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NANJING ( listen ), formerly romanized as NANKING and NANKIN, is a city situated in the heartland of the lower Yangtze River
Yangtze River
region in China
China
, which has long been a major centre of culture, education, research, politics, economy, transport networks and tourism. It is the capital city of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province of People\'s Republic of China
China
and the second largest city in the east China
China
region, with acreage about 6600 square kilometers and a total population of 8,230,000. The inner area of Nanjing
Nanjing
enclosed by the city wall is Nanjing
Nanjing
City (南京城), with acreage of 55 km2, while Nanjing
Nanjing
Metropolitan Region includes surrounding cities and areas, with acreage over 60 thousand km2 and population over 30 million.

Nanjing
Nanjing
has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture , having served as the capital of various Chinese dynasties, kingdoms and republican governments dating from the 3rd century CE to 1949. The city has a number of other names, and some historical names are now used as names of districts of the city; among them there is the name JIANGNING or KIANGNING (江寧, literally "Yangtze's Peace"), whose former character Jiang (江, River) is the former part of the name Jiangsu
Jiangsu
and latter character NING (寧, simplified form 宁, Peace) is the short name of Nanjing. When it was the capital of a state, for instance during the ROC , Jing (京) was adopted as the abbreviation of Nanjing. It first became a Chinese national capital as early as the Jin dynasty , and the name Nanjing
Nanjing
was officially designated for the city during the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
, about a thousand years later. Nanjing is particularly known as JINLING or GINLING (金陵, literally "Gold Mausoleum") and the old name has been used since the Warring States period in the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
.

Located in Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta area and the center of east China, Nanjing
Nanjing
is home to one of the world\'s largest inland ports . The city is also one of the fifteen sub-provincial cities in the People's Republic of China's administrative structure , enjoying jurisdictional and economic autonomy only slightly less than that of a province . Nanjing
Nanjing
has been ranked seventh in the evaluation of "Cities with Strongest Comprehensive Strength" issued by the National Statistics Bureau , and second in the evaluation of cities with most sustainable development potential in the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta. It has also been awarded the title of 2008 Habitat Scroll of Honour of China, Special
Special
UN Habitat Scroll of Honour Award and National Civilized City. Nanjing
Nanjing
boasts many high-quality universities and research institutes, with the number of universities listed in 100 National Key Universities ranking third, including Nanjing University and Southeast University . The ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. Nanjing
Nanjing
is one of the top three Chinese scientific research centers, especially in the chemical sciences, according to the Nature Index.

Nanjing, one of the nation's most important cities for over a thousand years, is recognized as one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China
China
. It has been one of the world\'s largest cities , enjoying peace and prosperity despite wars and disasters. Nanjing served as the capital of Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
, one of the three major states in the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period (211–280); the Eastern Jin and each of the Southern Dynasties (Liu Song , Southern Qi , Liang and Chen ), which successively ruled southern China
China
from 317–589; the Southern Tang , one of the Ten Kingdoms
Ten Kingdoms
(937–76); the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
when, for the first time, all of China
China
was ruled from the city (1368–1421); and the Republic of China
China
(1927–37, 1945–49) prior to its flight to Taiwan during the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
. The city also served as the seat of the rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
(1851–64) and the Japanese puppet regime of Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
(1940–45) during the Second Sino-Japanese War . It suffered appalling atrocities in both conflicts, including the Nanjing Massacre .

Nanjing
Nanjing
has served as the capital city of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province since the establishment of the People's Republic of China. It boasts many important heritage sites, including the Presidential Palace and Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum . Nanjing
Nanjing
is famous for human historical landscapes, mountains and waters such as Fuzimiao , Ming Palace , Chaotian Palace , Porcelain Tower , Drum Tower , Stone City
Stone City
, City Wall , Qinhuai River , Xuanwu Lake and Purple Mountain
Purple Mountain
. Key cultural facilities include Nanjing Library , Nanjing Museum and Art Museum.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Early history * 1.2 Imperial China
China
* 1.3 Modern China
China

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate and environment * 2.2 Cityscape

* 2.3 Environmental issues

* 2.3.1 Air pollution
Air pollution
in 2013

* 3 Government

* 3.1 Administrative divisions

* 4 Demographics

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Earlier development * 5.2 Modern times * 5.3 Today

* 6 Transportation

* 6.1 Rail * 6.2 Road * 6.3 Public transportation
Public transportation
* 6.4 Air * 6.5 Water * 6.6 Yangtze River
Yangtze River
crossings

* 7 Culture and art

* 7.1 Art * 7.2 Festivals * 7.3 Libraries * 7.4 Museums * 7.5 Theatre * 7.6 Night life * 7.7 Food and symbolism

* 8 Sports and stadiums

* 9 Tourism

* 9.1 Buildings and monuments

* 9.1.1 Imperial period * 9.1.2 Republic of China
China
period * 9.1.3 People\'s Republic of China
China
period

* 9.2 Parks and gardens * 9.3 Other places of interest

* 10 Education

* 10.1 Universities and colleges * 10.2 Notable high schools

* 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 External links

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Nanjing history

EARLY HISTORY

Archaeological discovery shows that " Nanjing Man " lived in more than 500 thousand years ago. Zun
Zun
, a kind of wine vessel, was found to exist in Beiyinyangying culture of Nanjing
Nanjing
in about 5000 years ago. In the late period of Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
, Taibo of Zhou came to Jiangnan and established Wu state, and the first stop is in Nanjing
Nanjing
area according to some historians based on discoveries in Taowu and Hushu culture. According to a legend quoted by an artist in Ming
Ming
dynasty, Chen Yi, Fuchai , King of the State of Wu , founded a fort named Yecheng in today's Nanjing
Nanjing
area in 495 BCE. Later in 473 BCE, the State of Yue conquered Wu and constructed the fort of YUECHENG (越城) on the outskirts of the present-day Zhonghua Gate . In 333 BCE, after eliminating the State of Yue, the State of Chu built JINLING YI (金陵邑) in the western part of present-day Nanjing. It was renamed Moling (秣陵) during reign of Qin Shi Huang . Since then, the city experienced destruction and renewal many times. The area was successively part of Kuaiji , Zhang and Danyang prefectures in Qin and Han dynasty, and part of Yangzhou
Yangzhou
region which was established as the nation's 13 supervisory and administrative regions in the 5th year of Yuanfeng in Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(106 BCE). Nanjing
Nanjing
was later the capital city of Danyang Prefecture, and had been the capital city of Yangzhou
Yangzhou
for about 400 years from late Han to early Tang .

IMPERIAL CHINA

_ A bixie _ sculpture at Xiao Xiu
Xiao Xiu
's tomb (518 CE). Stone sculpture of the southern dynasties is widely considered as the city's icon.

Nanjing
Nanjing
first became a state capital in 229 CE, when the state of Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
founded by Sun Quan during the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period relocated its capital to JIANYE (建業), the city extended on the basis of Jinling Yi in 211 CE. Although conquered by the Western Jin dynasty in 280, Nanjing
Nanjing
and its neighbouring areas had been well cultivated and developed into one of the commercial, cultural and political centers of China
China
during the rule of East Wu. This city would soon play a vital role in the following centuries.

Shortly after the unification of the region, the Western Jin dynasty collapsed. First the rebellions by eight Jin princes for the throne and later rebellions and invasion from Xiongnu
Xiongnu
and other nomadic peoples that destroyed the rule of the Jin dynasty in the north. In 317, remnants of the Jin court, as well as nobles and wealthy families, fled from the north to the south and reestablished the Jin court in Nanjing, which was then called JIANKANG (建康), replacing Luoyang
Luoyang
. It's the first time that the capital of the nation moved to southern part.

During the period of North–South division , Nanjing
Nanjing
remained the capital of the Southern dynasties for more than two and a half centuries. During this time, Nanjing
Nanjing
was the international hub of East Asia. Based on historical documents, the city had 280,000 registered households. Assuming an average Nanjing
Nanjing
household consisted of about 5.1 people, the city had more than 1.4 million residents.

A number of sculptural ensembles of that era, erected at the tombs of royals and other dignitaries, have survived (in various degrees of preservation) in Nanjing's northeastern and eastern suburbs, primarily in Qixia and Jiangning District . Possibly the best preserved of them is the ensemble of the Tomb of Xiao Xiu
Xiao Xiu
(475–518), a brother of Emperor Wu of Liang . The period of division ended when the Sui Dynasty reunified China
China
and almost destroyed the entire city, turning it into a small town. The Śarīra pagoda in Qixia Temple
Qixia Temple
. It was built in 601 CE and rebuilt in the 10th century.

The city of Nanjing
Nanjing
was razed after the Sui dynasty took over it. It renamed Shengzhou (昇州) in Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
and resuscitated during the late Tang. It was chosen as the capital and called JINLING (金陵) during the Southern Tang (937–976), a state that succeeded Wu state . It renamed Jiangning (江寧) in Northern Song dynasty and renamed Jiankang in Southern Song dynasty . Jiankang's textile industry burgeoned and thrived during the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
despite the constant threat of foreign invasions from the north by the Jurchen -led Jin dynasty . The court of Da Chu , a short-lived puppet state established by the Jurchens, and the court of Song were once in the city. Song was eventually exterminated by the Mongol empire
Mongol empire
under the name Yuan and in Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
the city's status as a hub of the textile industry was further consolidated. Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
map of Nanjing. Zhonghua Gate is the south gate of the walled city of Nanjing. The city wall was built in the 14th century and is the longest in the world.

The first emperor of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
, Zhu Yuanzhang (the Hongwu Emperor ), who overthrew the Yuan dynasty, renamed the city YINGTIAN, rebuilt it, and made it the dynastic capital in 1368. He constructed a 48 km (30 mi) long city wall around Yingtian , as well as a new Ming Palace complex, and government halls. It took 200,000 laborers 21 years to finish the project. The present-day City Wall of Nanjing
City Wall of Nanjing
was mainly built during that time and today it remains in good condition and has been well preserved. It is among the longest surviving city walls in China. The Jianwen Emperor ruled from 1398 to 1402.

It is believed that Nanjing
Nanjing
was the largest city in the world from 1358 to 1425 with a population of 487,000 in 1400. In 1421, the Yongle Emperor persisted in relocating the capital to Beijing, however he had to withdrew his order before his death. Although Beijing
Beijing
was the de facto capital after that, Nanjing
Nanjing
remained the official one of the Ming
Ming
Empire until 1441, when Emperor Yingzong ordered to not to prefix the words "行在" ("provisional") on the Beijing
Beijing
Government seals any longer, while Nanjing's need to prefix "Nanjing" for distinguishing. Hence, Nanjing
Nanjing
still had itself imperial government with extremely limit power before 1644.

Besides the city wall, other famous Ming-era structures in the city included the famous Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
and Porcelain Tower , although the latter was destroyed by the Taipings in the 19th century either in order to prevent a hostile faction from using it to observe and shell the city or from superstitious fear of its geomantic properties .

A monument to the huge human cost of some of the gigantic construction projects of the early Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
is the Yangshan Quarry (located some 15–20 km (9–12 mi) east of the walled city and Ming Xiaoling mausoleum), where a gigantic stele , cut on the orders of the Yongle Emperor, lies abandoned, just as it was left 600 years ago when it was understood it was impossible to move or complete it.

As the center of the empire, early- Ming
Ming
Nanjing
Nanjing
had worldwide connections. It was home of the admiral Zheng He , who went to sail the Pacific and Indian Oceans , and it was visited by foreign dignitaries, such as a king from Borneo (Boni 渤泥), who died during his visit to China
China
in 1408. The Tomb of the King of Boni
Tomb of the King of Boni
, with a spirit way and _a_ tortoise stele , was discovered in Yuhuatai District (south of the walled city) in 1958, and has been restored._ _

Over two centuries after the removal of the capital to Beijing, Nanjing
Nanjing
was destined to become the capital of a Ming
Ming
emperor one more time. After the fall of Beijing
Beijing
to Li Zicheng 's rebel forces and then to the Manchu -led Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in the spring of 1644, the Ming
Ming
prince Zhu Yousong was enthroned in Nanjing
Nanjing
in June 1644 as the Hongguang Emperor. His short reign was described by later historians as the first reign of the so-called Southern Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
.

Zhu Yousong, however, fared a lot worse than his ancestor Zhu Yuanzhang three centuries earlier. Beset by factional conflicts, his regime could not offer effective resistance to Qing forces, when the Qing army, led by the Manchu prince Dodo approached Jiangnan the next spring. Days after Yangzhou
Yangzhou
fell to the Manchus in late May 1645, the Hongguang Emperor fled Nanjing, and the imperial Ming Palace was looted by local residents. On June 6, Dodo's troops approached Nanjing, and the commander of the city's garrison, Zhao the Earl of Xincheng, promptly surrendered the city to them. The Manchus soon ordered all male residents of the city to shave their heads in the Manchu queue way . They requisitioned a large section of the city for the bannermen 's cantonment, and destroyed the former imperial Ming Palace , but otherwise the city was spared the mass murders and destruction that befell Yangzhou
Yangzhou
. An artist's impression of the Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864).

Under the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(1644–1911), the Nanjing
Nanjing
area was known as JIANGNING (江寧) and served as the seat of government for the Viceroy of Liangjiang . It was the site of a Qing army garrison. It had been visited by the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors a number of times on their tours of the southern provinces. Nanjing
Nanjing
was invaded by British troops during the close of the First Opium War
First Opium War
, which was ended by the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842. As the capital of the brief-lived rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
(founded by the Taiping rebels in the mid-19th century, Nanjing
Nanjing
was known as TIANJING (天京, "Heavenly Capital" or "Capital of Heaven").

Both the Qing viceroy and the Taiping king resided in buildings that would later be known as the Presidential Palace . When Qing forces led by Zeng Guofan retook the city in 1864, a massive slaughter occurred in the city with over 100,000 estimated to have committed suicide or fought to the death. Since the Taiping Rebellion began, Qing forces allowed no rebels speaking its dialect to surrender. This systematic mass murder of civilians occurred in Nanjing.

MODERN CHINA

See also: Battle of Nanking and Nanjing Massacre

The Xinhai Revolution led to the founding of the Republic of China
China
in January 1912 with Sun Yat-sen as the first provisional president and Nanking was selected as its new capital. However, the Qing Empire controlled large regions to the north, so revolutionaries asked Yuan Shikai to replace Sun as president in exchange for the abdication of Puyi , the Last Emperor. Yuan demanded the capital be Beijing
Beijing
(closer to his power base). The headquarters of the National Government of the Republic of China
China
in Nanjing, 1927

In 1927, the Kuomintang (KMT; Nationalist Party) under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek again established Nanjing
Nanjing
as the capital of the Republic of China, and this became internationally recognized once KMT forces took Beijing
Beijing
in 1928. The following decade is known as the Nanking decade .

In 1937, the Empire of Japan started a full-scale invasion of China after invading Manchuria in 1931, beginning the Second Sino-Japanese War (often considered a theatre of World War II
World War II
). Their troops occupied Nanjing
Nanjing
in December and carried out the systematic and brutal Nanking Massacre (the "Rape of Nanking"). Even children, the elderly, and nuns are reported to have suffered at the hands of the Imperial Japanese Army . The total death toll, including estimates made by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and the Nanjing
Nanjing
War Crimes Tribunal after the atomic bombings, was between 300,000 and 350,000. The city itself was also severely damaged during the massacre. The Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall was built in 1985 to commemorate this event.

A few days before the fall of the city, the National Government of China
China
was relocated to the southwestern city Chungking (Chongqing) and resumed Chinese resistance. In 1940, a Japanese-collaborationist government known as the " Nanjing
Nanjing
Regime " or "Reorganized National Government of China" led by Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
was established in Nanjing
Nanjing
as a rival to Chiang Kai-shek 's government in Chongqing. In 1946, after the Surrender of Japan , the KMT relocated its central government back to Nanjing.

On 21 April 1949, Communist forces crossed the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
. On April 23, the Communist People\'s Liberation Army (PLA) captured Nanjing. The KMT government retreated to Canton ( Guangzhou
Guangzhou
) until October 15, Chongqing
Chongqing
until November 25, and then Chengdu
Chengdu
before retreating to the island of Taiwan on December 10 where Taipei
Taipei
was proclaimed the temporary capital of the Republic of China. By late 1949, the PLA was pursuing remnants of KMT forces southwards in southern China, and only Tibet and Hainan Island
Hainan Island
were left. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China
China
in October 1949, Nanjing
Nanjing
was initially a province-level municipality, but it was soon merged into Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province and again became the provincial capital by replacing Zhenjiang which was transferred in 1928, and retains that status to this day.

GEOGRAPHY

Nanjing
Nanjing
Region - Lower Yangtze
Yangtze
Basin and Eastern China.

Nanjing, with a total land area of 6,598 square kilometres (2,548 sq mi), is situated in the heartland of the drainage area of the lower reaches of the Yangtze
Yangtze
River, and in the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta, one of the largest economic zones of China. The Yangtze River
Yangtze River
flows past the west side and then the north side of Nanjing
Nanjing
City, while the Ningzheng Ridge surrounds the north, east and south sides of the city. The city is 650 kilometres (400 mi) southeast of Luoyang
Luoyang
, 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) south-southeast of Beijing
Beijing
, 300 kilometres (190 mi) west-northwest of Shanghai
Shanghai
, and 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) east-northeast of Chongqing
Chongqing
. The Yangtze River
Yangtze River
flows downstream from Jiujiang
Jiujiang
, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
, through Anhui
Anhui
and Jiangsu
Jiangsu
to the East China
China
Sea. The northern part of the lower Yangtze
Yangtze
drainage basin is the Huai River basin and the southern part is the Zhe River basin; they are connected by the Grand Canal east of Nanjing. The area around Nanjing is called Hsiajiang (下江, Downstream River) region, with Jianghuai dominant in the northern part and Jiangzhe dominant in the southern part. The region is also well known as Dongnan (東南, South East, the Southeast) and Jiangnan (江南, and River South, South of Yangtze).

Nanjing
Nanjing
borders Yangzhou
Yangzhou
to the northeast (one town downstream when following the north bank of the Yangtze); Zhenjiang to the east (one town downstream when following the south bank of the Yangtze); and Changzhou
Changzhou
to the southeast. On its western boundary is Anhui
Anhui
province, where Nanjing
Nanjing
borders five prefecture-level cities: Chuzhou
Chuzhou
to the northwest, Wuhu , Chaohu and Maanshan to the west and Xuancheng to the southwest.

Nanjing
Nanjing
is at the intersection of the Yangtze
Yangtze
River, an east-west water transport artery, and the Nanjing– Beijing
Beijing
railway, a north-south land transport artery, hence the name “door of the east and west, throat of the south and north”. Furthermore, the west part of the Ningzhen range is in Nanjing; the Loong-like Zhong Mountain curls round the east side of the city, while the tiger-like Stone Mountain crouches in the west of the city, hence the name “the Zhong Mountain, a dragon curling, and the Stone Mountain, a tiger crouching”.

CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT

NANJING

CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )

J F M A M J J A S O N D

37 7 −1 47 9 1 82 13 5 73 20 11 102 26 16 193 29 21 186 32 25 129 32 24 72 27 19 65 22 13 51 16 6 24 10 0

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

_Source: CMA _

IMPERIAL CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

1.5 45 30 1.9 48 33 3.2 56 41 2.9 69 51 4 78 61 7.6 84 69 7.3 89 76 5.1 89 76 2.8 81 67 2.6 72 55 2 61 43 1 50 33

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Autumn maple leaves in Qixia Mountain Temple .

Nanjing
Nanjing
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen _Cfa_) and is under the influence of the East Asian monsoon . The four seasons are distinct, with damp conditions seen throughout the year, very hot and muggy summers, cold, damp winters, and in between, spring and autumn are of reasonable length. Along with Chongqing
Chongqing
and Wuhan
Wuhan
, Nanjing
Nanjing
is traditionally referred to as one of the "Three Furnacelike Cities " along the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
(长江流域三大火炉) for the perennially high temperatures in the summertime. However, the time from mid-June to the end of July is the plum blossom blooming season in which the _meiyu _ (rainy season of East Asia; literally "plum rain") occurs, during which the city experiences a period of mild rain as well as dampness. Typhoons are uncommon but possible in the late stages of summer and early part of autumn. The annual mean temperature is around 15.91 °C (60.6 °F), with the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranging from 2.7 °C (36.9 °F) in January to 28.1 °C (82.6 °F) in July. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −14.0 °C (7 °F) on 6 January 1955 to 40.7 °C (105 °F) on 22 August 1959. On average precipitation falls 115 days out of the year, and the average annual rainfall is 1,090 millimetres (43 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 37 percent in March to 52 percent in August, the city receives 1,926 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Nanjing
Nanjing
is endowed with rich natural resources, which include more than 40 kinds of minerals. Among them, iron and sulfur reserves make up 40 percent of those of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province. Its reserves of strontium rank first in East Asia and the South East Asia region. Nanjing
Nanjing
also possesses abundant water resources, both from the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
and groundwater. In addition, it has several natural hot springs such as Tangshan
Tangshan
Hot Spring in Jiangning and Tangquan Hot Spring in Pukou .

Sun Yat-sen once summarized and lauded the feature of Nanjing
Nanjing
in his book _The International Development of China
China
(建國方略)_:

Nanking was the old capital of China
China
before Peking, and is situated in a fine locality which comprises high mountains, deep water and a vast level plain—a rare site to be found in any part of the world. It also lies at the center of a very rich country on both sides of the lower Yangtze. (南京為中國古都,在北京之前,而其位置乃在一美善之地區。其地有高山,有深水,有平原,此三種天工,鐘毓一處,在世界中之大都市誠難覓如此佳境也。而又恰居長江下游兩岸最豐富區域之中心...)

To be more exact, surrounded by the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
and mountains, the urban area of the city enjoys its scenic natural environment. Xuanwu Lake and Mochou Lake are located in the centre of the city and are easily accessible to the public, while Purple Mountain
Purple Mountain
are covered with deciduous and coniferous forests preserving various historical and cultural sites. Meanwhile, a Yangtze River
Yangtze River
deep-water channel is constructing to enable Nanjing
Nanjing
to be capable of navigation of the 50,000 DWT vessels form the estuary.

CLIMATE DATA FOR NANJING (1981–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 21.0 (69.8) 27.7 (81.9) 30.3 (86.5) 34.2 (93.6) 37.5 (99.5) 38.1 (100.6) 39.7 (103.5) 40.7 (105.3) 39.0 (102.2) 33.4 (92.1) 28.6 (83.5) 23.1 (73.6) 40.7 (105.3)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 7.2 (45) 9.5 (49.1) 14.2 (57.6) 20.7 (69.3) 26.2 (79.2) 29.1 (84.4) 32.2 (90) 31.7 (89.1) 27.7 (81.9) 22.5 (72.5) 16.2 (61.2) 9.9 (49.8) 20.6 (69.1)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 2.7 (36.9) 5.0 (41) 9.3 (48.7) 15.6 (60.1) 21.1 (70) 24.8 (76.6) 28.1 (82.6) 27.6 (81.7) 23.3 (73.9) 17.6 (63.7) 10.9 (51.6) 4.9 (40.8) 15.9 (60.6)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −0.7 (30.7) 1.4 (34.5) 5.3 (41.5) 11.0 (51.8) 16.5 (61.7) 21.0 (69.8) 24.9 (76.8) 24.4 (75.9) 19.9 (67.8) 13.6 (56.5) 6.8 (44.2) 1.1 (34) 12.1 (53.8)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −14 (7) −13.0 (8.6) −7.1 (19.2) −0.2 (31.6) 5.0 (41) 11.8 (53.2) 16.8 (62.2) 16.9 (62.4) 7.7 (45.9) 0.2 (32.4) −6.3 (20.7) −13.1 (8.4) −14 (7)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 45.4 (1.787) 53.0 (2.087) 79.6 (3.134) 80.3 (3.161) 90.0 (3.543) 166.2 (6.543) 214.3 (8.437) 143.8 (5.661) 72.9 (2.87) 59.7 (2.35) 55.9 (2.201) 29.5 (1.161) 1,090.6 (42.935)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 8.7 9.1 11.8 10.0 9.7 10.6 12.3 11.8 8.1 7.8 7.4 6.2 113.5

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 74 73 72 71 71 76 80 80 78 75 76 73 74.9

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 124.7 120.3 144.7 169.2 194.2 162.8 196.7 201.6 164.0 164.2 147.4 137.1 1,926.9

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration

CITYSCAPE

Nanjing
Nanjing
skyline, taken in 2012.

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

Air Pollution In 2013

7 December 2013 image from NASA
NASA
's Terra Satellite of the Eastern China
China
smog See also: 2013 Eastern China
China
smog

A dense wave of smog began in the central and east parts of China
China
on 2 December 2013 across a distance of around 1,200 kilometres (750 mi), including Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Zhejiang. A lack of cold air flow, combined with slow-moving air masses carrying industrial emissions, collected airborne pollutants to form a thick layer of smog over the region. The heavy smog heavily polluted central and southern Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province, especially in and around Nanjing, with its AQI pollution Index at "severely polluted" for five straight days and "heavily polluted" for nine. On 3 December 2013, levels of PM2.5 particulate matter average over 943 micrograms per cubic metre, falling to over 338 micrograms per cubic metre on 4 December 2013. Between 3:00 pm, 3 December and 2:00pm, 4 December local time, several expressways from Nanjing
Nanjing
to other Jiangsu
Jiangsu
cities were closed, stranding dozens of passenger buses in Zhongyangmen bus station. From 5 to 6 December, Nanjing
Nanjing
issued a red alert for air pollution and closed down all kindergarten through middle schools. Children's Hospital outpatient services increased by 33 percent; general incidence of bronchitis, pneumonia, upper respiratory tract infections significantly increased. The smog dissipated 12 December. Officials blamed the dense pollution on lack of wind, automobile exhaust emissions under low air pressure, and coal -powered district heating system in north China
China
. Prevailing winds blew low-hanging air masses of factory emissions (mostly SO2 ) towards China's east coast.

GOVERNMENT

People's Government of Nanjing
Nanjing
City

At present, the full name of the government of Nanjing
Nanjing
is "People's Government of Nanjing
Nanjing
City" and the city is under the one-party rule of the CPC , with the CPC Nanjing
Nanjing
Committee Secretary as the _de facto_ governor of the city and the mayor as the executive head of the government working under the secretary.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

The sub-provincial city of Nanjing
Nanjing
is divided into 11 districts .

MAP DISTRICT SIMPLIFIED CHINESE HANYU PINYIN POPULATION (2013 ) AREA (KM2)

1 2 3 4 5 QIXIA JIANGNING PUKOU LUHE LISHUI GAOCHUN 1. XUANWU 2. QINHUAI 3. JIANYE 4. GULOU 5. YUHUATAI

DISTRICT

Xuanwu 玄武区 Xuánwǔ Qū 660,557 80.97

Qinhuai 秦淮区 Qínhuái Qū 1,034,822 50.36

Jianye 建邺区 Jiànyè Qū 446,899 82.00

Gulou 鼓楼区 Gǔlóu Qū 1,292,291 57.62

Yuhuatai 雨花台区 Yǔhuātái Qū 415,885 131.90

Qixia 栖霞区 Qīxiá Qū 664,103 340.00

Jiangning 江宁区 Jiāngníng Qū 1,178,628 1,573.00

Pukou 浦口区 Pǔkǒu Qū 728,798 913.00

Luhe 六合区 Lùhé Qū 926,445 1,485.50

Lishui 溧水区 Lìshuǐ Qū 419,523 983.00

Gaochun 高淳区 Gāochún Qū 420,429 801.00

* Defunct districts: Baixia District and Xiaguan District

DEMOGRAPHICS

POPULATION TREND

YEAR RESIDENTS (IN MILLION) NATURAL GROWTH RATE (%)

1949 2.5670 13.09

1950 2.5670 15.64

1955 2.8034 19.94

1960 3.2259 0.23

1965 3.4529 25.58

1970 3.6053 20.76

1975 3.9299 9.53

1978 4.1238 8.84

1990 5.0182 9.18

YEAR RESIDENTS (IN MILLION) NATURAL GROWTH RATE (%)

1995 5.2172 2.62

1996 5.2543 2.63

1997 5.2982 2.16

1998 5.3231 1.00

1999 5.3744 2.01

2000 5.4489 2.48

2001 5.5304 1.60

2002 5.6328 0.70

2003 5.7223 1.50

2006 6.0700 6.11

According to the _Sixth China
China
Census_, the total population of the City of Nanjing
Nanjing
reached 8.005 million in 2010. The statistics in 2011 estimated the total population to be 8.11 million. The birth rate was 8.86 percent and the death rate was 6.88 percent. The urban area had a population of 6.47 million people. The sex ratio of the city population was 107.31 males to 100 females.

As in most of eastern China
China
the ethnic makeup of Nanjing
Nanjing
is predominantly Han nationality (98.56 percent), with 50 other minority nationalities . In 1999, 77,394 residents belonged to minority nationalities, among which the vast majority (64,832) were Hui nationalities , contributing 83.76 percent to the minority population. The second and third largest minority groups were Manchu (2,311) and Zhuang (533) nationalities. Most of the minority nationalities resided in Jianye District, comprising 9.13 percent of the district's population.

ECONOMY

EARLIER DEVELOPMENT

There was a massive cultivating in the area of Nanjing
Nanjing
from the Three Kingdoms period to Southern dynasties. The sparse population led to land as royal rewards were granted for rules’ people. At first, the landless peasants benefited from it, then the senior officials and aristocratic families. Since large numbers of immigrants flooded into the area, reclamation was quite common in its remote parts, which promoted its agricultural development.

The craft industries, by contrast, had a faster growth. Especially the textiles section, there were about 200,000 craftsmen by the late Qing. Several dynasties established their imperial textiles bureaus in Nanjing. The Nanjing
Nanjing
Brocade (南京云锦) is their exquisite product as the cloth for the royal garments such as dragon robes . Meanwhile, the satins from Nanjing
Nanjing
were called “tribute satins” ("贡缎"), because they were usually paid as tribute to the monarchy. Besides, minting, papermaking, shipbuilding grew initially since the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period. As Nanjing
Nanjing
was the capital of the Ming
Ming
dynasty, the industries further expanded, where both state-owned and numerous private businesses served the imperial court. Several place names in Nanjing
Nanjing
remains witnessed them, such as Wangjinshi (网巾市, the market sells wangjin ), Guyilang (估衣廊, the corridor for garments bargain), Youfangqiao (油坊桥, the bridge near an oil mill).

Moreover, the trade in Nanjing
Nanjing
was also flourishing. The Ming
Ming
dynasty drawing _Nandu fanhui tujuan_ (_南都繁会图卷_, _Prosperous Nanjing_) vividly depicts a high street at that time bustling with people; all sorts of shops could be found on it. However, the economic developments were almost wiped out by the Taiping Rebellion’s catastrophe.

MODERN TIMES

Into the first half of the twentieth century after the establishment of ROC, Nanjing
Nanjing
gradually shifted from being a production hub towards being a heavy consumption city, mainly because of the rapid expansion of its wealthy population after Nanjing
Nanjing
once again regained the political spotlight of China. A number of huge department stores such as Zhongyang Shangchang sprouted up, attracting merchants from all over China
China
to sell their products in Nanjing. In 1933, the revenue generated by the food and entertainment industry in the city exceeded the sum of the output of the manufacturing and agriculture industry. One third of the city population worked in the service industry , .

In the 1950s after PRC was established by CPC, the government invested heavily in the city to build a series of state-owned heavy industries , as part of the national plan of rapid industrialization , converting it into a heavy industry production center of east China. Overenthusiastic in building a “world-class” industrial city, the government also made many disastrous mistakes during development, such as spending hundreds of millions of yuan to mine for non-existent coal, resulting in negative economic growth in the late 1960s. From 1960s to 1980s there were Five Pillar Industries, namely, electronics, cars , petrochemical, iron and steel, and power, each with big state-owned firms. After the Reform and Opening recovering market economy, the state-owned enterprises found themselves incapable of competing with efficient multinational firms and local private firms, hence were either mired in heavy debt or forced into bankruptcy or privatization and this resulted in large numbers of layoff workers who were technically not unemployed but effectively jobless.

TODAY

Skyline of Nanjing's Xinjiekou district as seen from Nanjing University's Gulou campus.

The current economy of the city is basically newly developed based on the past. Service industries are dominating, accounting for about 60 percent of the GDP
GDP
of the city, and financial industry, culture industry and tourism industry are top 3 of them. Industries of information technology, energy saving and environmental protection, new energy, smart power grid and intelligent equipment manufacturing have become pillar industries. Big civilian-run enterprise include Suning Commerce , Yurun , Sanpower , Fuzhong , Hiteker , 5stars , Jinpu , Tiandi , CTTQ Pharmaceutical , Nanjing
Nanjing
Iron and Steel Company and Simcere Pharmaceutical . Big state-owned firms include Panda Electronics , Yangzi Petrochemical , Jinling Petrochemical , Nanjing Chemical , Jincheng Motors , Jinling Pharmaceutical , Chenguang and NARI . The city has also attracted foreign investment, multinational firms such as Siemens
Siemens
, Ericsson
Ericsson
, Volkswagen
Volkswagen
, Iveco
Iveco
, A.O. Smith , and Sharp have established their lines, and a number of multinationals such as Ford
Ford
, IBM
IBM
, Lucent
Lucent
, Samsung
Samsung
and SAP established research center there. Many China-based leading firms such as Huawei
Huawei
, ZTE and Lenovo
Lenovo
have key R & D institutes in the city. Nanjing
Nanjing
is an industrial technology research and development hub, hosting many R "> A panoramic view of Nanjing
Nanjing
in 2005 Industrial zones

There are a number of industrial zones in Nanjing.

* Nanjing
Nanjing
New and High-Tech Industry Development Zone * Nanjing
Nanjing
Baixia Hi-Tech Industrial Zone * Nanjing
Nanjing
Economic and Technological Development Zone

TRANSPORTATION

Nanjing
Nanjing
is the transportation hub in eastern China
China
and the downstream Yangtze River
Yangtze River
area. Different means of transportation constitute a three-dimensional transport system that includes land, water and air. As in most other Chinese cities, public transportation is the dominant mode of travel of the majority of the citizens. As of October 2014, Nanjing
Nanjing
had four bridges and two tunnels over the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
, which are tying districts north of the river with the city center on the south bank.

RAIL

Nanjing South Railway Station

Nanjing
Nanjing
is an important railway hub in eastern China. It serves as rail junction for the Beijing- Shanghai
Shanghai
(Jinghu) (which is itself composed of the old Jinpu and Huning Railways ), Nanjing–Tongling Railway (Ningtong) , Nanjing–Qidong (Ningqi) , and the Nanjing-Xian (Ningxi) which encompasses the Hefei– Nanjing
Nanjing
Railway . Nanjing
Nanjing
is connected to the national high-speed railway network by Beijing– Shanghai
Shanghai
High-Speed Railway and Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu Passenger Dedicated Line , with several more high-speed rail lines under construction.

Among all 17 railway stations in Nanjing, passenger rail service is mainly provided by Nanjing Railway Station and Nanjing
Nanjing
South Railway Station , while other stations like Nanjing West Railway Station , Zhonghuamen Railway Station and Xianlin Railway Station serve minor roles. Nanjing Railway Station was first built in 1968. On November 12, 1999, the station was burnt in a serious fire. Reconstruction of the station was finished on September 1, 2005. Nanjing
Nanjing
South Railway Station , which is one of the 5 hub stations on Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, has officially been claimed as the largest railway station in Asia and the second largest in the world in terms of GFA (Gross Floor Area). Construction of Nanjing
Nanjing
South Station began on 10 January 2008. The station was opened for public service in 2011.

ROAD

Nanjing
Nanjing
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge , built in 1968, the first bridge over the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
to be built without foreign assistance.

As an important regional hub in the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta , Nanjing
Nanjing
is well-connected by over 60 state and provincial highways to all parts of China.

Express highways such as Hu–Ning, Ning–He, Ning–Hang enable commuters to travel to Shanghai, Hefei , Hangzhou
Hangzhou
, and other important cities quickly and conveniently. Inside the city of Nanjing, there are 230 km (140 mi) of highways, with a highway coverage density of 3.38 kilometres per hundred square kilometrs (5.44 mi/100 sq mi). The total road coverage density of the city is 112.56 kilometres per hundred square kilometres (181.15 mi/100 sq mi). The two artery roads in Nanjing
Nanjing
are Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Road and Hanzhong. The two roads cross in the city center, Xinjiekou.

EXPRESSWAYS:

* G25 Changchun–Shenzhen Expressway * G36 Nanjing– Luoyang
Luoyang
Expressway * G40 Shanghai–Xi\'an Expressway * G42 Shanghai– Chengdu
Chengdu
Expressway * G4211 Nanjing– Wuhu Expressway , a spur of G42 that extends west to Wuhu , Anhui
Anhui
* S55 Nanjing–Gaochun Expressway * S38 Yanjiang Expressway * G2501 Nanjing
Nanjing
Ring Expressway

NATIONAL HIGHWAY (GXXX):

* China
China
National Highway 104 —motorists can either drive northwest to Beijing
Beijing
or south to Fuzhou , Fujian
Fujian
. * China
China
National Highway 205 —motorists can either drive north to Shanhaiguan , Hebei
Hebei
or south to Shenzhen
Shenzhen
, Guangdong
Guangdong
. * China
China
National Highway 312 —motorists can either drive east to Shanghai
Shanghai
or west to Khorgas , Xinjiang
Xinjiang
on the Kazakh border * China
China
National Highway 328 — Nanjing
Nanjing
is the western terminus of G328, which motorists can follow to Hai\'an County in eastern Jiangsu

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

Xinjiekou Station of Line 2, Nanjing Metro

The city also boasts an efficient network of public transportation, which mainly consists of bus, taxi and metro systems. The bus network, which is currently run by three companies since 2011, provides more than 370 routes covering all parts of the city and suburban areas. Nanjing Metro Line 1, started service on September 3, 2005, with 16 stations and a length of 21.72 kilometres (13.50 miles). Line 2 and the 24.5 km-long south extension of Line 1 officially opened to passenger service on May 28, 2010. At present, Nanjing
Nanjing
has a metro system with a grand total of 256 kilometers (159 mi) of route and 136 stations. They are Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 10, Line S1 and Line S8. The city is planning to complete a 17-line Metro and light-rail system by 2030. The expansion of the Metro network will greatly facilitate the intracity transportation and reduce the currently heavy traffic congestion.

AIR

Nanjing's airport, Lukou International Airport , serves both national and international flights. In 2013, Nanjing
Nanjing
airport handled 15,011,792 passengers and 255,788.6 tonnes of freight. The airport currently has 85 routes to national and international destinations, which include Japan, Korea
Korea
, Thailand
Thailand
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, United States
United States
and Germany. The airport is connected by a 29-kilometre (18 mi) highway directly to the city center, and is also linked to various intercity highways, making it accessible to the passengers from the surrounding cities. A railway Ninggao Intercity Line has been built to link the airport with Nanjing South Railway Station . Lukou Airport was opened on 28 June 1997, replacing Nanjing Dajiaochang Airport as the main airport serving Nanjing. Dajiaochang Airport is still used as a military air base.

WATER

Port of Nanjing is the largest inland port in China, with annual cargo tonnage reached 191,970,000 t in 2012. The port area is 98 kilometres (61 mi) in length and has 64 berths including 16 berths for ships with a tonnage of more than 10,000. Nanjing
Nanjing
is also the biggest container port along the Yangtze
Yangtze
River; in March 2004, the one million container-capacity base, Longtan Containers Port Area opened, further consolidating Nanjing
Nanjing
as the leading port in the region. As of 2010 , it operated six public ports and three industrial ports. The Yangtze River’s 12.5-meter-deep waterway enables 50,000-ton-class ocean ships directly arrive at the Nanjing
Nanjing
Port, and the ocean ships with the capacities of 100,000 tons or above can also reach the port after load reduction in the Yangtze
Yangtze
River’s high-tide period.

YANGTZE RIVER CROSSINGS

Main article: Yangtze River
Yangtze River
bridges and tunnels

In the 1960s, the first Nanjing
Nanjing
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge was completed, and served as the only bridge crossing over the Lower Yangtze
Yangtze
in eastern China
China
at that time. The bridge was a source of pride and an important symbol of modern China, having been built and designed by the Chinese themselves following failed surveys by other nations and the reliance on and then rejection of Soviet expertise. Begun in 1960 and opened to traffic in 1968, the bridge is a two-tiered road and rail design spanning 4,600 metres on the upper deck, with approximately 1,580 metres spanning the river itself. Since then four more bridges and two tunnels have been built. Going in the downstream direction, the Yangtze
Yangtze
crossings in Nanjing
Nanjing
are: Dashengguan Bridge , Line 10 Metro Tunnel , Third Bridge , Nanjing
Nanjing
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Tunnel , First Bridge, Second Bridge and Fourth Bridge .

CULTURE AND ART

Nanjing Library

Being one of the four ancient capitals of China, Nanjing
Nanjing
has always been a cultural center attracting intellectuals from all over the country. In the Tang and Song dynasties, Nanjing
Nanjing
was a place where poets gathered and composed poems reminiscent of its luxurious past; during the Ming
Ming
and Qing dynasties, the city was the official imperial examination center ( Jiangnan Examination Hall ) for the Jiangnan region, again acting as a hub where different thoughts and opinions converged and thrived.

Today, with a long cultural tradition and strong support from local educational institutions, Nanjing
Nanjing
is commonly viewed as a “city of culture” and one of the more pleasant cities to live in China.

ART

Main article: List of Nanjing Art Groups

Some of the leading art groups of China
China
are based in Nanjing; they include the Qianxian Dance Company , Nanjing
Nanjing
Dance Company , Jiangsu Peking Opera Institute and Nanjing
Nanjing
Xiaohonghua Art Company among others.

Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province Kun Opera is one of the best theatres for Kunqu , China
China
's oldest stage art. It is considered a conservative and traditional troupe. Nanjing
Nanjing
also has professional opera troupes for the Yang, Yue (shaoxing), Xi and Jing ( Chinese opera varieties) as well as Suzhou
Suzhou
pingtan, spoken theatre and puppet theatre.

Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Art Gallery is the largest gallery in Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province, presenting some of the best traditional and contemporary art pieces of China; many other smaller-scale galleries, such as Red Chamber Art Garden and Jinling Stone Gallery , also have their own special exhibitions.

FESTIVALS

Main article: List of Festivals and Events of Nanjing
Nanjing
An elderly man sketches plum blossoms at the festival.

Many traditional festivals and customs were observed in the old times, which included climbing the City Wall on January 16, bathing in Qing Xi on March 3, hill hiking on September 9 and others (the dates are in Chinese lunar calendar ). Almost none of them, however, are still celebrated by modern Nanjingese.

Instead, Nanjing, as a popular tourist destination, hosts a series of government-organised events throughout the year. The annual International Plum Blossom Festival held in Plum Blossom Hill , the largest plum collection in China, attracts thousands of tourists both domestically and internationally. Other events include Nanjing
Nanjing
Baima Peach Blossom and Kite Festival, Jiangxin Zhou Fruit Festival and Linggu Temple Sweet Osmanthus Festival.

LIBRARIES

Nanjing Library , founded in 1907, houses more than 10 million volumes of printed materials and is the third largest library in China, after the National Library in Beijing
Beijing
and Shanghai
Shanghai
Library . Other libraries, such as city-owned Jinling Library and various district libraries, also provide considerable amount of information to citizens. Nanjing University Library is the second largest university libraries in China
China
after Peking University Library, and the fifth largest nationwide, especially in the number of precious collections.

MUSEUMS

Nanjing Museum Main article: List of museums in Nanjing

Nanjing
Nanjing
has some of the oldest and finest museums in China. Nanjing Museum , formerly known as National Central Museum during ROC period, is the first modern museum and remains as one of the leading museums in China
China
having 400,000 items in its permanent collection,. The museum is notable for enormous collections of Ming
Ming
and Qing imperial porcelain, which is among the largest in the world. Other museums include the City Museum of Nanjing in the Chaotian Palace , the Oriental Metropolitan Museum, the China
China
Modern History Museum in the Presidential Palace , the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall , the Taiping Kingdom History Museum , Jiangning Imperial Silk Manufacturing Museum , Nanjing
Nanjing
Yunjin Museum, Nanjing City Wall
Nanjing City Wall
Cultural Museum , Nanjing Customs Museum in Ganxi House, Nanjing
Nanjing
Astronomical History Museum, Nanjing
Nanjing
Paleontological Museum, Nanjing
Nanjing
Geological Museum, Nanjing Riverstones Museum, and other museums and memorials such Zheng He Memorial, Jinling Four Modern Calligraphers Memorial.

THEATRE

Most of Nanjing's major theatres are multi-purpose, used as convention halls, cinemas, musical halls and theatres on different occasions. The major theatres include the People\'s Convention Hall and the Nanjing
Nanjing
Arts and Culture Center . The Capital Theatre well known in the past is now a museum in theatre/film.

NIGHT LIFE

Qinhuai River

Traditionally Nanjing's nightlife was mostly centered around Nanjing Fuzimiao (Confucius Temple) area along the Qinhuai River , where night markets, restaurants and pubs thrived. Boating at night in the river was a main attraction of the city. Thus, one can see the statues of the famous teachers and educators of the past not too far from those of the courtesans who educated the young men in the other arts.

In the past 20 years, several commercial streets have been developed, hence the nightlife has become more diverse: there are shopping malls opening late in the Xinjiekou CBD and Hunan
Hunan
Road . The well-established " Nanjing
Nanjing
1912 " district hosts a wide variety of recreational facilities ranging from traditional restaurants and western pubs to dance clubs. There are two major areas where bars are densely located; one is in 1912 block; the other is along Shanghai road and its neighbourhood. Both are popular with international residents of the city.

Local people still very much enjoy street food, such as Turkish Kebab . As elsewhere in Asia, Karaoke is popular with both young and old crowds.

FOOD AND SYMBOLISM

Many of the city's local favorite dishes are based on ducks, including Nanjing salted duck , duck blood and vermicelli soup , and duck oil pancake.

The radish is also a typical food representing people of Nanjing, which has been spread through word of mouth as an interesting fact for many years in China. According to Nanjing.GOV.cn, "There is a long history of growing radish in Nanjing
Nanjing
especially the southern suburb. In the spring, the radish tastes very juicy and sweet. It is well-known that people in Nanjing
Nanjing
like eating radish. And the people are even addressed as ' Nanjing
Nanjing
big radish', which means they are unsophisticated, passionate and conservative. From health perspective, eating radish can help to offset the stodgy food that people take during the Spring Festival".

SPORTS AND STADIUMS

Nanjing Olympic Sports Centre

Nanjing's planned 20,000 seat Youth Olympic Sports Park Gymnasium will be one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup .

As a major Chinese city, Nanjing
Nanjing
is home to many professional sports teams. Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Suning F.C. , the football club currently staying in Chinese Super League , is a long-term tenant of Nanjing
Nanjing
Olympic Sports Centre . Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Nangang Basketball Club is a competitive team which has long been one of the major clubs fighting for the title in China top level league, CBA . Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Volleyball men and women teams are also traditionally considered as at top level in China
China
volleyball league.

There are two major sports centers in Nanjing, Wutaishan Sports Center and Nanjing Olympic Sports Centre . Both of these two are comprehensive sports centers, including stadium, gymnasium, natatorium, tennis court, etc. Wutaishan Sports Center was established in 1952 and it was one of the oldest and most advanced stadiums in early time of People's Republic of China.

Nanjing
Nanjing
hosted the 10th National Games of P.R.C. in 2005 and hosted the 2nd summer Youth Olympic Games
Youth Olympic Games
in 2014.

In 2005, in order to host The 10th National Game of People's Republic of China, there was a new stadium, Nanjing
Nanjing
Olympic Sports Centre, constructed in Nanjing. Compared to Wutaishan Sports Center , which the major stadium's capacity is 18,500, Nanjing
Nanjing
Olympic Sports Center has a more advanced stadium which is big enough to seat 60,000 spectators. Its gymnasium has capacity of 13,000, and natatorium of capacity 3,000.

On 10 February 2010, the 122nd IOC
IOC
session at Vancouver announced Nanjing
Nanjing
as the host city for the 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games
Youth Olympic Games
. The slogan of the 2014 Youth Olympic Games
Youth Olympic Games
was “Share the Games, Share our Dreams”. The Nanjing
Nanjing
2014 Youth Olympic Games
Youth Olympic Games
featured all 28 sports on the Olympic programme and were held from 16 to 28 August. The Nanjing
Nanjing
Youth Olympic Games
Youth Olympic Games
Organising Committee (NYOGOC) worked together with the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to attract the best young athletes from around the world to compete at the highest level. Off the competition fields, an integrated culture and education programme focused on discussions about education, Olympic values, social challenges, and cultural diversity. The YOG aims to spread the Olympic spirit and encourage sports participation.

TOURISM

Nanjing
Nanjing
is one of the most beautiful cities of mainland China
China
with lush green parks, natural scenic lakes, small mountains, historical buildings and monuments, relics and much more, which attracts thousands of tourists every year.

BUILDINGS AND MONUMENTS

Imperial Period

* Stone City
Stone City
* Qixia Temple
Qixia Temple
* Linggu Temple * Jiming Temple * South Tang mausoleums (南唐二陵) * Fuzimiao (Confucius Temple) and Qinhuai River * Jiangnan Gongyuan * City Wall of Nanjing
City Wall of Nanjing
* Ming
Ming
Dynasty Palace Site * Chaotian Palace * Drum Tower of Nanjing * Beiji Ge * Jinghai Temple * Zhonghua Gate * The Porcelain Pagoda
Pagoda
of Nanjing
Nanjing
(destroyed) * Xu Garden
Xu Garden
* Zhan Yuan Garden * Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
and its surrounding complex * Yangshan Quarry * Yuejiang Lou

*

Tower of Linggu Temple *

Classical buildings in the Mochou Lake *

Zhonghua Gate *

Spirit Way of Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum

Republic Of China
China
Period

Because it was designated as the national capital, many structures were built around that time. Even today, some of them still remain which are open to tourists.

* Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum and its surrounding area * Former Presidential Palace, Nanjing
Nanjing
of ROC * Former Central Government of ROC Building Group along N. Zhongshan Road (中山北路国民政府建筑) * Former Central Committee of KMT Buildings (中国国民党中央党部旧址) * Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Art Gallery (Former National Art Gallery Buildings) * Nanjing Great Hall of the People (Former National Great Hall) * Former Foreign Embassies in Gulou Area (鼓楼使馆区) * Nanking Officials Residence Cluster along Yihe Road (颐和路公馆区) * Former Central Stadium (now in campus of Nanjing
Nanjing
Sport Institute) (中央体育场旧址/南京体育学院) * Former Central Radio of KMT Building * Republic of China
China
Military Academy Buildings (中央陆军军官学校旧址) * Former Bank of China
China
Nanking Branch Building (中国银行南京分行旧址) * Former Bank of Communications Nanking Branch Building (交通银行南京分行旧址) * Former Central Bank of ROC Nanking Branch Building (中央银行南京分行旧址) * Dahua Theatre (大华电影院) * Lizhishe Buildings (励志社) * Former Macklin Hospital Buildings (Gulou Hospital) (马林医院旧址/鼓楼医院) * Former Central Hospital Buildings (国立中央医院旧址) * Former National Central Museum Buildings ( Nanjing
Nanjing
Museum) (国立中央博物院旧址/南京博物馆) * Purple Mountain
Purple Mountain
Observatory * Former Academia Sinica of ROC Buildings (国立中央研究院旧址) * Former Central University Buildings (former Nanjing
Nanjing
University buildings, now in Sipailou campus of Southeast University
Southeast University
) * Former University of Nanking Buildings (now in Gulou campus of Nanjing University ) * Former Ginling College Buildings (now in Suiyuan campus of Nanjing Normal University ) * St. Paul's Church (圣保罗堂) * Central Hotel (中央饭店) * Former Capital Hotel (Huajiang Hotel) (首都饭店/华江饭店) * Yangtse
Yangtse
Hotel (扬子饭店) * Hongshan Zoo (红山动物园)

*

Hall of Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum *

Main entrance of the Presidential Palace *

Former site of Executive Yuan *

Former site of Lizhishe (Society of Encouragement) *

Hot Spring Villa of Chiang Kai-shek *

Auditorium of National Central University (noe Southeast University) *

Former US Embassy *

Former residence of Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
*

A mansion in Yihe Road

People\'s Republic Of China
China
Period

* Jinling Hotel
Jinling Hotel
* Nanjing
Nanjing
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge * Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall * Zifeng Tower

*

Zifeng Tower ranks among the tallest buildings in the world, opened for commercial operations in 2010. *

Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge *

Nanjing
Nanjing
Youth Olympic Towers *

New Nanjing Library

PARKS AND GARDENS

* China
China
Gate Castle Park * Couple Park * Defence Park * Gulin Park * Mochou Lake and Park * Nanjing Hongshan Forest Zoo * Purple Mountain
Purple Mountain
Scenic Area * Qingliangshan Park
Qingliangshan Park
* Taoye Ferry * White Horse Park * Wuchaomen Park * Xiamafang Ruins Park * Xu Garden
Xu Garden
* Xuanwu Lake * Yuhuatai Memorial Park of Revolutionary Martyrs * Zhan Yuan Garden * Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Botanical Garden

OTHER PLACES OF INTEREST

* Tangshan
Tangshan
Hot Spring * Yangshan Quarry * Jiangxin Island
Jiangxin Island
* Yangtze River
Yangtze River
power line crossings , tallest transmission towers built of concrete.

EDUCATION

Nanjing
Nanjing
has been the educational center in southern China
China
for more than 1700 years. There are 75 institutions of higher learning till 2013. The number of National key laboratories, National key disciplines and the academicians of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering all rank third in the nation. It boasts some of the most prominent educational institutions in the region, some of which are listed as follows: Nanjing University

Many universities in Nanjing
Nanjing
have satellite campuses or have moved their main campus to Xianlin University City . _Clockwise from top_:

* Gate to Nanjing
Nanjing
Normal * Nanjing University of Finance * Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine * Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications * Nanjing
Nanjing
Normal University

UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES

National universities and colleges

OPERATED BY MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

* China
China
Pharmaceutical University * Hohai University * Nanjing Agricultural University * Nanjing University * Southeast University
Southeast University

OPERATED BY MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

* Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics * Nanjing University of Science and Technology

OPERATED BY THE JOINT COMMISSION OF THE STATE FOREST ADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC ORDER MINISTRY

* Nanjing
Nanjing
Forest Police College (南京森林警察学院)

OPERATED BY THE GENERAL SPORT ADMINISTRATION

* Nanjing
Nanjing
Sport Institute (南京体育学院)

National military universities and colleges

* PLA Nanjing
Nanjing
Army Command College (中国人民解放军南京陆军指挥学院) * PLA Nanjing
Nanjing
International Relation College (中国人民解放军南京国际关系学院) * PLA Nanjing Political College * PLA Naval Command College (中国人民解放军海军指挥学院) * PLA University of Science and Technology (中国人民解放军理工大学)

Provincial universities and colleges

* Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Institute of Education * Jinling Institute of Technology (金陵科技学院) * Nanjing
Nanjing
Arts Institute (南京艺术学院) * Nanjing Audit University * Nanjing
Nanjing
City Vocational College (南京城市职业学院) * Nanjing Forestry University * Nanjing Institute of Technology * Nanjing Medical University * Nanjing Normal University
Nanjing Normal University
* Nanjing Xiaozhuang University * Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine * Nanjing University of Finance and Economics * Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology * Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications * Nanjing University of Technology

Private universities and colleges

* Communication University Of China\' Nanjing (中国传媒大学南广学院) * Hopkins-Nanjing Center * Nanjing University Jinling College (南京大学金陵学院) * New York Institute of Technology * Sanjiang College

NOTABLE HIGH SCHOOLS

* High School Affiliated to Nanjing Normal University
Nanjing Normal University
* Jinling High School * Nanjing Foreign Language School * Nanjing International School * Nanjing
Nanjing
Ninghai High School (南京宁海中学) * Nanjing No.1 High School * Nanjing Zhonghua High School * Nanjing
Nanjing
No. 5 High School (南京第五中学) * Nanjing
Nanjing
No. 9 High School (南京第九中学) * Nanjing
Nanjing
No. 13 High School (南京市第十三中学) * Nanjing
Nanjing
No. 29 High School (南京市第二十九中学) * Nanjing No. 3 Senior Middle School * VIA Nanjing
Nanjing
No. 3 International High School (美国佛蒙特州国际学校南京三中校区) * Caulfield Grammar School ( Nanjing
Nanjing
Campus)

Sister cities

* Bandar Seri Begawan , Brunei * Barranquilla
Barranquilla
, Colombia * Mangaung , South Africa * Windhoek
Windhoek
, Namibia * Magilev , Belarus

* Eindhoven
Eindhoven
, North Brabant, Netherlands * Florence
Florence
, Tuscany, Italy * Leipzig
Leipzig
, Saxony, Germany * Limassol
Limassol
, Cyprus * London , Ontario, Canada

* Malacca Town , Malaysia * Mexicali , Baja California, Mexico * Perth , Western Australia, Australia * St. Louis , Missouri, USA * Daejeon , South Korea

Former Sister cities

* Nagoya
Nagoya
, Japan
Japan
(suspended on February 21, 2012 after Nanking Massacre denialist statements by Nagoya's mayor, Takashi Kawamura )

SEE ALSO

* Jiangnan * List of cities in the People\'s Republic of China
China
by population * List of twin towns and sister cities in China
China
* Historical capitals of China
China
* City Wall of Nanjing
City Wall of Nanjing
* Ming Palace * Nanking Massacre * _The Rape of Nanking_ (book) * Treaty of Nanjing * Nanjing Salted Duck

NOTES

* ^ Nankinese, sometimes may be translated as Nanjinese, Nanjingese, Nankingese, Nanjinger, Nankiner, etc.. In Nanjing
Nanjing
dialect there is no difference between Nanjing
Nanjing
and Nanjin or between Nanking and Nankin. This means the two pronunciations Jing and Jin in Mandarin Chinese pronounce the same in Nanjing
Nanjing
dialect, and king and kin are also the same. * ^ "A Grass Roots Fight to Save a \'Super Tree\'". _The New York Times _. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Romanisation of the Chinese Language". Society for Anglo-Chinese Understanding. Retrieved 2014-07-12. * ^ In East China
China
, in terms of urban population and urban area, the largest city is Shanghai
Shanghai
, and the second largest is Nanjing. * ^ "南京市2015年1%人口抽样调查数据出炉 常住人口823万". _gov.longhoo.net_. Retrieved 2016-10-19. * ^ "南京历史沿革". 中国南京政府官网. * ^ Since becoming a southern capital, the city has been called Nanking (Nanjing, 南京) unofficially, and was officially named Nanjing
Nanjing
(Nanking) after Peking ( Beijing
Beijing
北京, renamed from Peping or Beiping, 北平) became a capital city during the early Ming
Ming
dynasty; the name appears in Ming
Ming
Dynasty echo poem (蕭子顯 《奉和昭明太子鐘山講解詩》:“崇嶽基舊宇,盤嶺跨南京”), for example. It's also unofficially called Nandu (南都), and Nandu Fanhui Tu (《南都繁會圖》, Nandu Prosperity Picture) is an example. * ^ Nanjing
Nanjing
is also called Jincheng (金城, Gold City), derived from Jinling City. In addition, Jincheng was a city in Nanjing
Nanjing
area. In the 1st year of Hsiankang in the Jin dynasty (335 CE), Langya (瑯琊), a prefectural governor Huan Wen stationed in Jincheng, submitted a proposal to establish the prefecture of South Langya in the land of Jiangsheng (江乘) county, and then the city Jincheng became the capital city of the newly established South Langya Prefecture (南瑯琊郡). The Jincheng later renamed Jinling township, in today's Qinhuai District . (《至大金陵新志》:“金城在城东二十五里,吴筑,今上元县金陵乡地名金城戍即其地。” 《至正金陵新志》:“上元縣金陵鄉,舊名金城戍。晉太元八年,謝安勞師于金城,即此。或稱琅邪城。咸康初,桓溫為琅邪內史,鎮金城。”) * ^ 薛宏莉 (2008-05-07). "15个副省级城市中 哈尔滨市房价涨幅排列第五名" . _哈尔滨地产_ (in Chinese). Sohu. Retrieved 2008-06-11. * ^ "中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发5号". 豆丁网. 1995-02-19. Retrieved 2014-05-28. * ^ "Home - Women GP - Nanjing". Nanjing2009.fide.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26. * ^ 100 National Key Universities are universities of Project 211 whose name comes from the abbreviation of 100 national key universities in 21st century. There are 8 universities listed in Project 211 in Nanjing, 9 in Shanghai, and 23 in Beijing. * ^ "It will come as no surprise that the top performing Chinese cities in the Nature Index are Beijing, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Nanjing. All three are significant players economically and politically, Beijing and Shanghai
Shanghai
particularly. ... As the capital of the wealthy eastern coastal province of Jiangsu, Nanjing
Nanjing
is located in a region rich in economic and technological activity. ..." - from "Three giants tighten their grip", Nature 528, S176–S178 (17 December 2015) * ^ "走马南京都市圈". 中国经济快讯周刊/人民网. 2003. * ^ "南京介绍". 新华网. 2012-10-09. * ^ "江苏省行政区划介绍". 江苏省政府官网. * ^ _A_ _B_ Rita Yi Man Li, "A Study on the Impact of Culture, Economic, History and Legal Systems Which Affect the Provisions of Fittings by Residential Developers in Boston, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Nanjing", _Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal_. 1:3-4. 2009. Access via Questia , an online subscription service. * ^ _A_ _B_ Crespigny 2004 , 3 * ^ "南京市". _重編囯語辭典修訂本_. Ministry of Education, ROC. 民國十六年,國民政府宣言定為首都,今以臺北市為我國中央政府所在地。(In the 16th Year of the Republic of China
China
, the National Government established as the capital. At present, Taipei
Taipei
is the seat of the central government.) * ^ * ^ * ^ (金陵在春秋時本吳地,未有城邑。惟石頭城東有冶城。傳雲,夫差冶鑄於此。即今朝天宮地。) _金陵古今圖考_ (_Illustrated Study of Past and Present Nanjing_) * ^ Here in Yecheng, Yuecheng and Jinling Yi, both Cheng and Yi mean city. * ^ 南京六朝石刻现状调查:在田野与工地间寻找国宝 (IN CHINESE). XINHUA. 7 JUNE 2006. RETRIEVED 2 NOVEMBER 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Shufen Liu, " Jiankang and the Commercial Empire of the Southern Dynasties", in Pearce, Spiro, Ebrey eds. _Culture and Power_, 2001:35. * ^ "六朝名都崛起江东". _南京市志(第1册)_. * ^ 《金陵记》:“梁都之时,城中二十八万户,西至石头,东至倪塘,南至石子冈,北过蒋山,东西南北各四十里。” (in Chinese) * ^ Liang Baiquan. Nanjing-de Liu Chao Shike _(Nanjing's Six Dynasties' Sculptures)_. pp. 53–54. ISBN 7-80614-376-9 * ^ Albert E. Dien, _Six Dynasties Civilization_. Yale University Press, 2007, ISBN 0-300-07404-2 . Partial text on Google Books. P. 190. A reconstruction of the original form of the ensemble is shown in Fig. 5.19. * ^ "梁安成康王萧秀墓石刻". Jllib.org.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ The city was seriously destroyed in chaos caused by wars and changes of dynasties. In the 5th year of Daye in Sui (609 CE), the city again became capital city of Danyang Prefecture. In the 14th year of Daye reign Emperor Yang of Sui
Emperor Yang of Sui
ordered to build palace in Nanjing, attempted to make the city as capital to keep Sui dynasty and failed. * ^ "南唐再兴金陵城". _南京市志(第1册)_. * ^ Johannes L. Kurz (2011). _China's Southern Tang Dynasty, 937-976_. Routledge. * ^ Franke, Herbert (1994). "The Chin dynasty". In Denis Twitchett, Denis C. ; John King Fairbank. _The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States, 710–1368_. Cambridge University Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-521-24331-5 . * ^ Tao, Jing-Shen (2009). "The Move to the South and the Reign of Kao-tsung". In Paul Jakov Smith; Denis C. Twitchett. _The Cambridge History of China: Volume 5, The Sung Dynasty and Its Precursors, 907-1279_. Cambridge University Press. p. 647. ISBN 978-0-521-81248-1 . * ^ In the 3rd year of Jianyan (1129), Jiankang became Temporary Capital (行都) of Song, being set as Eastern Capital. Although people like Yue Fei stood for the imperial court being in the city, eventually in the 8th year of Shaoxing (1139) it withdrew from Jiankang to Lin'an (present Hangzhou
Hangzhou
), and since then the city became Preserving Capital (留都) of Song dynasty
Song dynasty
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Yangtse
), and the Zhe (Zhe of Jiangzhe 江浙)) is a big river south of Jiang. * ^ The areas covered by such geographical names as Jiangnan, Dongnan and Hsiajiang are not precisely defined. In ancient times the area was known as Yangchow (揚州). Sometimes the term Jianghai (江海) is used because the region is where the Jiang ( Yangtse
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Museum". China.org.cn. 2003-10-29. Retrieved 2014-05-17. * ^ Liuchao Gudu Bowuguan(六朝古都博物館) * ^ Jiangning Zhizao Bowuguan(江甯織造博物館) * ^ Nanjing
Nanjing
Minsu Bowuguan(南京民俗博物館), located in Ganxi House (甘熙宅第) which is said to be the largest Chinese private house, with the nickname Ninety Nine And A Half Rooms. * ^ A small museum and tomb honoring the 15th century seafaring admiral Zheng He although his body was buried at sea off the Malabar Coast near Calicut in western India. Levathes, Louise. _When China Ruled The Seas: The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne 1405-1433_, p. 172. Oxford Univ. Press (New York), 1996. * ^ Jinling Shufa Silao Jinianguan(金陵書法四老紀念館,胡小石、林散之、蕭嫻、高二適) * ^ _Life on the Water\'s Edge: The Culture and History of the Qinhuai River_ - China.org.cn * ^ " China
China
Cultural Kaleidoscope". Retrieved 29 October 2014. * ^ "Frying Spring Rolls at the Beginning of Spring". Retrieved 19 April 2013. * ^ The Official website of the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup, FIBA.com, Retrieved 9 March 2016. * ^ "俱乐部概况". Jssainty fc. Retrieved 10 April 2012. * ^ "南京成功获得2014年夏季世界青年奥运会主办权". 中国日报. 2010-02-11. * ^ "南京获得2013年亚青会举办权". 腾讯网. 2010-11-13.

* ^ Wutaishan Stadium * ^ "紫峰大厦开业庆典". Greenland Group. Retrieved 5 March 2012.

REFERENCES

_See also: Bibliography of the history of Nanjing
Nanjing
_

* Cotterell, Arthur. (2007). _The Imperial Capitals of China
China
- An Inside View of the Celestial Empire_. London: Pimlico. pp. 304 pages. ISBN 978-1-84595-009-5 . * Danielson, Eric N. (2004). _ Nanjing
Nanjing
and the Lower Yangzi River_. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions. ISBN 981-232-598-0 . * Jun Fang (23 May 2014). _China\'s Second Capital – Nanjing
Nanjing
Under the Ming, 1368-1644_. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-00845-1 . * Eigner, Julius (February 1938). _"The Rise and Fall of Nanking" in National Geographic Vol. LXXIII No.2_. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic. * Farmer, Edward L. (1976). _Early Ming
Ming
Government: The Evolution of Dual Capitals_. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. * Hobart, Alice Tisdale (1927). _Within the Walls of Nanking_. New York: MacMillan. * Jiang, Zanchu (1995). _ Nanjing
Nanjing
shi hua_. Nanjing: Nanjing
Nanjing
chu ban she. ISBN 7-80614-159-6 . * Lutz, Jessie Gregory (1971). _ China
China
and the Christian Colleges, 1850-1950_. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. * Ma, Chao Chun (Ma Chaojun) (1937). _Nanking's Development, 1927-1937_. Nanking: Municipality of Nanking. * Michael, Franz (1972). _The Taiping Rebellion: History and Documents (3 vols.)_. Seattle: University of Washington Press. * Mote, Frederick W. (1977). _"The Transformation of Nanking, 1350–1400," in The City in Late Imperial China, ed. by G. William Skinner_. Stanford: Stanford University Press. * Mote, Frederick W., and Twitchett, Denis, ed. (1988). _The Cambridge History of China
China
Vol. 7, The Ming
Ming
Dynasty, 1368-1644_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Musgrove, Charles D. (2000). _"Constructing a National Capital in Nanjing, 1927–1937," in Remaking the Chinese City, 1900–1950, ed. by Joseph W. Esherick_. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. * Nanking Women's Club (1933). _Sketches of Nanking_. Nanking: Nanking Women's Club. * Ouchterlony, John (1844). _The Chinese War: An Account of All the Operations of the British Forces from the Commencement to the Treaty of Nanking_. London: Saunders and Otley. * Prip-Moller, Johannes (1935). _"The Hall of Lin Ku Ssu (Ling Gu Si) Nanking," in Artes Monuments Vol. III_. Copenhagen: Artes Monuments. * Smalley, Martha L. (1982). _Guide to the Archives of the United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia (Record Group 11)_. New Haven: Yale University Divinity Library Special
Special
Collections. * Struve, Lynn (1988), "The Southern Ming", in Frederic W. Mote; Denis Twitchett; John King Fairbank (eds.), _Cambridge History of China, Volume 7, The Ming
Ming
Dynasty, 1368–1644_, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 641–725 CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ). * Struve, Lynn A. (1998). _Voices from the Ming-Qing Cataclysm: China
China
in Tigers' Jaws_. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07553-7 . (Chapter 4: _"The emperor really has left": Nanjing
Nanjing
changes hands_, pp. 55–72.) * Teng, Ssu Yu (1944). _Chang Hsi (Zhang Xi) and the Treaty of Nanking, 1842_. Chicago: Chicago University Press. * Thurston, Mrs. Lawrence (Matilda) (1955). _Ginling College_. New York: United Board for Christian Colleges in China. * Till, Barry (1982). _In Search of Old Nanking_. Hong Kong: Hong Kong and Shanghai
Shanghai
Joint Publishing Company. * Tyau, T.Z. (1930). _Two Years of Nationalist China_. Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh. * Uchiyama, Kiyoshi (1910). _Guide to Nanking_. Shanghai: China Commercial Press. * Wakeman, Frederic, Jr. (1985), _The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-Century China_, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-04804-0 . * Wang, Nengwei (1998). _ Nanjing
Nanjing
Jiu Ying (Old Photos of Nanjing)_. Nanjing: People's Fine Arts Publishing House. * Ye, Zhaoyan (1998). _Lao Nanjing: Jiu Ying Qinhuai (Old Nanjing: Reflections of Scenes on the Qinhuai River)_. Nanjing: Zhongguo Di Er Lishi Dang An Guan ( China
China
Second National Archives). * Yang, Xinhua; Lu, Haiming (2001). _ Nanjing
Nanjing
Ming-Qing Jianzhu (Ming and Qing architecture of Nanjing)_. Nanjing
Nanjing
Daxue Chubanshe (Nanjing University Press). ISBN 7-305-03669-2 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to NANJING _.

_ Look up NANJING _ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* _ Nanjing
Nanjing
travel guide from Wikivoyage * (in Chinese) Nanjing
Nanjing
Government website * Nanjing
Nanjing
English guide with open directory * The Nanjinger: Nanjing\'s largest English news network with city guide * List of Nanjing
Nanjing
Government Departments * Historic US Army map of Nanjing, 1945 * "Nanking Illustrated" from 1624

‹ The template below (Geographic location _) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

Chuzhou
Chuzhou
(Anhui): Tianchang

Chuzhou
Chuzhou
: Urban area, Lai\'an , Quanjiao , Hexian

Yangzhou
Yangzhou
: Yizheng Zhenjiang : Jurong
Jurong
Changzhou
Changzhou
: Liyang

NANJING

Ma\'anshan (Anhui): Urban area, Dangtu Xuancheng : Urban area Xuancheng (Anhui): Langxi

Preceded by Beijing
Beijing
CAPITAL OF CHINA 1368–1420 Succeeded by Beijing
Beijing

CAPITAL OF CHINA 1928–1937 Succeeded by Wuhan
Wuhan
(wartime)

Preceded by Chongqing
Chongqing
(wartime) CAPITAL OF CHINA 1945-1949 Succeeded by Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(after 23 April) Taipei
Taipei
(_de facto_) for the Republic of China
China

Succeeded by Beijing for the People's Republic of China
China

* v * t * e

City of Nanjing
Nanjing

DISTRICTS

* Xuanwu * Qinhuai * Jianye * Gulou * Pukou * Liuhe * Qixia * Yuhuatai * Jiangning * Lishui * Gaochun * _Baixia (defunct)_ * _Xiaguan (defunct)_

ATTRACTIONS

PARKS AND LAKES

* China
China
Gate Castle Park * Couple Park * Defence Park * Gulin Park * Jiangxin Island
Jiangxin Island
* Mochou Lake * Nanjing Hongshan Forest Zoo * Purple Mountain
Purple Mountain
* Purple Mountain
Purple Mountain
Observatory * Qingliangshan Park
Qingliangshan Park
* Taoye Ferry * White Horse Park * Wuchaomen Park * Xu Garden
Xu Garden
* Xuanwu Lake * Yuhuatai Memorial Park of Revolutionary Martyrs * Zhan Yuan Garden * Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Botanical Garden

TEMPLES

* Nanjing Fuzimiao (Temple of Confucius) * Jiming Temple * Jinghai Temple * Linggu Temple * Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
* Qixia Temple
Qixia Temple

HISTORIC SITES

* Chaotian Palace * City Wall of Nanjing
City Wall of Nanjing
* Memorial of Tao Xingzhi * Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall * National Revolutionary Army Memorial Cemetery * Presidential Palace, Nanjing
Nanjing
* Stone City
Stone City
* The Porcelain Pagoda
Pagoda
of Nanjing
Nanjing

OTHER SITES

* Jinling Hotel
Jinling Hotel
* Nanjing City Wall
Nanjing City Wall
* Nanjing International Exhibition Center * Nanjing
Nanjing
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge * Xianlin * Yangtze River
Yangtze River
power line crossings * Zhonghua Gate

CULTURE AND HISTORY

* Nanjing Museum * Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province Kun Opera * Nanjing decade * Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Art Gallery

EDUCATION

* Nanjing University * Southeast University
Southeast University
* Hohai University * Nanjing Agricultural University * China
China
Pharmaceutical University * Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics * Nanjing University of Science & Technology * Nanjing Normal University
Nanjing Normal University
* Nanjing University of Technology * Nanjing Forestry University * Nanjing Medical University * Nanjing University of Finance border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Nanjing Railway Station * Nanjing Metro * Nanjing
Nanjing
Lukou International Airport * China
China
National Highway 312 * Nanjing
Nanjing
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge

2014 Youth Summer Olympics

* CATEGORY * COMMONS

* v * t * e

Jiangsu
Jiangsu
topics

Nanjing
Nanjing
(capital )

GENERAL

* History * Politics * Economy

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities * Grand Canal of China
China
* Yellow Sea * East China
China
Sea * Xishan Island * Yangtze River
Yangtze River
* Lake Tai
Lake Tai
* Hongze Lake * Yangcheng Lake * Huai River

EDUCATION

* Nanjing University * Southeast University
Southeast University
* Hohai University * Nanjing Normal University
Nanjing Normal University
* Nanjing University of Science and Technology

CULTURE

* Shuochang * Cuisine *