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The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, or Chippewa are an Anishinaabeg
Anishinaabeg
group of Indigenous Peoples in North America
North America
known internally as Turtle Island. They live in Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
and are one of the largest Indigenous ethnic groups north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations
First Nations
population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American tribes, surpassed only by the Navajo, Cherokee, Choctaw
Choctaw
and Lakota-Dakota-Nakota people. The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
people traditionally have spoken the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Nipissing, Oji-Cree, Odawa and the Potawatomi. The majority of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe; 76,760 Saulteaux
Saulteaux
and 8,770 Mississaugas, organized in 125 bands, and living from western Quebec
Quebec
to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe
Ojibwe
in the US census population is 170,742.[1] Ojibwe
Ojibwe
are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls, mining and trade in copper, and cultivation of wild rice. Their Midewiwin
Midewiwin
Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, songs, maps, memories, stories, geometry, and mathematics.[2] The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
people set the agenda with European-Canadian leaders by signing detailed treaties before they allowed many European settlers into their western areas. In 1745, they adopted guns from the British to defeat the Dakota people
Dakota people
in the Lake Superior
Lake Superior
area, pushing them to the south and west.

Contents

1 Name 2 Language 3 History

3.1 Pre-contact and spiritual beliefs 3.2 Post-contact with Europeans

4 Culture

4.1 Kinship and clan system 4.2 Spiritual beliefs 4.3 Ethnobotany 4.4 Representation in popular culture

4.4.1 Literature 4.4.2 Music 4.4.3 Film 4.4.4 Television

5 Bands 6 Notable Ojibwe
Ojibwe
people 7 Ojibwe
Ojibwe
treaties 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Name[edit] Further information: List of Ojibwa
Ojibwa
ethnonyms The exonym for this Anishinaabeg
Anishinaabeg
group is Ojibwe
Ojibwe
(plural: Ojibweg). This name is commonly anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, and "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe
Ojibwe
communities throughout Canada
Canada
and the U.S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe(-g). The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe
Ojibwe
is not known; the most common explanations for the name derivations are:

ojiibwabwe (/o/ + /jiibw/ + /abwe/), meaning "those who cook/roast until it puckers", referring to their fire-curing of moccasin seams to make them waterproof.[3] Some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
applied to enemies.[4] ozhibii'iwe (/o/ + /zhibii'/ + /iwe/), meaning "those who keep records [of a Vision]", referring to their form of pictorial writing, and pictographs used in Midewiwin
Midewiwin
sacred rites;[5] or ojiibwe (/o/ + /jiib/ + /we/), meaning "those who speak-stiffly"/"those who stammer", an exonym or name given to them by the Cree, who described the Ojibwe language
Ojibwe language
for its differences from their own.[6]

Because many Ojibwe
Ojibwe
were formerly located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
as Saulteurs. Ojibwe
Ojibwe
who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada
Canada
have retained the name Saulteaux. This is disputed since some scholars believe that only the name migrated west.[7] Ojibwe
Ojibwe
who were originally located along the Mississagi River
Mississagi River
and made their way to southern Ontario
Ontario
are known as the Mississaugas.[8] Language[edit] Main article: Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language The Ojibwe language
Ojibwe language
is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, and is still widely spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, and restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
culture. The language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, and is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Cree, Fox, Menominee, Potawatomi, and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is frequently referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language; Central Algonquian is an area grouping, however, rather than a linguistic genetic one. Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America (US and Canada) after Navajo, Cree, and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and the northern Great Plains. The popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
culture. The epic contains many toponyms that originate from Ojibwe
Ojibwe
words. History[edit] Pre-contact and spiritual beliefs[edit] According to Ojibwe
Ojibwe
oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec.[9] They traded widely across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, and knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, and then south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans. The Europeans preferred to deal with bounded groups and tried to identify those they encountered.[10] According to Ojibwe
Ojibwe
oral history, seven great miigis (radiant/iridescent) beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing (Land of the Dawn, i.e., Eastern Land) to teach them the mide way of life. One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach, while the one returned into the ocean. The six great miigis beings established doodem (clans) for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
doodem were the Wawaazisii (Bullhead), Baswenaazhi (Echo-maker, i.e., Crane), Aan'aawenh (Pintail Duck), Nooke (Tender, i.e., Bear) and Moozoonsii (Little Moose), then these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed, it would have established the Thunderbird doodem. At a later time, one of these miigis appeared in a vision to relate a prophecy. It said that if the Anishinaabeg
Anishinaabeg
did not move further west, they would not be able to keep their traditional ways alive because of the many new pale-skinned settlers who would arrive soon in the east. Their migration path would be symbolized by a series of smaller Turtle Islands, which was confirmed with miigis shells (i.e., cowry shells). After receiving assurance from their "Allied Brothers" (i.e., Mi'kmaq) and "Father" (i.e., Abenaki) of their safety to move inland, the Anishinaabeg
Anishinaabeg
gradually migrated west along the Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
to the Ottawa River
Ottawa River
to Lake Nipissing, and then to the Great Lakes. The first of the smaller Turtle Islands was Mooniyaa, where Mooniyaang (present-day Montreal) developed. The "second stopping place" was in the vicinity of the Wayaanag-gakaabikaa (Concave Waterfalls, i.e., Niagara Falls). At their "third stopping place", near the present-day city of Detroit, Michigan, the Anishinaabeg
Anishinaabeg
divided into six groups, of which the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
was one. The first significant new Ojibwe
Ojibwe
culture-center was their "fourth stopping place" on Manidoo Minising (Manitoulin Island). Their first new political-center was referred to as their "fifth stopping place", in their present country at Baawiting (Sault Ste. Marie). Continuing their westward expansion, the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
divided into the "northern branch", following the north shore of Lake Superior, and the "southern branch", along its south shore. As the people continued to migrate westward, the "northern branch" divided into a "westerly group" and a "southerly group". The "southern branch" and the "southerly group" of the "northern branch" came together at their "sixth stopping place" on Spirit Island (46°41′15″N 092°11′21″W / 46.68750°N 92.18917°W / 46.68750; -92.18917) located in the Saint Louis River
Saint Louis River
estuary at the western end of Lake Superior. (This has since been developed as the present-day Duluth/Superior cities.) The people were directed in a vision by the miigis being to go to the "place where there is food (i.e., wild rice) upon the waters." Their second major settlement, referred to as their "seventh stopping place", was at Shaugawaumikong (or Zhaagawaamikong, French, Chequamegon) on the southern shore of Lake Superior, near the present La Pointe, Wisconsin. The "westerly group" of the "northern branch" migrated along the Rainy River, Red River of the North, and across the northern Great Plains until reaching the Pacific Northwest. Along their migration to the west, they came across many miigis, or cowry shells, as told in the prophecy. Post-contact with Europeans[edit]

Five Ojibwe
Ojibwe
chiefs in the 19th century.

The first historical mention of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
occurs in the French Jesuit Relation of 1640, a report by the missionary priests to their superiors in France. Through their friendship with the French traders (coureurs des bois and voyageurs), the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
gained guns, began to use European goods, and began to dominate their traditional enemies, the Lakota and Fox to their west and south. They drove the Sioux
Sioux
from the Upper Mississippi region to the area of the present-day Dakotas, and forced the Fox down from northern Wisconsin. The latter allied with the Sauk for protection. By the end of the 18th century, the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
controlled nearly all of present-day Michigan, northern Wisconsin, and Minnesota, including most of the Red River area. They also controlled the entire northern shores of lakes Huron and Superior on the Canadian side and extending westward to the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota. In the latter area, the French Canadians called them Ojibwe
Ojibwe
or Saulteaux.

An Ojibwe
Ojibwe
named Boy Chief, by the noted American painter George Catlin, who made portraits at Fort Snelling
Fort Snelling
in 1835. In 1845 he traveled to Paris with eleven Ojibwe, who had their portraits painted and danced for King Louis Philippe.

The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
(Chippewa) were part of a long-term alliance with the Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
Ottawa
Ottawa
and Potawatomi
Potawatomi
peoples, called the Council of Three Fires. They fought against the Iroquois Confederacy, based mainly to the southeast of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
in present-day New York, and the Sioux
Sioux
to the west. The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
expanded eastward, taking over the lands along the eastern shores of Lake Huron
Lake Huron
and Georgian Bay. Often, treaties known as "Peace and Friendship Treaties" were made to establish community bonds between the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
and the European settlers. These established the groundwork for cooperative resource-sharing between the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
and the settlers. The United States and Canada
Canada
viewed later treaties offering land cessions as offering territorial advantages. The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
did not understand the land cession terms in the same way because of the cultural differences in understanding the uses of land. The governments of the US and Canada
Canada
considered land a commodity of value that could be freely bought, owned and sold. The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
believed it was a fully shared resource, along with air, water and sunlight—despite having an understanding of "territory". At the time of the treaty councils, they could not conceive of separate land sales or exclusive ownership of land. Consequently, today, in both Canada
Canada
and the US, legal arguments in treaty-rights and treaty interpretations often bring to light the differences in cultural understanding of treaty terms to come to legal understanding of the treaty obligations.[11] In part due to its long trading alliance, the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
allied with the French against Great Britain and its colonists in the Seven Years' War (also called the French and Indian War).[12] After losing the war in 1763, France was forced to cede its colonial claims to lands in Canada and east of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
to Britain. After Pontiac's War
Pontiac's War
and adjusting to British colonial rule, the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
allied with British forces and against the United States
United States
in the War of 1812. They had hoped that a British victory could protect them against United States settlers' encroachment on their territory. Following the war, the United States
United States
government tried to forcibly remove all the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
to Minnesota, west of the Mississippi River. The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
resisted, and there were violent confrontations. In the Sandy Lake Tragedy, several hundred Ojibwe
Ojibwe
died because of the federal government's failure to deliver fall annuity payments.[13] Through the efforts of Chief Buffalo and the rise of popular opinion in the US against Ojibwe
Ojibwe
removal, the bands east of the Mississippi were allowed to return to reservations on ceded territory. A few families were removed to Kansas
Kansas
as part of the Potawatomi
Potawatomi
removal.

Plains Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Chief Sha-có-pay
Sha-có-pay
(The Six). In addition to the northern and eastern woodlands, Ojibwe
Ojibwe
people also lived on the prairies of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, North Dakota, western Minnesota
Minnesota
and Montana.

In British North America, the Royal Proclamation of 1763
Royal Proclamation of 1763
following the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
governed the cession of land by treaty or purchase . Subsequently, France ceded most of the land in Upper Canada
Canada
to Great Britain. Even with the Jay Treaty
Treaty
signed between Great Britain and the United States
United States
following the American Revolutionary War, the newly formed United States
United States
did not fully uphold the treaty. As it was still preoccupied by war with France, Great Britain ceded to the United States much of the lands in Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, parts of Illinois and Wisconsin, and northern Minnesota
Minnesota
and North Dakota
North Dakota
to settle the boundary of their holdings in Canada. In 1807, the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
joined three other tribes, the Odawa, Potawatomi and Wyandot people, in signing the Treaty
Treaty
of Detroit. The agreement, between the tribes and William Hull, representing the Michigan Territory, gave the United States
United States
a portion of today's Southeastern Michigan
Michigan
and a section of Ohio
Ohio
near the Maumee River. The tribes were able to retain small pockets of land in the territory.[14] In Canada, many of the land cession treaties the British made with the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
provided for their rights for continued hunting, fishing and gathering of natural resources after land sales. The government signed numbered treaties in northwestern Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. British Columbia
British Columbia
had no signed treaties until the late 20th century, and most areas have no treaties yet. The government and First Nations are continuing to negotiate treaty land entitlements and settlements. The treaties are constantly being reinterpreted by the courts because many of them are vague and difficult to apply in modern times. The numbered treaties were some of the most detailed treaties signed for their time. The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Nation set the agenda and negotiated the first numbered treaties before they would allow safe passage of many more British settlers to the prairies. During its Indian Removal
Indian Removal
of the 1830s, the US government attempted to relocate tribes from the east to the west of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
as the white pioneers increasingly migrated west. By the late 19th century, the government policy was to move tribes onto reservations within their territories. The government attempted to do this to the Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
in the Keweenaw Peninsula
Keweenaw Peninsula
in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Culture[edit]

Details of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Wigwam
Wigwam
at Grand Portage by Eastman Johnson, c. 1906

The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
live in groups (otherwise known as "bands"). Most Ojibwe, except for the Great Plains
Great Plains
bands, lived a sedentary lifestyle, engaging in fishing and hunting to supplement the women's cultivation of numerous varieties of maize and squash, and the harvesting of manoomin (wild rice). Their typical dwelling was the wiigiwaam (wigwam), built either as a waginogaan (domed-lodge) or as a nasawa'ogaan (pointed-lodge), made of birch bark, juniper bark and willow saplings.

Vintage stereoscopic photo entitled "Chippewa lodges, Beaver Bay, by Childs, B. F."

They developed a form of pictorial writing, used in religious rites of the Midewiwin
Midewiwin
and recorded on birch bark scrolls and possibly on rock. The many complex pictures on the sacred scrolls communicate much historical, geometrical, and mathematical knowledge. The use of petroforms, petroglyphs, and pictographs was common throughout the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
traditional territories. Petroforms
Petroforms
and medicine wheels were a way to teach the important concepts of four directions and astronomical observations about the seasons, and to use as a memorizing tool for certain stories and beliefs. Ceremonies also used the miigis shell (cowry shell), which is found naturally in distant coastal areas. Their use of such shells demonstrates there was a vast trade network across the continent at some time. The use and trade of copper across the continent has also been proof of a large trading network that took place for thousands of years, as far back as the Hopewell tradition. Certain types of rock used for spear and arrow heads were also traded over large distances.

Pictographs
Pictographs
on Mazinaw Rock, Bon Echo Provincial Park, Ontario

During the summer months, the people attend jiingotamog for the spiritual and niimi'idimaa for a social gathering (pow-wows or "pau waus") at various reservations in the Anishinaabe-Aki (Anishinaabe Country). Many people still follow the traditional ways of harvesting wild rice, picking berries, hunting, making medicines, and making maple sugar. Many of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
take part in sun dance ceremonies across the continent. The sacred scrolls are kept hidden away until those who are worthy and respect them are given permission to see and interpret them properly. The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
would not bury their dead in a burial mound. Many erect a jiibegamig or a "spirit-house" over each mound. A traditional burial mound would typically have a wooden marker, inscribed with the deceased's doodem (clan sign). Because of the distinct features of these burials, Ojibwe
Ojibwe
graves have been often looted by grave robbers. In the United States, many Ojibwe
Ojibwe
communities safe-guard their burial mounds through the enforcement of the 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.

Plains Ojibwe
Ojibwe
performing a snowshoe dance. By George Catlin

As with various other North American peoples, the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
culture includes a third gender. Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Two-Spirit
Two-Spirit
women take on men's roles, classified as either "Iron Woman" or "Half Sky". Generally, two-spirit men practiced Shamanism
Shamanism
and it was taboo for women to take on this role, but a two-spirit following this path was called an Iron Woman. The Half Sky two-spirit would be physically good at a man's trade (like hunting). Also, there is an instance when a wife becomes a widow and takes on her husband's manly deeds; this woman is called a "Woman Covered All Over". (Landes 153, 176, 178-179, and Merriam- Webster Dictionary). Several Ojibwe
Ojibwe
bands in the United States
United States
cooperate in the Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission, which manages the treaty hunting and fishing rights in the Lake Superior-Lake Michigan
Michigan
areas. The commission follows the directives of U.S. agencies to run several wilderness areas. Some Minnesota
Minnesota
Ojibwe
Ojibwe
tribal councils cooperate in the 1854 Treaty
Treaty
Authority, which manages their treaty hunting and fishing rights in the Arrowhead Region. In Michigan, the Chippewa- Ottawa
Ottawa
Resource Authority manages the hunting, fishing and gathering rights about Sault Ste. Marie, and the resources of the waters of lakes Michigan
Michigan
and Huron. In Canada, the Grand Council of Treaty
Treaty
No. 3 manages the Treaty
Treaty
3 hunting and fishing rights related to the area around Lake of the Woods.

Kinship and clan system[edit] Main article: Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
clan system Traditionally, the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
had a patrilineal system, in which children were considered born to the father's clan.[15] For this reason, children with French or English fathers were considered outside the clan and Ojibwe
Ojibwe
society unless adopted by an Ojibwe
Ojibwe
male. They were sometimes referred to as "white" because of their fathers, regardless if their mothers were Ojibwe, as they had no official place in the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
society. The people would shelter the woman and her children, but they did not have the same place in the culture as children born to Ojibwe
Ojibwe
fathers. Ojibwe
Ojibwe
understanding of kinship is complex, and includes not only the immediate family but also the extended family. It is considered a modified bifurcate merging kinship system. As with any bifurcate-merging kinship system, siblings generally share the same kinship term with parallel cousins because they are all part of the same clan. The modified system allows for younger siblings to share the same kinship term with younger cross-cousins. Complexity wanes further from the speaker's immediate generation, but some complexity is retained with female relatives. For example, ninooshenh is "my mother's sister" or "my father's sister-in-law"—i.e., my parallel-aunt, but also "my parent's female cross-cousin". Great-grandparents and older generations, as well as great-grandchildren and younger generations, are collectively called aanikoobijigan. This system of kinship reflects the Anishinaabe philosophy of interconnectedness and balance among all living generations, as well as of all generations of the past and of the future. The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
people were divided into a number of odoodeman (clans; singular: doodem) named primarily for animals and birds totems (pronounced doodem). The five original totems were Wawaazisii (Bullhead), Baswenaazhi ("Echo-maker", i.e., Crane), Aan'aawenh (Pintail Duck), Nooke ("Tender", i.e., Bear) and Moozwaanowe ("Little" Moose-tail). The Crane totem was the most vocal among the Ojibwe, and the Bear
Bear
was the largest – so large, that it was sub-divided into body parts such as the head, the ribs and the feet. Each clan had certain responsibilities among the people. People had to marry a spouse from a different clan. Traditionally, each band had a self-regulating council consisting of leaders of the communities' clans, or odoodemaan. The band was often identified by the principal doodem. In meeting others, the traditional greeting among the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
people is, "What is your 'doodem'?" ("Aaniin gidoodem?" or "Awanen gidoodem?") The response allows the parties to establish social conduct by identifying as family, friends or enemies. Today, the greeting has been shortened to "Aanii". Pronounced; (Ah-nee)[citation needed] Spiritual beliefs[edit]

Frame of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
sweatlodge

Main article: Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
traditional beliefs

Pictorial notation of an Ojibwe
Ojibwe
music board.

The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
have a number of spiritual beliefs passed down by oral tradition under the Midewiwin
Midewiwin
teachings. These include a creation story and a recounting of the origins of ceremonies and rituals. Spiritual beliefs and rituals were very important to the Ojibwe because spirits guided them through life. Birch bark
Birch bark
scrolls and petroforms were used to pass along knowledge and information, as well as for ceremonies. Pictographs
Pictographs
were also used for ceremonies. The sweatlodge is still used during important ceremonies about the four directions, when oral history is recounted. Teaching lodges are common today to teach the next generations about the language and ancient ways of the past. The traditional ways, ideas, and teachings are preserved and practiced in such living ceremonies. The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
crafted the dreamcatcher. They believe that if one is hung above the head of a sleeper, it will catch and trap bad dreams, preventing them from reaching the dreamer. Traditional Ojibwe
Ojibwe
use dreamcatchers only for children, as they believe that adults should be able to interpret their dreams, good or bad, and use them in their lives. Ethnobotany[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2013)

Plants used by the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
include Agrimonia gryposepala, used for urinary problems,[16] and pinus strobus, the resin of which was used to treat infections and gangrene. The roots of Symphyotrichum novae-angliae are smoked in pipes to attract game.[17] Allium tricoccum is eaten as part of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
cuisine.[18] They also use a decoction as a quick-acting emetic.[19] An infusion of the alba subspecies of Silene latifolia
Silene latifolia
is used as physic.[20] The South Ojibwa use a decoction of the root Viola canadensis
Viola canadensis
for pains near the bladder.[21] The Ojibwa
Ojibwa
are documented to use the root of Uvularia grandiflora for pain in the solar plexus, which may refer to pleurisy.[22] They take a compound decoction of the root of Ribes glandulosum for back pain and for "female weakness."[23] The Ojibwe eat the corms of Sagittaria cuneata
Sagittaria cuneata
for indigestion, and also as a food, eaten boiled fresh, dried or candied with maple sugar. Muskrat and beavers store them in large caches, which they have learned to recognize and appropriate.[24] They take an infusion of the Antennaria howellii ssp. neodioica after childbirth to purge afterbirth and to heal.[25] They use the roots of Solidago rigida, using a decoction of root as an enema[26] and take an infusion of the root for "stoppage of urine.[27] Representation in popular culture[edit] Literature[edit]

In his story, "Fathers and Sons", Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
uses two Ojibwe
Ojibwe
as secondary characters.[citation needed] The legend of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Wendigo, in which tribesmen identify with a cannibalistic monster and prey on their families, has many levels of meaning. It points to the consequences of greed and the destruction it can cause. European-American authors Algernon Blackwood, Thomas Pynchon, Ramsey Campbell
Ramsey Campbell
and Stephen King
Stephen King
have referred to this story in their fiction. It has been co-opted into the Cthulhu Mythos
Cthulhu Mythos
by August Derleth
August Derleth
and subsequently by a number of other authors. Novelist Louise Erdrich
Louise Erdrich
(Ojibwe) has written about her people and culture in numerous novels based in fictional settlements, including Tracks, Love Medicine, The Bingo Palace
The Bingo Palace
and The Round House, among others. Her novels cover a range of history and individuals, returning to her fictional families over time, and the complex relations between the Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
and Europeans. Keewaydinoquay Peschel, a medicine woman, has written books on ethnobotany and books for children. Gerald Vizenor
Gerald Vizenor
(Ojibwe), a literary theorist and writer, has drawn extensively on Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
philosophies of language. William Kent Krueger
William Kent Krueger
has written a series of crime novels chronicling the adventures of a character named Corcoran "Cork" O'Connor, an Ojibwe
Ojibwe
with partial European ancestry who works as the sheriff of Aurora, Minnesota. The novels express how Cork uses both his Ojibwe and Irish-American heritage to solve local crimes.[28] Ojibwe spirituality is an important element of the subtext of many of the storylines.[28] In Elmore Leonard's Killshot, hit man Armand "Blackbird" Degas is Ojibway and French Canadian (also known as Metis, as many of these mixed-race people banded together and formed their own culture).

Music[edit]

Composer Ferde Grofe
Ferde Grofe
composed a movement, "Father of the Waters", of his Mississippi Suite, which represents the Chippewa Indians
Chippewa Indians
and the headwaters of the Mississippi.

Film[edit]

Chauncey Yellow Robe
Chauncey Yellow Robe
collaborated with the American Museum of Natural History to produce The Silent Enemy, the first movie and documentary with an all-Indian cast. The production was an attempt to capture on film the authentic life style of pre-Columbian Indians, and portrayed the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
in Canada
Canada
as they faced the silent enemy of hunger.

Television[edit]

This section contains a list of miscellaneous information. Please relocate any relevant information into other sections or articles. (March 2018)

Obediah 'Johnny' Yesno, was an Ojibwe
Ojibwe
actor from the isolated Ojibwe- Cree
Cree
community of Fort Hope on the Albany River in Ontario. He played a Cree
Cree
from North Ontario
Ontario
coming to Toronto for work, in the first episode of the first series of Wojeck, the Canadian TV drama, in 1966.[29] In episodes of the HBO series The Sopranos
The Sopranos
(e.g., "Mayham" and "The Fleshy Part of the Thigh"), Tony Soprano
Tony Soprano
recovers from a gunshot wound. He reflects on an Ojibwe
Ojibwe
saying left by his bed: "Sometimes I go about in pity for myself, and all the while, a great wind carries me across the sky".[30]

Bands[edit]

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In his History of the Ojibway People (1855), William W. Warren recorded 10 major divisions of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
in the United States. He mistakenly omitted the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
located in Michigan, western Minnesota and westward, and all of Canada. When identified major historical bands located in Michigan
Michigan
and Ontario
Ontario
are added, the count becomes 15:[citation needed]

English Name Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Name (in double-vowel spelling) Location

Saulteaux Baawitigowininiwag Sault Ste. Marie area of Ontario
Ontario
and Michigan

Border-Sitters Biitan-akiing-enabijig St. Croix-Namekagon River valleys in eastern Minnesota
Minnesota
and northern Wisconsin

Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Band Gichi-gamiwininiwag south shore of Lake Superior

Mississippi River
Mississippi River
Band Gichi-ziibiwininiwag upper Mississippi River
Mississippi River
in Minnesota

Rainy Lake
Rainy Lake
Band Goojijiwininiwag Rainy Lake
Rainy Lake
and River, about the northern boundary of Minnesota

Ricing-Rails Manoominikeshiinyag along headwaters of St. Croix River in Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and Minnesota

Pillagers Makandwewininiwag North-central Minnesota
Minnesota
and Mississippi River
Mississippi River
headwaters

Mississaugas Misi-zaagiwininiwag north of Lake Erie, extending north of Lake Huron
Lake Huron
about the Mississaugi River

Dokis Band (Dokis's and Restoule's bands) N/A Along French River (Wemitigoj-Sibi) region (including Little French River (Ziibiins) and Restoule River) in Ontario, near Lake Nipissing

Ottawa
Ottawa
Lake (Lac Courte Oreilles) Band Odaawaa-zaaga'iganiwininiwag Lac Courte Oreilles, Wisconsin

Bois Forte Band Zagaakwaandagowininiwag north of Lake Superior

Lac du Flambeau Band Waaswaaganiwininiwag head of Wisconsin
Wisconsin
River

Muskrat Portage Band Wazhashk-Onigamininiwag northwest side of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
at the Canada–US border

Nopeming Band Noopiming Azhe-ininiwag northeast of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
and west of Lake Nipissing

These 15 major divisions developed into the following Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Bands and First Nations
First Nations
of today. Bands are listed under their respective tribes where possible.[citation needed] See also the listing of Saulteaux communities.

Aamjiwnaang First Nation Aroland First Nation Batchewana First Nation of Ojibways Bay Mills Indian Community Biinjitiwabik Zaaging Anishnabek First Nation Burt Lake Band of Chippewa and Ottawa
Ottawa
Indians Chapleau Ojibway First Nation Chippewas of Kettle and Stony Point Chippewas of Lake Simcoe and Huron (Historical)

Beausoleil First Nation Chippewas of Georgina Island First Nation Chippewas of Rama First Nation
Chippewas of Rama First Nation
(formerly known as Chippewas of Mnjikaning First Nation)

Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation Chippewa of the Thames First Nation Chippewas of Saugeen Ojibway Territory (Historical)

Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation Saugeen First Nation

Chippewa Cree
Cree
Tribe of Rocky Boys Indian Reservation Curve Lake First Nation Cutler First Nation Dokis First Nation Eabametoong First Nation First Nation of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
California Grand Traverse Band
Grand Traverse Band
of Ottawa
Ottawa
and Chippewa Indians Garden River First Nation Henvey Inlet First Nation Grassy Narrows First Nation (Asabiinyashkosiwagong Nitam-Anishinaabeg) Islands in the Trent Waters Keeseekoowenin Ojibway First Nation Koocheching First Nation Lac des Mille Lacs First Nation Lac La Croix First Nation Lac Seul First Nation Lake Nipigon Ojibway First Nation Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Chippewa Tribe

Bad River Chippewa Band Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Chippewa Keweenaw Bay Indian Community

L'Anse Band of Chippewa Indians Ontonagon Band of Chippewa Indians

Lac Courte Oreilles
Lac Courte Oreilles
Band of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Chippewa Indians

Bois Brule River Band of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Chippewa Chippewa River Band of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Chippewa Lac Courte Oreilles
Lac Courte Oreilles
Band of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Chippewa Indians Removable St. Croix Chippewa Indians
Chippewa Indians
of Wisconsin

Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Chippewa Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Chippewa Sokaogon Chippewa Community St. Croix Chippewa Indians
Chippewa Indians
of Wisconsin

Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians
Chippewa Indians
of Montana Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians Mackinac Bands of Chippewa and Ottawa
Ottawa
Indians Magnetawan First Nation Minnesota
Minnesota
Chippewa Tribe

Bois Forte Band of Chippewa

Bois Forte Band of Chippewa Lake Vermilion Band of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Chippewa Little Forks Band of Rainy River Saulteaux

Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Chippewa Grand Portage Band of Chippewa Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe

Cass Lake Band of Chippewa Lake Winnibigoshish Band of Chippewa Leech Lake Band of Pillagers Removable Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Bands of Chippewa of the Chippewa Reservation White Oak Point Band of Mississippi Chippewa

Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe

Mille Lacs Indians Sandy Lake Band of Mississippi Chippewa Rice Lake Band of Mississippi Chippewa St. Croix Band of Chippewa Indians
Chippewa Indians
of Minnesota

Kettle River Band of Chippewa Indians Snake and Knife Rivers Band of Chippewa Indians

White Earth Band of Chippewa

Gull Lake Band of Mississippi Chippewa Otter Tail Band of Pillagers Rabbit Lake Band of Mississippi Chippewa Removable Mille Lacs Indians Removable Sandy Lake Band of Mississippi Chippewa Rice Lake Band of Mississippi Chippewa

Mississaugi First Nation North Caribou Lake First Nation Ojibway Nation of Saugeen First Nation Ojibways of the Pic River First Nation Osnaburg House Band of Ojibway (Historical)

Cat Lake First Nation Mishkeegogamang First Nation
Mishkeegogamang First Nation
(formerly known as New Osnaburgh First Nation) Slate Falls First Nation

Pembina Band of Chippewa Indians
Chippewa Indians
(Historical) Pikangikum First Nation Poplar Hill First Nation Red Lake Band of Chippewa
Red Lake Band of Chippewa
Indians

Lac des Bois Band of Chippewa Indians

Sagamok Anishnawbek First Nation Saginaw Chippewa Tribal Council Sault Tribe of Chippewa Indians Saulteaux
Saulteaux
First Nation Shawanaga First Nation Southeast Tribal Council

Berens River First Nation Bloodvein First Nation Brokenhead First Nation Buffalo Point First Nation (Saulteaux) Hollow Water First Nation Black River First Nation Little Grand Rapids First Nation Pauingassi First Nation (Saulteaux) Poplar River First Nation

Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians Wabaseemoong Independent Nation Wabauskang First Nation Wabun Tribal Council

Beaverhouse First Nation Brunswick House First Nation Chapleau Ojibwe
Ojibwe
First Nation Matachewan First Nation Mattagami First Nation Wahgoshig First Nation

Wabigoon Lake Ojibway Nation Wahnapitae First Nation Walpole Island First Nation Washagamis Bay First Nation Whitefish Bay First Nation Whitefish Lake First Nation Whitefish River First Nation Whitesand First Nation Whitewater Lake First Nation Wikwemikong Unceded First Nation

Notable Ojibwe
Ojibwe
people[edit]

Ah-shah-way-gee-she-go-qua (Aazhawigiizhigokwe, Hanging Cloud), woman warrior David Wayne "Famous Dave" Anderson, entrepreneur Kathleen Annette, physician, health administrator Arron Asham, ice hockey player for the Pittsburgh Penguins Francis Assikinack, historian Dennis Banks, activist James Bartleman, diplomat and author Adam Beach, actor and writer Carl Beam, artist Clyde Bellecourt (White Earth Ojibwe), social activist Vernon Bellecourt
Vernon Bellecourt
(White Earth Ojibwe), social activist Chief Bender, baseball player Stephen Bonga, Ojibwe/African-American fur trader and interpreter[31] George Bonga, Ojibwe/African-American fur trader and interpreter Odell Borg, flutist and flute maker Benjamin Chee Chee, artist Henry Boucha, ice hockey player, United States
United States
Hockey Hall of Fame Al Hunter, poet George Copway, missionary and writer Eddy Cobiness, artist Kelly Church (Grand Traverse Band), basket weaver, painter, and birch bark biter Raven Davis, artist Jim Denomie, artist Patrick DesJarlait, painter and graphic artist Frank Dufina
Frank Dufina
(Mackinac Bands of Chippewa and Ottawa
Ottawa
Indians), early American professional golfer Louise Erdrich
Louise Erdrich
(Turtle Mountain Chippewa), author Meegwun Fairbrother, actor and traditional singer and dancer[32] Trixie Mattel
Trixie Mattel
(Brian Michael Firkus), drag queen and folk musician[33] Phil Fontaine, politician William Gardner, one of the Untouchables Cara Gee, actor Philip B. Gordon, priest and activist Kraig Grady, composer, puppeteer Gordon Henry Jr., writer Virgil Hill, boxer Basil Johnston, historian and cultural essayist Peter Jones, missionary and writer Ke-che-waish-ke (Gichi-Weshkiinh, Buffalo), chief Keewaydinoquay Peschel, teacher, ethnobotanist Maude Kegg, author, cultural ambassador Wayne Keon, poet, author Winona LaDuke, activist and writer Carole LaFavor, writer Chief Little Bear, chief Joe Lumsden (Sault Tribe of Chippewa Indians), tribal chairman Loma Lyns, singer and songwriter Cody McCormick, ice hockey player for the Buffalo Sabres Medweganoonind, chief Rod Michano, AIDS activist and educator George Morrison, artist Norval Morrisseau, artist and founder of the Woodlands style of painting Ted Nolan, ice hockey player and coach, Jack Adams Award
Jack Adams Award
winner Jordan Nolan, professional ice hockey player for the Los Angeles Kings Jim Northrup, columnist T. J. Oshie, National Hockey League
National Hockey League
player and member of the 2014 USA Olympic Men's Hockey team[34] O-zaw-wen-dib (Ozaawindib, Yellow Head), woman warrior, guide Francis Pegahmagabow, soldier Leonard Peltier, political activist, prisoner, author, artist Mel Pervais, entrepreneur Thomas David Petite, inventor, entrepreneur, First Nations
First Nations
rights activist Pun Plamondon, activist Tommy Prince, soldier Chief Rocky Boy, chief Buffy Sainte-Marie, singer, songwriter Thomas St. Germaine, football player Gary Sargent, ice hockey player Jane Johnston Schoolcraft, author, wife of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft Eric Schweig, actor Keith Secola, rock and blues singer Chris Simon, ice hockey player, Stanley Cup winner w/ 1996 Colorado Avalanche John Smith, Gaa-binagwiiyaas, chief, reported to have lived 137 years Albert Smoke, long-distance runner Drew Hayden Taylor, playwright, author and journalist Roy Thomas, artist David Treuer, author E. Donald Two-Rivers, poet and playwright Alfred Michael "Chief" Venne, athletic manager and coach Gerald Vizenor, author and educator Wawatam, chief Waabaanakwad (White Cloud), chief Richard Wagamese, author, journalist William Whipple Warren, first historian of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
people, territorial legislator Crystal Shawanda, country music singer Justice Murray Sinclair, head of the Residential School System
Residential School System
Truth and Reconciliation Committee Zheewegonab, band leader among the northern Ojibwe

Ojibwe
Ojibwe
treaties[edit]

Chippewa Ottawa
Ottawa
Resource Authority—1836CT fisheries Grand Council of Treaty
Treaty
3— Treaty
Treaty
3 Grand Council of Treaty
Treaty
8— Treaty
Treaty
8 Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission—1837CT, 1836CT, 1842CT and 1854CT Nishnawbe Aski Nation— Treaty
Treaty
5 and Treaty
Treaty
9 Red Lake Band of Chippewa—1886CT and 1889CT Union of Ontario
Ontario
Indians—RS, RH1, RH2, misc. pre-confederation treaties

Treaties with France

La Grande Paix de Montréal (1701)

Treaties with Great Britain and the United Kingdom

Treaty
Treaty
of Fort Niagara (1764) Treaty
Treaty
of Fort Niagara (1781) Indian Officers' Land Treaty
Treaty
(1783) The Crawford Purchases (1783) Between the Lakes Purchase (1784) Treaty
Treaty
of Peace with Sioux, Chippewa and Winnebago (1787) Toronto Purchase
Toronto Purchase
(1787)

Indenture to the Toronto Purchase
Toronto Purchase
(1805)

The McKee Purchase (1790) Between the Lakes Purchase (1792) Chenail Ecarte (Sombra Township) Purchase (1796) London Township Purchase (1796) Land for Joseph Brant (1797) Penetanguishene Bay Purchase (1798) St. Joseph Island (1798) Head-of-the-Lake Purchase (1806) Lake Simcoe- Lake Huron
Lake Huron
Purchase (1815) Lake Simcoe-Nottawasaga Purchase (1818) Ajetance Purchase (1818) Rice Lake Purchase (1818) The Rideau Purchase (1819) Long Woods Purchase (1822) Huron Tract
Huron Tract
Purchase (1827) Saugeen Tract Agreement (1836) Manitoulin Agreement (1836) The Robinson Treaties

Ojibewa Indians of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
(1850) Ojibewa Indians of Lake Huron
Lake Huron
(1850)

Manitoulin Island
Manitoulin Island
Treaty
Treaty
(1862)

Treaties with Canada

Treaty
Treaty
No. 1 (1871)—Stone Fort Treaty Treaty
Treaty
No. 2 (1871) Treaty
Treaty
No. 3 (1873)— Northwest Angle
Northwest Angle
Treaty Treaty
Treaty
No. 4 (1874)—Qu'Appelle Treaty Treaty
Treaty
No. 5 (1875) Treaty
Treaty
No. 6 (1876) Treaty
Treaty
No. 8 (1899) Treaty
Treaty
No. 9 (1905–1906)— James Bay
James Bay
Treaty Treaty
Treaty
No. 5, Adhesions (1908–1910) The Williams Treaties (1923)

The Chippewa Indians The Mississauga Indians

Treaty
Treaty
No. 9, Adhesions (1929–1930)

Treaties with the United States

Treaty
Treaty
of Fort McIntosh (1785) Treaty
Treaty
of Fort Harmar (1789) Treaty
Treaty
of Greenville (1795) Fort Industry (1805) Treaty
Treaty
of Detroit
Detroit
(1807) Treaty
Treaty
of Brownstown (1808) Treaty
Treaty
of Springwells (1815) Treaty
Treaty
of St. Louis (1816)—Ottawa, Ojibwe, and Potawatomi Treaty
Treaty
of Miami Rapids (1817) Treaty
Treaty
of St. Mary's (1818) Treaty
Treaty
of Saginaw (1819) Treaty
Treaty
of Saúlt Ste. Marie (1820) Treaty
Treaty
of L'Arbre Croche and Michilimackinac (1820) Treaty
Treaty
of Chicago (1821) First Treaty
Treaty
of Prairie du Chien (1825) Treaty
Treaty
of Fond du Lac (1826) Treaty
Treaty
of Butte des Morts (1827) Treaty
Treaty
of Green Bay (1828) Second Treaty
Treaty
of Prairie du Chien (1829) Treaty
Treaty
of Chicago (1833) Treaty
Treaty
of Washington (1836)— Ottawa
Ottawa
& Chippewa Treaty
Treaty
of Washington (1836)—Swan Creek & Black River Bands Treaty
Treaty
of Detroit
Detroit
(1837) Treaty
Treaty
of St. Peters (1837)—White Pine Treaty Treaty
Treaty
of Flint River (1837) Saganaw Treaties

Treaty
Treaty
of Saganaw (1838) Supplemental Treaty
Treaty
(1839)

Treaty
Treaty
of La Pointe (1842)— Copper
Copper
Treaty

Isle Royale Agreement
Isle Royale Agreement
(1844)

Treaty
Treaty
of Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Creek (1846) Treaty
Treaty
of Fond du Lac (1847) Treaty
Treaty
of Leech Lake (1847) Treaty
Treaty
of La Pointe (1854) Treaty
Treaty
of Washington (1855) Treaty
Treaty
of Detroit
Detroit
(1855)— Ottawa
Ottawa
& Chippewa Treaty
Treaty
of Detroit
Detroit
(1855)—Sault Ste. Marie Band Treaty
Treaty
of Detroit
Detroit
(1855)—Swan Creek & Black River Bands Treaty
Treaty
of Sac and Fox Agency (1859) Treaty
Treaty
of Washington (1863) Treaty
Treaty
of Old Crossing (1863) Treaty
Treaty
of Old Crossing (1864) Treaty
Treaty
of Washington (1864) Treaty
Treaty
of Isabella Reservation (1864) Treaty
Treaty
of Washington (1866) Treaty
Treaty
of Washington (1867)

Gallery[edit]

A-na-cam-e-gish-ca (Aanakamigishkaang/"[Traces of] Foot Prints [upon the Ground]"), Ojibwe
Ojibwe
chief, from History of the Indian Tribes of North America

Bust of Aysh-ke-bah-ke-ko-zhay
Aysh-ke-bah-ke-ko-zhay
(Eshkibagikoonzhe or "Flat Mouth"), a Leech Lake Ojibwe
Ojibwe
chief

Chief Beautifying Bird
Beautifying Bird
(Nenaa'angebi), by Benjamin Armstrong, 1891

Bust of Beshekee, war chief, modeled 1855, carved 1856

Caa-tou-see, an Ojibwe, from History of the Indian Tribes of North America

Hanging Cloud, a female Ojibwe
Ojibwe
warrior

Jack-O-Pa
Jack-O-Pa
(Shák'pí/"Six"), an Ojibwe/Dakota chief, from History of the Indian Tribes of North America

Kay be sen day way We Win, by Eastman Johnson, 1857

Kei-a-gis-gis, a Plains Ojibwe
Ojibwe
woman, painted by George Catlin

Leech Lake Ojibwe
Ojibwe
delegation to Washington, 1899

Chippewa baby teething on "Indians at Work" magazine while strapped to a cradleboard at a rice lake in 1940.

Ne-bah-quah-om, Ojibwe
Ojibwe
chief

"One Called From A Distance" (Midwewinind) of the White Earth Band, 1894.

Shaun Hedican, Eabametoong First Nation

Pee-Che-Kir, Ojibwe
Ojibwe
chief, painted by Thomas Loraine McKenney, 1843

Ojibwe
Ojibwe
chief Rocky Boy

Ojibwe
Ojibwe
woman and child, from History of the Indian Tribes of North America

Tshusick, an Ojibwe
Ojibwe
woman, from History of the Indian Tribes of North America

Chief medicine man Axel Pasey and family at Grand Portage Minnesota.

Historic 1849 petition of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
chiefs

Wells American Indian picture writing

See also[edit]

Indigenous peoples of North America
North America
portal

Amikwa people History of Native Americans in the United States Native Americans in the United States

References[edit]

Notes

^ a b "CDC - American - Indian - Alaska - Native - Populations - Racial - Ethnic - Minorities - Minority Health". 2 December 2012. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Anishinabe". eMuseum @ Minnesota
Minnesota
State University. Minnesota
Minnesota
State University. Mankato. Archived from the original on 2010-04-09. Retrieved 2010-03-16.  ^ "Microsoft Word - dictionary best for printing 2004 ever finalpdf.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-01-02.  ^ Warren, William W. (1885; reprint: 1984) History of the Ojibway People. ISBN 0-87351-162-X ^ Louise Erdrich, Books and Islands in Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Country (2003) Archived September 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Johnston, Basil. (2007) Anishinaubae Thesaurus ISBN 0-87013-753-0 ^ Three Fires Unity: The Anishnaabeg of the Lake Huron
Lake Huron
Borderlands. Phil Bellfy. 2011. University of Nebraska. ^ " First Nations
First Nations
Culture Areas Index". the Canadian Museum of Civilization.  ^ Roy, Loriene. "Ojibwa". Countries and Their Cultures. Retrieved 9 August 2016.  ^ Anthony, David. The Horse, the Wheel and Language, Princeton University Press, 2007, p. 102 ^ "The Atlas of Canada: Historical Indian Treaties". Retrieved March 1, 2018.  ^ Gevinson, Alan. "Which Native American Tribes Allied Themselves with the French?". www.teachinghistory.org. Retrieved 23 September 2011.  ^ James A. Clifton, " Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Death March: Explaining the Extremes in Old Northwest Indian Removal", in Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, 1987, 5:1-40, accessed 2 March 2010 ^ " Treaty
Treaty
Between the Ottawa, Chippewa, Wyandot, and Potawatomi Indians". World Digital Library. 1807-11-17. Retrieved 2013-08-03.  ^ " Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Culture", Milwaukee Public Museum, accessed 10 December 2011 ^ Daniel E. Moerman (2009). Native American Medicinal Plants: An Ethnobotanical Dictionary. Timber Press. pp. 52–53. ISBN 0-88192-987-5.  ^ Densmore, Frances 1928 Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians. SI-BAE Annual Report #44:273-379 (p. 376) ^ Smith, Huron H. 1933 Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany
of the Forest Potawatomi
Potawatomi
Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 7:1-230 (p. 104) ^ Densmore, Frances 1928 Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians. SI-BAE Annual Report #44:273-379 (p. 346) ^ Smith, Huron H. 1932 Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany
of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of Milwaukee 4:327-525 (p. 361) ^ Hoffman, W.J., 1891, The Midewiwin
Midewiwin
or 'Grand Medicine Society' of the Ojibwa, SI-BAE Annual Report #7, page 201 ^ Smith, Huron H., 1932, Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany
of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Indians, Bulletin of the Public Museum of Milwaukee 4:327-525, page 374 ^ Densmore, Frances 1928 Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians. SI-BAE Annual Report #44:273-379 (p. 356) ^ Smith, Huron H., 1932, Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany
of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Indians, Bulletin of the Public Museum of Milwaukee 4:327-525, page 396 ^ Smith, Huron H., 1932, Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany
of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Indians, Bulletin of the Public Museum of Milwaukee 4:327-525, page 363 ^ Densmore, Frances, 1928, Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians, SI-BAE Annual Report #44:273-379, page 364 (Note: This source comes from the Native American ethnobotany database (http://naeb.brit.org/) which lists the plant as Oligoneuron rigidum var. rigidum. Accessed 19 January 2018 ^ Densmore, Frances, 1928, Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians, SI-BAE Annual Report #44:273-379, page 348 (Note: This source comes from the Native American ethnobotany database (http://naeb.brit.org/) which lists the plant as Oligoneuron rigidum var. rigidum. Accessed 19 January 2018 ^ a b "Cork O'Connor", Thrilling Detective ^ "Obediah "Johnny" Yesno [footprints] - Windspeaker - AMMSA". www.ammsa.com.  ^ http://nymag.com/news/features/33517/index2.html ^ "Portrait of Stephen Bonga", Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Historical Images, accessed 23 January 2014 ^ "Meegwun Fairbrother - ATLAS Stage Productions Canada". atlasstage.com.  ^ Zach Brooke (September 8, 2015). "Q&A: Trixie Mattel". Milwaukee Magazine.  ^ Oshie-Blogs. " Minnesota
Minnesota
H.S. Section 8A Boys' Hockey Site: Keeway Gaaboo .... A Symbol Of Pride For Fighting Sioux". section8ahockeyblog.blogspot.com. 

Bibliography

F. Densmore, Chippewa Customs (1929, repr. 1970) H. Hickerson, The Chippewa and Their Neighbors (1970) R. Landes, Ojibwa
Ojibwa
Sociology (1937, repr. 1969) R. Landes, Ojibwa
Ojibwa
Woman (1938, repr. 1971) F. Symington, The Canadian Indian (1969)

Further reading[edit]

Aaniin Ekidong: Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Vocabulary Project. St. Paul: Minnesota Humanities Center, 2009 Bento-Banai, Edward (2004). Creation- From the Ojibwa. The Mishomis Book. Child, Brenda J. (2014). My Grandfather's Knocking Sticks: Ojibwe Family Life and Labor on the Reservation. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press. Danziger, E.J., Jr. (1978). The Chippewa of Lake Superior. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Denial, Catherine J. (2013). Making Marriage: Husbands, Wives, and the American State in Dakota and Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Country. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press. Densmore, F. (1979). Chippewa customs. St. Paul: Minnesota
Minnesota
Historical Society Press. (Published originally 1929) Grim, J.A. (1983). The shaman: Patterns of religious healing among the Ojibway Indians. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Gross, L.W. (2002). The comic vision of Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
culture and religion. American Indian Quarterly, 26, 436-459. Howse, Joseph. A Grammar of the Cree
Cree
Language; With which is combined an analysis of the Chippeway dialect. London: J.G.F. & J. Rivington, 1844. Johnston, B. (1976). Ojibway heritage. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart. Long, J. Voyages and Travels of an Indian Interpreter and Trader Describing the Manners and Customs of the North American Indians, with an Account of the Posts Situated on the River Saint Laurence, Lake Ontario, & C., to Which Is Added a Vocabulary of the Chippeway Language ... a List of Words in the Iroquois, Mehegan, Shawanee, and Esquimeaux Tongues, and a Table, Shewing the Analogy between the Algonkin and the Chippeway Languages. London: Robson, 1791. Nichols, J.D., & Nyholm, E. (1995). A concise dictionary of Minnesota
Minnesota
Ojibwe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Minnesota
Press. Treuer, Anton. Everything You Wanted to Know About Indians But Were Afraid to Ask. St. Paul: Minnesota
Minnesota
Historical Society Press, 2012. Treuer, Anton. The Assassination of Hole in the Day. St. Paul: Minnesota
Minnesota
Historical Society Press, 2011. Treuer, Anton. Ojibwe
Ojibwe
in Minnesota. St. Paul: Minnesota
Minnesota
Historical Society, 2010. Ojibwe
Ojibwe
in Minnesota. St. Paul: Minnesota
Minnesota
Historical Society Press, 2010. Treuer, Anton. Living Our Language: Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Tales & Oral Histories. St. Paul: Minnesota
Minnesota
Historical Society Press, 2001. Vizenor, G. (1972). The everlasting sky: New voices from the people named the Chippewa. New York: Crowell-Collier Press. Vizenor, G. (1981). Summer in the spring: Ojibwe
Ojibwe
lyric poems and tribal stories. Minneapolis: The Nodin Press. Vizenor, G. (1984). The people named the Chippewa: Narrative histories. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Minnesota
Press. Warren, William W. (1851). History of the Ojibway People. White, Richard (1991). The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Region, 1650-1815 (Studies in North American Indian History) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. White, Richard (July 31, 2000). Chippewas of the Sault. The Sault Tribe News. Wub-e-ke-niew. (1995). We have the right to exist: A translation of aboriginal indigenous thought. New York: Black Thistle Press.

External links[edit]

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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ojibwe.

Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission Chief Buffalo and Benjamin Armstrong Ojibwe
Ojibwe
culture and history, a lengthy and detailed discussion Kevin L. Callahan's An Introduction to Ojibway Culture and History Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Song Pictures, recorded by Frances Desmore Ojibwe
Ojibwe
People's Dictionary Ojibwa
Ojibwa
migration through Manitoba Wiigwaasi-Jiimaan: These Canoes Carry Culture—Short documentary featuring the building of an Anishinaabe- Ojibwe
Ojibwe
birchbark canoe in Wisconsin. Nindoodemag: The Significance of Algonquian Kinship Networks in the Eastern Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Region, 1600–1701 Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Waasa-Inaabidaa—PBS documentary featuring the history and culture of the Anishinaabe- Ojibwe
Ojibwe
people of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
(United States-focused).

Ojibwe
Ojibwe
migratory map from Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Waasa-Inaabidaa

Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Chippewa 1836 Chippewa- Ottawa
Ottawa
Resource Authority Grand Council of Treaty
Treaty
#3 Batchewana First Nation of Ojibways Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Chippewa Mississaugi First Nation Southeast Tribal Council Wabun Tribal Council Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Stories: Gaganoonididaa from the Public Radio Exchange

Authority control

GND: 4043411-4

v t e

Anishinaabe

Culture

Anishinabek Educational Institute birch bark biting birch bark scrolls clan system Dreamcatcher Drumkeeper Jingle dress Manitou Medicine wheel Grand Medicine Society Nanabozho Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language Ottawa
Ottawa
dialect Pow wow Quillwork Ribbon work traditional beliefs Wampum

Political organizations

Assembly of Manitoba
Manitoba
Chiefs Chiefs of Ontario Council of Three Fires Grand Council of Treaty
Treaty
3 Grand Council of Treaty
Treaty
8 Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Inter-tribal Council Inter-tribal Council of Michigan Minnesota
Minnesota
Indian Affairs Council Nishnawbe Aski Nation

Independent First Nations
First Nations
Alliance Keewaytinook Okimakanak Council Matawa First Nations Mishkeegogamang First Nation Mocreebec Council of the Cree
Cree
Nation Mushkegowuk Council Sandy Lake First Nation Shibogama First Nations
First Nations
Council Wabun Tribal Council Weenusk First Nation Windigo First Nations
First Nations
Council

Union

.