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Padmasambhava[note 1] (lit. "Lotus-Born"), also known as Guru Rinpoche, was an 8th-century Indian Buddhist
Buddhist
master. Although there was a historical Padmasambhava, nothing is known of him apart from helping the construction of the first Buddhist
Buddhist
monastery in Tibet
Tibet
at Samye, at the behest of Trisong Detsen,[1] and shortly thereafter leaving Tibet
Tibet
due to court intrigues.[2] A number of legends have grown around Padmasambhava's life and deeds, and he is widely venerated as a 'second Buddha' across Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, and the Himalayan states of India, and whomever believes in Tibetan Buddhism.[3][4] In Tibetan Buddhism, he is a character of a genre of literature called terma,[2] an emanation of Amitābha
Amitābha
that is said to appear to tertöns in visionary encounters and a focus of guru yoga practice, particularly in the Rimé schools. The Nyingma
Nyingma
school considers Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
to be a founder of their tradition.[5]

Contents

1 Historical sources 2 Mythos

2.1 Sources 2.2 Early years

2.2.1 Birth 2.2.2 Tantra
Tantra
in India
India
and Nepal

2.3 Tibet

2.3.1 Subjection of local religions 2.3.2 Translations 2.3.3 Nyingma

2.4 Bhutan

3 Iconography, manifestations and attributes

3.1 Iconography

3.1.1 General 3.1.2 Head 3.1.3 Skin 3.1.4 Dress 3.1.5 Hands 3.1.6 Khatvanga 3.1.7 Seat 3.1.8 Surrounding

3.2 Eight Manifestations 3.3 Attributes

3.3.1 Pure-land Paradise 3.3.2 Samantabhadra
Samantabhadra
and Samantabhadri

4 Teachings and practices ascribed to Padmasambhava

4.1 The Vajra Guru mantra 4.2 The Seven Line Prayer to Padmasambhava 4.3 Termas 4.4 Tantric cycles

5 Consorts and twenty five main disciples

5.1 The five main consorts or five wisdom dakinis 5.2 The 'Twenty-five Main Disciples' of Padmasambhava

6 Gallery 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

9.1 Citations 9.2 Sources

10 External links

Historical sources[edit] One of the earliest sources for Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
as a historical figure is the Testament of Ba
Testament of Ba
(dating to the 9th or 10th centuries), which records the founding of Samye
Samye
Monastery under the reign of king Trisong Detsen
Trisong Detsen
(r. 755–797/804).[6] Other texts from Dunhuang
Dunhuang
show that Padmasambhava's tantric teachings were being taught in Tibet during the 10th century. In later texts, Padmasambhava's story became highly mythologized and integrated into Tantric ritual.[7] Mythos[edit] Sources[edit] See also: Namtar (biography) Nyangrel Nyima Özer (1136-1204) was the principal architect of the Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
mythos according to Janet Gyatso.[8] Guru Chöwang (1212–1270) was the next major contributor to the mythos.[8] In the eleventh and twelfth centuries there were several competing terma traditions surrounding Padmasambhava, Vimalamitra, Songtsän Gampo, and Vairotsana.[9] At the end of the 12th century, there was the "victory of the Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
cult,"[10] in which a much greater role is assigned to the role of Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
in the introduction of Buddhism
Buddhism
to Tibet.[11] Early years[edit] Birth[edit] According to tradition, Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
was incarnated as an eight-year-old child appearing in a lotus blossom floating in Lake Dhanakosha, in the kingdom of Oddiyana.[12] While some scholars locate this kingdom in the Swat Valley
Swat Valley
area of modern-day Pakistan, a case on literary, archaeological, and iconographical grounds can be made for placing it in the present-day state of Odisha
Odisha
in India.[13] Padmasambhava's special nature was recognized by the childless local king of Oḍḍiyāna and was chosen to take over the kingdom, but he left Oddiyana
Oddiyana
for northern parts of India.[14][15] Tantra
Tantra
in India
India
and Nepal[edit] Main articles: Tantra
Tantra
and Vajrayana

Statue of Princess Mandarava
Mandarava
at Rewalsar Lake.

In Rewalsar, known as Tso Pema in Tibetan, he secretly taught tantric teachings to princess Mandarava, the local king's daughter. The king found out and tried to burn him, but it is believed that when the smoke cleared he just sat there, still alive and in meditation. Greatly astonished by this miracle, the king offered Padmasambhava both his kingdom and Mandarava.[16] Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
left with Mandarava, and took to Maratika Cave[17] in Nepal
Nepal
to practice secret tantric consort rituals. They had a vision of buddha Amitāyus and achieved what is called the "phowa rainbow body,"[note 2] a very rare type of spiritual realization. [note 3] Both Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
and one of his consorts, Mandarava, are still believed to be alive and active in this rainbow body form by their followers. She and Padmasambhava's other main consort, Yeshe Tsogyal, who reputedly hid his numerous termas in Tibet
Tibet
for later discovery, reached Buddhahood. Many thangkas and paintings show Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
in between them, with Mandarava
Mandarava
on his right and Yeshe Tsogyal
Yeshe Tsogyal
on his left.[18] Tibet[edit] Main articles: Tibet
Tibet
and History of Tibet Subjection of local religions[edit] According to Sam van Schaik, from the 12th century on a greater role was assigned to Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
in the introduction of tantric Buddhism into Tibet:

According to earlier histories, Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
had given some tantric teachings to Tibetans before being forced to leave due to the suspicions of the Tibetan court. But from the twelfth century an alternative story, itself a terma discovery, gave Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
a much greater role in the introduction of Buddhism
Buddhism
to Tibet, and in particular credited him with travelling all over the country to convert the local spirits to Buddhism.[11]

According to this enlarged story, King Trisong Detsen, the 38th king of the Yarlung dynasty and the first Emperor of Tibet
Tibet
(742–797), invited the Nalanda
Nalanda
University abbot Śāntarakṣita
Śāntarakṣita
(Tibetan Shiwatso) to Tibet.[19] Śāntarakṣita
Śāntarakṣita
started the building of Samye.[19] Demonical forces hindered the introduction of the Buddhist dharma, and Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
was invited to Tibet
Tibet
to subdue the demonic forces.[20] The demons were not annihilated, but were obliged to submit to the dharma.[21][note 4] This was in accordance with the tantric principle of not eliminating negative forces but redirecting them to fuel the journey toward spiritual awakening. According to tradition, Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
received the Emperor's wife, identified with the dakini Yeshe Tsogyal, as a consort.[23] Translations[edit] Main article: Tibetan Buddhism

Statues of Padmasambhava, Buddha and Amitayus at Namdroling Monastery.

King Trisong Detsen
Trisong Detsen
ordered the translation of all Buddhist
Buddhist
Dharma Texts into Tibetan. Padmasambhava, Shantarakṣita, 108 translators, and 25 of Padmasambhava's nearest disciples worked for many years in a gigantic translation-project. The translations from this period formed the base for the large scriptural transmission of Dharma
Dharma
teachings into Tibet. Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
supervised mainly the translation of Tantra; Shantarakshita concentrated on the Sutra-teachings.[citation needed] Nyingma[edit] Main article: Nyingma Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
introduced the people of Tibet
Tibet
to the practice of Tantric Buddhism.[21][24] He is regarded as the founder of the Nyingma
Nyingma
tradition. The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism.[note 5] The Nyingma
Nyingma
tradition actually comprises several distinct lineages that all trace their origins to Padmasambhava. "Nyingma" literally means "ancient," and is often referred to as "Nga'gyur" "[note 6] or the "early translation school" because it is founded on the first translations of Buddhist
Buddhist
scriptures from Sanskrit into Tibetan, in the eighth century.[note 7] The group particularly believes in hidden terma treasures. Traditionally, Nyingmapa
Nyingmapa
practice was advanced orally among a loose network of lay practitioners. Monasteries with celibate monks and nuns, along with the practice of reincarnated spiritual leaders are later adaptations,[25] though Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
is regarded as the founder of Samye
Samye
Gompa, the first monastery in the country.[26] In modern times the Nyingma
Nyingma
lineage has been centered in Kham
Kham
in eastern Tibet. Bhutan[edit] Main articles: Bhutan, History of Bhutan, and Buddhism
Buddhism
in Bhutan Bhutan
Bhutan
has many important pilgrimage places associated with Padmasambhava. The most famous is Paro Taktsang
Paro Taktsang
or "Tiger's Nest" monastery which is built on a sheer cliff wall about 500m above the floor of Paro valley. It was built around the Taktsang Senge Samdup (stag tshang seng ge bsam grub) cave where he is said to have meditated in the 8th Century. He flew there from Tibet
Tibet
on the back of Yeshe Tsogyal, whom he transformed into a flying tigress for the purpose of the trip.[citation needed] Later he travelled to Bumthang district to subdue a powerful deity offended by a local king. According to legend, Padmasambhava's body imprint can be found in the wall of a cave at nearby Kurje Lhakhang
Kurje Lhakhang
temple.[citation needed] Iconography, manifestations and attributes[edit] Iconography[edit]

Padmasambhava. Wall painting at Paro bridge (Bhutan)

General[edit]

He has one face and two hands.[27][28] He is wrathful and smiling.[27] He blazes magnificently with the splendour of the major and minor marks.[27]

Head[edit]

On his head he wears a five-petalled lotus hat,[27][29] which has

Three points symbolizing the three kayas, Five colours symbolizing the five kayas, A sun and moon symbolizing skilful means and wisdom, A vajra top to symbolize unshakable samadhi, A vulture's feather to represent the realization of the highest view.[28]

His two eyes are wide open in a piercing gaze.[27] He has the youthful appearance of an eight-year old child.[28]

Skin[edit]

His complexion is white with a tinge of red.[28]

Dress[edit]

On his body he wears a white vajra undergarment. On top of this, in layers, a red robe, a dark blue mantrayana tunic, a red monastic shawl decorated with a golden flower pattern, and a maroon cloak of silk brocade.[27] On his body he wears a silk cloak, Dharma
Dharma
robes and gown.[29] He is wearing the dark blue gown of a mantra practitioner, the red and yellow shawl of a monk, the maroon cloak of a king, and the red robe and secret white garments of a bodhisattva.[28]

Hands[edit]

In his right hand, he holds a five-pronged vajra at his heart.[27][28][29] His left hand rests in the gesture of equanimity,[27] In his left hand he holds a skull-cup brimming with nectar, containing the vase of longevity that is also filled with the nectar of deathless wisdom[27][28] and ornamented on top by a wish-fulfilling tree.[29]

Khatvanga[edit] The khaṭvāńga is a particular divine attribute of Padmasambhava and intrinsic to his iconographic representation. It is a danda with three severed heads denoting the three kayas (the three bodies of a Buddha, the dharmakaya, sambhogakaya, and nirmanakaya), crowned by a trishula, and dressed with a sash of the Himalayan Rainbow or Five Pure Lights of the Mahabhuta. The iconography is utilized in various Tantric cycles by practitioners as symbols to hidden meanings in transmitted practices.

Cradled in his left arm he holds the three-pointed khatvanga (trident) symbolizing the Princess consort Mandarava, one of his two main consorts.[27][29] who arouses the wisdom of bliss and emptiness, concealed as the three-pointed khatvanga trident.[28] Other sources say that the khatvanga represents the Lady Yeshe Tsogyal, his primary consort and main disciple.[30] Its three points represent the essence, nature and compassionate energy (ngowo, rangshyin and tukjé).[28][29] Below these three prongs are three severed heads, dry, fresh and rotten, symbolizing the dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya.[28][29] Nine iron rings adorning the prongs represent the nine yanas.[28][29] Five-coloured strips of silk symbolize the five wisdoms[28] The khatvanga is also adorned with locks of hair from dead and living mamos and dakinis, as a sign that the Master subjugated them all when he practised austerities in the Eight Great Charnel Grounds.[28][29]

Seat[edit]

He is seated with his two feet in the royal posture.[27][28][29]

Surrounding[edit]

All around him, within a lattice of five-coloured light, appear the eight vidyadharas of India, the twenty-five disciples of Tibet, the deities of the three roots, and an ocean of oath-bound protectors[29]

There are further iconographies and meanings in more advanced and secret stages.[citation needed] Eight Manifestations[edit]

A wrathful manifestation of Padmasambhava

Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
is said to have taken eight forms or manifestations (Tib. Guru Tsen Gye) representing different aspects of his being, such as wrath or pacification for example. According to Rigpa Shedra the eight principal forms were assumed by Guru Rinpoche
Rinpoche
at different points in his life. The Eight Manifestations of Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
belong to the tradition of the Revealed Treasures (Tib.: ter ma).[31]

Guru Orgyen Dorje Chang (Wylie: gu ru U-rgyan rDo-rje 'chang, Sanskrit: Guru Uddiyana Vajradhara) The vajra-holder (Skt. Vajradhara), shown dark blue in color in the attire of the Sambhogakaya. Depicted in union with consort. (See image + description) Guru Shakya Senge (Wylie: shAkya seng-ge, Skrt: Guru Śākyasimha) of Bodh Gaya, Lion of the Sakyas, who learns the Tantric practices of the eight Vidyadharas. He is shown as a fully ordained Buddhist
Buddhist
monk. (See image) Guru Pema Gyalpo (Wylie: gu ru pad ma rgyal-po, Skrt: Guru Padmarāja) of Uddiyana, the Lotus Prince, king of the Tripitaka
Tripitaka
(the Three Collections of Scripture). He is shown looking like a young crowned prince or king. (See image + description) Guru Pema Jungne (Wylie: pad ma 'byung-gnas, Skrt: Guru Padmakara) Lotus-arisen, the Saviour who teaches the Dharma
Dharma
to the people. He is shown sitting on a lotus, dressed in the three robes of a monk, under which he wears a blue shirt, pants and heavy Tibetan boots, as protection against the cold. He holds the diamond-scepter of compassionate love in his right hand and the yogi's skull-bowl of clear wisdom in his left. He has a special trident called khatvanga of a wandering Yogi, and wears on his head a Nepalese cloth crown, stylistically designed to remind one of the shape of a lotus flower. Thus he is represented as he must have appeared in Tibet. (See image + description), on wikimedia commons Guru Loden Chokse (Wylie: gu ru blo ldan mchog sred; Skrt: Guru Mativat Vararuci[32]) of Kashmir, the Intelligent Youth, the one who gathers the knowledge of all worlds. He is shown in princely clothes, beating a hand-drum and holding a skull-bowl. (See image + description) Guru Nyima Ozer (Wylie: gu ru nyi-ma 'od-zer, Skrt: Guru Suryabhasa or Sūryaraśmi[32]), the Sunray Yogi, who illuminates the darkness of the mind through the insight of Dzogchen. He is shown as a naked yogi dressed only in a loin-cloth and holding a Khatvanga
Khatvanga
which points towards the sun. (See image + description) Guru Dorje Drolo, (Wylie: gu ru rDo-rje gro-lod, Skrt: Guru Vajra ?) the fierce manifestation of Vajrakilaya
Vajrakilaya
(wrathful Vajrasattva) known as "Diamond Guts", the comforter of all, imprinting the elements with Wisdom-Treasure. (See image + description) Guru Senge Dradog (Wylie: gu ru seng-ge sgra-sgrogs, Skrt: Guru Simhanāda[32]) of Nalanda
Nalanda
University, the Lion of Debate, promulgator of the Dharma
Dharma
throughout the six realms of sentient beings. He is shown in a very fierce form, dark blue and imitative of the powerful Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Vajrapani, holding a thunderbolt scepter in one hand and a scorpion in the other. (See image)

Padmasambhava's various Sanskrit
Sanskrit
names are preserved in mantras such as those found in the Yang gsang rig 'dzin youngs rdzogs kyi blama guru mtshan brgyad bye brag du sgrub pa ye shes bdud rtsi'i sbrang char zhe bya ba[32] Attributes[edit] Pure-land Paradise[edit] Main article: Pure land His Pureland Paradise is Zangdok Palri (the Copper-Coloured Mountain).[33] Samantabhadra
Samantabhadra
and Samantabhadri[edit] Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
said:

My father is the intrinsic awareness, Samantabhadra
Samantabhadra
(Sanskrit; Tib. ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ). My mother is the ultimate sphere of reality, Samantabhadri
Samantabhadri
(Sanskrit; Tib. ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་མོ). I belong to the caste of non-duality of the sphere of awareness. My name is the Glorious Lotus-Born. I am from the unborn sphere of all phenomena. I act in the way of the Buddhas of the three times.

Teachings and practices ascribed to Padmasambhava[edit] The Vajra Guru mantra[edit]

The Vajra Guru Mantra
Mantra
in Lanydza and Tibetan script.

The Vajra Guru (Padmasambhava) mantra Om Ah Hum Vajra Guru Padma Siddhi Hum is favoured and held in esteem by sadhakas. Like most Sanskritic mantras in Tibet, the Tibetan pronunciation demonstrates dialectic variation and is generally Om Ah Hung Benza Guru Pema Siddhi Hung. In the Vajrayana
Vajrayana
traditions, particularly of the Nyingmapa, it is held to be a powerful mantra engendering communion with the Three Vajras of Padmasambhava's mindstream and by his grace, all enlightened beings.[34] In response to Yeshe Tsogyal's request, the Great Master himself explained the meaning of the mantra although there are larger secret meanings too.[35] The 14th century tertön Karma Lingpa
Karma Lingpa
has a famous commentary on the mantra.[36] The Seven Line Prayer to Padmasambhava[edit] The Seven Line Prayer to Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
(Guru Rinpoche) is a famous prayer that is recited by many Tibetans daily and is said to contain the most sacred and important teachings of Dzogchen. Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso
Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso
composed a famous commentary to the Seven Line Prayer called White Lotus. It explains the meanings, which are embedded in many levels and intended to catalyze a process of realization. These hidden teachings are described as ripening and deepening, in time, with study and with contemplation.[37] Tulku Thondup says:

Enshrining the most sacred prayer to Guru Padmasambhava, White Lotus elucidates its five layers of meaning as revealed by the eminent scholar Ju Mipham. This commentary now makes this treasure, which has been kept secret among the great masters of Tibet
Tibet
for generations, available as a source of blessings and learning for all.

There is also a shorter commentary, freely available, by Tulku
Tulku
Thondup himself.[38] There are many other teachings and Termas and widely practiced tantric cycles incorporating the text as well as brief ones such as Terma Revelation of Guru Chöwang.[39] Termas[edit] Main articles: Terma (Buddhism) and Terma (religion) Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
also hid a number of religious treasures (termas) in lakes, caves, fields and forests of the Himalayan region to be found and interpreted by future tertöns or spiritual treasure-finders.[40] According to Tibetan tradition, the Bardo Thodol
Bardo Thodol
(commonly referred to as the Tibetan Book of the Dead) was among these hidden treasures, subsequently discovered by a Tibetan terton, Karma
Karma
Lingpa. Tantric cycles[edit] Tantric cycles related to Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
are not just practiced by the Nyingma, they even gave rise to a new offshoot of Bon
Bon
which emerged in the 14th century called the New Bön. Prominent figures of the Sarma (new translation) schools such as the Karmapas and Sakya
Sakya
lineage heads have practiced these cycles and taught them. Some of the greatest tertons revealing teachings related to Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
have been from the Kagyu
Kagyu
or Sakya
Sakya
lineages. The hidden lake temple of the Dalai Lamas behind the Potala called Lukhang is dedicated to Dzogchen
Dzogchen
teachings and has murals depicting the eight manifestations of Padmasambhava.[41] Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
established Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
and the highest forms of Dzogchen
Dzogchen
(Mengagde) in Tibet
Tibet
and transformed the entire nation. Consorts and twenty five main disciples[edit] Many of those who gathered around Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
became advanced tantric practitioners as well as helping to found and propagate the Nyingma
Nyingma
tradition. The most prominent of these include Padmasambhava's five main female consorts, also known as dakinis and his twenty five main disciples. The five main consorts or five wisdom dakinis[edit] See also: Shakti
Shakti
and Dakini

Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
in yab-yum form with his Shakti

Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
had five main female tantric companions, beginning in India
India
before his time in Tibet
Tibet
and then in Tibet
Tibet
as well. When seen from an outer, or perhaps even historical or mythological perspective, these five women from across South Asia
South Asia
were known as the Five Consorts. That the women come from very different geographic regions is understood as mandala, a support for Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
in spreading the dharma throughout the region. Yet, when understood from a more inner tantric perspective, these same women are understood not as ordinary women but as dakinis; from this point of view, they are known as the "Five Wisdom Dakinis" (Wylie: Ye-shes mKha-'gro lnga). Each of these consorts is believed to be an emanation of the tantric yidam, Vajravārāhī.[42] As one author writes of these relationships:

Yet in reality, he [Padmasambhava] was never separate from the five emanations of Vajravarahi: the Body-emanation, Mandarava; the Speech-emanation, Yeshe Tsogyal; the Mind-emanation, Shakyadema; the Qualities-emanation, Kalasiddhi; and the Activity-emanation, Trashi [sic] Chidren.[43]

In summary, the five consorts/wisdom dakinis were:

Yeshe Tsogyal
Yeshe Tsogyal
of Tibet, who was the emanation of Vajravarahi's Speech (Tibetan: gsung; Sanskrit: vāk); Mandarava
Mandarava
of Zahor, northeast India, who was the emanation of Vajravarahi's Body (Tibetan: sku; Sanskrit: kāya); Belwong Kalasiddhi of northwest India, who was the emanation of Vajravarahi's Quality (Tibetan: yon-tan; Sanskrit: gūna); Belmo Sakya
Sakya
Devi of Nepal, who was the emanation of Vajravarahi's Mind (Tibetan: thugs; Sanskrit: citta); and Tashi Kyedren (or Chidren) (sometimes called Mangala) of Bhutan, who was the emanation of Vajravarahi's Activity (Tibetan: phrin-las; Sanskrit: karma).[44]

While there are very few sources on the lives of Kalasiddhi, Sakya Devi, and Tashi Kyedren, there are extant biographies of both Yeshe Tsogyal and Mandarava
Mandarava
that have been translated into English and other western languages. The 'Twenty-five Main Disciples' of Padmasambhava[edit] The Twenty Five Main Disciples (Tibetan: རྗེ་འབངས་ཉེར་ལྔ, Wylie: rje 'bangs nyer lnga) also called the disciples of Chimphu.[45] In various lists these include:

King Trisong Detsen
Trisong Detsen
(Tibetan: ཁྲི་སྲོང་ལྡེའུ་བཏཟན, Wylie: khri srong lde'u btzan)

Denma Tsemang

Denma Tsémang (Tibetan: ལྡན་མ་རྩེ་མང, Wylie: ldan ma rtse mang) [46] Dorje Dudjom of Nanam (Tibetan: རྡོ་རྗེ་བདུད་འཇོམ, Wylie: rdo rje bdud 'joms) [47] (image on Wikimedia commons) Khyechung Lotsawa (Tibetan: ཁྱེའུ་ཆུང་ལོ་ཙཱ་བ, Wylie: khye'u chung lo tsā ba) Gyalwa Changchub of Lasum (Tibetan: ལ་སུམ་རྒྱལ་བ་བྱང་ཆུབ, Wylie: la sum rgyal ba byang chub) [48] (image on Wikimedia commons) Gyalwa Choyang (Tibetan: རྒྱལ་བ་མཆོག་དབྱངས, Wylie: rgyal ba mchog dbyangs) [49] Gyalwe Lodro of Dré (Tibetan: རྒྱལ་བའི་བློ་གྲོས, Wylie: rgyal ba'i blo gros) [50] Jnanakumara of Nyak (Tibetan: གཉགས་ཛཉའ་ན་ཀུ་མ་ར, Wylie: gnyags dzny' na ku ma ra) [51] Kawa Paltsek
Kawa Paltsek
(Tibetan: སྐ་བ་དཔལ་བརྩེགས, Wylie: ska ba dpal brtsegs) [52] Khandro Yeshe Tsogyal, the princess of Karchen (Tibetan: མཁར་ཆེན་བཟའ་མཚོ་རྒྱལ, Wylie: mkhar chen bza' mtsho rgyal) Konchog Jungné of Langdro (Tibetan: ལང་གྲོ་དཀོན་མཆོག་འབྱུང་གནས, Wylie: lang gro dkon mchog 'byung gnas) [53] Lhapal the Sokpo (Tibetan: སོག་པོ་ལྷ་དཔལ, Wylie: sog po lha dpal) [54] Namkhai Nyingpo (Tibetan: ནམ་མཁའི་སྙིང་པོ, Wylie: nam mkha'i snying po) Zhang Yeshe De
Zhang Yeshe De
(Tibetan: ཞང་ཡེ་ཤེས་སྡེ, Wylie: zhang ye shes sde) Lhalung Pelgyi Dorje
Lhalung Pelgyi Dorje
(Tibetan: ལྷ་ལུང་དཔལ་གྱི་རྡོ་རྗེ, Wylie: lha lung dpal gyi rdo rje) [55]

Palgyi Sengge

Palgyi Senge (Tibetan: དཔལ་གྱི་སེང་གེ, Wylie: dpal gyi seng ge) [56] Palgyi Wangchuk (Tibetan: དཔལ་གྱི་དབང་ཕྱུག, Wylie: dpal gyi dbang phyug) [57] Palgyi Wangchuk of Odren (Tibetan: འོ་དྲན་དཔལ་གྱི་དབང་ཕྱུག, Wylie: 'o dran dpal gyi dbang phyug) [58] Palgyi Yeshe (Tibetan: དཔལ་གྱི་ཡེ་ཤེས, Wylie: dpal gyi ye shes) Rinchen Chok of Ma (Tibetan: རྨ་རིན་ཆེན་མཆོག, Wylie: rma rin chen mchog) [59] Sangye Yeshe (Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་ཡེ་ཤེས, Wylie: sangs rgyas ye shes) [60] Shubu Palgyi Senge (Tibetan: ཤུད་བུ་དཔལ་གྱི་སེང་གེ, Wylie: shud bu dpal gyi seng ge) Vairotsana, the great translator (Tibetan: བཻ་རོ་ཙ་ན, Wylie: bai ro tsa na) Yeshe Yang (Tibetan: ཡེ་ཤེས་དབྱངས, Wylie: ye shes dbyangs) [61] Yudra Nyingpo of Gyalmo (Tibetan: ག་ཡུ་སྒྲ་སྙིང་པོ, Wylie: g.yu sgra snying po)

Also:

Vimalamitra
Vimalamitra
(Tibetan: དྲུ་མེད་བཤེས་གཉེན, Wylie: dru med bshes gnyen) Tingdzin Zangpo (Tibetan: ཏིང་འཛིན་བཟང་པོ, Wylie: ting 'dzin bzang po) [62] (image on Wikimedia commons)

Gallery[edit]

Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
statue in Hemis
Hemis
Monastery, Ladakh, India.

The Holy Statue of Guru Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
at Samdruptse, Namchi, Sikkim, India.

Entrance to Dawa Puk, Guru Rinpoche's cave, Yerpa, 1993.

Statue of Guru Rinpoche
Rinpoche
in his meditation cave at Yerpa, Tibet

Mantra
Mantra
of Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
in Tibetan script.

See also[edit]

Crazy wisdom Dampa Sangye Dudjom Rinpoche Kōbō Daishi

Notes[edit]

^ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Padmasambhāva; Tibetan: པདྨ་འབྱུང་གནས།, Wylie: pad+ma 'byung gnas (EWTS); Mongolian ловон Бадмажунай, lovon Badmajunai, Chinese: 莲花生大士 (pinyin: Liánhuāshēng) ^ Wylie 'pho ba chen po, pronounced Phowa
Phowa
Chenpo ^ Wylie: 'ja' lus, pronounced Jalü. ^ The subjection of concurring deities and demons is a recurrent theme in Buddhist
Buddhist
literature. See also Vajrapani and Mahesvara and Steven Heine's "Opening a Mountain".[22] ^ The other three being the Kagyu, Sakya
Sakya
and Gelug ^ Tibetan: སྔ་འགྱུར།, Wylie: snga 'gyur, ZYPY: Nga'gyur, "school of the ancient translations. ^ The Tibetan script
Tibetan script
and grammar was actually created for this endeavour.

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Kværne, Per (2013). Tuttle, Gray; Schaeffer, Kurtis R., eds. The Tibetan history reader. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 168. ISBN 9780231144698.  ^ a b Schaik, Sam van. Tibet: A History. Yale University Press 2011, page 34-5, 96-8. ^ "Padmasambhava". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 October 2015.  ^ Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Jr., Donald S. (2013). The Princeton dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 608. ISBN 9781400848058. Retrieved 5 October 2015.  ^ Harvey, Peter (2008). An Introduction to Buddhism
Buddhism
Teachings, History and Practices (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN 9780521676748. Retrieved 6 October 2015.  ^ van Schaik, Sam; Iwao, Kazushi (2009). "Fragments of the Testament of Ba from Dunhuang". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 128 (3): 477–487. ISSN 0003-0279 ^ Mayer, Rob; Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
in early Tibetan myth and ritual: Part 1, Introduction. http://blogs.orient.ox.ac.uk/kila/2011/05/06/padmasambhava-in-early-tibetan-myth-and-ritual-part-1/ ^ a b Gyatso, Janet (August 2006). "A Partial Genealogy of the Lifestory of Ye shes mtsho rgyal". The Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies (2).  ^ Davidson, Ronald M. Tibetan Renaissance. pg 229. Columbia University Press, 2005. ^ Davidson, Ronald M. Tibetan Renaissance. pg 278. Columbia University Press, 2005. ^ a b Schaik, Sam van. Tibet: A History. Yale University Press 2011, page 96. ^ Trungpa (2001) 26. For debate on its geographical location, see also the article on Oddiyana. ^ Keown, Damien (2003). A Dictionary of Buddhism
Buddhism
(1 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 203. ISBN 9780198605607. Retrieved 11 February 2016. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Morgan (2010) 208. ^ Tsogyal (1973) volume I deals with Padmasambhava's life in India. ^ Lama
Lama
Chonam and Sangye Khandro, translators. The Lives and Liberation of Princess Mandarava: The Indian Consort of Padmasambhava. (1998). Wisdom Publications. ^ http://www.treasuryoflives.org/institution/Maratika ^ http://www.treasuryoflives.org/paintings/view/Padmasambhava/35 ^ a b Snelling 1987, p. 198. ^ Snelling 1987, p. 196, 198. ^ a b Snelling 1987. ^ Heine 2002. ^ 'Guru Rinpoche' and 'Yeshe Tsogyal' in: Forbes, Andrew ; Henley, David (2013). The Illustrated Tibetan Book of the Dead. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. B00BCRLONM ^ Harvey 1995. ^ Sherpa, Lhakpa Norbu (2008). Through a Sherpa Window: Illustrated Guide to Sherpa Culture. Kathmandu, Nepal: Vajra Publications. ISBN 978-9937506205. [permanent dead link] ^ Norbu 1987, p. 162. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, Illuminating the Excellent Path to Omniscience ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Chökyi Drakpa, A Torch for the Path to Omniscience: A Word by Word Commentary on the Text of the Longchen Nyingtik Preliminary Practices. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Patrul Rinpoche, Brief Guide to the Ngöndro Visualization ^ John Huntington and Dina Bangdel. The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art. Columbus Museum of Art, Columbus, Ohio, and Serindia Publications, Chicago. 2004. p. 358. ^ Khenchen Palden Sherab Rinpoche
Rinpoche
The Eight Emanations Of Guru Padmasambhava; Rigpawiki Eight Manifestations of Guru Rinpoche; For the eight manifestations as terma, see: Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
- 8 Froms: Dorje Drolo. ^ a b c d Boord 1993, p. 115. ^ Schmidt and Binder 1993, pp. 252-53. ^ Sogyal Rinpoche
Rinpoche
(1992). The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, pp. 386-389 Harper, San Francisco. ISBN 0-7126-5437-2. ^ Khenpo Namdrol's Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
Global Project for World Peace ^ Benefits and Advantages of the Vajra Guru Mantra ^ White Lotus: An Explanation of the Seven-line Prayer to Guru Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
by Mipham Rinpoche, Ju and translated by the Padmakara Translation Group Archived 2009-01-25 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Commentary on the Seven Line Prayer to Guru Rinpoche ^ Lotsawa HouseSeven Line Prayer, Accomplishing the Lama
Lama
through the Seven Line Prayer: A Special
Special
Teaching from the Lama
Lama
Sangdü, The Terma Revelation of Guru Chöwang ^ Laird (2006) 90. ^ Ian A. Baker: The Lukhang: A hidden temple in Tibet. ^ Dowman, Keith. (1984). Sky Dancer: The Secret Life and Songs of the Lady Yeshe Tsogyel. p. 265. ^ Gyalwa Changchub and Namkhai Nyingpo, Lady of the Lotus-Born: The Life and Enlightenment of Yeshe Tsogyal, Shambhala (1999, pp. 3-4) ^ Tibetan Wylie transliteration
Wylie transliteration
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
transliteration are found in Dowman, Keith. (1984). Sky Dancer: The Secret Life and Songs of the Lady Yeshe Tsogyel. p. 193. ^ RigpaShedra ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Denma Tsemang". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.  ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Nanam Dorje Dudjom". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.  ^ Dorje, Gyurme (August 2008). "Lasum Gyelwa Jangchub". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.  ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Gyelwa Choyang". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.  ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Gyelwai Lodro". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.  ^ Garry, Ron (August 2007). "Nyak Jñānakumara". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.  ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Kawa Peltsek". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.  ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Langdro Konchok Jungne". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.  ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Sokpo Pelgyi Yeshe". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.  ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Lhalung Pelgyi Dorje". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.  ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Lang Pelgyi Sengge". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.  ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Kharchen Pelgyi Wangchuk". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.  ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Odren Pelgyi Wangchuk". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.  ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Ma Rinchen Chok". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.  ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (December 2009). "Nubchen Sanggye Yeshe". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.  ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Yeshe Yang". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.  ^ Leschly, Jakob (August 2007). "Nyang Tingdzin Zangpo". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 

Sources[edit]

Berzin, Alexander (November 10–11, 2000). "History of Dzogchen". Study Buddhism. Retrieved 20 June 2016.  Bischoff, F.A. (1978). Ligeti, Louis, ed. " Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
est-il un personnage historique?". Csoma de Körös Memorial symposium. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó: 27–33. ISBN 963-05-1568-7.  Boord, Martin (1993). Cult of the Deity
Deity
Vajrakila. Institute of Buddhist
Buddhist
Studies. ISBN 0-9515424-3-5.  Dudjom Rinpoche
Rinpoche
The Nyingma
Nyingma
School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History. Translated by Gyurme Dorje and Matthew Kapstein. Boston: Wisdom Publications. 1991, 2002. ISBN 0-86171-199-8. Guenther, Herbert V. (1996), The Teachings of Padmasambhava, Leiden: E.J. Brill, ISBN 90-04-10542-5  Harvey, Peter (1995), An introduction to Buddhism. Teachings, history and practices, Cambridge University Press  Heine, Steven (2002), Opening a Mountain. Koans of the Zen
Zen
Masters, Oxford: Oxford University Press  Jackson, D. (1979) 'The Life and Liberation of Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
(Padma bKaí thang)' in: The Journal of Asian Studies 39: 123-25. Jestis, Phyllis G. (2004) Holy People of the World Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1576073556. Kinnard, Jacob N. (2010) The Emergence of Buddhism
Buddhism
Minneapolis: Fortress Press. ISBN 0800697480. Laird, Thomas. (2006). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama. Grove Press, New York. ISBN 978-0-8021-1827-1. Morgan, D. (2010) Essential Buddhism: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 0313384525. Norbu, Thubten Jigme; Turnbull, Colin (1987), Tibet: Its History, Religion and People, Penguin Books, ISBN 0140213821  Snelling, John (1987), The Buddhist
Buddhist
handbook. A Complete Guide to Buddhist
Buddhist
Teaching and Practice, London: Century Paperbacks  Sun, Shuyun (2008), A Year in Tibet: A Voyage of Discovery, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 978-0-00-728879-3  Taranatha
Taranatha
The Life of Padmasambhava. Shang Shung Publications, 2005. Translated from Tibetan by Cristiana de Falco. Thondup, Tulku. Hidden Teachings of Tibet: An Explanation of the Terma Tradition of the Nyingma
Nyingma
School of Tibetan Buddhism. London: Wisdom Publications, 1986. Trungpa, Chögyam (2001). Crazy Wisdom. Boston: Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0-87773-910-2. Tsogyal, Yeshe. The Life and Liberation of Padmasambhava. Padma
Padma
bKa'i Thang. Two Volumes. 1978. Translated into English by Kenneth Douglas and Gwendolyn Bays. ISBN 0-913546-18-6 and ISBN 0-913546-20-8. Tsogyal, Yeshe. The Lotus-Born: The Lifestory of Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
Pema Kunsang, E. (trans.); Binder Schmidt, M. & Hein Schmidt, E. (eds.) 1st edition, Boston: Shambhala Books, 1993. Reprint: Boudhanath: Rangjung Yeshe Publications, 2004. ISBN 962-7341-55-X. Wallace, B. Alan (1999), "The Buddhist
Buddhist
Tradition of Samatha: Methods for Refining and Examining Consciousness", Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (2-3): 175-187 . Zangpo, Ngawang. Guru Rinpoche: His Life and Times. Snow Lion Publications, 2002.

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