Orange County, North Carolina
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Orange County is a
county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ...
located in the
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of
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
. As of the
2010 census2010 census may refer to: * 2010 Chinese Census * 2010 Dominican Republic Census * 2010 Indonesian census * 2010 Malaysian Census * 2010 Russian Census * 2010 Turkish census * 2010 United States Census * 2010 Zambian census {{Disambiguation ...
, the population was 133,801. Its
county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In countries with Fre ...
is
Hillsborough
Hillsborough
. Orange County is included in the DurhamChapel Hill, NC
Metropolitan Statistical Area #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area#REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a relatively high population density a ...
, which is also included in the
Raleigh Raleigh (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lo ...
–Durham–Chapel Hill, NC
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, which had a 2012 estimated population of 1,998,808. It is home to the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC, UNC-Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Chapel Hill, or simply Carolina) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information f ...
, the flagship institution of the
University of North Carolina The University of North Carolina is the multi-campus public university system for the state of North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly ma ...
System and the oldest state-supported university in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
.


History

The county was formed in 1752 from parts of Bladen, Granville, and Johnston Counties. It was named for the infant
William V of Orange William V (Willem Batavus; 8 March 1748 – 9 April 1806) was a prince of Orange Prince of Orange (or Princess of Orange if the holder is female) is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain cont ...
, whose mother Anne, daughter of King
George II of Great Britain , house = Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the ...
, was then regent of the
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. In 1771, Orange County was greatly reduced in area. The western part of it was combined with the eastern part of Rowan County to form
Guilford County Guilford County is a county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction ...
. Another part was combined with parts of
Cumberland County Cumberland County may refer to: Australia * Cumberland County, New South Wales * the former name of Cumberland Land District, Tasmania, Australia Canada *Cumberland County, Nova Scotia United Kingdom *Cumberland, historic county *Cumberlan ...
and Johnston County to form Wake County, North Carolina, Wake County. The southern part of what remained became Chatham County, North Carolina, Chatham County. In 1777, the northern half of what was left of Orange County became Caswell County, North Carolina, Caswell County. In 1849, the western county became Alamance County, North Carolina, Alamance County. Finally, in 1881, the eastern half of the county's remaining territory was combined with part of Wake County to form Durham County, North Carolina, Durham County. Some of the first settlers of the county were England, English Quakers, who settled along the Haw River, Haw and Eno Rivers. Arguably, the earliest settlers in the county were the Andrews family, which would later marry into the Thomas F. Lloyd, Lloyd family.


Colonial period and Revolutionary War

The Orange County county seat, seat of Hillsborough was founded in 1754 on land where the Trading Path, Great Indian Trading Path crossed the Eno River, and was first owned, surveyed, and mapped by William Churton (a Surveyor (surveying), surveyor for John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, Earl Granville). Originally to be named Orange, it was named Corbin Town (for Francis Corbin, a member of the governor's council and one of Granville's land agents), and renamed Childsburgh (in honor of Thomas Child, the attorney general for North Carolina from 1751 to 1760 and another one of Granville's land agents) in 1759. In 1766, it was named Hillsborough, after Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire, Wills Hill, then the Earl of Hillsborough, the British Empire, British secretary of state for the colonies, and a relative of royal Governor William Tryon. Hillsborough was an earlier Piedmont (United States), Piedmont colonial town where court was held, and was the scene of some pre-American Revolutionary War, Revolutionary War tensions. In the late 1760s, tensions between Piedmont farmers and county officers welled up in the Regulators of North Carolina, Regulator movement, or as it was also known, the War of the Regulation, which had its epicenter in Hillsborough. Several thousand people from North Carolina, mainly from Orange County, Anson County, North Carolina, Anson County, and Granville County, North Carolina, Granville County in the western region, were extremely dissatisfied with the wealthy North Carolina officials whom they considered cruel, arbitrary, tyrannical, and corrupt. With specie scarce, many inland farmers found themselves unable to pay their taxes and resented the consequent seizure of their property. Local sheriffs sometimes kept taxes for their own gain and sometimes charged twice for the same tax. At times, sheriffs would intentionally remove records of their tax collection to further tax citizens. The most heavily affected areas were said to be those of Rowan County, North Carolina, Rowan, Anson, Orange, Granville, and Cumberland County, North Carolina, Cumberland Counties. It was a struggle of mostly lower-class citizens, who made up the majority of the population of North Carolina, and the wealthy ruling class, who composed about 5% of the population, yet maintained almost total control of the government. Of the 8,000 people living in Orange County at the time, an estimated 6000 - 7000 of them were in support of the Regulators. Governor William Tryon's conspicuous consumption in the construction of Tryon Palace, a new governor's mansion at New Bern fuelled the movement's resentment. As the western districts were under-represented in the colonial legislature, obtain redress by legislature, legislative means was difficult for the farmers. Ultimately, the frustrated farmers took to arms and closed the court in Hillsborough, dragging those they saw as corrupt officials through the streets and cracking the church bell. Tryon sent troops from his militia to the region, and defeated the Regulators at the Battle of Alamance in May 1771. Several trials were held after the war, resulting in the hanging of six Regulators at Hillsborough on June 19, 1771. Hillsborough was used as the home of the North Carolina state legislature during the American Revolution. Hillsborough served as a military base by British Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, General Charles Cornwallis in late February 1781. The United States Constitution drafted in 1787 was controversial in North Carolina. Delegate meetings at Hillsboro in July 1788 initially voted to reject it for antifederalist reasons. They were persuaded to change their minds partly by the strenuous efforts of James Iredell and William Richardson Davie, William Davie and partly by the prospect of a United States Bill of Rights, Bill of Rights. The Constitution was later ratified by North Carolina at a convention in Fayetteville, North Carolina, Fayetteville. William Hooper, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence, Declaration of Independence, was buried in the Presbyterian Church cemetery in October 1790. However, his remains were later reinterred at Guilford Courthouse Military Battlefield. His original gravestone remains in the town cemetery. The county was home to several Plantation complexes in the Southern United States, plantations between colonial and antebellum periods, including the Green Hill (Hillsborough, North Carolina), Green Hill, Ayr Mount, Moorefields, David Faucette House, The Elms, Sans Souci (Hillsborough, North Carolina), Sans Souci, Cabe-Pratt-Harris House, Riverland, the Alexander Hogan Plantation, and the Patterson Plantation.


University of North Carolina

Chartered by the North Carolina General Assembly on December 11, 1789, the University of North Carolina's cornerstone was laid on October 12, 1793, near the ruins of a chapel, chosen due to its central location within the state. Beginning instruction of undergraduates in 1795, UNC is the oldest public university in the United States and the only one to award degrees in the 18th century.


19th century

The Reverend Robert and Margaret Anna Burwell founded and ran a school for girls called the Burwell School from 1837 to 1857 in their home on Churton Street in Hillsborough. When the Civil War began, Hillsborough was reluctant to support secession. However, many citizens went off to fight for the Confederate States of America, Confederacy. During the war, Governor of North Carolina, North Carolina Governor David Lowry Swain persuaded President of the Confederate States of America, Confederate President Jefferson Davis to exempt some UNC students from the draft, so the university was among the few in the Confederacy that managed to stay open. However, Chapel Hill suffered the loss of more of its population during the war than any village in the South. When student numbers did not recover, the university was forced to close during Reconstruction era of the United States, Reconstruction from December 1, 1870, to September 6, 1875. In March 1865, Confederate States Army, Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston wintered just outside Hillsborough at the Dickson home, which now serves as the Hillsborough Welcome Center in downtown (the house was moved from its original site in the early 1980s due to commercial development). The main portion of the Confederate Army of Tennessee was encamped between Hillsborough and Greensboro, North Carolina, Greensboro. After his Sherman's March to the Sea, March to the Sea, while camped in Raleigh, North Carolina, Raleigh, Union Army, Union General William T. Sherman offered an armistice to Johnston, who agreed to meet to discuss terms of surrender. Johnston, traveling east from Hillsborough and Sherman, traveling west from Raleigh along the Hillsborough-Raleigh Road, met roughly half-way near present-day Durham (then Durham Station) at the home of James and Nancy Bennett, a farmhouse now known as the Bennett Place. The two generals met on April 17, 18th, and finally on the 26th, which resulted in their agreeing to final terms of surrender. Johnston surrendered 89,270 Southern troops who were active in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. This was the largest surrender of troops during the war, and effectively ended the Civil War.


20th century

Occoneechee Speedway, just outside Hillsborough, was one of the first two NASCAR tracks to open, and is the only track remaining from that inaugural 1949 season. Bill France Sr., Bill France and the early founders of NASCAR bought land to build a one-mile oval track at Hillsborough, but opposition from local religion, religious leaders prevented the track from being built in the town and NASCAR officials built the large speedway Talladega Superspeedway in Talladega, Alabama. Chapel Hill, along with Durham, North Carolina, Durham and Raleigh, North Carolina, Raleigh, makes up one of the three corners of the Research Triangle, so named in 1959 with the creation of Research Triangle Park, a research park between Durham and Raleigh. The Morehead Planetarium at UNC was, when it opened in 1949, one of only a handful of planetariums in the nation, and it has remained an important town landmark for Chapel Hill. During the Mercury program, Mercury, Gemini program, Gemini, and Apollo programs, astronauts were trained there. During the 1960s, the UNC campus was the location of significant political protest. Prior to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, protests about local racial segregation which began quietly in Franklin Street (Chapel Hill), Franklin Street restaurants led to mass demonstrations and disturbance. The climate of civil unrest prompted the 1963 North Carolina Speaker Ban, Speaker Ban Law prohibiting speeches by Communism, communists on state campuses in North Carolina. The law was immediately criticized by University Chancellor William Brantley Aycock and University President William Friday, but was not reviewed by the North Carolina General Assembly until 1965. Small amendments to allow "infrequent" visits failed to placate the student body, especially when the university's board of trustees overruled new Chancellor Paul Frederick Sharp's decision to allow speaking invitations to Marxist speaker Herbert Aptheker and civil liberties activist Frank Wilkinson; however, the two speakers came to Chapel Hill anyway. Wilkinson spoke off campus, while more than 1,500 students viewed Aptheker's speech across a low campus wall at the edge of campus, christened "Dan Moore's Wall" by ''The Daily Tar Heel'' for Governor Dan K. Moore. A group of UNC students along with Aptheker and Williamson filed a lawsuit in United States federal courts, U.S. federal court, and on February 20, 1968, the Speaker Ban Law was struck down. In 1968, only a year after its schools became fully integrated, Chapel Hill became the first predominantly white municipality in the country to elect an African American mayor, Howard Nathaniel Lee, Howard Lee. Lee served from 1969 until 1975 and, among other things, helped establish Chapel Hill Transit, the town's bus system.


Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of , of which is land and (0.9%) is water. The county is drained, in part, by the Eno River. The city of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Chapel Hill, is in the southeastern part of Orange County, as is Carrboro, North Carolina, Carrboro. is in the central part of the county and is the county seat.


Adjacent counties

* Person County, North Carolina, Person County – northeast * Durham County, North Carolina, Durham County – east * Chatham County, North Carolina, Chatham County – south * Alamance County, North Carolina, Alamance County – west * Caswell County, North Carolina, Caswell County – northwest


Major highways

* * * * * * * * * * *


Demographics


2020 census

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 148,696 people, 55,259 households, and 32,657 families residing in the county.


2010 census

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 133,801 people living in the county. 74.4% were white American, White, 11.9% African American, Black or African American, 6.7% Asian American, Asian, 0.4% Native Americans in the United States, Native American, 4.0% of some other race and 2.5% Multiracial American, of two or more races. 8.2% were Hispanic and Latino American, Hispanic or Latino (of any race).


2000 census

As of the census of 2000, there were 118,227 people, 45,863 households, and 26,141 families living in the county. The population density was 296 people per square mile (114/km2). There were 49,289 housing units at an average density of 123 per square mile (48/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 78.05% Race (United States Census), White, 13.79% Race (United States Census), Black or Race (United States Census), African American, 0.39% Race (United States Census), Native American, 4.10% Race (United States Census), Asian, 0.02% Race (United States Census), Pacific Islander, 1.96% from Race (United States Census), other races, and 1.71% from two or more races. 4.46% of the population were Race (United States Census), Hispanic or Race (United States Census), Latino of any race. There were 45,863 households, out of which 28.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.60% were Marriage, married couples living together, 9.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.00% were non-families. 28.10% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the age distribution was as follows: 20.30% under the age of 18, 21.00% from 18 to 24, 29.90% from 25 to 44, 20.40% from 45 to 64, and 8.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 90.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,372, and the median income for a family was $59,874. Males had a median income of $39,298 versus $31,328 for females. The per capita income for the county was $24,873. About 6.20% of families and 14.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.00% of those under age 18 and 7.40% of those age 65 or over. FY 2008-09 Orange County had the second highest property tax rate in NC at 0.998 per $100 of valuation. For FY 2009-10 after the 2009 Orange County revaluation, the rate is now ninth highest in the state at 0.858 per $100 of valuation.


Communities


Cities

* Durham, North Carolina, Durham (part, most of city is in Durham County) * Mebane, North Carolina, Mebane (part, most of city is in Alamance County)


Towns

* Carrboro, North Carolina, Carrboro * Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Chapel Hill (most, small portions in Durham and Chatham Counties) * (county seat)


Census-designated place

* Efland, North Carolina, Efland


Townships

* Bingham * Cedar Grove * Chapel Hill * Cheeks * Eno * Hillsborough * Little River


Unincorporated communities

* Blackwood, North Carolina, Blackwood * Buckhorn, North Carolina, Buckhorn (also known as Cheeks Crossroads) * Caldwell, Orange County, North Carolina, Caldwell * Calvander, North Carolina, Calvander * Carr, North Carolina, Carr * Cedar Grove, Orange County, North Carolina, Cedar Grove * Dodsons Crossroads * Dogwood Acres, Orange County, North Carolina, Dogwood Acres * Eno, North Carolina, Eno * Eubanks, North Carolina, Eubanks * Fairview, Hillsborough * Hurdle Mills, North Carolina, Hurdle Mills * Laws * McDade, North Carolina, McDade * Miles, North Carolina, Miles * Oaks, North Carolina, Oaks * Orange Grove * Piney Grove * Rougemont, North Carolina, Rougemont * Schley, North Carolina, Schley * Teer, North Carolina, Teer * University, Orange County, North Carolina, University (formerly known as Glenn) * White Cross


Law and government

Orange County is governed by a seven-member board of commissioners. The commissioners are elected to four-year terms by district and at-large in partisan elections, which are held in November of even-numbered years. Orange County is a member of the regional Triangle J Council of Governments.


Politics

Orange County has gained a reputation as one of the most Liberalism, liberal counties in North Carolina. The county consistently delivers one of the largest Democratic majorities in the state in presidential, state, and local elections. This trend predates the recent swing toward the Democrats in counties dominated by college towns. The last Republican to win the county at a presidential level was Herbert Hoover in 1928 – when opposition to the Catholicism of Democratic nominee Al Smith was a powerful force among voters. It has only supported a Republican two other times since the Civil War–William Howard Taft in 1908 and William McKinley in 1900. Since 1928, a Republican has only cleared 40 percent of the vote only five times, the last being Ronald Reagan in 1984. Chapel Hill and Carrboro, North Carolina, Carrboro have a reputation for being two of the most liberal communities in the Southern United States. Carrboro was the first municipality in
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
to elect an openly gay mayor, Michael R. Nelson (politician), Mike Nelson (who also served as an Orange County commissioner from 2006 to 2010), and the first municipality in the state to grant domestic partnership, domestic-partner benefits to same-sex couples. In October 2002, Carrboro was among the first municipalities in the South to pass resolutions opposing the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Iraq War and the USA PATRIOT Act. Orange County voted 78.98% against North Carolina Amendment 1, Amendment 1. This was the highest vote against a constitutional ban on same-sex marriage of any
county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ...
in the United States, even higher than San Francisco in 2008.


Education

The county is served by 2 school districts: * Orange County School District, Orange County Schools * Chapel Hill-Carrboro City Schools, Chapel Hill-Carrboro


Media

Orange County is located in the Raleigh-Durham media market for both television and radio. The flagship station for PBS North Carolina, WUNC-TV, is licensed to Chapel Hill. There are several radio stations located in the county. Stations licensed to Chapel Hill WUNC (FM), WUNC, WXYC, WCHL (AM), WCHL, and WLLQ. WQOK and WCOM-LP are licensed to Carrboro. UNC Chapel Hill's student-run newspaper, The Daily Tar Heel, offers extensive coverage of news in Orange County.


Notable people

* Alice Adams (writer), Alice Adams, author, who grew up in Chapel Hill * K.A. Applegate, author * Thomas Samuel Ashe, United States Congressman from North Carolina * Lewis Black, comedian * David Brinkley, newscaster * Fred Brooks, computer science pioneer * Larry Brown (basketball), Larry Brown, basketball coach * Cam Cameron, football coach * William Carter Love, United States House of Representatives, U.S. Representative from North Carolina * Spencer Chamberlain, musician * Elizabeth Cotten, blues singer who grew up in Carrboro * Floyd Council, blues singer, the "Floyd" in Pink Floyd * Butch Davis, football coach * Sarah Dessen, author * Elizabeth Edwards, an attorney and activist for liberal causes, Chapel Hill * John Edwards, former North Carolina Senator, 2008 Presidential candidate, Chapel Hill * Sam Ervin, former North Carolina senator, chairman of the Senate Watergate Committee * Lawrence Ferlinghetti, beat poet, co-founder of City Lights Booksellers * Ben Folds, musician * Paul Green (playwright), Paul Green, playwright * Andy Griffith, actor * Mia Hamm, soccer player * Harpe Brothers, Micajah and Wiley, America's first serial killers * Bunn Hearn, Bunny Hearn, major league baseball pitcher * Jack Hogan, actor, noted for his role as Private William Kirby on Combat! television series, 1962–1967 * Laurel Holloman, actress * Herman Husband, a leader of the North Carolina Regulator Movement * Marion Jones, former track and field athlete * Michael Jordan, basketball player * Elizabeth Keckley, former slave and servant of Mary Todd Lincoln * Charles Kuralt, longtime journalist with CBS * Jim Lampley, sportscaster * Howard Nathaniel Lee, Howard Lee, pioneering politician * Doug Marlette, cartoonist and writer * Alexander Mebane, Alexander Mebane Jr. (1744–1795), Revolutionary War militia general and U. S. Congressman * Benjamin Merrill, leader in the Regulator movement and at the Battle of Alamance * Elisha Mitchell, geologist * Archibald Murphey, North Carolina politician * Beverly Perdue, 73rd Governor of North Carolina * Nick Perumov, author * Mary Pope Osborne, author * Frank Porter Graham, United States senator and president of the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC, UNC-Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Chapel Hill, or simply Carolina) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information f ...
* David Price (American politician), David Price, U.S. congressman * Connie Ray, actress and playwright * David Rees (cartoonist), David Rees, satirist * Dexter Romweber, rockabilly roots-rocker * Terry Sanford, United States senator and governor of North Carolina * Stuart Scott, sportscaster * Dean Smith, former basketball coach * Lee Smith (author), Lee Smith, author, lives in Hillsborough * Oliver Smithies, 2007 recipient of the Nobel Prize * Silda Wall Spitzer, wife of former New York governor Eliot Spitzer * Chris Stamey, musician * James Taylor, popular musician * Lawrence Taylor, football player * Manly Wade Wellman, novelist * Daniel Wallace (author), Daniel Wallace, author, lives in Carrboro * Kent Williams (artist), Kent Williams, painter, illustrator and comics artist * Roy Williams (coach), Roy Williams, basketball coach * Thomas Wolfe, novelist * James Worthy, basketball player


See also

* List of commissioners of Orange County, North Carolina * National Register of Historic Places listings in Orange County, North Carolina


References


External links


Official website

Chapel Hill Alliance for a LIvable Town

NCGenWeb Orange County
– free genealogy resources for the county
CitizenWill.org
Hyper-local single-author blog concentrating on Chapel Hill,Carrboro,Orange County
ChapelHillWatch.com
Multi-author blog created by former Chapel Hill News reporters
OrangePolitics.org
Multi-author blog about progressive politics in Orange County
Squeeze the Pulp
Internet forum on politics, news, and community in Orange County
Orange County historic information cache
{{Coord, 36.06, -79.12, display=title, type:adm2nd_region:US-NC_source:UScensus1990 Orange County, North Carolina, 1752 establishments in North Carolina Populated places established in 1752