HOME
The Info List - One Thousand And One Nights



--- Advertisement ---


STYLES

* Mashrabiya * Muqarnas * Arabesque * Windcatcher * Gardens

FEATURES OF MOSQUES

* Minaret * Maqsurah * Mihrab * Sahen * Dikka * Iwan * Qubba * Sebil * Mosaic * Ribat

Art

CALLIGRAPHY

* Naskh * Diwani * Ruq\'ah * Thuluth * Hijazi * Muhaqqaq * Maghrebi * Kufic * Mashq * Jawi * Nastaʿlīq * Pseudo- Kufic * Pegon

TEXTILES

* Khayameia * Rugs (prayer ) * Black Stone

Cuisine

* Khalij (Persian Gulf) * Mashriq (Levant) * Arab Mawsit (Egypt) * Arab Maghrib (North Africa)

Dress

HEADWEAR

* Keffiyeh * Agal * Taqiyah * Tarboush (fez) * Turban * Bisht

CLOTHING

* Thawb * Jellabiya * Abaya * Sirwal * Turban * Kaftan * Tantour * Takchita * Jilbāb * Macawis

Language

PRE-ISLAMIC

* North * South * Nabataean * Classical

PRE-MODERN · Modern

* Maghrebi (Western) * Mawsiti (Central) * Mashriq (Eastern) * Khaliji (Southern)

Literature

* Classical * Epic literature * Saj (ryhmed prose) * Tafsir (commentary) * _Arabian Nights_ * _ The Book of the Apple _ * Sindbad (Sinbad) * Bayad and Riyad * _ Book of Songs _ * _ Book of Examples _ * _ Book of Animals _ * Maqamat Al-Hamadhani * Nashiri

POETRY

* Arūḍ * Kharja * Zajal * Noha * Waṣf * Hamasah * Mu\'allaqat * Mufaddaaliyyat * Basit * Ghazal * Ghinnawa * Bohoor Al-Shi\'r

* Modern Arabic poetry

Music

* Arabic maqam * Tone system * Andalusi nubah * Qasidah * Muwashshah * Taqsim * Sama\'i * Dulab * Liwa * Maqam al-iraqi * Bashraf * Tahmilah * Sawt * Malhun * Fijiri * Baladi * Iqa\' * Dawr * Zaffa * Taqtuqa * Wazn * Waslah

Religion

* Muslims * Christians * Druze

* Bahá\'í Faith

* v * t * e

_ONE THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS_ ( Arabic : كِتَابُ أَلْفُ لَيْلَةٍ وَلَيْلَة‎‎ _kitābu ʾalfu laylatin wa-laylah_) is a collection of Middle Eastern folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age . It is often known in English as the _ARABIAN NIGHTS_ (ٱللَّيَالِي ٱلْعَرَبِيَّة), from the first English-language edition (1706), which rendered the title as _The Arabian Nights' Entertainment_.

The work was collected over many centuries by various authors, translators, and scholars across West, Central, and South Asia and North Africa. The tales themselves trace their roots back to ancient and medieval Arabic , Persian , Mesopotamian , Indian , Jewish , and Egyptian folklore and literature. In particular, many tales were originally folk stories from the Abbasid era , while others, especially the frame story, are most probably drawn from the Pahlavi Persian work _Hazār Afsān_ (Persian : هزار افسان‎‎, lit. _A Thousand Tales_), which in turn relied partly on Indian elements.

What is common throughout all the editions of the _Nights_ is the initial frame story of the ruler Shahryār (from Persian : شهريار‎‎, meaning "king" or "sovereign") and his wife Scheherazade (from Persian : شهرزاد‎‎, possibly meaning "of noble lineage") and the framing device incorporated throughout the tales themselves. The stories proceed from this original tale; some are framed within other tales, while others begin and end of their own accord. Some editions contain only a few hundred nights, while others include 1,001 or more. The bulk of the text is in prose, although verse is occasionally used for songs and riddles and to express heightened emotion. Most of the poems are single couplets or quatrains , although some are longer.

Some of the stories very widely associated with _The Nights_, in particular "Aladdin\'s Wonderful Lamp ", " Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves ", and "The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor ", were not part of _The Nights_ in its original Arabic versions but were added to the collection by Antoine Galland and other European translators.

CONTENTS

* 1 Synopsis

* 2 History: versions and translations

* 2.1 Possible Indian origins * 2.2 Persian prototype: _Hazār Afsān_ * 2.3 Arabic versions * 2.4 Modern translations * 2.5 Timeline

* 3 Literary themes and techniques

* 3.1 Frame story * 3.2 Embedded narrative * 3.3 Dramatic visualization * 3.4 Fate and destiny * 3.5 Foreshadowing * 3.6 Repetition * 3.7 Sexual humour * 3.8 Unreliable narrator * 3.9 Crime fiction elements * 3.10 Horror fiction elements * 3.11 Fantasy and science fiction elements * 3.12 The Arabic poetry in _One Thousand and One Nights_

* 4 In world culture

* 4.1 In Arabic culture * 4.2 Possible early influence on European literature * 4.3 Western literature from the 18th century onwards * 4.4 Cinema

* 4.5 Music

* 4.5.1 Classical * 4.5.2 Pop and Rock

* 4.6 Video games * 4.7 Illustrators

* 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 Sources * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

SYNOPSIS

See also: List of stories within One Thousand and One Nights and List of characters within One Thousand and One Nights Scheherazade and Shahryār by Ferdinand Keller , 1880

The main frame story concerns Shahryār, whom the narrator calls a "Sasanian king" ruling in " India and China". He is shocked to learn that his brother's wife is unfaithful; discovering that his own wife's infidelity has been even more flagrant, he has her killed. In his bitterness and grief, he decides that all women are the same. Shahryār begins to marry a succession of virgins only to execute each one the next morning, before she has a chance to dishonour him. Eventually the vizier , whose duty it is to provide them, cannot find any more virgins. Scheherazade , the vizier's daughter, offers herself as the next bride and her father reluctantly agrees. On the night of their marriage, Scheherazade begins to tell the king a tale, but does not end it. The king, curious about how the story ends, is thus forced to postpone her execution in order to hear the conclusion. The next night, as soon as she finishes the tale, she begins (and _only_ begins) a new one, and the king, eager to hear the conclusion of _this_ tale, postpones her execution once again. So it goes on for 1,001 nights.

The tales vary widely: they include historical tales, love stories, tragedies, comedies, poems, burlesques , and various forms of erotica . Numerous stories depict jinns , ghouls , apes , sorcerers, magicians, and legendary places, which are often intermingled with real people and geography, not always rationally. Common protagonists include the historical Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid , his Grand Vizier , Jafar al-Barmaki , and the famous poet Abu Nuwas , despite the fact that these figures lived some 200 years after the fall of the Sassanid Empire , in which the frame tale of Scheherazade is set. Sometimes a character in Scheherazade's tale will begin telling other characters a story of his own, and that story may have another one told within it, resulting in a richly layered narrative texture. _ An Abbasid manuscript of the One Thousand and One Nights_

The different versions have different individually detailed endings (in some Scheherazade asks for a pardon, in some the king sees their children and decides not to execute his wife, in some other things happen that make the king distracted) but they all end with the king giving his wife a pardon and sparing her life.

The narrator's standards for what constitutes a cliffhanger seem broader than in modern literature. While in many cases a story is cut off with the hero in danger of losing his life or another kind of deep trouble, in some parts of the full text Scheherazade stops her narration in the middle of an exposition of abstract philosophical principles or complex points of Islamic philosophy , and in one case during a detailed description of human anatomy according to Galen —and in all these cases turns out to be justified in her belief that the king's curiosity about the sequel would buy her another day of life.

HISTORY: VERSIONS AND TRANSLATIONS

The history of the _Nights_ is extremely complex and modern scholars have made many attempts to untangle the story of how the collection as it currently exists came about. Robert Irwin summarises their findings: "In the 1880s and 1890s a lot of work was done on the _Nights_ by Zotenberg and others, in the course of which a consensus view of the history of the text emerged. Most scholars agreed that the Nights was a composite work and that the earliest tales in it came from India and Persia . At some time, probably in the early 8th century, these tales were translated into Arabic under the title _Alf Layla_, or 'The Thousand Nights'. This collection then formed the basis of _The Thousand and One Nights_. The original core of stories was quite small. Then, in Iraq in the 9th or 10th century, this original core had Arab stories added to it – among them some tales about the Caliph Harun al-Rashid . Also, perhaps from the 10th century onwards, previously independent sagas and story cycles were added to the compilation Then, from the 13th century onwards, a further layer of stories was added in Syria and Egypt , many of these showing a preoccupation with sex, magic or low life. In the early modern period yet more stories were added to the Egyptian collections so as to swell the bulk of the text sufficiently to bring its length up to the full 1,001 nights of storytelling promised by the book’s title."

POSSIBLE INDIAN ORIGINS

Devices found in Sanskrit literature such as frame stories and animal fables are seen by some scholars as lying at the root of the conception of the _Nights_. Indian folklore is represented in the _Nights_ by certain animal stories, which reflect influence from ancient Sanskrit fables . The influence of the _ Panchatantra _ and _ Baital Pachisi _ is particularly notable. _The Jataka Tales _ are a collection of 547 Buddhist stories , which are for the most part moral stories with an ethical purpose. _The Tale of the Bull and the Ass_ and the linked _Tale of the Merchant and his Wife_ are found in the frame stories of both the _Jataka_ and the _Nights_.

It is possible that the influence of the _ Panchatantra _ is via a Sanskrit adaptation called the _Tantropakhyana_. Only fragments of the original Sanskrit form of this work exist, but translations or adaptations exist in Tamil, Lao, Thai and Old Javanese. The frame story is particularly interesting, as it follows the broad outline of a concubine telling stories in order to maintain the interest and favour of a king — although the basis of the collection of stories is from the _Panchatantra_ — with its original Indian setting.

The _ Panchatantra _ and various tales from _Jatakas _ were first translated into Persian by Borzūya in 570 CE, they were later translated into Arabic by Ibn al-Muqaffa in 750 CE. The Arabic version was translated into several languages, including Syriac, Greek, Hebrew and Spanish.

PERSIAN PROTOTYPE: _HAZāR AFSāN_

A page from Kelileh va Demneh dated 1429, from Herat, a Persian version of the Panchatantra – depicts the manipulative jackal-vizier, Dimna, trying to lead his lion-king into war.

The earliest mentions of the _Nights_ refer to it as an Arabic translation from a Persian book, _Hazār Afsān_ (or _Afsaneh_ or _Afsana_), meaning "The Thousand Stories". In the 10th century Ibn al-Nadim compiled a catalogue of books (the "Fihrist") in Baghdad. He noted that the Sassanid kings of Iran enjoyed "evening tales and fables". Al-Nadim then writes about the Persian _Hazār Afsān_, explaining the frame story it employs: a bloodthirsty king kills off a succession of wives after their wedding night; finally one concubine had the intelligence to save herself by telling him a story every evening, leaving each tale unfinished until the next night so that the king would delay her execution. In the same century Al-Masudi also refers to the _Hazār Afsān_, saying the Arabic translation is called _Alf Khurafa_ ("A Thousand Entertaining Tales") but is generally known as _Alf Layla_ ("A Thousand Nights"). He mentions the characters Shirāzd (Scheherazade) and Dināzād. No physical evidence of the _Hazār Afsān_ has survived; so its exact relationship with the existing later Arabic versions remains a mystery. Apart from the Scheherazade frame story, several other tales have Persian origins, although it is unclear how they entered the collection. These stories include the cycle of "King Jali'ad and his Wazir Shimas" and "The Ten Wazirs or the History of King Azadbakht and his Son" (derived from the 7th-century Persian _Bakhtiyārnāma_).

In the 1950s, the Iraqi scholar Safa Khulusi suggested (on internal rather than historical evidence) that the Persian writer Ibn al-Muqaffa\' may have been responsible for the first Arabic translation of the frame story and some of Persian stories later incorporated into the Nights. This would place genesis of the collection in the 8th century.

ARABIC VERSIONS

_ The story of Princess Parizade_ and the _Magic Tree_ by Maxfield Parrish .

In the mid-20th century, the scholar Nabia Abbott found a document with a few lines of an Arabic work with the title _The Book of the Tale of a Thousand Nights_, dating from the 9th century. This is the earliest known surviving fragment of the _Nights_. The first reference to the Arabic version under its full title _The One Thousand and One Nights_ appears in Cairo in the 12th century. Professor Dwight Reynolds describes the subsequent transformations of the Arabic version:

Some of the earlier Persian tales may have survived within the Arabic tradition altered such that Arabic Muslim names and new locations were substituted for pre-Islamic Persian ones, but it is also clear that whole cycles of Arabic tales were eventually added to the collection and apparently replaced most of the Persian materials. One such cycle of Arabic tales centres around a small group of historical figures from 9th-century Baghdad, including the caliph Harun al-Rashid (died 809), his vizier Jafar al-Barmaki (d.803) and the licentious poet Abu Nuwas (d. c. 813). Another cluster is a body of stories from late medieval Cairo in which are mentioned persons and places that date to as late as the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

Two main Arabic manuscript traditions of the Nights are known: the Syrian and the Egyptian. The Syrian tradition includes the oldest manuscripts; these versions are also much shorter and include fewer tales. It is represented in print by the so-called _Calcutta I_ (1814–1818) and most notably by the _Leiden edition_ (1984), which is based above all on the _Galland manuscript_. It is believed to be the purest expression of the style of the mediaeval _Arabian Nights_.

Texts of the Egyptian tradition emerge later and contain many more tales of much more varied content; a much larger number of originally independent tales have been incorporated into the collection over the centuries, most of them after the Galland manuscript was written, and were being included as late as in the 18th and 19th centuries, perhaps in order to attain the eponymous number of 1001 nights. The final product of this tradition, the so-called Zotenberg Egyptian Recension , does contain 1001 nights and is reflected in print, with slight variations, by the editions known as the _Bulaq_ (1835) and the _Macnaghten_ or _Calcutta II_ (1839–1842).

All extant substantial versions of both recensions share a small common core of tales, namely:

* The Merchant and the Demon. * The Fisherman and the Jinni . * The Story of the Porter and the Three Ladies. * The Hunchback cycle. * The Story of the Three Apples, enframing the Story of Nur al-Din and Shams al-Din * The Story of Nur al-Din Ali and Anis al-Jalis * The Story of Ali Ibn Baqqar and Shams al-Nahar, and * The Story of Qamar al-Zaman.

The texts of the Syrian recension do not contain much beside that core. It is debated which of the Arabic recensions is more "authentic" and closer to the original: the Egyptian ones have been modified more extensively and more recently, and scholars such as Muhsin Mahdi have suspected that this may have been caused in part by European demand for a "complete version"; but it appears that this type of modification has been common throughout the history of the collection, and independent tales have always been added to it.

MODERN TRANSLATIONS

Main article: Translations of One Thousand and One Nights _ Sinbad the sailor and Ali Baba and the forty thieves_ by William Strang , 1896

The first European version (1704–1717) was translated into French by Antoine Galland from an Arabic text of the Syrian recension and other sources. This 12-volume work, _Les Mille et une nuits, contes arabes traduits en français _ ("Thousand and one nights, Arab stories translated into French"), included stories that were not in the original Arabic manuscript. "Aladdin's Lamp" and " Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" (as well as several other, lesser known tales) appeared first in Galland's translation and cannot be found in any of the original manuscripts. He wrote that he heard them from a Syrian Christian storyteller from Aleppo , a Maronite scholar whom he called "Hanna Diab." Galland's version of the _Nights_ was immensely popular throughout Europe, and later versions were issued by Galland's publisher using Galland's name without his consent.

As scholars were looking for the presumed "complete" and "original" form of the Nights, they naturally turned to the more voluminous texts of the Egyptian recension, which soon came to be viewed as the "standard version". The first translations of this kind, such as that of Edward Lane (1840, 1859), were bowdlerized . Unabridged and unexpurgated translations were made, first by John Payne , under the title _The Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night_ (1882, nine volumes), and then by Sir Richard Francis Burton , entitled _The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night _ (1885, ten volumes) – the latter was, according to some assessments, partially based on the former, leading to charges of plagiarism . In view of the sexual imagery in the source texts (which Burton even emphasized further, especially by adding extensive footnotes and appendices on Oriental sexual mores ) and the strict Victorian laws on obscene material, both of these translations were printed as private editions for subscribers only, rather than published in the usual manner. Burton's original 10 volumes were followed by a further six (seven in the Baghdad Edition and perhaps others) entitled _The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and a Night_, which were printed between 1886 and 1888. It has, however, been criticized for its "archaic language and extravagant idiom" and "obsessive focus on sexuality" (and has even been called an "eccentric ego-trip" and a "highly personal reworking of the text").

Later versions of the _Nights_ include that of the French doctor J. C. Mardrus , issued from 1898 to 1904. It was translated into English by Powys Mathers , and issued in 1923. Like Payne's and Burton's texts, it is based on the Egyptian recension and retains the erotic material, indeed expanding on it, but it has been criticized for inaccuracy.

A notable recent version, which reverts to the Syrian recension, is a critical edition based on the 14th or 15th-century Syrian manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale , originally used by Galland. This version, known as the Leiden text, was compiled in Arabic by Muhsin Mahdi (1984) and rendered into English by Husain Haddawy (1990). Mahdi argued that this version is the earliest extant one (a view that is largely accepted today) and that it reflects most closely a "definitive" coherent text ancestral to all others that he believed to have existed during the Mamluk period (a view that remains contentious). Still, even scholars who deny this version the exclusive status of "the only _real_ Arabian Nights" recognize it as being the best source on the original _style_ and linguistic form of the mediaeval work and praise the Haddawy translation as "very readable" and "strongly recommended for anyone who wishes to taste the authentic flavour of those tales". An additional second volume of _Arabian nights_ translated by Haddawy, composed of popular tales _not_ present in the Leiden edition, was published in 1995.

In 2008 a new English translation was published by Penguin Classics in three volumes. It is translated by Malcolm C. Lyons and Ursula Lyons with introduction and annotations by Robert Irwin. This is the first complete translation of the Macnaghten or Calcutta II edition (Egyptian recension) since Burton's. It contains, in addition to the standard text of 1001 Nights, the so-called "orphan stories" of _ Aladdin _ and _ Ali Baba _ as well as an alternative ending to _The seventh journey of Sindbad _ from Antoine Galland 's original French. As the translator himself notes in his preface to the three volumes, "o attempt has been made to superimpose on the translation changes that would be needed to 'rectify' ... accretions, ... repetitions, non sequiturs and confusions that mark the present text," and the work is a "representation of what is primarily oral literature, appealing to the ear rather than the eye". The Lyons translation includes all the poetry (in plain prose paraphrase) but does not attempt to reproduce in English the internal rhyming of some prose sections of the original Arabic. Moreover, it streamlines somewhat and has cuts. In this sense it is not, as claimed, a complete translation.

TIMELINE

_ Arabic manuscript of The Thousand and One Nights_ dating back to the 14th century

Scholars have assembled a timeline concerning the publication history of _The Nights_:

* One of the oldest Arabic manuscript fragments from Syria (a few handwritten pages) dating to the early 9th century. Discovered by scholar Nabia Abbott in 1948, it bears the title _Kitab Hadith Alf Layla_ ("The Book of the Tale of the Thousand Nights") and the first few lines of the book in which Dinazad asks Shirazad (Scheherazade) to tell her stories. * 10th century: Mention of _Hazār Afsān_ in Ibn al-Nadim 's "Fihrist" (Catalogue of books) in Baghdad . He attributes a pre-Islamic Sassanian Persian origin to the collection and refers to the frame story of Scheherazade telling stories over a thousand nights to save her life. However, according to al-Nadim, the book contains only 200 stories. Curiously, al-Nadim also writes disparagingly of the collection's literary quality, observing that "it is truly a coarse book, without warmth in the telling". * 10th century: Reference to _The Thousand Nights_, an Arabic translation of the Persian _Hazār Afsān_ ("Thousand Stories"), in _Muruj Al-Dhahab_ ( The Meadows of Gold ) by Al-Masudi . * 11th century: Mention of _The Nights_ by Qatran Tabrizi in the following couplet in Persian :

هزار ره صفت هفت خوان و رويين دژ فرو شنيدم و خواندم من از _هزار افسان_ A thousand times, accounts of _Rouyin Dezh_ and _Haft Khān _ I heard and read from _Hazār Afsān_ (literally Thousand Fables)

* 12th century: A document from Cairo refers to a Jewish bookseller lending a copy of _The Thousand and One Nights_ (this is the first appearance of the final form of the title). * 14th century: Existing Syrian manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris (contains about 300 tales). * 1704: Antoine Galland 's French translation is the first European version of _The Nights_. Later volumes were introduced using Galland's name though the stories were written by unknown persons at the behest of the publisher wanting to capitalize on the popularity of the collection. * 1706: An anonymously translated version in English appears in Europe dubbed the " Grub Street " version. This is entitled _The Arabian Nights' Entertainment_ — the first known use of the common English title of the work. * 1768: first Polish translation, 12 volumes. Based, as many European on the French translation. * 1775: Egyptian version of _The Nights_ called "ZER" (Hermann Zotenberg 's Egyptian Recension) with 200 tales (no surviving edition exists). * 1814: Calcutta I, the earliest existing Arabic printed version, is published by the British East India Company . A second volume was released in 1818. Both had 100 tales each. * Early 19th century: Modern Persian translations of the text are made, variously under the title _Alf leile va leile_, _Hazār-o yek šab_ (هزار و یک شب), or, in distorted Arabic, _Alf al-leil_. One early extant version is that illustrated by Sani al-Molk (1814–1866) for Mohammad Shah Qajar .

* 1825–1838: The Breslau/Habicht edition is published in Arabic in 8 volumes. Christian Maximilian Habicht (born in Breslau , Kingdom of Prussia , 1775) collaborated with the Tunisian Murad Al-Najjar and created this edition containing 1001 stories. Using versions of _The Nights_, tales from Al-Najjar, and other stories from unknown origins Habicht published his version in Arabic and German . * 1842–1843: Four additional volumes by Habicht. * 1835: Bulaq version: These two volumes, printed by the Egyptian government, are the oldest printed (by a publishing house) version of _The Nights_ in Arabic by a non-European. It is primarily a reprinting of the ZER text. * 1839–1842: Calcutta II (4 volumes) is published. It claims to be based on an older Egyptian manuscript (which was never found). This version contains many elements and stories from the Habicht edition. * 1838: Torrens version in English. * 1838–1840: Edward William Lane publishes an English translation. Notable for its exclusion of content Lane found immoral and for its anthropological notes on Arab customs by Lane. * 1882–1884: John Payne publishes an English version translated entirely from Calcutta II, adding some tales from Calcutta I and Breslau. * 1885–1888: Sir Richard Francis Burton publishes an English translation from several sources (largely the same as Payne ). His version accentuated the sexuality of the stories _vis-à-vis_ Lane's bowdlerized translation. * 1889–1904: J. C. Mardrus publishes a French version using Bulaq and Calcutta II editions. * 1973: First Polish translation based on the original language edition, but compressed 12 volumes to 9, by PIW . * 1984: Muhsin Mahdi publishes an Arabic edition based on the oldest Arabic manuscript surviving (based on the oldest surviving Syrian manuscript currently held in the Bibliothèque Nationale). * 1986–1987: French translation by Arabist René R. Khawam * 1990: Husain Haddawy publishes an English translation of Mahdi. * 2008: New Penguin Classics translation (in three volumes) by Malcolm C. Lyons and Ursula Lyons of the Calcutta II edition

LITERARY THEMES AND TECHNIQUES

_ Illustration of One Thousand and One Nights_ by Sani ol molk , Iran, 1853

The _One Thousand and One Nights_ and various tales within it make use of many innovative literary techniques , which the storytellers of the tales rely on for increased drama, suspense, or other emotions. Some of these date back to earlier Persian , Indian and Arabic literature , while others were original to the _One Thousand and One Nights_.

FRAME STORY

An early example of the frame story , or framing device , is employed in the _One Thousand and One Nights_, in which the character Scheherazade narrates a set of tales (most often fairy tales ) to the Sultan Shahriyar over many nights. Many of Scheherazade's tales are also frame stories, such as the _Tale of Sindbad the Seaman and Sindbad the Landsman _ being a collection of adventures related by Sindbad the Seaman to Sindbad the Landsman. The concept of the frame story dates back to ancient Sanskrit literature , and was introduced into Persian and Arabic literature through the _ Panchatantra _.

EMBEDDED NARRATIVE

An early example of the "story within a story " technique can be found in the _One Thousand and One Nights_, which can be traced back to earlier Persian and Indian storytelling traditions, most notably the _ Panchatantra _ of ancient Sanskrit literature . The _Nights_, however, improved on the _Panchatantra_ in several ways, particularly in the way a story is introduced. In the _Panchatantra_, stories are introduced as didactic analogies, with the frame story referring to these stories with variants of the phrase "If you're not careful, that which happened to the louse and the flea will happen to you." In the _Nights_, this didactic framework is the least common way of introducing the story, but instead a story is most commonly introduced through subtle means, particularly as an answer to questions raised in a previous tale.

The general story is narrated by an unknown narrator, and in this narration the stories are told by Scheherazade . In most of Scheherazade's narrations there are also stories narrated, and even in some of these, there are some other stories. This is particularly the case for the " Sinbad the Sailor " story narrated by Scheherazade in the _One Thousand and One Nights_. Within the " Sinbad the Sailor" story itself, the protagonist Sinbad the Sailor narrates the stories of his seven voyages to Sinbad the Porter. The device is also used to great effect in stories such as " The Three Apples " and "The Seven Viziers ". In yet another tale Scheherazade narrates, "The Fisherman and the Jinni ", the "Tale of the Wazir and the Sage Duban " is narrated within it, and within that there are three more tales narrated.

DRAMATIC VISUALIZATION

Dramatic visualization is "the representing of an object or character with an abundance of descriptive detail, or the mimetic rendering of gestures and dialogue in such a way as to make a given scene 'visual' or imaginatively present to an audience". This technique dates back to the _One Thousand and One Nights_. An example of this is the tale of "The Three Apples" (see Crime fiction elements below).

FATE AND DESTINY

A common theme in many _Arabian Nights_ tales is fate and destiny . The Italian filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini observed:

every tale in _The Thousand and One Nights_ begins with an 'appearance of destiny' which manifests itself through an anomaly, and one anomaly always generates another. So a chain of anomalies is set up. And the more logical, tightly knit, essential this chain is, the more beautiful the tale. By 'beautiful' I mean vital, absorbing and exhilarating. The chain of anomalies always tends to lead back to normality. The end of every tale in _The One Thousand and One Nights_ consists of a 'disappearance' of destiny, which sinks back to the somnolence of daily life ... The protagonist of the stories is in fact destiny itself.

Though invisible, fate may be considered a leading character in the _One Thousand and One Nights_. The plot devices often used to present this theme are coincidence , reverse causation and the self-fulfilling prophecy (see Foreshadowing below).

FORESHADOWING

Sindbad and the Valley of Diamonds, from the Second Voyage.

Early examples of the foreshadowing technique of repetitive designation , now known as "Chekhov\'s gun ", occur in the _One Thousand and One Nights_, which contains "repeated references to some character or object which appears insignificant when first mentioned but which reappears later to intrude suddenly in the narrative". A notable example is in the tale of "The Three Apples" (see Crime fiction elements below).

Another early foreshadowing technique is _formal patterning_, "the organization of the events, actions and gestures which constitute a narrative and give shape to a story; when done well, formal patterning allows the audience the pleasure of discerning and anticipating the structure of the plot as it unfolds". This technique also dates back to the _One Thousand and One Nights_.

Another form of foreshadowing is the self-fulfilling prophecy , which dates back to the story of Krishna in ancient Sanskrit literature . A variation of this device is the self-fulfilling dream, which dates back to medieval Arabic literature . Several tales in the _One Thousand and One Nights_ use this device to foreshadow what is going to happen, as a special form of literary prolepsis . A notable example is "The Ruined Man who Became Rich Again through a Dream", in which a man is told in his dream to leave his native city of Baghdad and travel to Cairo , where he will discover the whereabouts of some hidden treasure. The man travels there and experiences misfortune, ending up in jail, where he tells his dream to a police officer. The officer mocks the idea of foreboding dreams and tells the protagonist that he himself had a dream about a house with a courtyard and fountain in Baghdad where treasure is buried under the fountain. The man recognizes the place as his own house and, after he is released from jail, he returns home and digs up the treasure. In other words, the foreboding dream not only predicted the future, but the dream was the cause of its prediction coming true. A variant of this story later appears in English folklore as the " Pedlar of Swaffham " and Paulo Coelho 's "The Alchemist "; Jorge Luis Borges ' collection of short stories _ A Universal History of Infamy _ featured his translation of this particular story into Spanish, as "The Story Of The Two Dreamers."

Another variation of the self-fulfilling prophecy can be seen in "The Tale of Attaf", where Harun al-Rashid consults his library (the House of Wisdom ), reads a random book, "falls to laughing and weeping and dismisses the faithful _vizier _" Ja\'far ibn Yahya from sight. Ja'afar, "disturbed and upset flees Baghdad and plunges into a series of adventures in Damascus , involving Attaf and the woman whom Attaf eventually marries." After returning to Baghdad, Ja'afar reads the same book that caused Harun to laugh and weep, and discovers that it describes his own adventures with Attaf. In other words, it was Harun's reading of the book that provoked the adventures described in the book to take place. This is an early example of reverse causation . Near the end of the tale, Attaf is given a death sentence for a crime he didn't commit but Harun, knowing the truth from what he has read in the book, prevents this and has Attaf released from prison. In the 12th century, this tale was translated into Latin by Petrus Alphonsi and included in his _ Disciplina Clericalis _, alongside the " Sinbad the Sailor " story cycle. In the 14th century, a version of "The Tale of Attaf" also appears in the _ Gesta Romanorum _ and Giovanni Boccaccio 's _ The Decameron _.

REPETITION

_ Illustration of One Thousand and One Nights_ by Sani ol molk , Iran, 1849-1856

_ Leitwortstil _ is 'the purposeful repetition of words' in a given literary piece that "usually expresses a motif or theme important to the given story". This device occurs in the _One Thousand and One Nights_, which binds several tales in a story cycle. The storytellers of the tales relied on this technique "to shape the constituent members of their story cycles into a coherent whole."

Thematic patterning is "the distribution of recurrent thematic concepts and moralistic motifs among the various incidents and frames of a story. In a skillfully crafted tale, thematic patterning may be arranged so as to emphasize the unifying argument or salient idea which disparate events and disparate frames have in common". This technique also dates back to the _One Thousand and One Nights_ (and earlier).

Several different variants of the " Cinderella " story, which has its origins in the Egyptian story of Rhodopis , appear in the _One Thousand and One Nights_, including "The Second Shaykh's Story", "The Eldest Lady's Tale" and "Abdallah ibn Fadil and His Brothers", all dealing with the theme of a younger sibling harassed by two jealous elders. In some of these, the siblings are female, while in others they are male. One of the tales, "Judar and His Brethren", departs from the happy endings of previous variants and reworks the plot to give it a tragic ending instead, with the younger brother being poisoned by his elder brothers.

SEXUAL HUMOUR

The _Nights_ contain many examples of sexual humour. Some of this borders on satire , as in the tale called "Ali with the Large Member" which pokes fun at obsession with human penis size .

UNRELIABLE NARRATOR

The literary device of the unreliable narrator was used in several fictional medieval Arabic tales of the _One Thousand and One Nights_. In one tale, "The Seven Viziers" (also known as "Craft and Malice of Women or The Tale of the King, His Son, His Concubine and the Seven Wazirs"), a courtesan accuses a king's son of having assaulted her, when in reality she had failed to seduce him (inspired by the Qur\'anic /Biblical story of Yusuf /Joseph ). Seven viziers attempt to save his life by narrating seven stories to prove the unreliability of women, and the courtesan responds back by narrating a story to prove the unreliability of viziers. The unreliable narrator device is also used to generate suspense in "The Three Apples" and humor in "The Hunchback's Tale" (see Crime fiction elements below).

CRIME FICTION ELEMENTS

_ Illustration depicting Morgiana and the thieves from Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves _.

An example of the murder mystery and suspense thriller genres in the collection, with multiple plot twists and detective fiction elements was " The Three Apples ", also known as _Hikayat al-sabiyya 'l-maqtula_ ("The Tale of the Murdered Young Woman"), one of the tales narrated by Scheherazade in the _One Thousand and One Nights_. In this tale, Harun al-Rashid comes to possess a chest, which, when opened, contains the body of a young woman. Harun gives his vizier, Ja’far , three days to find the culprit or be executed. At the end of three days, when Ja’far is about to be executed for his failure, two men come forward, both claiming to be the murderer. As they tell their story it transpires that, although the younger of them, the woman’s husband, was responsible for her death, some of the blame attaches to a slave, who had taken one of the apples mentioned in the title and caused the woman’s murder. Harun then gives Ja’far three more days to find the guilty slave. When he yet again fails to find the culprit, and bids his family goodbye before his execution, he discovers by chance his daughter has the apple, which she obtained from Ja’far’s own slave, Rayhan. Thus the mystery is solved.

Another _Nights_ tale with crime fiction elements was "The Hunchback's Tale" story cycle which, unlike "The Three Apples", was more of a suspenseful comedy and courtroom drama rather than a murder mystery or detective fiction. The story is set in a fictional China and begins with a hunchback, the emperor's favourite comedian , being invited to dinner by a tailor couple. The hunchback accidentally chokes on his food from laughing too hard and the couple, fearful that the emperor will be furious, take his body to a Jewish doctor 's clinic and leave him there. This leads to the next tale in the cycle, the "Tale of the Jewish Doctor", where the doctor accidentally trips over the hunchback's body, falls down the stairs with him, and finds him dead, leading him to believe that the fall had killed him. The doctor then dumps his body down a chimney, and this leads to yet another tale in the cycle, which continues with twelve tales in total, leading to all the people involved in this incident finding themselves in a courtroom , all making different claims over how the hunchback had died. Crime fiction elements are also present near the end of "The Tale of Attaf" (see Foreshadowing above).

HORROR FICTION ELEMENTS

Haunting is used as a plot device in gothic fiction and horror fiction , as well as modern paranormal fiction . Legends about haunted houses have long appeared in literature. In particular, the _Arabian Nights_ tale of "Ali the Cairene and the Haunted House in Baghdad" revolves around a house haunted by jinns . The _Nights_ is almost certainly the earliest surviving literature that mentions ghouls , and many of the stories in that collection involve or reference ghouls. A prime example is the story _The History of Gherib and His Brother Agib_ (from _Nights_ vol. 6), in which Gherib, an outcast prince, fights off a family of ravenous Ghouls and then enslaves them and converts them to Islam .

Horror fiction elements are also found in "The City of Brass" tale, which revolves around a ghost town .

The horrific nature of Scheherazade 's situation is magnified in Stephen King 's _Misery _, in which the protagonist is forced to write a novel to keep his captor from torturing and killing him. The influence of the _Nights_ on modern horror fiction is certainly discernible in the work of H. P. Lovecraft . As a child, he was fascinated by the adventures recounted in the book, and he attributes some of his creations to his love of the _1001 Nights_.

FANTASY AND SCIENCE FICTION ELEMENTS

_ Illustration of the story of Prince Ahmed and the Fairy Paribanou_, _More tales from the Arabian nights_ by Willy Pogany (1915)

Several stories within the _One Thousand and One Nights_ feature early science fiction elements. One example is "The Adventures of Bulukiya", where the protagonist Bulukiya's quest for the herb of immortality leads him to explore the seas, journey to Paradise and to Hell , and travel across the cosmos to different worlds much larger than his own world, anticipating elements of galactic science fiction; along the way, he encounters societies of djinn , mermaids , talking serpents , talking trees, and other forms of life. In "Abu al-Husn and His Slave-Girl Tawaddud", the heroine Tawaddud gives an impromptu lecture on the mansions of the Moon , and the benevolent and sinister aspects of the planets. In another _1001 Nights_ tale, "Abdullah the Fisherman and Abdullah the Merman", the protagonist Abdullah the Fisherman gains the ability to breathe underwater and discovers an underwater society that is portrayed as an inverted reflection of society on land, in that the underwater society follows a form of primitive communism where concepts like money and clothing do not exist. Other _Arabian Nights_ tales also depict Amazon societies dominated by women, lost ancient technologies, advanced ancient civilizations that went astray, and catastrophes which overwhelmed them. "The City of Brass" features a group of travellers on an archaeological expedition across the Sahara to find an ancient lost city and attempt to recover a brass vessel that Solomon once used to trap a jinn , and, along the way, encounter a mummified queen, petrified inhabitants, lifelike humanoid robots and automata , seductive marionettes dancing without strings, and a brass horseman robot who directs the party towards the ancient city, which has now become a ghost town . "The Ebony Horse" features a flying mechanical horse controlled using keys that could fly into outer space and towards the Sun. Some modern interpretations see this horse as a robot. The titular ebony horse can fly the distance of one year in a single day, and is used as a vehicle by the Prince of Persia, Qamar al-Aqmar, in his adventures across Persia, Arabia and Byzantium . This story appears to have influenced later European tales such as Adenes Le Roi 's _Cleomades_ and "The Squire\'s Prologue and Tale " told in Geoffrey Chaucer 's _ The Canterbury Tales _. "The City of Brass" and "The Ebony Horse" can be considered early examples of proto-science fiction. The "Third Qalandar's Tale" also features a robot in the form of an uncanny boatman .

THE ARABIC POETRY IN _ONE THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS_

There is an abundance of poetry in _One Thousand and One Nights_. Characters occasionally provide poetry in certain settings, covering many uses. However, pleading, beseeching and praising the powerful is the most significant.

The uses would include but are not limited to:

* Giving advice, warning, and solutions. * Praising God, royalties and those in power. * Pleading for mercy and forgiveness. * Lamenting wrong decisions or bad luck. * Providing riddles, laying questions, challenges. * Criticizing elements of life, wondering. * Expressing feelings to others or one’s self: happiness, sadness, anxiety, surprise, anger.

In a typical example, expressing feelings of happiness to oneself from Night 203, Prince Qamar Al-Zaman, standing outside the castle, wants to inform Queen Bodour of his arrival. He wraps his ring in a paper and hands it to the servant who delivers it to the Queen. When she opens it and sees the ring, joy conquers her, and out of happiness she chants this poem (Arabic):

وَلَقـدْ نَدِمْـتُ عَلى تَفَرُّقِ شَمْــلِنا :: دَهْـرَاً وّفاضَ الدَّمْـعُ مِنْ أَجْفـاني وَنَـذَرْتُ إِنْ عـادَ الزَّمـانُ يَلُمـُّـنا :: لا عُــدْتُ أَذْكُــرُ فُرْقًــةً بِلِســاني هَجَــمَ السُّــرورُ عَلَــيَّ حَتَّـى أَنَّهُ :: مِـنْ فَــرَطِ مـا سَــرَّني أَبْكــــاني يا عَيْـنُ صـارَ الدَّمْـعُ مِنْكِ سِجْيَةً :: تَبْكيــنَ مِـنْ فَـــرَحٍ وَأَحْزانـــــي

Transliteration:

_Wa-laqad nadimtu ‘alá tafarruqi shamlinā :: Dahran wa-fāḍa ad-dam‘u min ajfānī_ _Wa-nadhartu in ‘āda az-zamānu yalumanā :: la ‘udtu adhkuru furqatan bilisānī_ _Hajama as-sarūru ‘alayya ḥattá annahu :: min faraṭi mā sarranī abkānī_ _Yā ‘aynu ṣāra ad-dam‘u minki sijyatan :: tabkīna min faraḥin wa-’aḥzānī_

Literal translation:

And I have regretted the separation of our companionship :: An eon, and tears flooded my eyes And I’ve sworn if time brought us back together :: I’ll never utter any separation with my tongue Joy conquered me to the point of :: which it made me happy that I cried Oh eye, the tears out of you became a principle :: You cry out of joy and out of sadness

Burton's verse translation:

Long, long have I bewailed the sev'rance of our loves, With tears that from my lids streamed down like burning rain And vowed that, if the days deign reunite us two, My lips should never speak of severance again: Joy hath o'erwhelmed me so that, for the very stress Of that which gladdens me to weeping I am fain. Tears are become to you a habit, O my eyes, So that ye weep as well for gladness as for pain.

IN WORLD CULTURE

Main articles: Translations of One Thousand and One Nights and List of works influenced by One Thousand and One Nights

The influence of the versions of _The Nights_ on world literature is immense. Writers as diverse as Henry Fielding to Naguib Mahfouz have alluded to the collection by name in their own works. Other writers who have been influenced by the _Nights_ include John Barth , Jorge Luis Borges , Salman Rushdie , Orhan Pamuk , Goethe , Walter Scott , Thackeray , Wilkie Collins , Elizabeth Gaskell , Nodier , Flaubert , Marcel Schwob , Stendhal , Dumas , Gérard de Nerval , Gobineau , Pushkin , Tolstoy , Hofmannsthal , Conan Doyle , W. B. Yeats , H. G. Wells , Cavafy , Calvino , Georges Perec , H. P. Lovecraft , Marcel Proust , A. S. Byatt and Angela Carter .

Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin , Sinbad and Ali Baba . Part of its popularity may have sprung from improved standards of historical and geographical knowledge. The marvelous beings and events typical of fairy tales seem less incredible if they are set further "long ago" or farther "far away"; this process culminates in the fantasy world having little connection, if any, to actual times and places. Several elements from Arabian mythology and Persian mythology are now common in modern fantasy , such as genies , bahamuts , magic carpets , magic lamps, etc. When L. Frank Baum proposed writing a modern fairy tale that banished stereotypical elements, he included the genie as well as the dwarf and the fairy as stereotypes to go.

In 1982, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) began naming features on Saturn 's moon Enceladus after characters and places in Burton 's translation because “its surface is so strange and mysterious that it was given the _Arabian Nights_ as a name bank, linking fantasy landscape with a literary fantasy”.

IN ARABIC CULTURE

There is little evidence that the _Nights_ was particularly treasured in the Arab world. It is rarely mentioned in lists of popular literature and few pre-18th century manuscripts of the collection exist. Fiction had a low cultural status among Medieval Arabs compared with poetry, and the tales were dismissed as _khurafa_ (improbable fantasies fit only for entertaining women and children). According to Robert Irwin, "Even today, with the exception of certain writers and academics, the _Nights_ is regarded with disdain in the Arabic world. Its stories are regularly denounced as vulgar, improbable, childish and, above all, badly written." Nevertheless; the _Nights_ have proved an inspiration to some modern Egyptian writers, such as Tawfiq al-Hakim (author of the Symbolist play _Shahrazad_, 1934), Taha Hussein (_Scheherazade's Dreams_, 1943) and Naguib Mahfouz (_ Arabian Nights and Days _, 1981).

POSSIBLE EARLY INFLUENCE ON EUROPEAN LITERATURE

Although the first known translation into a European language only appeared in 1704, it is possible that the _Nights_ began exerting its influence on Western culture much earlier. Christian writers in Medieval Spain translated many works from Arabic, mainly philosophy and mathematics, but also Arab fiction, as is evidenced by Juan Manuel 's story collection _ El Conde Lucanor _ and Ramón Llull 's _The Book of Beasts_. Knowledge of the work, direct or indirect, apparently spread beyond Spain. Themes and motifs with parallels in the _Nights_ are found in Chaucer 's _ The Canterbury Tales _ (in _The Squire\'s Tale _ the hero travels on a flying brass horse) and Boccaccio 's _ Decameron _. Echoes in Giovanni Sercambi 's _Novelle_ and Ariosto 's _ Orlando furioso _ suggest that the story of Shahriyar and Shahzaman was also known. Evidence also appears to show that the stories had spread to the Balkans and a translation of the _Nights_ into Romanian existed by the 17th century, itself based on a Greek version of the collection.

WESTERN LITERATURE FROM THE 18TH CENTURY ONWARDS

_ Classic Comics _ issue #8

The modern fame of the _Nights_ derives from the first known European translation by Antoine Galland, which appeared in 1704. According to Robert Irwin , Galland "played so large a part in discovering the tales, in popularizing them in Europe and in shaping what would come to be regarded as the canonical collection that, at some risk of hyperbole and paradox, he has been called the real author of the _Nights_." The immediate success of Galland's version with the French public may have been because it coincided with the vogue for _contes de fées_ ("fairy stories"). This fashion began with the publication of Madame d\'Aulnoy 's _Histoire d'Hypolite_ in 1690. D'Aulnoy's book has a remarkably similar structure to the _Nights_, with the tales told by a female narrator. The success of the _Nights_ spread across Europe and by the end of the century there were translations of Galland into English, German, Italian, Dutch, Danish, Russian, Flemish and Yiddish. Galland's version provoked a spate of pseudo-Oriental imitations. At the same time, some French writers began to parody the style and concoct far-fetched stories in superficially Oriental settings. These tongue-in-cheek pastiches include Anthony Hamilton 's _Les quatre Facardins_ (1730), Crébillon 's _Le sopha _ (1742) and Diderot 's _Les bijoux indiscrets _ (1748). They often contained veiled allusions to contemporary French society. The most famous example is Voltaire 's _ Zadig _ (1748), an attack on religious bigotry set against a vague pre-Islamic Middle Eastern background. The English versions of the "Oriental Tale" generally contained a heavy moralising element, with the notable exception of William Beckford 's fantasy _ Vathek _ (1786), which had a decisive influence on the development of the Gothic novel . The Polish nobleman Jan Potocki 's novel _Saragossa Manuscript _ (begun 1797) owes a deep debt to the _Nights_ with its Oriental flavour and labyrinthine series of embedded tales.

The work was included on a price-list of books on theology, history, and cartography, which was sent by the Scottish bookseller Andrew Millar (when an apprentice) to a Presbyterian minister. This is illustrative of the title's widespread popularity and availability in the 1720s.

The _Nights_ continued to be a favourite book of many British authors of the Romantic and Victorian eras. According to A. S. Byatt , "In British Romantic poetry the Arabian Nights stood for the wonderful against the mundane, the imaginative against the prosaically and reductively rational." In their autobiographical writings, both Coleridge and de Quincey refer to nightmares the book had caused them when young. Wordsworth and Tennyson also wrote about their childhood reading of the tales in their poetry. Charles Dickens was another enthusiast and the atmosphere of the _Nights_ pervades the opening of his last novel _ The Mystery of Edwin Drood _ (1870).

Several writers have attempted to add a thousand and second tale, including Théophile Gautier (_La mille deuxième nuit_, 1842) and Joseph Roth (_Die Geschichte von der 1002. Nacht_, 1939). Edgar Allan Poe wrote "The Thousand-and-Second Tale of Scheherazade " (1845). It depicts the eighth and final voyage of Sinbad the Sailor , along with the various mysteries Sinbad and his crew encounter; the anomalies are then described as footnotes to the story. While the king is uncertain—except in the case of the elephants carrying the world on the back of the turtle—that these mysteries are real, they are actual modern events that occurred in various places during, or before, Poe's lifetime. The story ends with the king in such disgust at the tale Scheherazade has just woven, that he has her executed the very next day.

Another important literary figure, the Irish poet W. B. Yeats was also fascinated by the Arabian Nights, when he wrote in his prose book, A Vision an autobiographical poem, titled The Gift of Harun Al-Rashid , in relation to his joint experiments with his wife Georgie Hyde-Lees , with Automatic writing . The gift of his wife, given only allegedly by the caliph, is a technique used by many occultists in order to discern messages from the subconscious mind or from other spiritual beings, when the hand moves a pencil or a pen, writing only on a simple sheet of paper and when the person's eyes are shut. In July 1934 he was asked by Louis Lambert, while in a tour in the United States, which six books satisfied him most. The list that he gave placed the Arabian Nights, secondary only to William Shakespear's works.

Modern authors influenced by the _Nights_ include James Joyce , Marcel Proust , Jorge Luis Borges and John Barth .

CINEMA

_Play media Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp_ (1917).

Stories from the _One Thousand and One Nights_ have been popular subjects for films, beginning with Georges Méliès ' _Le Palais des Mille et une nuits_ (1905).

The critic Robert Irwin singles out the two versions of _The Thief of Baghdad_ (1924 version directed by Raoul Walsh; 1940 version produced by Alexander Korda) and Pier Paolo Pasolini 's _Il fiore delle Mille e una notte _, 1974) as ranking "high among the masterpieces of world cinema." Michael James Lundell calls _Il fiore_ "the most faithful adaptation, in its emphasis on sexuality, of _The 1001 Nights_ in its oldest form."

UPA , an American animation studio, produced an animated feature version of _1001 Arabian Nights _ (1959), featuring the cartoon character Mr. Magoo .

The animated feature film, _One Thousand and One Arabian Nights _ (1969), produced in Japan and directed by Osamu Tezuka and Eichii Yamamoto, featured psychedelic imagery and sounds, and erotic material intended for adults.

_ Alif Laila _ (_The Arabian Nights_), a 1997–2002 Indian TV series based on the stories from _One Thousand and One Nights_ produced by Sagar Entertainment Ltd , starts with Scheherazade telling her stories to Shahryār, and contains both the well-known and the lesser-known stories from _One Thousand and One Nights_.

_Arabian Nights _ (2000), a two-part television mini-series adopted for BBC and ABC studios, starring Mili Avital , Dougray Scott , and John Leguizamo , and directed by Steve Barron , is based on the translation by Sir Richard Francis Burton .

Shabnam Rezaei and Aly Jetha created, and the Vancouver-based Big Bad Boo Studios produced _1001 Nights _ (2012), an animated television series for children, which launched on Teletoon and airs in 80 countries around the world, including Discovery Kids Asia.

_Arabian Nights _ (2015, in Portuguese: _As Mil e uma Noites_), a three-part film directed by Miguel Gomes , is based on _One Thousand and One Nights_.

MUSIC

The _Nights_ has inspired many pieces of music, including:

Classical

* François-Adrien Boieldieu : _ Le calife de Bagdad _ (1800) * Carl Maria von Weber : _ Abu Hassan _ (1811) * Luigi Cherubini : _ Ali Baba _ (1833) * Peter Cornelius : _ Der Barbier von Bagdad _ (1858) * Ernest Reyer : _ La statue _ (1861) * C. F. E. Horneman (1840–1906), _Aladdin_ (overture), 1864 * Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : _ Scheherazade _ Op. 35 (1888) * Dikran Tchouhadjian (1837–1898), _Zemire_ (1891) * Ferrucio Busoni : Piano Concerto in C major (1904) * Henri Rabaud : _ Mârouf, savetier du Caire _ (1914) * Carl Nielsen , _ Aladdin Suite _ (1918–1919) * Collegium musicum , _Suita po tisic a jednej noci _ (1969) * Fikret Amirov : _Arabian Nights_ (Ballet, 1979) * Ezequiel Viñao , _La Noche de las Noches_ (1990) * Carl Davis , _Aladdin_ (Ballet, 1999)

Pop And Rock

* Renaissance : _ Scheherazade and Other Stories _ (1975) * Icehouse : _No Promises_ (From the album 'Measure for Measure' 1986) * Kamelot , _Nights of Arabia_ (1999) * Sarah Brightman , _Harem_ and _Arabian Nights_ (2003) * Ch!pz , "1001 Arabian Nights" (2004) * Nightwish , _Sahara_ (2007) * Abney Park (band) , _Scheherazade_ (2013)

VIDEO GAMES

Popular modern video games with an _Arabian Nights_ theme include _ Nadirim _, a game placed in a fantasy world inspired by the tales of the 1001 Nights, _Disney\'s Aladdin _, _Prince of Persia _ and _Sonic and the Secret Rings _.

ILLUSTRATORS

Many artists have illustrated the _Arabian nights_, including: Pierre-Clément Marillier for _Le Cabinet des Fées_ (1785–1789), Gustave Doré , Léon Carré (Granville, 1878 – Alger, 1942), Roger Blachon, Françoise Boudignon, André Dahan, Amato Soro, Albert Robida , Alcide Théophile Robaudi and Marcelino Truong; Vittorio Zecchin (Murano, 1878 – Murano, 1947) and Emanuele Luzzati ; The German Morgan; Mohammed Racim (Algiers, 1896 – Algiers 1975), Sani ol-Molk (1849–1856), Anton Pieck and Emre Orhun.

Famous illustrators for British editions include: Arthur Boyd Houghton , John Tenniel , John Everett Millais and George John Pinwell for Dalziel's Illustrated Arabian Nights Entertainments, published in 1865; Walter Crane for Aladdin's Picture Book (1876); Albert Letchford for the 1897 edition of Burton’s translation; Edmund Dulac for Stories from the Arabian Nights (1907), Princess Badoura (1913) and Sindbad the Sailor ">

The Sultan *

_One Thousand and One Nights_ book. *

Harun ar-Rashid , a leading character of the 1001 Nights *

The fifth voyage of Sindbad

SEE ALSO

* _ Novels portal

* Book: One Thousand and One Nights

* Arabic literature * Hamzanama * List of One Thousand and One Nights_ characters * List of stories from _The Book of One Thousand and One Nights_ (translation by R. F. Burton ) * List of works influenced by _One Thousand and One Nights_ * Persian literature * Shahnameh * Ghost stories

NOTES

* ^ See illustration of title page of Grub St Edition in Yamanaka and Nishio (p. 225) * ^ Ulrich Marzolph (2007). _The Arabian Nights in Transnational Perspective_. Wayne State University Press. pp. 183–. ISBN 0-8143-3287-0 . * ^ Marzolphpa (2007), "Arabian Nights", _Encyclopaedia of Islam_, I, Leiden: Brill. * ^ There is scholarly confusion over the exact form and original meaning of Scheherazade's name, see the note in Scheherazade\'s own Wiki article on this point * ^ John Payne, _Alaeddin and the Enchanted Lamp and Other Stories_, (London 1901) gives details of Galland's encounter with 'Hanna' in 1709 and of the discovery in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris of two Arabic manuscripts containing Aladdin and two more of the added tales. Text of "Alaeddin and the enchanted lamp" * ^ _The Arabian Nights_, translated by Malcolm C. Lyons and Ursula Lyons (Penguin Classics, 2008), Volume 1, page 1 * ^ The Third Voyage of Sindbad the Seaman – The Arabian Nights – The Thousand and One Nights – Sir Richard Burton translator. Classiclit.about.com (2013-07-19). Retrieved on 2013-09-23. * ^ Irwin p.48 * ^ _A_ _B_ Reynolds p.271 * ^ Burton, Richard F. (2002). _Vikram and the Vampire Or Tales of Hindu Devilry_ pg xi. Adamant Media Corporation * ^ Irwin, Robert (2003), _The Arabian Nights: A Companion_, Tauris Parke Paperbacks , p. 65, ISBN 1-86064-983-1 * ^ Artola. _Pancatantra_ Manuscripts from South India in the _Adyar Library Bulletin_. 1957. pp. 45ff. * ^ K. Raksamani. _The Nandakaprakarana attributed to Vasubhaga, a Comparative Study_. University of Toronto Thesis. 1978. pp. 221ff. * ^ E. Lorgeou. _Les entretiensde Nang Tantrai_. Paris. 1924. * ^ C. Hooykaas. Bibliotheca Javaneca No. 2. Bandoeng. 1931. * ^ A. K. Warder. _Indian Kāvya Literature: The art of storytelling, Volume VI_. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. 1992. pp. 61–62, 76–82. * ^ IIS.ac.uk Dr Fahmida Suleman, "Kalila wa Dimna", in _Medieval Islamic Civilization, An Encyclopaedia_, Vol. II, p. 432-433, ed. Josef W. Meri, New York-London: Routledge, 2006 * ^ _The Fables of Kalila and Dimnah_, translated from the Arabic by Saleh Sa'adeh Jallad, 2002. Melisende, London, ISBN 1-901764-14-1 * ^ Kalilah and Dimnah; or, The fables of Bidpai; being an account of their literary history, p. xiv * ^ Pinault p.1 * ^ Pinault p.4 * ^ _A_ _B_ Irwin p.49 * ^ Irwin p.51: "It seems probable from all the above that the Persian _Hazār Afsaneh_ was translated into Arabic in the eighth or early 9th century and was given the title _Alf Khurafa_ before being subsequently retitled _Alf Layla_. However, it remains far from clear what the connection is between this fragment of the early text and the _Nights_ stories as they have survived in later and fuller manuscripts; nor how the Syrian manuscripts related to later Egyptian versions." * ^ Eva Sallis _ Scheherazade Through the Looking-Glass: The Metamorphosis of the Thousand and One Nights_ (Routledge, 1999), p.2 and note 6 * ^ Irwin p.76 * ^ Safa Khulusi, _Studies in Comparative Literature and Western Literary Schools,_ Chapter: _Qisas Alf Laylah wa Laylah_ (_One thousand and one Nights_), pp. 15–85. Al-Rabita Press, Baghdad, 1957. * ^ Safa Khulusi, The Influence of Ibn al-Muqaffa' on The Arabian Nights. _Islamic Review_, Dec 1960, p.29-31 * ^ The Thousand and One Nights; Or, The Arabian Night\'s Entertainments – David Claypoole Johnston – Google Books. Books.google.com.pk. Retrieved on 2013-09-23. * ^ Irwin p.51 * ^ _A_ _B_ Irwin p.50 * ^ _A_ _B_ Reynolds p.270 * ^ _A_ _B_ Beaumont, Daniel. Literary Style and Narrative Technique in the Arabian Nights. P.1. In The Arabian nights encyclopedia, Volume 1 * ^ _A_ _B_ Irwin, Robert. 2004. The Arabian nights: a companion. P.55 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Sallis, Eva . 1999. Sheherazade through the looking glass: the metamorphosis of the Thousand and One Nights. P.18-43 * ^ Pinault, David. Story-telling techniques in the Arabian nights. P.1-12. Also in Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, v.1 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Sallis, Eva. 1999. Sheherazade through the looking glass: the metamorphosis of the Thousand and One Nights. P.4 and _passim_ * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Marzolph, Ulrich and Richard van Leeuwen. 2004. The Arabian nights encyclopedia, Volume 1. P.506-508 * ^ Madeleine Dobie, 2009. Translation in the contact zone: Antoine Galland's Mille et une nuits: contes arabes. P.37. In Makdisi, Saree and Felicity Nussbaum: "The Arabian Nights in Historical Context: Between East and West" * ^ _A_ _B_ Irwin, Robert. 2004. The Arabian nights: a companion. P.1-9 * ^ PEN American Center. Pen.org. Retrieved on 2013-09-23. * ^ Dwight Reynolds. "The Thousand and One Nights: A History of the Text and its Reception." _The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature: Arabic Literature in the Post-Classical Period_. Cambridge UP, 2006. * ^ Irwin, Robert (2003), _The Arabian Nights: A Companion_, Tauris Parke Palang-faacks , ISBN 1-86064-983-1 * ^ "The Oriental Tale in England in the Eighteenth Century", by Martha Pike Conant, Ph.D. Columbia University Press (1908) * ^ Irwin pp.49–50 * ^ Ulrich Marzolph, _The Arabian nights in transnational perspective_, 2007, ISBN 978-0-8143-3287-0 , p. 230. * ^ _A_ _B_ Heath, Peter (May 1994), "Reviewed work(s): _Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights_ by David Pinault", _International Journal of Middle East Studies _, Cambridge University Press , 26 (2): 358–360 , doi :10.1017/s0020743800060633 * ^ Ulrich Marzolph, Richard van Leeuwen, Hassan Wassouf (2004), _The Arabian Nights Encyclopedia_, ABC-CLIO , pp. 3–4, ISBN 1-57607-204-5 * ^ Burton, Richard (September 2003), _The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, Volume 1_, Project Gutenberg * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Heath, Peter (May 1994), "Reviewed work(s): _Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights_ by David Pinault", _International Journal of Middle East Studies _, Cambridge University Press , 26 (2): 358–360 , doi :10.1017/s0020743800060633 * ^ Irwin, Robert (2003), _The Arabian Nights: A Companion_, Tauris Parke Palang-faacks , p. 200, ISBN 1-86064-983-1 * ^ Irwin, Robert (2003), _The Arabian Nights: A Companion_, Tauris Parke Palang-faacks , p. 198, ISBN 1-86064-983-1 * ^ Irwin, Robert (2003), _The Arabian Nights: A Companion_, Tauris Parke Palang-faacks , pp. 199–200, ISBN 1-86064-983-1 * ^ Heath, Peter (May 1994), "Reviewed work(s): _Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights_ by David Pinault", _International Journal of Middle East Studies _, Cambridge University Press , 26 (2): 358–360 , doi :10.1017/s0020743800060633 * ^ Irwin, Robert (2003), _The Arabian Nights: A Companion_, Tauris Parke Palang-faacks , pp. 193–4, ISBN 1-86064-983-1 * ^ Irwin, Robert (2003), _The Arabian Nights: A Companion_, Tauris Parke Palang-faacks , p. 199, ISBN 1-86064-983-1 * ^ _A_ _B_ Ulrich Marzolph, Richard van Leeuwen, Hassan Wassouf (2004), _The Arabian Nights Encyclopedia_, ABC-CLIO , p. 109, ISBN 1-57607-204-5 * ^ Irwin, Robert (2003), _The Arabian Nights: A Companion_, Tauris Parke Palang-faacks , p. 93, ISBN 1-86064-983-1 * ^ Ulrich Marzolph, Richard van Leeuwen, Hassan Wassouf (2004), _The Arabian Nights Encyclopedia_, ABC-CLIO , p. 4, ISBN 1-57607-204-5 * ^ Ulrich Marzolph, Richard van Leeuwen, Hassan Wassouf (2004), _The Arabian Nights Encyclopedia_, ABC-CLIO , pp. 97–8, ISBN 1-57607-204-5 * ^ "Ali with the Large Member" is only in the Wortley Montague manuscript (1764), which is in the Bodleian Library , and is not found in Burton or any of the other standard translations. (Ref: _Arabian Nights Encyclopedia_). * ^ Pinault, David (1992), _Story-telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights_, Brill Publishers , p. 59, ISBN 90-04-09530-6 * ^ Marzolph, Ulrich (2006), _The Arabian Nights Reader_, Wayne State University Press , pp. 240–2, ISBN 0-8143-3259-5 * ^ Pinault, David (1992), _Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights_, Brill Publishers , pp. 93, 95, 97, ISBN 90-04-09530-6 * ^ Pinault, David (1992), _Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights_, Brill Publishers , pp. 91 & 93, ISBN 90-04-09530-6 * ^ Marzolph, Ulrich (2006), _The Arabian Nights Reader_, Wayne State University Press , p. 240, ISBN 0-8143-3259-5 * ^ Ulrich Marzolph, Richard van Leeuwen, Hassan Wassouf (2004), _The Arabian Nights Encyclopedia_, ABC-CLIO , pp. 2–4, ISBN 1-57607-204-5 * ^ Yuriko Yamanaka, Tetsuo Nishio (2006), _The Arabian Nights and Orientalism: Perspectives from East & West_, I.B. Tauris , p. 83, ISBN 1-85043-768-8 * ^ Al-Hakawati. "_The Story of Gherib and his Brother Agib_". _Thousand Nights and One Night_. Retrieved October 2, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ Hamori, Andras (1971), "An Allegory from the Arabian Nights: The City of Brass", _Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies _, Cambridge University Press , 34 (1): 9–19 , doi :10.1017/S0041977X00141540 The hero of the tale is an historical person, Musa bin Nusayr . * ^ Daniel Harms, John Wisdom Gonce, John Wisdom Gonce, III (2003), _The Necronomicon Files: The Truth Behind Lovecraft's Legend_, Weiser, pp. 87–90, ISBN 978-1-57863-269-5 * ^ _A_ _B_ Irwin, Robert (2003), _The Arabian Nights: A Companion_, Tauris Parke Palang-faacks , p. 209, ISBN 1-86064-983-1 * ^ Irwin, Robert (2003), _The Arabian Nights: A Companion_, Tauris Parke Palang-faacks , p. 204, ISBN 1-86064-983-1 * ^ Irwin, Robert (2003), _The Arabian Nights: A Companion_, Tauris Parke Palang-faacks , p. 190, ISBN 1-86064-983-1 * ^ Irwin, Robert (2003), _The Arabian Nights: A Companion_, Tauris Parke Palang-faacks , pp. 211–2, ISBN 1-86064-983-1 * ^ Hamori, Andras (1971), "An Allegory from the Arabian Nights: The City of Brass", _Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies _, Cambridge University Press , 34 (1): 9–19 , doi :10.1017/S0041977X00141540 * ^ Pinault, David (1992), _Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights_, Brill Publishers , pp. 148–9 & 217–9, ISBN 90-04-09530-6

* ^ Irwin, Robert (2003), _The Arabian Nights: A Companion_, Tauris Parke Palang-faacks , p. 213, ISBN 1-86064-983-1 * ^ Hamori, Andras (1971), "An Allegory from the Arabian Nights: The City of Brass", _Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies _, Cambridge University Press , 34 (1): 9–19 , doi :10.1017/S0041977X00141540 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Pinault, David (1992), _Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights_, Brill Publishers , pp. 10–1, ISBN 90-04-09530-6 * ^ Geraldine McCaughrean, Rosamund Fowler (1999), _One Thousand and One Arabian Nights_, Oxford University Press , pp. 247–51, ISBN 0-19-275013-5 * ^ Ulrich Marzolph, Richard van Leeuwen, Hassan Wassouf (2004), _The Arabian Nights Encyclopedia_, ABC-CLIO , pp. 172–4, ISBN 1-57607-204-5 * ^ Academic Literature, Islam and Science Fiction * ^ Burton Nights. Mythfolklore.net (2005-01-01). Retrieved on 2013-09-23. * ^ Tale of Nur Al-Din Ali and His Son Badr Al-Din Hasan – The Arabian Nights – The Thousand and One Nights – Sir Richard Burton translator. Classiclit.about.com (2013-07-19). Retrieved on 2013-09-23. * ^ Irwin, Robert (2003), _The Arabian Nights: A Companion_, Tauris Parke Palang-faacks , p. 290, ISBN 1-86064-983-1 * ^ James Thurber, "The Wizard of Chitenango", p 64 _Fantasists on Fantasy_ edited by Robert H. Boyer and Kenneth J. Zahorski, ISBN 0-380-86553-X . * ^ Blue, J.; (2006) _Categories for Naming Planetary Features_. Retrieved November 16, 2006. * ^ Reynolds p.272 * ^ Irwin pp.81–82 * ^ _A_ _B_ "Encyclopaedia Iranica". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. * ^ Irwin pp.92–94 * ^ Irwin pp.96–99 * ^ Irwin pp.61–62 * ^ Irwin p.14 * ^ Reynolds pp.279–81 * ^ Irwin pp.238–241 * ^ Irwin p.242 * ^ Irwin pp.245–260 * ^ "The manuscripts, Letter from Andrew Millar to Robert Wodrow, 5 August, 1725. Andrew Millar Project. University of Edinburgh.". _www.millar-project.ed.ac.uk_. Retrieved 2016-06-03. * ^ A. S. Byatt _On Histories and Stories_ (Harvard University Press, 2001) p.167 * ^ Wordsworth in Book Five of _ The Prelude _; Tennyson in his poem "Recollections of the _Arabian Nights_". (Irwin, pp.266–69) * ^ Irwin p.270 * ^ _A_ _B_ Byatt p.168 * ^ The Cat and the Moon and Certain Poems by William Butler Yeats * ^ In Excited Reverie: Centenary Tribute to W.B. Yeats, edited by A. Norman Jeffares, K.G.W. Cross * ^ Irwin, pp.291–292 * ^ Lundell, Michael (2013), "Pasolini’s Splendid Infidelities: Un/Faithful Film Versions of _The Thousand and One Nights_", _ Adaptation _, Oxford University Press , 6 (1): 120–127, doi :10.1093/adaptation/aps022 * ^ Maltin, Leonard (1987). _Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons_. New American Library. pp. 341–342. ISBN 0-452-25993-2 . * ^ One Thousand and One Arabian Nights Review (1969). Thespinningimage.co.uk. Retrieved on 2013-09-23. * ^ 1001 Nights heads to Discovery Kids Asia. Kidscreen (2013-06-13). Retrieved on 2013-09-23. * ^ The Most Ambitious Movie At This Year\'s Cannes Film Festival is \'Arabian Nights\'. Retrieved on 2015-01-18. * ^ See Encyclopaedia Iranica (NB: Some of the dates provided there are wrong) * ^ Archived May 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Irwin, Robert (March 12, 2011). "The Arabian Nights: a thousand and one illustrations". _The Guardian_.

SOURCES

* Robert Irwin _The Arabian Nights: A Companion_ (Tauris Parke, 2005) * David Pinault _Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights_ (Brill Publishers, 1992) * Ulrich Marzolph, Richard van Leeuwen, Hassan Wassouf,_The Arabian Nights Encyclopedia_ (2004) * Ulrich Marzolph (ed.) _The Arabian Nights Reader_ (Wayne State University Press, 2006) * Dwight Reynolds, "_A Thousand and One Nights_: a history of the text and its reception" in _The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature_ Vol 6. (CUP 2006) * Eva Sallis _ Scheherazade Through the Looking-Glass: The Metamorphosis of the Thousand and One Nights_ (Routledge, 1999), * Yamanaka, Yuriko and Nishio, Tetsuo (ed.) _The Arabian Nights and Orientalism – Perspectives from East and West_ (I.B.Tauris, 2006) ISBN 1-85043-768-8 * Ch. Pellat, "Alf Layla Wa Layla" in Encyclopædia Iranica. Online Access June 2011 at

FURTHER READING

* _In Arabian Nights: A search of Morocco through its stories and storytellers_ by Tahir Shah, Doubleday, 2008. * _The Islamic Context of The Thousand and One Nights_ by Muhsin J. al-Musawi, Columbia University Press, 2009. * Nurse, Paul McMichael. _Eastern Dreams: How the Arabian Nights Came to the World_ Viking Canada: 2010. General popular history of the 1001 Nights from its earliest days to the present.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to ARABIAN NIGHTS _.

_ Wikiquote has quotations related to: ONE THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS _

_ Arabic Wikisource has original text related to this article: ألف ليلة وليلة

Wikisource has original text related to this article: THE BOOK OF THE THOUSAND NIGHTS AND A NIGHT

* The Thousand Nights and a Night_ in several classic translations, including the Sir Richard Francis Burton unexpurgated translation and John Payne translation, with additional material. * _The Arabian Nights Entertainments_, Selected and Edited by Andrew Lang , Longmans, Green and Co, 1918 (1898). * _1001 Arabian Nights_ – streaming audio version of _The Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night_ as published