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Nanjing
Nanjing
( listen), formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin,[3] is the capital of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China
China
region,[b] with an administrative area of 6,600 km2 (2,500 sq mi) and a total population of 8,270,500 as of 2016[update].[4] The inner area of Nanjing
Nanjing
enclosed by the city wall is Nanjing
Nanjing
City (南京城), with an area of 55 km2 (21 sq mi), while the Nanjing Metropolitan Region includes surrounding cities and areas, covering over 60,000 km2 (23,000 sq mi), with a population of over 30 million. Situated in the Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
region, Nanjing
Nanjing
has a prominent place in Chinese history
Chinese history
and culture, having served as the capital of various Chinese dynasties, kingdoms and republican governments dating from the 3rd century to 1949,[5] and has thus long been a major center of culture, education, research, politics, economy, transport networks and tourism, being the home to one of the world's largest inland ports. The city is also one of the fifteen sub-provincial cities in the People's Republic of China's administrative structure,[6] enjoying jurisdictional and economic autonomy only slightly less than that of a province.[7] Nanjing
Nanjing
has been ranked seventh in the evaluation of "Cities with Strongest Comprehensive Strength" issued by the National Statistics Bureau, and second in the evaluation of cities with most sustainable development potential in the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta. It has also been awarded the title of 2008 Habitat Scroll of Honor of China, Special
Special
UN Habitat Scroll of Honor Award and National Civilized City.[8] Nanjing
Nanjing
boasts many high-quality universities and research institutes, with the number of universities listed in 100 National Key Universities ranking third, including Nanjing University
Nanjing University
which has a long history and is among the world top 10 universities ranked by Nature Index.[9] The ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. Nanjing
Nanjing
is one of the top three Chinese scientific research centers, according to the Nature Index,[10] especially strong in the chemical sciences, and also strong in many other areas, for instance, it hosts the nation's best computer software laboratory and wireless communication laboratory in the IT field, as well as the state key laboratory for pharmaceutical biotechnology. Nanjing, one of the nation's most important cities for over a thousand years, is recognized as one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China. It has been one of the world's largest cities, enjoying peace and prosperity despite wars and disasters.[11][12][13][14] Nanjing served as the capital of Eastern Wu(229–280), one of the three major states in the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period ; the Eastern Jin and each of the Southern Dynasties (Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang and Chen), which successively ruled southern China
China
from 317–589; the Southern Tang(937–75), one of the Ten Kingdoms ; the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
when, for the first time, all of China
China
was ruled from the city (1368–1421);[15] and the Republic of China
China
(1927–37, 1946–49) prior to its flight to Taiwan
Taiwan
during the Chinese Civil War.[16] The city also served as the seat of the rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1853–64) and the Japanese puppet regime of Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
(1940–45) during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It suffered appalling atrocities in both conflicts, including the Nanjing
Nanjing
Massacre. Nanjing
Nanjing
has served as the capital city of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province since the establishment of the People's Republic of China. It boasts many important heritage sites, including the Presidential Palace and Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum. Nanjing
Nanjing
is famous for human historical landscapes, mountains and waters such as Fuzimiao, Ming Palace, Chaotian Palace, Porcelain Tower, Drum Tower, Stone City, City Wall, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake
Xuanwu Lake
and Purple Mountain. Key cultural facilities include Nanjing
Nanjing
Library, Nanjing Museum
Nanjing Museum
and Nanjing
Nanjing
Art Museum.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Imperial China 2.3 Modern China

3 Geography

3.1 Climate and environment 3.2 Cityscape 3.3 Environmental issues

3.3.1 Air pollution
Air pollution
in 2013

4 Government

4.1 Administrative divisions

5 Demographics 6 Economy

6.1 Earlier development 6.2 Modern times 6.3 Today

7 Transportation

7.1 Rail 7.2 Road 7.3 Public transportation 7.4 Air 7.5 Water 7.6 Yangtze River
Yangtze River
crossings

8 Culture and art

8.1 Art 8.2 Festivals 8.3 Libraries 8.4 Museums 8.5 Theater 8.6 Night life 8.7 Food and symbolism

9 Sports and stadiums 10 Tourism

10.1 Buildings and monuments

10.1.1 Imperial period 10.1.2 Republic of China
China
period 10.1.3 People's Republic of China
China
period

10.2 Parks and gardens 10.3 Other places of interest

11 Education

11.1 Universities and colleges 11.2 Notable high schools

12 Sister cities 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References

15.1 Citations 15.2 Sources

16 External links

Etymology[edit] The city has a number of other names, and some historical names are now used as names of districts of the city; among them there is the name Jiangning or Kiangning (江寧), whose former character Jiang (江, Yangtze) is the former part of the name Jiangsu
Jiangsu
and latter character Ning (寧, simplified form 宁, Peace) is the short name of Nanjing. When it was the capital of a state, for instance during the ROC, Jing (京, Capital) was adopted as the abbreviation of Nanjing. It first became a Chinese national capital as early as the Jin dynasty. The name Nanjing, which means "Southern Capital" (from the Chinese characters 南 for south and 京 for capital), was officially designated for the city during the Ming dynasty, about six hundred years later.[c] Nanjing
Nanjing
is particularly known as Jinling or Ginling (金陵, literally "Gold Hill") and the old name has been used since the Warring States period
Warring States period
in the Zhou Dynasty.[17] History[edit] See also: Timeline of Nanjing
Nanjing
history

Historical affiliations (since Southern Tang)

 Southern Tang, 937–975  Song dynasty, 975–1275  Yuan dynasty, 1275–1356   Zhu Yuanzhang
Zhu Yuanzhang
military government, 1356–1368  Ming dynasty, 1368–1645  Qing dynasty, 1645–1911(Taiping Rebellion, 1853–1864) Republic of China, 1912–1927  Republic of China(KMT), 1927–1937  Empire of Japan, 1937–1945  Republic of China(KMT), 1945–1949 People's Republic of China, 1949–present

Early history[edit] Archaeological discovery shows that " Nanjing
Nanjing
Man" lived in more than 500 thousand years ago. Zun, a kind of wine vessel, was found to exist in Beiyinyangying culture of Nanjing
Nanjing
in about 5000 years ago.[18] In the late period of Shang dynasty, Taibo of Zhou came to Jiangnan
Jiangnan
and established Wu state, and the first stop is in Nanjing
Nanjing
area according to some historians based on discoveries in Taowu and Hushu culture.[19] According to a legend quoted by an artist in Ming dynasty, Chen Yi, Fuchai, King of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng in today's Nanjing
Nanjing
area in 495 BC.[20] Later in 473 BC, the State of Yue
State of Yue
conquered Wu and constructed the fort of Yuecheng (越城) on the outskirts of the present-day Zhonghua Gate. In 333 BC, after eliminating the State of Yue, the State of Chu built Jinling Yi (金陵邑) in the western part of present-day Nanjing.[21] It was renamed Moling (秣陵) during reign of Qin Shi Huang. Since then, the city experienced destruction and renewal many times.[citation needed] The area was successively part of Kuaiji, Zhang and Danyang prefectures in Qin and Han dynasty, and part of Yangzhou
Yangzhou
region which was established as the nation's 13 supervisory and administrative regions in the 5th year of Yuanfeng in Han dynasty (106 BC). Nanjing
Nanjing
was later the capital city of Danyang Prefecture, and had been the capital city of Yangzhou
Yangzhou
for about 400 years from late Han to early Tang. Imperial China[edit]

A bixie sculpture at Xiao Xiu's tomb (AD 518). Stone sculpture of the southern dynasties is widely considered as the city's icon.[22]

Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
map of Nanjing.

Nanjing
Nanjing
first became a state capital in AD 229, when the state of Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
founded by Sun Quan
Sun Quan
during the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period relocated its capital to Jianye (建業), the city extended on the basis of Jinling Yi in AD 211.[15] Although conquered by the Western Jin dynasty in 280, Nanjing
Nanjing
and its neighboring areas had been well cultivated and developed into one of the commercial, cultural and political centers of China
China
during the rule of East Wu.[14] This city would soon play a vital role in the following centuries. Shortly after the unification of the region, the Western Jin dynasty collapsed. First the rebellions by eight Jin princes for the throne and later rebellions and invasion from Xiongnu
Xiongnu
and other nomadic peoples that destroyed the rule of the Jin dynasty in the north. In 317, remnants of the Jin court, as well as nobles and wealthy families, fled from the north to the south and reestablished the Jin court in Nanjing, which was then called Jiankang
Jiankang
(建康), replacing Luoyang.[23] It's the first time that the capital of the nation moved to southern part. During the period of North–South division, Nanjing
Nanjing
remained the capital of the Southern dynasties
Southern dynasties
for more than two and a half centuries. During this time, Nanjing
Nanjing
was the international hub of East Asia.[24] Based on historical documents, the city had 280,000 registered households.[25] Assuming an average Nanjing
Nanjing
household consisted of about 5.1 people, the city had more than 1.4 million residents.[23] A number of sculptural ensembles of that era, erected at the tombs of royals and other dignitaries, have survived (in various degrees of preservation) in Nanjing's northeastern and eastern suburbs, primarily in Qixia and Jiangning District.[26] Possibly the best preserved of them is the ensemble of the Tomb of Xiao Xiu
Xiao Xiu
(475–518), a brother of Emperor Wu of Liang.[27][28] The period of division ended when the Sui Dynasty reunified China
China
and almost destroyed the entire city, turning it into a small town.

Map of Yingtian Fu under the Ming

The Śarīra
Śarīra
pagoda in Qixia Temple. It was built in AD 601 and rebuilt in the 10th century.

The city of Nanjing
Nanjing
was razed after the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
took over it.[29] It was renamed Shengzhou (昇州) in Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
and resuscitated during the late Tang.[30] It was chosen as the capital and called Jinling (金陵) during the Southern Tang
Southern Tang
(937–976), a state that succeeded Wu state.[31] It renamed Jiangning (江寧) in Northern Song dynasty and renamed Jiankang
Jiankang
in Southern Song dynasty. Jiankang's textile industry burgeoned and thrived during the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
despite the constant threat of foreign invasions from the north by the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty. The court of Da Chu, a short-lived puppet state established by the Jurchens, and the court of Song were once in the city.[32][33][34] Song was eventually exterminated by the Mongol empire under the name Yuan and in the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
the city's status as a hub of the textile industry was further consolidated.[35]

Zhonghua Gate
Zhonghua Gate
is the south gate of the walled city of Nanjing. The city wall was built in the 14th century and is the longest in the world.

The first emperor of the Ming dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang
Zhu Yuanzhang
(the Hongwu Emperor), who overthrew the Yuan dynasty, renamed the city Yingtian, rebuilt it, and made it the dynastic capital in 1368. He constructed a 48 km (30 mi) long city wall around Yingtian, as well as a new Ming Palace
Ming Palace
complex, and government halls.[36] It took 200,000 laborers 21 years to finish the project. The present-day City Wall of Nanjing
Nanjing
was mainly built during that time and today it remains in good condition and has been well preserved.[37] It is among the longest surviving city walls in China.[38] The Jianwen Emperor ruled from 1398 to 1402. It is believed that Nanjing
Nanjing
was the largest city in the world from 1358 to 1425 with a population of 487,000 in 1400.[39] In 1421, the Yongle Emperor persisted in relocating the capital to Beijing, however he had to withdraw his order before his death. Although Beijing
Beijing
was the de facto capital after that, Nanjing
Nanjing
remained the official one of the Ming Empire until 1441, when Emperor Yingzong ordered to not to prefix the words "行在" ("provisional") on the Beijing
Beijing
Government seals any longer, while Nanjing's need to prefix "Nanjing" for distinguishing purposes remained. Hence, Nanjing
Nanjing
still had itself imperial government with extremely limit power before 1644. Besides the city wall, other famous Ming-era structures in the city included the famous Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
and Porcelain Tower, although the latter was destroyed by the Taipings in the 19th century either in order to prevent a hostile faction from using it to observe and shell the city[40] or from superstitious fear of its geomantic properties.[41] A monument to the huge human cost of some of the gigantic construction projects of the early Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
is the Yangshan Quarry
Yangshan Quarry
(located some 15–20 km (9–12 mi) east of the walled city and Ming Xiaoling mausoleum), where a gigantic stele, cut on the orders of the Yongle Emperor, lies abandoned, just as it was left 600 years ago when it was understood it was impossible to move or complete it.[42]

Du Halde's 1736 map of "Nan-king", based on Jesuit accounts

As the center of the empire, early-Ming Nanjing
Nanjing
had worldwide connections. It was home of the admiral Zheng He, who went to sail the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and it was visited by foreign dignitaries, such as a king from Borneo (Boni 渤泥), who died during his visit to China
China
in 1408. The Tomb of the King of Boni, with a spirit way and a tortoise stele, was discovered in Yuhuatai District
Yuhuatai District
(south of the walled city) in 1958, and has been restored.[43] Over two centuries after the removal of the capital to Beijing, Nanjing
Nanjing
was destined to become the capital of a Ming emperor one more time. After the fall of Beijing
Beijing
to Li Zicheng's rebel forces and then to the Manchu-led Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in the spring of 1644, the Ming prince Zhu Yousong was enthroned in Nanjing
Nanjing
in June 1644 as the Hongguang Emperor.[44][45] His short reign was described by later historians as the first reign of the so-called Southern Ming dynasty.[46] Zhu Yousong, however, fared a lot worse than his ancestor Zhu Yuanzhang three centuries earlier. Beset by factional conflicts, his regime could not offer effective resistance to Qing forces, when the Qing army, led by the Manchu
Manchu
prince Dodo approached Jiangnan
Jiangnan
the next spring.[47] Days after Yangzhou
Yangzhou
fell to the Manchus in late May 1645, the Hongguang Emperor fled Nanjing, and the imperial Ming Palace
Ming Palace
was looted by local residents.[48] On June 6, Dodo's troops approached Nanjing, and the commander of the city's garrison, Zhao the Earl of Xincheng, promptly surrendered the city to them.[49][50] The Manchus soon ordered all male residents of the city to shave their heads in the Manchu
Manchu
queue way.[51] They requisitioned a large section of the city for the bannermen's cantonment, and destroyed the former imperial Ming Palace, but otherwise the city was spared the mass murders and destruction that befell Yangzhou.[52]

An artist's impression of the Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion
(1850–1864).

Under the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(1644–1911), the Nanjing
Nanjing
area was known as Jiangning (江寧) and served as the seat of government for the Viceroy of Liangjiang.[53] It was the site of a Qing army garrison.[54] It had been visited by the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors a number of times on their tours of the southern provinces. Nanjing was invaded by British troops during the close of the First Opium War, which was ended by the Treaty of Nanjing
Treaty of Nanjing
in 1842. As the capital of the brief-lived rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
(founded by the Taiping rebels[55] in the mid-19th century, Nanjing
Nanjing
was known as Tianjing (天京, "Heavenly Capital" or "Capital of Heaven"). Both the Qing viceroy and the Taiping king resided in buildings that would later be known as the Presidential Palace. When Qing forces led by Zeng Guofan
Zeng Guofan
retook the city in 1864, a massive slaughter occurred in the city with over 100,000 estimated to have committed suicide or fought to the death.[56] Since the Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion
began, Qing forces allowed no rebels speaking its dialect to surrender.[57] This systematic mass murder of civilians occurred in Nanjing.[58]

Statue1 of Qianfoya Nanjing

Wenceslas Hollar - Pagoda
Pagoda
of Paolinx

Nanjing
Nanjing
Donghua Gate

YiFeng Gate

Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum

Modern China[edit] See also: Battle of Nanking
Battle of Nanking
and Nanjing
Nanjing
Massacre The Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
led to the founding of the Republic of China
China
in January 1912 with Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
as the first provisional president and Nanking was selected as its new capital. However, the Qing Empire controlled large regions to the north, so revolutionaries asked Yuan Shikai to replace Sun as president in exchange for the abdication of Puyi, the Last Emperor. Yuan demanded the capital be Beijing
Beijing
(closer to his power base).

The headquarters of the National Government of the Republic of China in Nanjing, 1927

In 1927, the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT; Nationalist Party) under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
again established Nanjing
Nanjing
as the capital of the Republic of China, and this became internationally recognized once KMT forces took Beijing
Beijing
in 1928. The following decade is known as the Nanking decade. In 1937, the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
started a full-scale invasion of China after invading Manchuria in 1931, beginning the Second Sino-Japanese War (often considered a theater of World War II).[59] Their troops occupied Nanjing
Nanjing
in December and carried out the systematic and brutal Nanking Massacre
Nanking Massacre
(the "Rape of Nanking").[60] Even children, the elderly, and nuns are reported to have suffered at the hands of the Imperial Japanese Army.[61] The total death toll, including estimates made by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East
International Military Tribunal for the Far East
and the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal
Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal
after the atomic bombings, was between 300,000 and 350,000.[62] The city itself was also severely damaged during the massacre.[60] The Nanjing Massacre
Nanjing Massacre
Memorial Hall was built in 1985 to commemorate this event. A few days before the fall of the city, the National Government of China
China
was relocated to the southwestern city Chungking (Chongqing) and resumed Chinese resistance. In 1940, a Japanese-collaborationist government known as the " Nanjing
Nanjing
Regime" or "Reorganized National Government of China" led by Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
was established in Nanjing
Nanjing
as a rival to Chiang Kai-shek's government in Chongqing.[63] In 1946, after the Surrender of Japan, the KMT relocated its central government back to Nanjing. On 21 April 1949, Communist forces crossed the Yangtze
Yangtze
River. On April 23, the Communist People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
(PLA) captured Nanjing.[64] The KMT government retreated to Canton (Guangzhou) until October 15, Chongqing
Chongqing
until November 25, and then Chengdu
Chengdu
before retreating to the island of Taiwan
Taiwan
on December 10 where Taipei
Taipei
was proclaimed the temporary capital of the Republic of China. By late 1949, the PLA was pursuing remnants of KMT forces southwards in southern China, and only Tibet and Hainan Island
Hainan Island
were left. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China
China
in October 1949, Nanjing
Nanjing
was initially a province-level municipality, but it was soon merged into Jiangsu province and again became the provincial capital by replacing Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
which was transferred in 1928, and retains that status to this day.

The Signing of the Treaty of Nanking(1842)

Nanking(1871)

Former Residence of Song Ziwen in Nanjing

Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
in Nanjing

National Government of the R.O.C

Former Management Bureau of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Postal Service

Geography[edit]

Nanjing
Nanjing
Region - Lower Yangtze
Yangtze
Basin and Eastern China.

Nanjing, with a total land area of 6,598 km2 (2,548 sq mi), is situated in the heartland of the drainage area of the lower reaches of the Yangtze
Yangtze
River, and in the Yangtze River Delta, one of the largest economic zones of China. The Yangtze River flows past the west side and then the north side of Nanjing City, while the Ningzheng Ridge surrounds the north, east and south sides of the city. The city is 650 km (400 mi) southeast of Luoyang, 1,200 km (750 mi) south-southeast of Beijing, 300 km (190 mi) west-northwest of Shanghai, and 1,400 km (870 mi) east-northeast of Chongqing. The Yangtze River flows downstream from Jiujiang, Jiangxi, through Anhui
Anhui
and Jiangsu
Jiangsu
to the East China
China
Sea. The northern part of the lower Yangtze drainage basin is the Huai River
Huai River
basin and the southern part is the Zhe River
Zhe River
basin; they are connected by the Grand Canal east of Nanjing. The area around Nanjing
Nanjing
is called Xiajiang (下江, Downstream River) region, with Jianghuai dominant in the northern part and Jiangzhe dominant in the southern part.[d] The region is also well known as Dongnan (東南, South East, the Southeast) and Jiangnan (江南, and River South, South of Yangtze).[e] Nanjing
Nanjing
borders Yangzhou
Yangzhou
to the northeast (one town downstream when following the north bank of the Yangtze); Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
to the east (one town downstream when following the south bank of the Yangtze); and Changzhou
Changzhou
to the southeast. On its western boundary is Anhui
Anhui
province, where Nanjing
Nanjing
borders five prefecture-level cities: Chuzhou
Chuzhou
to the northwest, Wuhu, Chaohu
Chaohu
and Maanshan
Maanshan
to the west and Xuancheng
Xuancheng
to the southwest.[65] Nanjing
Nanjing
is at the intersection of the Yangtze
Yangtze
River, an east-west water transport artery, and the Nanjing– Beijing
Beijing
railway, a north-south land transport artery, hence the name “door of the east and west, throat of the south and north”. Furthermore, the west part of the Ningzhen range is in Nanjing; the Loong-like Zhong Mountain curls round the east side of the city, while the tiger-like Stone Mountain crouches in the west of the city, hence the name “the Zhong Mountain, a dragon curling, and the Stone Mountain, a tiger crouching”. Climate and environment[edit]

Nanjing

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    45     7 −1

    53     10 1

    80     14 5

    80     21 11

    90     26 17

    166     29 21

    214     32 25

    144     32 24

    73     28 20

    60     23 14

    56     16 7

    30     10 1

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: CMA[66]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    1.8     45 31

    2.1     49 35

    3.1     58 42

    3.2     69 52

    3.5     79 62

    6.5     84 70

    8.4     90 77

    5.7     89 76

    2.9     82 68

    2.4     73 56

    2.2     61 44

    1.2     50 34

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Autumn maple leaves in Qixia Mountain
Qixia Mountain
Temple.

Nanjing
Nanjing
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) and is under the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The four seasons are distinct, with damp conditions seen throughout the year, very hot and muggy summers, cold, damp winters, and in between, spring and autumn are of reasonable length. Along with Chongqing
Chongqing
and Wuhan, Nanjing
Nanjing
is traditionally referred to as one of the "Three Furnacelike Cities" along the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
for the perennially high temperatures in the summertime.[67] However, the time from mid-June to the end of July is the plum blossom blooming season in which the meiyu (rainy season of East Asia; literally "plum rain") occurs, during which the city experiences a period of mild rain as well as dampness. Typhoons are uncommon but possible in the late stages of summer and early part of autumn. The annual mean temperature is around 15.91 °C (60.6 °F), with the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranging from 2.7 °C (36.9 °F) in January to 28.1 °C (82.6 °F) in July. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −14.0 °C (7 °F) on 6 January 1955 to 40.7 °C (105 °F) on 22 August 1959.[68][69][70] On average precipitation falls 115 days out of the year, and the average annual rainfall is 1,090 mm (43 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 37 percent in March to 52 percent in August, the city receives 1,926 hours of bright sunshine annually. Nanjing
Nanjing
is endowed with rich natural resources, which include more than 40 kinds of minerals. Among them, iron and sulfur reserves make up 40 percent of those of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province. Its reserves of strontium rank first in East Asia and the South East Asia
South East Asia
region. Nanjing
Nanjing
also possesses abundant water resources, both from the Yangtze River and groundwater. In addition, it has several natural hot springs such as Tangshan
Tangshan
Hot Spring in Jiangning and Tangquan Hot Spring in Pukou. Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
once summarized and lauded the feature of Nanjing
Nanjing
in his book The International Development of China
China
(建國方略):

Nanking was the old capital of China
China
before Peking, and is situated in a fine locality which comprises high mountains, deep water and a vast level plain—a rare site to be found in any part of the world. It also lies at the center of a very rich country on both sides of the lower Yangtze. (南京為中國古都,在北京之前,而其位置乃在一美善之地區。其地有高山,有深水,有平原,此三種天工,鐘毓一處,在世界中之大都市誠難覓如此佳境也。而又恰居長江下游兩岸最豐富區域之中心...)[71]

To be more exact, surrounded by the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
and mountains, the urban area of the city enjoys its scenic natural environment. Xuanwu Lake and Mochou Lake
Mochou Lake
are located in the center of the city and are easily accessible to the public, while Purple Mountain
Purple Mountain
is covered with deciduous and coniferous forests preserving various historical and cultural sites. Meanwhile, a Yangtze River
Yangtze River
deep-water channel is under construction to enable Nanjing
Nanjing
to handle the navigation of 50,000 DWT vessels from the East China
China
Sea.[72]

Climate data for Nanjing
Nanjing
(1981–2010 normals, extremes 1951–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 21.0 (69.8) 27.7 (81.9) 30.3 (86.5) 34.2 (93.6) 37.5 (99.5) 38.1 (100.6) 40.0 (104) 40.7 (105.3) 39.0 (102.2) 33.4 (92.1) 29.1 (84.4) 23.1 (73.6) 40.7 (105.3)

Average high °C (°F) 7.2 (45) 9.5 (49.1) 14.2 (57.6) 20.7 (69.3) 26.2 (79.2) 29.1 (84.4) 32.2 (90) 31.7 (89.1) 27.7 (81.9) 22.5 (72.5) 16.2 (61.2) 9.9 (49.8) 20.6 (69.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) 2.7 (36.9) 5.0 (41) 9.3 (48.7) 15.6 (60.1) 21.1 (70) 24.8 (76.6) 28.1 (82.6) 27.6 (81.7) 23.3 (73.9) 17.6 (63.7) 10.9 (51.6) 4.9 (40.8) 15.9 (60.6)

Average low °C (°F) −0.7 (30.7) 1.4 (34.5) 5.3 (41.5) 11.0 (51.8) 16.5 (61.7) 21.0 (69.8) 24.9 (76.8) 24.4 (75.9) 19.9 (67.8) 13.6 (56.5) 6.8 (44.2) 1.1 (34) 12.1 (53.8)

Record low °C (°F) −14 (7) −13.0 (8.6) −7.1 (19.2) −0.2 (31.6) 5.0 (41) 11.8 (53.2) 16.8 (62.2) 16.9 (62.4) 7.7 (45.9) 0.2 (32.4) −6.3 (20.7) −13.1 (8.4) −14 (7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 45.4 (1.787) 53.0 (2.087) 79.6 (3.134) 80.3 (3.161) 90.0 (3.543) 166.2 (6.543) 214.3 (8.437) 143.8 (5.661) 72.9 (2.87) 59.7 (2.35) 55.9 (2.201) 29.5 (1.161) 1,090.6 (42.935)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 8.7 9.1 11.8 10.0 9.7 10.6 12.3 11.8 8.1 7.8 7.4 6.2 113.5

Average relative humidity (%) 74 73 72 71 71 76 80 80 78 75 76 73 74.9

Mean monthly sunshine hours 124.7 120.3 144.7 169.2 194.2 162.8 196.7 201.6 164.0 164.2 147.4 137.1 1,926.9

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration[66]

Cityscape[edit]

Nanjing
Nanjing
skyline, taken in 2012.

Environmental issues[edit] Air pollution
Air pollution
in 2013[edit]

7 December 2013 image from NASA's Terra Satellite of the Eastern China smog

See also: 2013 Eastern China
China
smog A dense wave of smog began in the central and east parts of China
China
on 2 December 2013 across a distance of around 1,200 km (750 mi),[73] including Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Zhejiang. A lack of cold air flow, combined with slow-moving air masses carrying industrial emissions, collected airborne pollutants to form a thick layer of smog over the region.[74] The heavy smog heavily polluted central and southern Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province, especially in and around Nanjing,[75] with its AQI pollution Index at "severely polluted" for five straight days and "heavily polluted" for nine.[76] On 3 December 2013, levels of PM2.5 particulate matter average over 943 micrograms per cubic meter,[77] falling to over 338 micrograms per cubic meter on 4 December 2013.[78] Between 3:00 pm, 3 December and 2:00pm, 4 December local time, several expressways from Nanjing
Nanjing
to other Jiangsu
Jiangsu
cities were closed, stranding dozens of passenger buses in Zhongyangmen bus station.[75] From 5 to 6 December, Nanjing
Nanjing
issued a red alert for air pollution and closed down all kindergarten through middle schools. Children's Hospital outpatient services increased by 33 percent; general incidence of bronchitis, pneumonia, upper respiratory tract infections significantly increased.[79] The smog dissipated 12 December.[80] Officials blamed the dense pollution on lack of wind, automobile exhaust emissions under low air pressure, and coal-powered district heating system in north China.[81] Prevailing winds blew low-hanging air masses of factory emissions (mostly SO2) towards China's east coast.[82] Government[edit]

People's Government of Nanjing
Nanjing
City

At present, the full name of the government of Nanjing
Nanjing
is "People's Government of Nanjing
Nanjing
City" and the city is under the one-party rule of the CPC, with the CPC Nanjing
Nanjing
Committee Secretary as the de facto governor of the city and the mayor as the executive head of the government working under the secretary. Administrative divisions[edit] The sub-provincial city of Nanjing
Nanjing
is divided into 11 districts.[83]

Map District Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population (2013) Area (km2)

1 2 3 4 5 Qixia Jiangning Pukou Luhe Lishui Gaochun 1. Xuanwu 2. Qinhuai 3. Jianye 4. Gulou 5. Yuhuatai

District

Xuanwu 玄武区 Xuánwǔ Qū 660,557 80.97

Qinhuai 秦淮区 Qínhuái Qū 1,034,822 50.36

Jianye 建邺区 Jiànyè Qū 446,899 82.00

Gulou 鼓楼区 Gǔlóu Qū 1,292,291 57.62

Yuhuatai 雨花台区 Yǔhuātái Qū 415,885 131.90

Qixia 栖霞区 Qīxiá Qū 664,103 340.00

Jiangning 江宁区 Jiāngníng Qū 1,178,628 1,573.00

Pukou 浦口区 Pǔkǒu Qū 728,798 913.00

Luhe 六合区 Lùhé Qū[84][85] 926,445 1,485.50

Lishui 溧水区 Lìshuǐ Qū 419,523 983.00

Gaochun 高淳区 Gāochún Qū 420,429 801.00

Defunct districts: Baixia District
Baixia District
and Xiaguan District

Demographics[edit]

Population trend[86]

Year Residents (in million) natural growth rate (%)

1949 2.5670 13.09

1950 2.5670 15.64

1955 2.8034 19.94

1960 3.2259 0.23

1965 3.4529 25.58

1970 3.6053 20.76

1975 3.9299 9.53

1978 4.1238 8.84

1990 5.0182 9.18

Year Residents (in million) natural growth rate (%)

1995 5.2172 2.62

1996 5.2543 2.63

1997 5.2982 2.16

1998 5.3231 1.00

1999 5.3744 2.01

2000 5.4489 2.48

2001 5.5304 1.60

2002 5.6328 0.70

2003 5.7223 1.50

2006 6.0700 6.11

At the time of the 2010 census, the total population of the City of Nanjing
Nanjing
was 8.005 million. The OECD
OECD
estimated the encompassing metropolitan area at the time as 11.7 million.[1] Official statistics in 2011 estimated the city's population to be 8.11 million. The birth rate was 8.86 percent and the death rate was 6.88 percent. The urban area had a population of 6.47 million people. The sex ratio of the city population was 107.31 males to 100 females.[87][88] As in most of eastern China
China
the official ethnic makeup of Nanjing
Nanjing
is predominantly Han nationality
Han nationality
(98.56 percent), with 50 other official ethnic groups. In 1999, 77,394 residents belonged to officially defined minorities, among which the vast majority (64,832) were Hui, contributing 83.76 percent to the minority population. The second and third largest minority groups were Manchu
Manchu
(2,311) and Zhuang (533). Most of the minority nationalities resided in Jianye District, comprising 9.13 percent of the district's population.[89] Economy[edit] Earlier development[edit] There was a massive cultivating in the area of Nanjing
Nanjing
from the Three Kingdoms period to Southern dynasties. The sparse population led to land as royal rewards were granted for rules’ people. At first, the landless peasants benefited from it, then the senior officials and aristocratic families. Since large numbers of immigrants flooded into the area, reclamation was quite common in its remote parts, which promoted its agricultural development. The craft industries, by contrast, had a faster growth. Especially the textiles section, there were about 200,000 craftsmen by the late Qing.[90] Several dynasties established their imperial textiles bureaus in Nanjing. The Nanjing
Nanjing
Brocade (南京云锦) is their exquisite product as the cloth for the royal garments such as dragon robes. Meanwhile, the satins from Nanjing
Nanjing
were called “tribute satins” ("贡缎"), because they were usually paid as tribute to the monarchy. Besides, minting, papermaking, shipbuilding grew initially since the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period. As Nanjing
Nanjing
was the capital of the Ming dynasty, the industries further expanded, where both state-owned and numerous private businesses served the imperial court. Several place names in Nanjing
Nanjing
remains witnessed them, such as Wangjinshi (网巾市, the market sells wangjin), Guyilang (估衣廊, the corridor for garments bargain), Youfangqiao (油坊桥, the bridge near an oil mill). Moreover, the trade in Nanjing
Nanjing
was also flourishing. The Ming dynasty drawing Prosperous Nanjing
Nanjing
(南都繁会图卷, Nándū Fánhuì Tújuǎn) depicts a vivid market scene bustling with people and full of various sorts of shops. However, the economic developments were almost wiped out by the Taiping Rebellion’s catastrophe. Modern times[edit] Into the first half of the twentieth century after the establishment of ROC, Nanjing
Nanjing
gradually shifted from being a production hub towards being a heavy consumption city, mainly because of the rapid expansion of its wealthy population after Nanjing
Nanjing
once again regained the political spotlight of China. A number of huge department stores such as Zhongyang Shangchang sprouted up, attracting merchants from all over China
China
to sell their products in Nanjing. In 1933, the revenue generated by the food and entertainment industry in the city exceeded the sum of the output of the manufacturing and agriculture industry. One third of the city population worked in the service industry, . In the 1950s after PRC was established by CPC, the government invested heavily in the city to build a series of state-owned heavy industries, as part of the national plan of rapid industrialization, converting it into a heavy industry production center of east China.[91] Overenthusiastic in building a “world-class” industrial city, the government also made many disastrous mistakes during development, such as spending hundreds of millions of yuan to mine for non-existent coal, resulting in negative economic growth in the late 1960s. From 1960s to 1980s there were Five Pillar Industries, namely, electronics, cars, petrochemical, iron and steel, and power, each with big state-owned firms. After the Reform and Opening
Reform and Opening
recovering market economy, the state-owned enterprises found themselves incapable of competing with efficient multinational firms and local private firms, hence were either mired in heavy debt or forced into bankruptcy or privatization and this resulted in large numbers of layoff workers who were technically not unemployed but effectively jobless. Today[edit]

Skyline of Nanjing's Xinjiekou district as seen from Nanjing University's Gulou campus.

The current economy of the city is basically newly developed based on the past. Service industries are dominating, accounting for about 60 percent of the GDP
GDP
of the city, and financial industry, culture industry and tourism industry are top 3 of them. Industries of information technology, energy saving and environmental protection, new energy, smart power grid and intelligent equipment manufacturing have become pillar industries.[92] Big civilian-run enterprise include Suning Commerce, Yurun, Sanpower, Fuzhong, Hiteker, 5stars, Jinpu, Tiandi, CTTQ Pharmaceutical, Nanjing Iron and Steel Company
Nanjing Iron and Steel Company
and Simcere Pharmaceutical. Big state-owned firms include Panda Electronics, Yangzi Petrochemical, Jinling Petrochemical, Nanjing Chemical, Jincheng
Jincheng
Motors, Jinling Pharmaceutical, Chenguang and NARI. The city has also attracted foreign investment, multinational firms such as Siemens, Ericsson, Volkswagen, Iveco, A.O. Smith, and Sharp have established their lines, and a number of multinationals such as Ford, IBM, Lucent, Samsung
Samsung
and SAP established research center there. Many China-based leading firms such as Huawei, ZTE
ZTE
and Lenovo
Lenovo
have key R & D institutes in the city. Nanjing
Nanjing
is an industrial technology research and development hub, hosting many R & D centers and institutions, especially in areas of electronics technology, information technology, computer software, biotechnology and pharmaceutical technology and new material technology. In recent years, Nanjing
Nanjing
has been developing its economy, commerce, industry, as well as city construction. In 2013 the city's GDP
GDP
was RMB 801 billion (3rd in Jiangsu), and GDP
GDP
per capita(current price) was RMB 98,174(US$16041), a 11 percent increase from 2012. The average urban resident's disposable income was RMB 36,200, while the average rural resident's net income was RMB 14,513. The registered urban unemployment rate was 3.02 percent, lower than the national average (4.3 percent). Nanjing's Gross Domestic Product ranked 12th in 2013 in China, and its overall competence ranked 6th in mainland and 8th including Taiwan
Taiwan
and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
in 2009.[93]

A panoramic view of Nanjing
Nanjing
in 2005

Industrial zones

There are a number of industrial zones in Nanjing.

Nanjing
Nanjing
New and High-Tech Industry Development Zone Nanjing
Nanjing
Baixia Hi-Tech Industrial Zone Nanjing
Nanjing
Economic and Technological Development Zone

Transportation[edit] Nanjing
Nanjing
is the transportation hub in eastern China
China
and the downstream Yangtze River
Yangtze River
area. Different means of transportation constitute a three-dimensional transport system that includes land, water and air. As in most other Chinese cities, public transportation is the dominant mode of travel of the majority of the citizens. As of October 2014, Nanjing
Nanjing
had four bridges and two tunnels over the Yangtze
Yangtze
River, which are tying districts north of the river with the city center on the south bank.[94] Rail[edit]

Nanjing
Nanjing
South Railway Station

Nanjing
Nanjing
is an important railway hub in eastern China.[95] It serves as rail junction for the Beijing- Shanghai
Shanghai
(Jinghu) (which is itself composed of the old Jinpu
Jinpu
and Huning Railways), Nanjing–Tongling Railway (Ningtong), Nanjing–Qidong (Ningqi), and the Nanjing-Xian (Ningxi) which encompasses the Hefei– Nanjing
Nanjing
Railway. Nanjing
Nanjing
is connected to the national high-speed railway network by Beijing– Shanghai
Shanghai
High-Speed Railway and Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu Passenger Dedicated Line, with several more high-speed rail lines under construction. Among all 17 railway stations in Nanjing, passenger rail service is mainly provided by Nanjing Railway Station
Nanjing Railway Station
and Nanjing
Nanjing
South Railway Station, while other stations like Nanjing
Nanjing
West Railway Station, Zhonghuamen Railway Station
Zhonghuamen Railway Station
and Xianlin Railway Station
Xianlin Railway Station
serve minor roles. Nanjing Railway Station
Nanjing Railway Station
was first built in 1968.[96] On November 12, 1999, the station was burnt in a serious fire.[97] Reconstruction of the station was finished on September 1, 2005. Nanjing
Nanjing
South Railway Station, which is one of the 5 hub stations on Beijing– Shanghai
Shanghai
High-Speed Railway, has officially been claimed as the largest railway station in Asia and the second largest in the world in terms of GFA (Gross Floor Area).[98] Construction of Nanjing South Station began on 10 January 2008.[99] The station was opened for public service in 2011.[100] Road[edit]

Nanjing
Nanjing
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge, built in 1968,[96] the first bridge over the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
to be built without foreign assistance.

As an important regional hub in the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta, Nanjing
Nanjing
is well-connected by over 60 state and provincial highways to all parts of China. Express highways such as Hu–Ning, Ning–He, Ning–Hang enable commuters to travel to Shanghai, Hefei, Hangzhou, and other important cities quickly and conveniently. Inside the city of Nanjing, there are 230 km (140 mi) of highways, with a highway coverage density of 3.38 kilometers per hundred square kilometrs (5.44 mi/100 sq mi). The total road coverage density of the city is 112.56 kilometers per hundred square kilometers (181.15 mi/100 sq mi).[101] The two artery roads in Nanjing
Nanjing
are Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Road and Hanzhong. The two roads cross in the city center, Xinjiekou. Expressways:

G25 Changchun– Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Expressway G36 Nanjing– Luoyang
Luoyang
Expressway G40 Shanghai– Xi'an
Xi'an
Expressway G42 Shanghai– Chengdu
Chengdu
Expressway G4211 Nanjing– Wuhu
Wuhu
Expressway, a spur of G42 that extends west to Wuhu, Anhui S55 Nanjing–Gaochun Expressway S38 Yanjiang Expressway G2501 Nanjing
Nanjing
Ring Expressway

National Highway (GXXX):

China
China
National Highway 104—motorists can either drive northwest to Beijing
Beijing
or south to Fuzhou, Fujian. China
China
National Highway 205—motorists can either drive north to Shanhaiguan, Hebei
Hebei
or south to Shenzhen, Guangdong. China
China
National Highway 312—motorists can either drive east to Shanghai
Shanghai
or west to Khorgas, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
on the Kazakh border China
China
National Highway 328— Nanjing
Nanjing
is the western terminus of G328, which motorists can follow to Hai'an County
Hai'an County
in eastern Jiangsu

Public transportation[edit] See also: Nanjing
Nanjing
Metro The city also boasts an efficient network of public transportation, which mainly consists of bus, taxi and metro systems. The bus network, which is currently run by three companies since 2011, provides more than 370 routes covering all parts of the city and suburban areas.[102] At present, the Nanjing Metro
Nanjing Metro
system has a grand total of 347 km (216 mi) of route and 164 stations across 9 lines. They are Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 10, Line S1, Line S3, Line S8 and Line S9. The city is planning to complete a 17-line Metro and light-rail system by 2030.[103] The expansion of the Metro network will greatly facilitate the intracity transportation and reduce the currently heavy traffic congestion. Air[edit] Nanjing's airport, Lukou International Airport, serves both national and international flights. In 2013, Nanjing
Nanjing
airport handled 15,011,792 passengers and 255,788.6 tonnes of freight.[104] The airport currently has 85 routes to national and international destinations, which include Japan,[105] Korea, Thailand,[106][107] Malaysia, Singapore, United States[108] and Germany. The airport is connected by a 29-kilometer (18 mi) highway directly to the city center, and is also linked to various intercity highways, making it accessible to the passengers from the surrounding cities. A railway Ninggao Intercity Line has been built to link the airport with Nanjing
Nanjing
South Railway Station.[109] Lukou Airport was opened on 28 June 1997, replacing Nanjing Dajiaochang Airport
Nanjing Dajiaochang Airport
as the main airport serving Nanjing. Dajiaochang Airport is still used as a military air base.[110] Water[edit] Port of Nanjing
Port of Nanjing
is the largest inland port in China, with annual cargo tonnage reached 191,970,000 t in 2012.[111] The port area is 98 km (61 mi) in length and has 64 berths including 16 berths for ships with a tonnage of more than 10,000.[112] Nanjing
Nanjing
is also the biggest container port along the Yangtze
Yangtze
River; in March 2004, the one million container-capacity base, Longtan Containers Port Area opened, further consolidating Nanjing
Nanjing
as the leading port in the region. As of 2010[update], it operated six public ports and three industrial ports.[113] The Yangtze
Yangtze
River’s 12.5-meter-deep waterway enables 50,000-ton-class ocean ships directly arrive at the Nanjing Port, and the ocean ships with the capacities of 100,000 tons or above can also reach the port after load reduction in the Yangtze
Yangtze
River’s high-tide period.[114] Yangtze River
Yangtze River
crossings[edit] Main article: Yangtze River
Yangtze River
bridges and tunnels In the 1960s, the first Nanjing
Nanjing
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge was completed, and served as the only bridge crossing over the Lower Yangtze
Yangtze
in eastern China
China
at that time. The bridge was a source of pride and an important symbol of modern China, having been built and designed by the Chinese themselves following failed surveys by other nations and the reliance on and then rejection of Soviet expertise. Begun in 1960 and opened to traffic in 1968, the bridge is a two-tiered road and rail design spanning 4,600 meters on the upper deck, with approximately 1,580 meters spanning the river itself. Since then four more bridges and two tunnels have been built. Going in the downstream direction, the Yangtze
Yangtze
crossings in Nanjing
Nanjing
are: Dashengguan Bridge, Line 10 Metro Tunnel, Third Bridge, Nanjing Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Tunnel, First Bridge, Second Bridge and Fourth Bridge. Culture and art[edit]

Nanjing
Nanjing
Library

Being one of the four ancient capitals of China, Nanjing
Nanjing
has always been a cultural center attracting intellectuals from all over the country. In the Tang and Song dynasties, Nanjing
Nanjing
was a place where poets gathered and composed poems reminiscent of its luxurious past; during the Ming and Qing dynasties, the city was the official imperial examination center ( Jiangnan
Jiangnan
Examination Hall) for the Jiangnan region, again acting as a hub where different thoughts and opinions converged and thrived. Today, with a long cultural tradition and strong support from local educational institutions, Nanjing
Nanjing
is commonly viewed as a “city of culture” and one of the more pleasant cities to live in China. Art[edit] Main article: List of Nanjing
Nanjing
Art Groups Some of the leading art groups of China
China
are based in Nanjing; they include the Qianxian Dance Company, Nanjing
Nanjing
Dance Company, Jiangsu Peking Opera Institute and Nanjing
Nanjing
Xiaohonghua Art Company among others. Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province Kun Opera is one of the best theaters for Kunqu, China's oldest stage art.[115] It is considered a conservative and traditional troupe. Nanjing
Nanjing
also has professional opera troupes for the Yang, Yue (shaoxing), Xi and Jing ( Chinese opera
Chinese opera
varieties) as well as Suzhou
Suzhou
pingtan, spoken theater and puppet theater. Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Art Gallery is the largest gallery in Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province, presenting some of the best traditional and contemporary art pieces of China
China
like the historical Master Ho-Kan;[116] many other smaller-scale galleries, such as Red Chamber Art Garden and Jinling Stone Gallery, also have their own special exhibitions. Festivals[edit] Main article: List of Festivals and Events of Nanjing

An elderly man sketches plum blossoms at the festival.

Many traditional festivals and customs were observed in the old times, which included climbing the City Wall on January 16, bathing in Qing Xi on March 3, hill hiking on September 9 and others (the dates are in Chinese lunar calendar). Almost none of them, however, are still celebrated by modern Nanjingese. Instead, Nanjing, as a popular tourist destination, hosts a series of government-organized events throughout the year. The annual International Plum Blossom Festival held in Plum Blossom Hill, the largest plum collection in China, attracts thousands of tourists both domestically and internationally. Other events include Nanjing
Nanjing
Baima Peach Blossom and Kite Festival, Jiangxin Zhou Fruit Festival and Linggu Temple
Linggu Temple
Sweet Osmanthus Festival. Libraries[edit] Nanjing
Nanjing
Library, founded in 1907, houses more than 10 million volumes of printed materials and is the third largest library in China, after the National Library in Beijing
Beijing
and Shanghai
Shanghai
Library. Other libraries, such as city-owned Jinling Library
Jinling Library
and various district libraries, also provide considerable amount of information to citizens. Nanjing University Library is the second largest university libraries in China after Peking University Library, and the fifth largest nationwide, especially in the number of precious collections. Museums[edit]

Nanjing
Nanjing
Museum

For a more comprehensive list, see List of museums in Nanjing. Nanjing
Nanjing
has some of the oldest and finest museums in China. Nanjing Museum, formerly known as National Central Museum during ROC period, is the first modern museum and remains as one of the leading museums in China
China
having 400,000 items in its permanent collection,.[117] The museum is notable for enormous collections of Ming and Qing imperial porcelain, which is among the largest in the world.[118] Other museums include the City Museum of Nanjing
City Museum of Nanjing
in the Chaotian Palace, the Oriental Metropolitan Museum[f], the China
China
Modern History Museum in the Presidential Palace, the Nanjing Massacre
Nanjing Massacre
Memorial Hall, the Taiping Kingdom History Museum, Jiangning Imperial Silk Manufacturing Museum[g], Nanjing
Nanjing
Yunjin
Yunjin
Museum, Nanjing City Wall
Nanjing City Wall
Cultural Museum, Nanjing
Nanjing
Customs Museum in Ganxi House,[h] Nanjing
Nanjing
Astronomical History Museum, Nanjing
Nanjing
Paleontological Museum, Nanjing
Nanjing
Geological Museum, Nanjing
Nanjing
Riverstones Museum, and other museums and memorials such Zheng He Memorial[i] Jinling Four Modern Calligraphers Memorial.[j] Theater[edit] Most of Nanjing's major theaters are multi-purpose, used as convention halls, cinemas, musical halls and theaters on different occasions. The major theaters include the People's Convention Hall and the Nanjing Arts and Culture Center. The Capital Theater well known in the past is now a museum in theater/film. Night life[edit]

Qinhuai River

Traditionally Nanjing's nightlife was mostly centered around Nanjing Fuzimiao (Confucius Temple) area along the Qinhuai River, where night markets, restaurants and pubs thrived.[120] Boating at night in the river was a main attraction of the city. Thus, one can see the statues of the famous teachers and educators of the past not too far from those of the courtesans who educated the young men in the other arts. In the past 20 years, several commercial streets have been developed, hence the nightlife has become more diverse: there are shopping malls opening late in the Xinjiekou CBD and Hunan
Hunan
Road. The well-established " Nanjing
Nanjing
1912" district hosts a wide variety of recreational facilities ranging from traditional restaurants and western pubs to dance clubs. There are two major areas where bars are densely located; one is in 1912 block; the other is along Shanghai road and its neighborhood. Both are popular with international residents of the city. Local people still very much enjoy street food, such as lamb kebabs. As elsewhere in Asia, karaoke is popular with both young and old crowds. Food and symbolism[edit] Many of the city's local favorite dishes are based on ducks, including Nanjing
Nanjing
salted duck, duck blood and vermicelli soup, and duck oil pancake.[121] The radish is also a typical food representing people of Nanjing, which has been spread through word of mouth as an interesting fact for many years in China. According to Nanjing.GOV.cn, "There is a long history of growing radish in Nanjing
Nanjing
especially the southern suburb. In the spring, the radish tastes very juicy and sweet. It is well-known that people in Nanjing
Nanjing
like eating radish. And the people are even addressed as ' Nanjing
Nanjing
big radish', which means they are unsophisticated, passionate and conservative. From health perspective, eating radish can help to offset the stodgy food that people take during the Spring Festival".[122] Sports and stadiums[edit]

Nanjing
Nanjing
Olympic Sports Center

Nanjing's planned 20,000 seat Youth Olympic Sports Park Gymnasium will be one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup.[123] As a major Chinese city, Nanjing
Nanjing
is home to many professional sports teams. Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Suning FC, the football club currently staying in Chinese Super League, is a long-term tenant of Nanjing
Nanjing
Olympic Sports Center.[124] Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Nangang Basketball Club is a competitive team which has long been one of the major clubs fighting for the title in China
China
top level league, CBA. Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Volleyball men and women teams are also traditionally considered as at top level in China
China
volleyball league. There are two major sports centers in Nanjing, Wutaishan Sports Center and Nanjing
Nanjing
Olympic Sports Center. Both of these two are comprehensive sports centers, including stadium, gymnasium, natatorium, tennis court, etc. Wutaishan Sports Center was established in 1952 and it was one of the oldest and most advanced stadiums in early time of People's Republic of China. Nanjing
Nanjing
hosted the 10th National Games of PRC in 2005 and hosted the 2nd summer Youth Olympic Games
Youth Olympic Games
in 2014.[125][126] In 2005, in order to host The 10th National Game of People's Republic of China, there was a new stadium, Nanjing
Nanjing
Olympic Sports Center, constructed in Nanjing. Compared to Wutaishan Sports Center, which the major stadium's capacity is 18,500,[127] Nanjing
Nanjing
Olympic Sports Center has a more advanced stadium which is big enough to seat 60,000 spectators. Its gymnasium has capacity of 13,000, and natatorium of capacity 3,000. On 10 February 2010, the 122nd IOC
IOC
session at Vancouver announced Nanjing
Nanjing
as the host city for the 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games. The slogan of the 2014 Youth Olympic Games
Youth Olympic Games
was “Share the Games, Share our Dreams”. The Nanjing
Nanjing
2014 Youth Olympic Games
Youth Olympic Games
featured all 28 sports on the Olympic programme and were held from 16 to 28 August. The Nanjing
Nanjing
Youth Olympic Games
Youth Olympic Games
Organising Committee (NYOGOC) worked together with the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to attract the best young athletes from around the world to compete at the highest level. Off the competition fields, an integrated culture and education programme focused on discussions about education, Olympic values, social challenges, and cultural diversity. The YOG aims to spread the Olympic spirit and encourage sports participation. Tourism[edit] Nanjing
Nanjing
is one of the most beautiful cities of mainland China
China
with lush green parks, natural scenic lakes, small mountains, historical buildings and monuments, relics and much more, which attracts thousands of tourists every year. Buildings and monuments[edit] Imperial period[edit]

Stone City Qixia Temple Linggu Temple Jiming Temple South Tang mausoleums (南唐二陵) Fuzimiao (Confucius Temple) and Qinhuai River Jiangnan
Jiangnan
Gongyuan City Wall of Nanjing Ming Dynasty Palace Site Chaotian Palace Drum Tower of Nanjing Beiji Ge Jinghai Temple Zhonghua Gate The Porcelain Pagoda
Pagoda
of Nanjing
Nanjing
(destroyed) Xu Garden Zhan Yuan Garden Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
and its surrounding complex Yangshan Quarry Yuejiang Lou

Tower of Linggu Temple

Classical buildings in the Mochou Lake

Zhonghua Gate

Spirit Way of Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum

Republic of China
China
period[edit] Because it was designated as the national capital, many structures were built around that time. Even today, some of them still remain which are open to tourists.

Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
and its surrounding area Former Presidential Palace, Nanjing
Nanjing
of ROC Former Central Government of ROC Building Group along N. Zhongshan Road (中山北路国民政府建筑) Former Central Committee of KMT Buildings (中国国民党中央党部旧址) Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Art Gallery (Former National Art Gallery Buildings) Nanjing Great Hall of the People
Nanjing Great Hall of the People
(Former National Great Hall) Former Foreign Embassies in Gulou Area (鼓楼使馆区) Nanking Officials Residence Cluster along Yihe Road (颐和路公馆区) Former Central Stadium (now in campus of Nanjing
Nanjing
Sport Institute) (中央体育场旧址/南京体育学院) Former Central Radio of KMT Building Republic of China
China
Military Academy Buildings (中央陆军军官学校旧址) Former Bank of China
China
Nanking Branch Building (中国银行南京分行旧址) Former Bank of Communications Nanking Branch Building (交通银行南京分行旧址) Former Central Bank of ROC Nanking Branch Building (中央银行南京分行旧址) Dahua Theater (大华电影院) Lizhishe Buildings (励志社) Former Macklin Hospital Buildings (Gulou Hospital) (马林医院旧址/鼓楼医院) Former Central Hospital Buildings (国立中央医院旧址) Former National Central Museum Buildings ( Nanjing
Nanjing
Museum) (国立中央博物院旧址/南京博物馆) Purple Mountain
Purple Mountain
Observatory Former Academia Sinica of ROC Buildings (国立中央研究院旧址) Former Central University Buildings (former Nanjing
Nanjing
University buildings, now in Sipailou campus of Southeast University) Former University of Nanking
University of Nanking
Buildings (now in Gulou campus of Nanjing University) Former Ginling College
Ginling College
Buildings (now in Suiyuan campus of Nanjing Normal University) St. Paul's Church (圣保罗堂) Central Hotel (中央饭店) Former Capital Hotel (Huajiang Hotel) (首都饭店/华江饭店) Yangtse Hotel (扬子饭店) Hongshan Zoo (红山动物园)

Hall of Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Mausoleum

Main entrance of the Presidential Palace

Former site of Executive Yuan

Former site of Lizhishe (Society of Encouragement)

Hot Spring Villa of Chiang Kai-shek

Auditorium of National Central University
National Central University
(now Southeast University)

Former US Embassy

Former residence of Wang Jingwei

A mansion in Yihe Road

People's Republic of China
China
period[edit]

Jinling Hotel Nanjing
Nanjing
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge Nanjing Massacre
Nanjing Massacre
Memorial Hall Zifeng Tower

Zifeng Tower
Zifeng Tower
ranks among the tallest buildings in the world, opened for commercial operations in 2010.[128]

Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge

Nanjing
Nanjing
Youth Olympic Towers

New Nanjing
Nanjing
Library

Parks and gardens[edit]

China
China
Gate Castle Park Couple Park Defence Park Gulin Park Mochou Lake
Mochou Lake
and Park Nanjing
Nanjing
Hongshan Forest Zoo Purple Mountain
Purple Mountain
Scenic Area Qingliangshan Park Taoye Ferry White Horse Park Wuchaomen Park Xiamafang Ruins Park Xu Garden Xuanwu Lake Yuhuatai Memorial Park of Revolutionary Martyrs Zhan Yuan Garden Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Botanical Garden

Other places of interest[edit]

Tangshan
Tangshan
Hot Spring Yangshan Quarry Jiangxin Island Yangtze River
Yangtze River
power line crossings, tallest transmission towers built of concrete.

Education[edit] Nanjing
Nanjing
has been the educational center in southern China
China
for more than 1700 years. There are 75 institutions of higher learning till 2013. The number of National key laboratories, National key disciplines and the academicians of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering all rank third in the nation. It boasts some of the most prominent educational institutions in the region, some of which are listed as follows:

Nanjing
Nanjing
University

Many universities in Nanjing
Nanjing
have satellite campuses or have moved their main campus to Xianlin
Xianlin
University City. Clockwise from top:

Gate to Nanjing
Nanjing
Normal Nanjing University
Nanjing University
of Finance Nanjing University
Nanjing University
of Chinese Medicine Nanjing University
Nanjing University
of Posts and Telecommunications Nanjing
Nanjing
Normal University

Universities and colleges[edit]

National universities and colleges

Operated by Ministry of Education

China
China
Pharmaceutical University Hohai University Nanjing
Nanjing
Agricultural University Nanjing
Nanjing
University Southeast University

Operated by Ministry of Industry and Information Technology

Nanjing University
Nanjing University
of Aeronautics and Astronautics Nanjing University
Nanjing University
of Science and Technology

Operated by the joint Commission of the State Forest Administration and Public Order Ministry

Nanjing
Nanjing
Forest Police College (南京森林警察学院)

Operated by the general sport Administration

Nanjing
Nanjing
Sport Institute (南京体育学院)

National military universities and colleges

PLA Nanjing
Nanjing
Army Command College (中国人民解放军南京陆军指挥学院) PLA Nanjing
Nanjing
International Relation College (中国人民解放军南京国际关系学院) PLA Nanjing
Nanjing
Political College PLA Naval Command College (中国人民解放军海军指挥学院) PLA University of Science and Technology (中国人民解放军理工大学)

Provincial universities and colleges

Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Institute of Education Jinling Institute of Technology (金陵科技学院) Nanjing
Nanjing
Arts Institute (南京艺术学院) Nanjing
Nanjing
Audit University Nanjing
Nanjing
City Vocational College (南京城市职业学院) Nanjing
Nanjing
Forestry University Nanjing
Nanjing
Institute of Technology Nanjing
Nanjing
Medical University Nanjing
Nanjing
Normal University Nanjing
Nanjing
Xiaozhuang University Nanjing University
Nanjing University
of Chinese Medicine Nanjing University
Nanjing University
of Finance and Economics Nanjing University
Nanjing University
of Information Science and Technology Nanjing University
Nanjing University
of Posts and Telecommunications Nanjing University
Nanjing University
of Technology

Private universities and colleges

Communication University Of China' Nanjing (中国传媒大学南广学院) Hopkins- Nanjing
Nanjing
Center Nanjing University
Nanjing University
Jinling College (南京大学金陵学院) New York Institute of Technology Sanjiang College

Notable high schools[edit]

High School Affiliated to Nanjing
Nanjing
Normal University Jinling High School Nanjing
Nanjing
Foreign Language School Nanjing
Nanjing
No.1 High School Nanjing
Nanjing
Zhonghua High School Caulfield Grammar School ( Nanjing
Nanjing
Campus)

Sister cities[edit]

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Barranquilla, Colombia Bloemfontein/Mangaung, South Africa Windhoek, Namibia Mogilev, Belarus

Eindhoven, North Brabant, Netherlands Florence, Tuscany, Italy Leipzig, Saxony, Germany Limassol, Cyprus London, Ontario, Canada

Malacca Town, Malaysia Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico Perth, Western Australia, Australia St. Louis, Missouri, USA Daejeon, South Korea

Former Sister cities

Nagoya, Japan
Japan
(suspended / ended on February 21, 2012 after Nanking Massacre denialist statements by Nagoya's mayor, Takashi Kawamura)[129]

See also[edit]

Jiangnan List of cities in the People's Republic of China
China
by population List of twin towns and sister cities in China Historical capitals of China City Wall of Nanjing Walled city of Nanjing Ming Palace Nanking Massacre The Rape of Nanking (book) Treaty of Nanjing Nanjing
Nanjing
Salted Duck

Notes[edit]

^ Nanjingese, sometimes may be translated as Nanjinese, Nankinese, Nankingese, Nanjinger, Nankiner, etc.. In Nanjing
Nanjing
dialect there is no difference between Nanjing
Nanjing
and Nanjin or between Nanking and Nankin. This means the two pronunciations Jing and Jin in Mandarin Chinese pronounce the same in Nanjing
Nanjing
dialect, and king and kin are also the same. ^ In East China, in terms of urban population and urban area, the largest city is Shanghai, and the second largest is Nanjing. ^ Since becoming a southern capital, the city has been called Nanking (Nanjing, 南京) unofficially, and was officially named Nanjing (Nanking) after Peking ( Beijing
Beijing
北京, renamed from Peping or Beiping, 北平) became a capital city during the early Ming dynasty; the name appears in Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
echo poem (蕭子顯 《奉和昭明太子鐘山講解詩》:“崇嶽基舊宇,盤嶺跨南京”), for example. It's also unofficially called Nandu (南都), and Nandu Fanhui Tu (《南都繁會圖》, Nandu Prosperity Picture) is an example. ^ Huai (Huai of Jianghuai 江淮) is a big river north of Jiang (the river Yangtze), and the Zhe (Zhe of Jiangzhe 江浙)) is a big river south of Jiang. ^ The areas covered by such geographical names as Jiangnan, Dongnan and Xiajiang are not precisely defined. In ancient times the area was known as Yangchow (揚州). Sometimes the term Jianghai (江海) is used because the region is where the Jiang (Yangtze, river) empties into the Hai (sea). ^ Liuchao Gudu Bowuguan (六朝古都博物館) ^ Jiangning Zhizao Bowuguan (江甯織造博物館) ^ Nanjing
Nanjing
Minsu Bowuguan (南京民俗博物館), located in Ganxi House (甘熙宅第) which is said to be the largest Chinese private house, with the nickname Ninety Nine And A Half Rooms. ^ A small museum and tomb honoring the 15th century seafaring admiral Zheng He
Zheng He
although his body was buried at sea off the Malabar Coast near Calicut in western India.[119] ^ Jinling Shufa Silao Jinianguan (金陵書法四老紀念館,胡小石、林散之、蕭嫻、高二適)

References[edit] Citations[edit]

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Lexicographical Publishing House. p. 1451. ISBN 9787532628599. 六 (lù) (...)用于地名。如:六安;六合。 (...) 六合 区名。在江苏省南京市北部(...)  ^ 普通话审音委员会 (20 December 1962), 文字改革月刊社, ed., "普通話异讀詞审音表初稿(第三編)", 文字改革 WENZI GAIGE, 北京 Beijing: 文字改革出版社 (85): 8, (...)六合(江苏) Lùhé(...)  ^ 南京市统计局 (2013). 《南京统计年鉴2013》. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-6859-0.  ^ 刘绍武 (2011). 中华人民共和国全国分县市人口统计资料. 群众出版社. ISBN 9787501449170.  ^ "南京市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报". 南京市第六次全国人口普查领导小组办公室,南京市统计局. 2011-05-03.  ^ "南京民族概况". 南京市民族宗教事务局. 2012-08-26.  ^ 清乾隆、嘉慶年間,江寧織機在四萬台以上。清光緒十二年二月十六日《申報》:“(南京)城廂內外緞機總數常五萬有奇,以此為生產者達二十萬人。” ^ "综述". 南京市志(第5卷)·工业.  ^ [3] ^ "南京总部经济发展能力居全国第六". 新华报业网(来源:南京日报). 2009-10-19.  ^ Yangtze
Yangtze
Bridge, Fourth Nanjing. " Nanjing
Nanjing
Yangtze
Yangtze
Fourth Bridge to open on Dec.24 (3)". People's Daily Online. Retrieved 17 May 2013.  ^ "伴随江苏铁路发展 南京将成长三角铁路交通枢纽". 新华日报. 2009-07-15. Archived from the original on 2011-05-23.  ^ a b "车站简介". 南京火车站. 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-11-27. Retrieved 2012-11-29.  ^ "南京火车站12日晨发生特大火灾". 新浪网. 1999. Retrieved 2012-11-29.  ^ "南京火车站和北京南站变身 成全国新建改建范本". 火车网. 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-27.  ^ 中國評論新聞:京滬高鐵南京南站開工 將建亞洲第一大站 ^ 亞洲最大 京滬高鐵南京南站啟用 - 聯合報 ^ "数字交通". 南京市交通局. Archived from the original on 2012-04-15. Retrieved 2012-11-28.  ^ "南京三大公交企业新名称敲定". 凤凰网. 2012-06-26.  ^ 南京轨道交通线网共17条; Retrieved 6 March 2010. ^ 2013年华东机场生产数据排序 (in Chinese). Civil Aviation Administration of China
China
East China
China
Regional Administration. 2014-03-06. Archived from the original on 2014-03-09. Retrieved 2014-03-09.  ^ " China
China
Eastern Adds Nanjing
Nanjing
- Shizuoka Service from July 2015". Airlineroute.net. 8 June 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2015.  ^ "NokScoot Revises Nanjing
Nanjing
Launch to mid-June 2015". Airlineroute.net. 27 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ Amnatcharoenrit, Bamrung (2 October 2012). "AirAsia flies out of Don Mueang without a hitch". The Nation. Bangkok. Retrieved 2 October 2012.  ^ " China
China
Eastern, Delta and Hainan
Hainan
Airlines' new routes accelerate US- China
China
aviation development". Centre for Aviation. February 23, 2015. Retrieved March 11, 2015.  ^ 南京开建地铁机场线 第一次地铁将抵达机场. 中国江苏网,2011-12-28 ^ 大校场机场 [Dajiaochang Airport]. Nanjing
Nanjing
City Chronicles (in Chinese). Nanjing
Nanjing
City Government. Retrieved 2012-09-14.  ^ "2012全国货物、集装箱、旅客吞吐量统计". www.chinaports.com. 南京港(集团)有限公司. Retrieved 2014-06-18.  ^ "集团简介". www.njp.com.cn. 中国港口网. Archived from the original on 2014-06-16. Retrieved 2014-06-18.  ^ "The Brief Introduction of Nanjing
Nanjing
Port". Archived from the original on 2014-04-23.  ^ Yangtze-River Deep Waterway ^ A brief introduction to Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province Kunqu
Kunqu
Theater ^ Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Art Gallery, Synotrip. ^ "Treasures in Nanjing
Nanjing
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Nanjing
Museum". China.org.cn. 2003-10-29. Retrieved 2014-05-17.  ^ Levathes, Louise. When China
China
Ruled The Seas: The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne 1405-1433, p. 172. Oxford Univ. Press (New York), 1996. ^ Life on the Water's Edge: The Culture and History of the Qinhuai River - China.org.cn ^ " China
China
Cultural Kaleidoscope". Retrieved 29 October 2014.  ^ "Frying Spring Rolls at the Beginning of Spring". Retrieved 19 April 2013.  ^ The Official website of the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup, FIBA.com, Retrieved 9 March 2016. ^ "俱乐部概况". Jssainty fc. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2012.  ^ "南京成功获得2014年夏季世界青年奥运会主办权". 中国日报. 2010-02-11.  ^ "南京获得2013年亚青会举办权". 腾讯网. 2010-11-13.  ^ Wutaishan Stadium ^ "紫峰大厦开业庆典". Greenland Group. Archived from the original on 6 March 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ Wang, Chuhan (22 February 2012). " Nanjing
Nanjing
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Sources[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Nanjing

Cotterell, Arthur (2007). The Imperial Capitals of China
China
- An Inside View of the Celestial Empire. London: Pimlico. pp. 304 pages. ISBN 978-1-84595-009-5.  Danielson, Eric N. (2004). Nanjing
Nanjing
and the Lower Yangzi River. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions. ISBN 981-232-598-0.  Jun Fang (23 May 2014). China's Second Capital – Nanjing
Nanjing
Under the Ming, 1368-1644. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-00845-1.  Eigner, Julius (February 1938). "The Rise and Fall of Nanking" in National Geographic Vol. LXXIII No.2. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic.  Farmer, Edward L. (1976). Early Ming Government: The Evolution of Dual Capitals. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.  Hobart, Alice Tisdale (1927). Within the Walls of Nanking. New York: MacMillan.  Jiang, Zanchu (1995). Nanjing
Nanjing
shi hua. Nanjing: Nanjing
Nanjing
chu ban she. ISBN 7-80614-159-6.  Lutz, Jessie Gregory (1971). China
China
and the Christian Colleges, 1850-1950. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.  Ma, Chao Chun (Ma Chaojun) (1937). Nanking's Development, 1927-1937. Nanking: Municipality of Nanking.  Michael, Franz (1972). The Taiping Rebellion: History and Documents (3 vols.). Seattle: University of Washington Press.  Mote, Frederick W. (1977). "The Transformation of Nanking, 1350–1400," in The City in Late Imperial China, ed. by G. William Skinner. Stanford: Stanford University Press.  Mote, Frederick W., and Twitchett, Denis, ed. (1988). The Cambridge History of China
China
Vol. 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Musgrove, Charles D. (2000). "Constructing a National Capital in Nanjing, 1927–1937," in Remaking the Chinese City, 1900–1950, ed. by Joseph W. Esherick. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.  Nanking Women's Club (1933). Sketches of Nanking. Nanking: Nanking Women's Club.  Ouchterlony, John (1844). The Chinese War: An Account of All the Operations of the British Forces from the Commencement to the Treaty of Nanking. London: Saunders and Otley.  Prip-Moller, Johannes (1935). "The Hall of Lin Ku Ssu (Ling Gu Si) Nanking," in Artes Monuments Vol. III. Copenhagen: Artes Monuments.  Smalley, Martha L. (1982). Guide to the Archives of the United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia (Record Group 11). New Haven: Yale University Divinity Library Special
Special
Collections.  Struve, Lynn (1988). "The Southern Ming". In Frederic W. Mote; Denis Twitchett; John King Fairbank (eds.). Cambridge History of China, Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 641–725. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) . Struve, Lynn A. (1998). "Chapter 4: "The emperor really has left": Nanjing
Nanjing
changes hands". Voices from the Ming-Qing Cataclysm: China
China
in Tigers' Jaws. Yale University Press. pp. 55–72. ISBN 0-300-07553-7.  Teng, Ssu Yu (1944). Chang Hsi (Zhang Xi) and the Treaty of Nanking, 1842. Chicago: Chicago University Press.  Thurston, Mrs. Lawrence (Matilda) (1955). Ginling College. New York: United Board for Christian Colleges in China.  Till, Barry (1982). In Search of Old Nanking. Hong Kong: Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Shanghai
Shanghai
Joint Publishing Company.  Tyau, T.Z. (1930). Two Years of Nationalist China. Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh.  Uchiyama, Kiyoshi (1910). Guide to Nanking. Shanghai: China
China
Commercial Press.  Wakeman, Frederic, Jr. (1985), The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-Century China, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-04804-0 . Wang, Nengwei (1998). Nanjing
Nanjing
Jiu Ying (Old Photos of Nanjing). Nanjing: People's Fine Arts Publishing House.  Ye, Zhaoyan (1998). Lao Nanjing: Jiu Ying Qinhuai (Old Nanjing: Reflections of Scenes on the Qinhuai River). Nanjing: Zhongguo Di Er Lishi Dang An Guan ( China
China
Second National Archives).  Yang, Xinhua; Lu, Haiming (2001). Nanjing
Nanjing
Ming-Qing Jianzhu (Ming and Qing architecture of Nanjing). Nanjing
Nanjing
Daxue Chubanshe (Nanjing University Press). ISBN 7-305-03669-2. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nanjing.

Look up nanjing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Nanjing
Nanjing
travel guide from Wikivoyage (in Chinese) Nanjing
Nanjing
Government website Nanjing
Nanjing
English guide with open directory The Nanjinger: Nanjing's largest English news network with city guide List of Nanjing
Nanjing
Government Departments Historic US Army map of Nanjing, 1945 "Nanking Illustrated" from 1624

Preceded by Beijing Capital of China 1368–1420 Succeeded by Beijing

Capital of China 1928–1937 Succeeded by Wuhan
Wuhan
(wartime)

Preceded by Chongqing
Chongqing
(wartime) Capital of China 1945-1949 Succeeded by Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(after 23 April) Taipei
Taipei
(de facto) for the Republic of China

Succeeded by Beijing for the People's Republic of China

Places adjacent to Nanjing

Chuzhou
Chuzhou
(Anhui): Tianchang

Chuzhou: Urban area, Lai'an, Quanjiao, Hexian

Nanjing

Yangzhou: Yizheng Zhenjiang: Jurong Changzhou: Liyang

Ma'anshan
Ma'anshan
(Anhui): Urban area, Dangtu Xuancheng: Urban area Xuancheng
Xuancheng
(Anhui): Langxi

v t e

City of Nanjing

Districts

Xuanwu Qinhuai Jianye Gulou Pukou Liuhe Qixia Yuhuatai Jiangning Lishui Gaochun Baixia (defunct) Xiaguan (defunct)

Attractions

Parks and lakes

China
China
Gate Castle Park Couple Park Defence Park Gulin Park Jiangxin Island Mochou Lake Nanjing
Nanjing
Hongshan Forest Zoo Purple Mountain Purple Mountain
Purple Mountain
Observatory Qingliangshan Park Taoye Ferry White Horse Park Wuchaomen Park Xu Garden Xuanwu Lake Yuhuatai Memorial Park of Revolutionary Martyrs Zhan Yuan Garden Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Botanical Garden

Temples

Nanjing Fuzimiao
Nanjing Fuzimiao
(Temple of Confucius) Jiming Temple Jinghai Temple Linggu Temple Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum Qixia Temple

Historic sites

Chaotian Palace City Wall of Nanjing Memorial of Tao Xingzhi Nanjing Massacre
Nanjing Massacre
Memorial Hall National Revolutionary Army Memorial Cemetery Presidential Palace, Nanjing Stone City The Porcelain Pagoda
Pagoda
of Nanjing

Other sites

Jinling Hotel Nanjing
Nanjing
City Wall Nanjing
Nanjing
International Exhibition Center Nanjing
Nanjing
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge Xianlin Yangtze River
Yangtze River
power line crossings Zhonghua Gate

Culture and history

Nanjing
Nanjing
Museum Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province Kun Opera Nanjing
Nanjing
decade Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Art Gallery

Education

Nanjing
Nanjing
University Southeast University Hohai University Nanjing
Nanjing
Agricultural University China
China
Pharmaceutical University Nanjing University
Nanjing University
of Aeronautics and Astronautics Nanjing University
Nanjing University
of Science & Technology Nanjing
Nanjing
Normal University Nanjing University
Nanjing University
of Technology Nanjing
Nanjing
Forestry University Nanjing
Nanjing
Medical University Nanjing University
Nanjing University
of Finance & Economics Nanjing University
Nanjing University
of Posts and Telecommunications Nanjing University
Nanjing University
of the Arts Nanjing
Nanjing
Audit University Sanjiang College Hopkins- Nanjing
Nanjing
Center

Transport

Nanjing
Nanjing
Railway Station Nanjing
Nanjing
Metro Nanjing
Nanjing
Lukou International Airport China
China
National Highway 312 Nanjing
Nanjing
Yangtze River
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2014 Youth Summer Olympics

Category Commons

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topics

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Geography

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Culture

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Visitor attractions

Purple Mountain Sun Yat-sen
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Category Commons

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County-level divisions of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province

Nanjing
Nanjing
(capital)

Sub-provincial city

Nanjing

Xuanwu District Qinhuai District Jianye District Gulou District Pukou
Pukou
District Luhe District Qixia District Yuhuatai District Jiangning District Lishui
Lishui
District Gaochun District

Prefecture-level cities

Wuxi

Binhu District Huishan District Xishan District Liangxi District Xinwu District Jiangyin
Jiangyin
City Yixing
Yixing
City

Xuzhou

Yunlong District Gulou District Jiawang District Tongshan District Quanshan District Pizhou
Pizhou
City Xinyi City Suining
Suining
County Pei County Feng County

Changzhou

Zhonglou District Tianning District Xinbei District Wujin District Jintan District Liyang
Liyang
City

Suzhou

Gusu District Huqiu District Wuzhong District Xiangcheng District Wujiang District Kunshan
Kunshan
City Taicang
Taicang
City Changshu
Changshu
City Zhangjiagang
Zhangjiagang
City

Nantong

Chongchuan District Gangzha District Tongzhou District Haimen
Haimen
City Qidong City Rugao
Rugao
City Rudong County Hai'an County

Lianyungang

Haizhou District Lianyun District Ganyu District Guanyun County Donghai County Guannan County

Huai'an

Qingjiangpu District Huai'an
Huai'an
District Huaiyin District Hongze District Jinhu County Xuyi County Lianshui County

Yancheng

Tinghu District Yandu District Dafeng District Dongtai
Dongtai
City Sheyang County Funing County Binhai
Binhai
County Xiangshui County Jianhu County

Yangzhou

Guangling District Hanjiang District Jiangdu District Yizheng
Yizheng
City Gaoyou
Gaoyou
City Baoying County

Zhenjiang

Jingkou District Runzhou District Dantu District Yangzhong
Yangzhong
City Danyang City Jurong
Jurong
City

Taizhou

Hailing District Gaogang District Jiangyan District Jingjiang
Jingjiang
City Taixing
Taixing
City Xinghua City

Suqian

Sucheng District Suyu District Shuyang County Siyang County Sihong County

v t e

Metropolitan cities of China

Major Metropolitan regions

Jingjinji
Jingjinji
(JJJ) Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
(PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
(YRD)

Central Plain (Zhongyuan) Chengyu Cross-Strait Western Coast Guanzhong Mid-Southern Liaoning Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Mid-Reaches ( Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Valley)

Major Cities

National Central Cities

Beijinga Chongqinga Guangzhoub2 Shanghaia2 Tianjina2

Special
Special
Administrative Regions

Hong Kong Macau

Regional Central Cities

Chengdub Nanjingb Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb

Sub-provincial cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

Autonomous regional capitals

Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

Comparatively large cities

Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

Prefecture-level cities
Prefecture-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in China Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Shanghai

Beijing 1 Shanghai Shanghai 20,217,700 11 Foshan Guangdong 6,771,900

Chongqing

Guangzhou

2 Beijing Beijing 16,858,700 12 Nanjing Jiangsu 6,238,200

3 Chongqing Chongqing 12,389,500 13 Shenyang Liaoning 5,890,700

4 Guangzhou Guangdong 10,641,400 14 Hangzhou Zhejiang 5,849,500

5 Shenzhen Guangdong 10,358,400 15 Xi'an Shaanxi 5,399,300

6 Tianjin Tianjin 10,007,700 16 Harbin Heilongjiang 5,178,000

7 Wuhan Hubei 7,541,500 17 Dalian Liaoning 4,222,400

8 Dongguan Guangdong 7,271,300 18 Suzhou Jiangsu 4,083,900

9 Chengdu Sichuan 7,112,000 19 Qingdao Shandong 3,990,900

10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,055,071 20 Zhengzhou Henan 3,677,000

v t e

Provincial capitals of China

Changchun
Changchun
(Jilin) Changsha
Changsha
(Hunan) Chengdu
Chengdu
(Sichuan) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(Fujian) Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Guangdong) Guiyang
Guiyang
(Guizhou) Haikou
Haikou
(Hainan) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(Zhejiang) Harbin
Harbin
(Heilongjiang) Hefei
Hefei
(Anhui) Hohhot
Hohhot
(Inner Mongolia) Jinan
Jinan
(Shandong) Kunming
Kunming
(Yunnan) Lanzhou
Lanzhou
(Gansu) Lhasa (Tibet) Nanchang
Nanchang
(Jiangxi) Nanjing
Nanjing
(Jiangsu) Nanning
Nanning
(Guangxi) Shenyang
Shenyang
(Liaoning) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
(Hebei) Taibei¹ (Taiwan¹) Taiyuan
Taiyuan
(Shanxi) Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(Xinjiang) Wuhan
Wuhan
(Hubei) Xi'an
Xi'an
(Shaanxi) Xining
Xining
(Qinghai) Yinchuan
Yinchuan
(Ningxia) Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
(Henan)

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

v t e

Major regions and cities of China

National megalopolises

Jingjinji (Inner) Bohai Economic Rim

Beijing

Beijing

Changping Daxing Fangshan Mentougou Shunyi Tongzhou

Tianjin

Tianjin

Binhai Dongli Jinnan Wuqing

Hebei

Baoding

Xiong'an

Cangzhou Chengde Langfang Shijiazhuang Tangshan

Caofeidian Qian'an

Zhangjiakou

Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta (Economic Zone)

Jiangsu

Changzhou Lianyungang Nanjing Nantong Suzhou Taizhou Wuxi Yangzhou Zhenjiang

Shanghai

Shanghai

Baoshan Jiading Minhang Pudong Qingpu Songjiang

Zhejiang

Hangzhou Huzhou Jiaxing Jinhua Lishui Ningbo Quzhou Shaoxing Taizhou Wenzhou Zhoushan

Anhui

Chuzhou Hefei Huainan Ma'anshan Wuhu

Pearl River Delta/ Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area (Economic Zone)

Guangdong

Dongguan Foshan Guangzhou

Huadu Nansha Panyu

Huizhou Jiangmen Shenzhen

Bao'an

Zhaoqing Zhongshan Zhuhai

Hengqin

SARs

Hong Kong

Kowloon

Macau

Cotai

West Triangle Economic Zone

Chongqing

Chongqing

Fuling Liangjiang Qianjiang Wanzhou Xinbei

Sichuan

Chengdu Dazhou Deyang Guang'an Leshan Luzhou Meishan Mianyang Nanchong Neijiang Suining Yibin Zigong Ziyang

Shaanxi

Baoji Tongchuan Weinan Xi'an Xianyang

Yangling

Harbin- Changchun
Changchun
Megalopolis (Northeastern Cities)

Heilongjiang

Harbin Daqing Mudanjiang Qiqihar

Jilin

Changchun Jilin Siping Yanji

Middle Reaches of the Yangtze
Yangtze
River/ Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Valley (Central Triangle Economic Zone)

Hubei

Ezhou Huanggang Huangshi Qianjiang Tianmen Wuhan Xianning Xiantao Xiaogan

Hunan

Changde Changsha Hengyang Loudi Xiangtan Yiyang Yueyang Zhuzhou

Jiangxi

Fuzhou Ji'an Jingdezhen Jiujiang Nanchang Shangrao Xinyu Yichun Yingtan

Anhui

Anqing Bengbu Chizhou Chuzhou Hefei Huainan Lu'an Ma'anshan Tongling Wuhu Xuancheng

(North) Bohai Economic Rim

Liaoning

Anshan Dalian

Lüshun

Huludao Jinzhou Panjin Shenyang Yingkou

(South) Bohai Economic Rim

Shandong

Binzhou Dongying Jinan Qingdao Weifang Weihai Yantai Zibo

Regions

East

Northeast

North South Central

Central South Huizhou

Western

Northwest Southwest

Administrative divisions

By GDP By GDP
GDP
per capita By Human Development Index Prefecture-level divisions County-level divisions

Cities

Direct-controlled municipality Prefecture-level city Sub-provincial city County-level city List of cities in China

by GDP
GDP
per capita by population

Capitals

Historical capitals Current and former capitals

Categories: Subdivisions Regions Cities

v t e

Cities along the Yangtze

Province-level

Cities (from upper reaches to lower reaches)

Yunnan

Lijiang (SIchuan see below) Dongchuan

Sichuan

Panzhihua (Yunan see above) Yibin Luzhou

Chongqing

Jiangjin Central Chongqing Fuling Wanzhou

Hubei

Yichang Yidu Zhijiang Songzi Jingzhou Shishou ( Hunan
Hunan
see below) Honghu Chibi Wuhan Ezhou Huangshi Huanggang Wuxue

Hunan

Yueyang Linxiang

Jiangxi

Ruichang Jiujiang

Anhui

Anqing Chizhou Tongling Wuhu Ma'anshan

Jiangsu

Nanjing Yizheng Jurong Zhenjiang Yangzhou Taizhou Yangzhong Taixing Danyang Changzhou Jingjiang Jiangyin Zhangjiagang Rugao Nantong Changshu Taicang Haimen Qidong

Shanghai

Baoshan Pudong

Major cities along the Pearl River · Major cities along the Yellow River

v t e

Youth Olympic Games
Youth Olympic Games
Host Cities

Summer Youth Olympics

2010: Singapore
Singapore
• 2014: Nanjing
Nanjing
• 2018: Buenos Aires

Winter Youth Olympics

2012: Innsbruck
Innsbruck
• 2016: Lillehammer

China
China
portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 150033366 GND: 40752

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