métiers Musée d'Art et d'Histoire du Judaïsme Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris Musée Cognacq-Jay Musée Grévin Musée Guimet Maison de Victor Hugo Musée Jacquemart-André Musée du Louvre Musée Marmottan Monet Musée de Montmartre Musée National d'Art Moderne Musée national Eugène Delacroix Musée national Gustave Moreau Musée national des Monuments Français Muséum national d'histoire naturelle Musée national du Moyen Âge Musée de l'Orangerie Musée d'Orsay Musée Pasteur Musée Picasso Musée du quai Branly Musée Rodin Palais de la Légion d'Honneur

Musée de la Légion d'honneur

Musée de la Vie Romantique

Religious buildings

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral American Cathedral American Church Chapelle expiatoire Grand Mosque Grand Synagogue La Madeleine Notre-Dame de Paris Notre-Dame-de-Bonne-Nouvelle Notre-Dame-de-Lorette Notre-Dame-des-Victoires Sacré-Cœur Saint Ambroise Saint-Augustin Saint-Étienne-du-Mont Saint-Eustache Saint-François-Xavier Saint-Germain-des-Prés Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois Saint-Gervais-Saint-Protais Saint-Jacques Tower Saint-Jean-de-Montmartre Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis Saint-Pierre de Montmartre Saint-Roch Saint-Sulpice Saint-Vincent-de-Paul Sainte-Chapelle Sainte-Clotilde Sainte-Trinité Temple du Marais Val-de-Grâce

Hôtels particuliers and palaces

Élysée Palace Hôtel de Beauvais Hôtel de Charost Hôtel de Crillon Hôtel d'Estrées Hôtel de la Païva Hôtel de Pontalba Hôtel de Sens Hôtel de Soubise Hôtel de Sully Hôtel de Ville Hôtel Lambert Hôtel Matignon Luxembourg Palace
Luxembourg Palace
(Petit Luxembourg) Palais Bourbon Palais de Justice Palais-Royal

Areas, bridges, streets and squares

Avenue Foch Avenue George V Champ de Mars Champs-Élysées Covered passages

Galerie Véro-Dodat Choiseul Panoramas Galerie Vivienne Havre Jouffroy Brady

Latin Quarter Le Marais Montmartre Montparnasse Place Dauphine Place de la Bastille Place de la Concorde Place de la Nation Place de la République Place Denfert-Rochereau Place des États-Unis Place des Pyramides Place des Victoires Place des Vosges Place du Carrousel Place du Châtelet Place du Tertre Place Saint-Michel Place Vendôme Pont Alexandre III Pont d'Iéna Pont de Bir-Hakeim Pont des Arts Pont Neuf Rive Gauche Rue de Rivoli Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré Saint-Germain-des-Prés Trocadéro

Parks and gardens

Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Jardin d'Acclimatation Jardin du Luxembourg Parc des Buttes Chaumont Parc Montsouris Tuileries Garden

Cemeteries

Montmartre
Montmartre
Cemetery Montparnasse
Montparnasse
Cemetery Passy Cemetery Père Lachaise Cemetery Picpus Cemetery

Région parisienne

Chantilly La Défense

Grande Arche

Disneyland Paris Écouen Fontainebleau France
France
Miniature Malmaison Musée de l’air et de l’espace Musée Fragonard d'Alfort Parc Astérix Provins Rambouillet La Roche-Guyon Basilica of St Denis Saint-Germain-en-Laye Sceaux Stade de France U Arena Vaux-le-Vicomte Palace and Gardens of Versailles Vincennes

Events and traditions

Bastille Day military parade Fête de la Musique Nuit Blanche Paris
Paris
Air Show Paris-Plages Republican Guard

Other

Le Bateau-Lavoir La Ruche Café des 2 Moulins Café Procope Les Deux Magots Maxim's Moulin de la Galette Moulin Rouge

Related

Paris
Paris
Musées Axe historique

Paris
Paris
Métro Bateaux Mouches

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Venues of the 2024 Summer Olympics

Grand Paris
Paris
Zone

Stade de France Seine-Saint-Denis Water Polo Arena (Piscine de Marville) Le Bourget Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir, Colombes U Arena, Nanterre Le Zénith

Paris
Paris
Centre Zone

Champ de Mars Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
and river Seine Champs Elysees Grand Palais Les Invalides Jardins des Tuileries Paris
Paris
expo Porte de Versailles Halle Georges Carpentier Stade Charlety Stade Jean-Bouin Stade Roland Garros

Court Philippe Chatrier Court Suzanne Lenglen Court des Serres

Parc des Princes Stade Pierre de Coubertin (Paris) Palais des sports Marcel-Cerdan Bercy Arena

Versailles Zone

Le Golf National Vélodrome de Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines Château
Château
de Versailles Élancourt
Élancourt
Hill

Football stadia

Stade Vélodrome Parc des Princes Parc Olympique Lyonnais Stade Pierre-Mauroy Nouveau Stade de Bordeaux Stade de la Beaujoire, Nantes
Nantes
(renovated)

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Olympic venues in equestrian

1900: 7th arrondissement of Paris 1912: Fältrittklubben, Liljeholmen, Lindarängen, Östermalms IP, Stockholm Olympic Stadium 1920: Olympisch Stadion 1924: Hippodrome d'Auteuil, Stade de Colombes 1928: Hilversum, Olympic Stadium 1932: Olympic Stadium, Riviera Country Club, Westchester 1936: Döberitz, Mayfield, Olympic Stadium 1948: Aldershot, Empire Stadium, Tweseldown Racecourse 1952: Laakso, Olympic Stadium, Ruskeasuo
Ruskeasuo
Equestrian Hall, Tali Race Track 1956: Lill-Jansskogen, Olympic Stadium, Ulriksdal 1960: Piazza di Siena, Pratoni del Vivaro 1964: Karuizawa, National Stadium 1968: Avándaro Golf Club, Campo Marte, Estadio Olímpico Universitario 1972: Dressage Facility Nymphenburg, Olympiastadion, Riding Facility, Riem 1976: Olympic Equestrian Centre, Bromont, Olympic Stadium 1980: Grand Arena, Trade Unions' Equestrian Complex 1984: Fairbanks Ranch Country Club, Santa Anita Park 1988: Olympic Stadium, Seoul Equestrian Park 1992: Club Hípic El Montayá, Real Club de Polo de Barcelona 1996: Georgia International Horse Park 2000: Sydney International Equestrian Centre 2004: Markopoulo Olympic Equestrian Centre 2008: Hong Kong Equestrian Venues 2012: Greenwich Park 2016: Olympic Equestrian Centre 2020: Central Breakwater, Baji Koen 2024: Palace of Versailles 2028: Sepulveda Dam

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Olympic venues in modern pentathlon

1912 Barkarby, Djurgårdsbrunnsviken, Kaknäs, Östermalms IP, Stockholm Olympic Stadium 1920 Olympisch Stadion 1924 Fontainebleau, Le Stand de Tir de Versailles, Piscine des Tourelles, Stade de Colombes 1928 Amersfoort, Hilversum, Olympic Sports Park Swim Stadium, Schermzaal, Zeeburg
Zeeburg
Shooting Grounds 1932 160th Regiment State Armory, Los Angeles Police Pistol Range, Riviera Country Club, Sunset Fields Golf Club, Swimming Stadium 1936 Döberitz, Haus des Deutschen Sports, Olympic Swimming Stadium, Ruhleben, Wannsee
Wannsee
Golf Course 1948 Aldershot, Bisley National Rifle Association Ranges, Royal Military Academy 1952 Hämeenlinna 1956 Oaklands Hunt Club, Royal Exhibition Building, Swimming/Diving Stadium, Williamstown 1960 Acqua Santa Golf Club Course, Palazzo dei Congressi, Passo Corese, Stadio Olimpico del Nuoto, Umberto I Shooting Range 1964 Asaka Nezu Park, Asaka Shooting Range, Kemigawa, National Gymnasium, Waseda Memorial Hall 1968 Campo Militar 1, Fernando Montes de Oca Fencing Hall, Francisco Márquez Olympic Pool, Vicente Suárez Shooting Range 1972 Messegelände Fechthalle 2, Olympiastadion, Riding Facility, Riem; Schießanlage, Schwimmhalle 1976 Montreal Botanical Garden, Olympic Equestrian Centre, Bromont; Olympic Pool, Olympic Shooting Range, L'Acadie; Winter Stadium, Université de Montréal 1980 CSKA Football Fieldhouse, Dynamo Shooting Range, Swimming Pool - Olimpisky, Trade Unions' Equestrian Complex 1984 Coto de Caza, Heritage Park Aquatic Center 1988 Jamsil Indoor Swimming Pool, Mongchontoseong, Olympic Fencing Gymnasium, Seoul Equestrian Park, Taenung International Shooting Range 1992 Cross-country course, Mollet del Vallès Shooting Range, Palau de la Metal·lúrgia, Piscines Bernat Picornell, Real Club de Polo de Barcelona 1996 Georgia International Horse Park, Georgia Tech Aquatic Center, Georgia World Congress Center 2000 Sydney Baseball Stadium, Sydney International Aquatic Centre, The Dome and Exhibition Complex 2004 Olympic Modern Pentathlon Centre 2008 Olympic Green Convention Center, Olympic Sports Centre, Ying Tung Natatorium 2012 Aquatics Centre, Greenwich Park, Copper Box, Royal Artillery Barracks 2016 Deodoro Aquatics Centre, Deodoro Stadium, Youth Arena 2020 Musashino Forest Sport Plaza, Tokyo Stadium 2024 Vélodrome de Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Palace of Versailles 2028 VELO Sports Center, StubHub Center

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 127977992 LCCN: n91058220 ISNI: 0000 0001 2155 0720 GND: 4194431-8 SELIBR: 333130 SUDOC: 02654685X BNF: cb119487267 (dat

.