A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations or states. This contrasts a nation state, where a single nation accounts for the bulk of the population. Depending on the definition of "nation" (which touches on ethnicity, language, and political identity), a multinational state might also be multicultural or multilingual.

Present-day examples of multinational states are Afghanistan, Belgium, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Montenegro, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Serbia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States. Examples of historical multinational states that have since split into multiple sovereign states include the Ottoman Empire, British India, Czechoslovakia, the Empire of Japan, the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia and Austria-Hungary, that was a joint monarchy of two multinational states. Some analysts have described the European Union as a multinational state or a potential one.[1][2]