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Multan
Multan
(Punjabi, Saraiki, Urdu: مُلتان ‬‎ [mʊltaːn] ( listen)), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District
Multan District
in the province of Punjab. Located on the banks of the Chenab River, Multan
Multan
is Pakistan's seventh most populous city,[4][5] and is the major cultural and economic centre of southern Punjab. Multan's history stretches deep into antiquity. The ancient city was site of the renowned Multan
Multan
Sun Temple, and was besieged by Alexander the Great during the Mallian Campaign.[6] Multan
Multan
was one of the most important trading centres of medieval Islamic India,[7] and attracted a multitude of Sufi
Sufi
mystics in the 11th and 12th centuries, earning the city the nickname City of Saints. The city, along with the nearby city of Uch, is renowned for its large collection of Sufi
Sufi
shrines dating from that era.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Ancient

2.1.1 Greek invasion

2.2 Early Islamic

2.2.1 Abbassid Amirate 2.2.2 Qarmatian
Qarmatian
Amirate

2.3 Medieval

2.3.1 Ghaznavid 2.3.2 Ghurid 2.3.3 Turkic 2.3.4 Tughluq 2.3.5 Timurid 2.3.6 Langah Sultanate 2.3.7 Suri 2.3.8 Medieval trade

2.4 Mughal period

2.4.1 Dar al-Aman era

2.5 Post-Mughal 2.6 Sikh
Sikh
era

2.6.1 1848 Multan
Multan
Revolt

2.7 British Raj 2.8 Modern

3 Geography

3.1 Cityscape 3.2 Topography 3.3 Climate

4 Demographics

4.1 Language

5 Civic Administration 6 Transportation

6.1 Motorways 6.2 Rail 6.3 Bus rapid transit 6.4 Air

7 Education 8 Heritage

8.1 Prahladpuri Temple 8.2 Notable saints of Multan

9 Sports 10 Notable people from Multan 11 Sister cities 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Etymology[edit] The origin of Multan's name is unclear. It has been postulated that Multan
Multan
derives its name from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word for the pre-Islamic Hindu
Hindu
Multan
Multan
Sun Temple, called Mulasthana.[8][9][9] Hukm Chand in the 19th century suggested that the city was named after an ancient Hindu tribe that was named Mul.[10] History[edit] Main article: History of Multan Ancient[edit] The Multan
Multan
region has been continuously inhabited for at least 5,000 years. The region is home to numerous archaeological sites dating to the era of the Early Harappan period of the Indus Valley Civilisation,[11] dating from 3300 BCE until 2800 BCE. According to Hindu
Hindu
mythology, Multan
Multan
was founded by the Hindu
Hindu
sage Kashyapa.[12] According to the Persian historian Firishta, the city was founded by a great grandson of Noah.[10] Hindu
Hindu
mythology also asserts Multan
Multan
as the capital of the Trigarta Kingdom ruled by the Katoch
Katoch
dynasty at the time of the Kurukshetra War that is central the Hindu
Hindu
epic poem, the Mahabharata.[13][14][15] Ancient Multan
Multan
was the centre of a solar-worshipping cult that was based at the ancient Multan
Multan
Sun Temple.[16] While the cult was dedicated to the Hindu
Hindu
Sun God Surya, the cult was influenced by Persian Zoroastrianism.[16] The Sun Temple was mentioned by Greek Admiral Skylax, who passed through the area in 515 BCE. The temple is also mentioned in the 400s BCE by the Greek historian, Herodotus.[17] Greek invasion[edit] Multan
Multan
is believed to have been the Malli capital that was conquered by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 326 BCE as part of the Mallian Campaign. During the siege of the city's citadel, Alexander leaped into the inner area of the citadel,[18] where he killed the Mallians' leader.[19] Alexander was wounded by an arrow that had penetrated his lung, leaving him severely injured.[20] During Alexander's era, Multan was located on an island in the Ravi river, which has since shifted course numerous times throughout the centuries.[12] In the mid-5th century CE, the city was attacked by a group of Hephthalite
Hephthalite
nomads led by Toramana. By the mid 600s CE, Multan
Multan
had been conquered by the Chach of Alor,[21] of the Hindu
Hindu
Rai dynasty. Early Islamic[edit] After his conquest of Sindh, Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
in 712 CE captured Multan
Multan
from the local ruler Chach of Alor
Chach of Alor
following a two-month siege.[22] Following bin Qasim's conquest, the city's subjects remained mostly non-Muslim for the next few centuries.[23] Abbassid Amirate[edit] By the mid-800s, the Banu Munabbih (also known as the Banu Sama), who claimed descent from the Prophet Muhammad's Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe came to rule Multan, and established the Amirate
Amirate
of Banu Munabbih, which ruled for the next century.[24] During this era, the Multan Sun Temple
Multan Sun Temple
was noted by the 10th century Arab geographer Al-Muqaddasi
Al-Muqaddasi
to have been located in a most populous part of the city.[16] The Hindu
Hindu
temple was noted to have accrued the Muslim rulers large tax revenues,[25][26] by some accounts up to 30% of the state's revenues.[23] During this time, the city's Arabic nickname was Faraj Bayt al-Dhahab, ("Frontier House of Gold"), reflecting the importance of the temple to the city's economy.[23] The 10th century Arab historian Al-Masudi
Al-Masudi
noted Multan
Multan
as the city where Central Asian caravans from Islamic Khorasan would assemble.[27] The 10th century Persian geographer Estakhri
Estakhri
noted that the city of Multan
Multan
was approximately half the size of Sindh's Mansura, which along with Multan
Multan
were the only two Arab principalities in South Asia. Arabic and Sindhi were spoken in both cities,[23] though the inhabitants of Multan
Multan
were reported by Estakhri
Estakhri
to also have been speakers of Persian,[27] reflecting the importance of trade with Khorasan. Polyglossia rendered Multani merchants culturally well-suited for trade with the Islamic world.[27] The 10th century Hudud al-'Alam notes that Multan's rulers were also in control of Lahore,[27] though that city was then lost to the Hindu
Hindu
Shahi Empire.[27] During the 10th century, Multan's rulers resided at a camp outside of the city named Jandrawār, and would enter Multan
Multan
once a week on the back of an elephant for Friday prayers.[28] Qarmatian
Qarmatian
Amirate[edit] By the mid 10th century, Multan
Multan
had come under the influence of the Qarmatian
Qarmatian
Ismailis. The Qarmatians had been expelled from Egypt
Egypt
and Iraq
Iraq
following their defeat at the hands of the Abbasids there. Qarmatians zealots had famously sacked Mecca,[29] and outraged the Muslim world
Muslim world
with their theft and ransom of the Kaaba's Black Stone, and desecration of the Zamzam Well
Zamzam Well
with corpses during the Hajj
Hajj
season of 930 CE.[30] They wrested control of the city from the pro-Abbasid Amirate
Amirate
of Banu Munabbih,[31] and established the Amirate
Amirate
of Multan, while pledging allegiance to the Ismaili
Ismaili
Fatimid Dynasty
Fatimid Dynasty
based in Cairo.[27][26] The Qarmatian
Qarmatian
Ismailis opposed Hindu
Hindu
pilgrims worshipping the sun,[32] and destroyed the Sun Temple and smashed its revered Aditya idol in the late 10th century.[31] The Qarmatians built an Ismaili congregational mosque atop to the ruins to replace the city's Sunni congregational mosque that had been established by the city's early rulers.[23] Medieval[edit]

Multan
Multan
is famous for its large number of Sufi
Sufi
shrines, including the unique rectangular tomb of Shah Gardez
Shah Gardez
that dates from the 1150s and is covered in blue enameled tiles typical of Multan.

The shrine of Shamsuddin Sabzwari
Shamsuddin Sabzwari
dates from 1330, and has a unique green dome.

The Mausoleum of Shah Ali Akbar
Mausoleum of Shah Ali Akbar
dating from the 1580s was built in the regional style that is typical of Multan's shrines.

Ghaznavid[edit] Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
in 1005 led an expedition against Multan's Qarmatian ruler Abdul Fateh Daud. The city was surrendered, and Fateh Daud was permitted to retain control over the city with the condition that he adhere to Sunnism.[33] In 1007, Mahmud led an expedition to Multan against his former minister and Hindu
Hindu
convert, Niwasa Khan, who had renounced Islam and attempted to establish control of the region in collusion with Abdul Fateh Daud of Multan.[33] In 1010, Mahmud led a punitive expedition against Daud to depose and imprison him,[33][16] and suppressed Ismailism in favour of the Sunni creed.[34] He destroyed the Ismaili
Ismaili
congregational mosque that had been built atop the ruins of the Multan
Multan
Sun Temple, and restored the city's old Sunni congregational mosque.[23] The 11th century scholar Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi reported that thousands of Ismailis were killed or mutilated during Mahmud's invasion, though the community was not extinguished.[16] Mahmud's rule over the region was noted by Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
to have ruined the region's former prosperity.[27] Following the Ghaznavid invasion of Multan, the local Ismaili
Ismaili
community split, with one faction aligning themselves with the Druze
Druze
religion,[16] which today survives in Lebanon, Syria, and the Golan Heights. Following Mahmud's death, the city regained its independence from the Ghaznavid empire and came under the sway of Ismaili
Ismaili
rule once again.[33] By the early 1100s, Multan
Multan
was described by the Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi
Muhammad al-Idrisi
as being a "large city" commanded by a citadel that was surrounded by a moat.[10] In the early 12th century, Multani poet Abdul Rahman penned the Sandesh Rasak,[23] the only known Muslim work in the medieval Apabhraṃśa language.[35] Ghurid[edit] In 1175, Muhammad Ghori
Muhammad Ghori
conquered Ismaili-ruled Multan,[36][28] after having invaded the region via the Gomal Pass
Gomal Pass
from Afghanistan into Punjab, and used the city as a springboard for his unsuccessful campaign into Gujarat
Gujarat
in 1178.[33] Multan
Multan
was then annexed to the Ghurid Sultanate, and became an administrative province of the Delhi's Mamluk Dynasty[24] — the first dynasty of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate. Multan's Ismaili
Ismaili
community rose up in an unsuccessful rebellion against the Ghurids later in 1175.[16] According to Shah Gardez, the second invasion of Multan
Multan
lead to the extinguishment of the remnants of Ismailism in the region.[16] Turkic[edit] Following the death of the Mumluk Sultan, Qutb al-Din Aibak in 1210, Multan
Multan
came under the rule of Nasiruddin Qabacha, who in 1222, successfully repulsed an attempted invasion by Sultan Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu of the Khwarazmian Empire,[24] whose origins were rooted in Konye-Urgench
Konye-Urgench
in modern-day Turkmenistan.[24] Qabacha also repulsed a 40-day siege imposed on the city by Mongol forces who attempted to conquer the city.[37] Following Qabacha's death that same year, the Turkic king Iltutmish
Iltutmish
captured and then annexed Multan
Multan
in an expedition.[33][24] The Punjabi poet Baba Farid
Baba Farid
was born in the village of Khatwal near Multan
Multan
in the 1200s.[36] Mongols again attempted to invade Multan
Multan
in 1236,[38] and again in 1241 after capturing Lahore, though they were repulsed.[33] Mongols held the city to ransom in 1246,[38] and the city fell to the Qarlughids
Qarlughids
that year until 1249 when it was captured by Sher Khan.[38] Multan
Multan
was then conquered by Izz al-Din Balban Kashlu Khan in 1254, before he rebelled against Sultan Ghiyas ud din Balban
Ghiyas ud din Balban
in 1257 and fled to Iraq
Iraq
where he joined Mongol forces and captured Multan
Multan
again, and dismantled its city walls.[38] The Mongols again attempted an invasion in 1279, but were dealt a decisive defeat.[36] Tughluq[edit]

Multan's Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam
Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam
is considered to be the earliest Tughluq-era monument.[39]

In the 1320s Multan
Multan
was conquered by Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, founder of the Turkic Tughluq dynasty, the third dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. The countryside around Multan
Multan
was recorded to have been devastated by excessively high taxes imposed during the reign of Ghiyath's son, Muhammad Tughluq.[27] In 1328, the Governor of Multan, Kishlu Khan, rose in rebellion against Muhammad Tughluq, but was quickly defeated.[40] The Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam
Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam
was completed during the Tughluq era, and is considered to be the first Tughluq monument.[39] The shrine is believed to have been originally built to be the tomb of Ghiyath ad-Din,[41] but was later donated to the descendants of Rukn-e-Alam
Rukn-e-Alam
after Ghiyath became Emperor of Delhi.[42] The renowned Arab explorer Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
visited Multan
Multan
in the 1300s during the reign of Muhammad Tughluq, and noted that Multan
Multan
was a trading centre for horses imported from as far away as the Russian Steppe.[27] Multan
Multan
had also been noted to be a centre for slave-trade, though slavery was banned in the late 1300s by Muhammad Tughluq's son, Firuz Shah Tughlaq.[27] Timurid[edit] In 1397, Multan
Multan
was besieged by Tamerlane's grandson Pir Muhammad.[43] Pir Muhammad's forces captured the city in 1398 following the conclusion of the 6 month-long siege.[36] Also in 1398, the elder Tamerlane and Multan's Governor Khizr Khan
Khizr Khan
together sacked Delhi.[36] The sack of Delhi
Delhi
lead to major disruptions of the Sultanate's central governing structure.[36] In 1414, Multan's Khizr Khan
Khizr Khan
captured Delhi from Daulat Khan Lodi, and established the short-lived Sayyid dynasty — the fourth dynasty of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate.[36] Langah Sultanate[edit] Multan
Multan
then passed to the Langah, who established the Langah Sultanate in Multan
Multan
under the rule of Budhan Khan, who assumed the title Mahmud Shah.[24] The reign of Shah Husayn, grandson of Mahmud Shah, who ruled from 1469-1498 is considered to most illustrious of the Langah Sultans.[24] Multan
Multan
experienced prosperity during this time, and a large number of Baloch settlers arrived in the city at the invitation of Shah Husayn.[24] The Sultanate's borders stretched encompassed the neighbouring regions surrounding the cities of Chiniot
Chiniot
and Shorkot.[24] Shah Husayn successfully repulsed attempted invasion by the Delhi
Delhi
Sultans led by Tatar Khan and Barbak Shah.[24] Multan's Langah Sultanate came to an end in 1525 when the city was invaded by rulers of the Arghun dynasty,[24] who were either ethnic Mongols,[44] or of Turkic or Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
extraction.[45] Suri[edit] In 1541, the Pashtun king Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
captured Multan, and successfully defended the city from the advances of the Mughal Emperor Humayun.[46] In 1543, Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
expelled Baloch rebels, who under the command of Fath Khan Jat had overrun the city.[46] Following its recapture, Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
ordered construction of a road between Lahore
Lahore
and Multan
Multan
in order to connect Multan
Multan
to his massive Grand Trunk Road project.[46] Multan
Multan
then served as the starting point for trade caravans from medieval India departing towards West Asia.[46] Medieval trade[edit]

The 15th century Multani caravanserai in Baku, Azerbaijan, was built to house visiting Multani merchants in the city.[47]

Multan
Multan
served as medieval Islamic India's trans-regional mercantile centre for trade with the Islamic world.[7] It rose as an important trading and mercantile centre in the setting of political stability offered by the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, the Lodis, and Mughals.[7] The renowned Arab explorer Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
visited Multan
Multan
in the 1300s during the reign of Muhammad Tughluq, and noted that Multan
Multan
was a trading centre for horses imported from as far away as the Russian Steppe.[27] Multan
Multan
had also been noted to be a centre for slave-trade, though slavery was banned in the late 1300s by Muhammad Tughluq's son, Firuz Shah Tughlaq.[27] The extent of Multan's influence is also reflected in the construction of the Multani caravanserai in Baku, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
— which was built in the 15th to house Multani merchants visiting the city.[47] Legal records from the Uzbek city of Bukhara
Bukhara
note that Multani merchants settled and owned land in the city in the late 1550s.[7] Multan
Multan
would remain an important trading centre until the city was ravaged by repeated invasions in the 18th and 19th centuries in the post-Mughal era.[7] Many of Multan's merchants then migrated to Shikarpur in Sindh,[7] and were found throughout Central Asia
Central Asia
up until the 19th century.[7] Mughal period[edit]

Multan's Shahi Eid Gah Mosque
Shahi Eid Gah Mosque
dates from 1735 and is decorated with elaborate and intricate Mughal-era frescoes.

Following the conquest of Upper Sindh
Sindh
by the Mughal Emperor Akbar, Multan
Multan
was attacked and captured by Akbar's army under the command of Bairam Khan
Bairam Khan
in 1557,[48] thereby re-establishing Mughal rule in Multan. In 1627, Multan
Multan
was encircled by walls that were built on the order of Murad Baksh, son of Shah Jahan.[10] Upon his return from an expedition to Balkh
Balkh
in 1648, the future emperor Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was appointed Governor of Multan
Multan
and Sindh
Sindh
— a post he held until 1652.[36] In the second half of the 17th century, Multan's commercial fortunes were adversely affected by silting and shifting of the nearby river, which denied traders vital trade access to the Arabian Sea.[49] Multan
Multan
witnessed difficult times as the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
waned in power following the death of Emperor Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
in 1707. Dar al-Aman era[edit] Under Mughal rule, Multan
Multan
enjoyed 200 years of peace in a time when the city became known as Dar al-Aman ("Abode of Peace"). During the Mughal era, Multan
Multan
was an important centre of agricultural production and manufacturing of cotton textiles.[49] Multan
Multan
was a centre for currency minting,[49] as well as tile-making during the Mughal era.[50] Multan
Multan
was also host to the offices of many commercial enterprises during the Mughal era,[49] even in times when the Mughals were in control of the even more coveted city of Kandahar, given the unstable political situation resulting from frequent contestation of Kandadar with the Persian Safavid Empire.[49] Post-Mughal[edit] Nader Shah
Nader Shah
conquered the region as part of his invasion of the Mughal Empire in 1739. Despite invasion, Multan
Multan
remained northwest India's premier commercial centre throughout most of the 18th century.[49] In 1752 Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
captured Multan,[51] and the city's walls were rebuilt in 1756 by Nawab Ali Mohammad Khan Khakwani,[10] who also built the Ali Muhammad Khan Mosque in 1757. In 1758, the Marathas under Raghunathrao
Raghunathrao
briefly seized Multan,[52][53] though the city was recaptured by Durrani in 1760. After repeated invasions following the collapse of the Mughal Empire, Multan
Multan
was reduced from being one of the world's most important early-modern commercial centres, to a regional trading town.[49] Sikh
Sikh
era[edit] In 1772, Ahmed Shah Durrani's son Timur
Timur
Shah lost Multan
Multan
to Sikh forces.[36] However, Multan's association with Sikhism predates this, as the founder of the Sikh
Sikh
religion, Guru Nanak, is said to have visited the city during one of his journeys.[54] The city had reverted to Afghan rule under the suzerainty of Nawab Muzaffar Khan in 1778.[55] In 1817, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
sent a body of troops to Multan
Multan
under the command of Diwan Bhiwani Das to receive from Nawab Muzaffar Khan the tribute he owed to the Sikh
Sikh
Darbar. In 1818, the armies of Kharak Singh
Kharak Singh
and Misr Diwan Chand lay around Multan
Multan
without making much initial headway, until Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
dispatched the massive Zamzama
Zamzama
cannon, which quickly led to disintegration of the Multan's defences.[56] Misr Diwan Chand led Sikh
Sikh
armies to a decisive victory over Muzaffar Khan. Muzzafar Khan and seven of his sons were killed before the Multan
Multan
fort finally fell on 2 March 1818 in the Battle of Multan.[57][58] The conquest of Multan
Multan
established Ranjit Singh's superiority over the Afghans and ended their influence in this part of the Punjab.[59] Diwan Sawan Mal Chopra was appointed to govern the city, remaining in his post for the following 25 years.[59] Following the Sikh
Sikh
conquest, Multan
Multan
declined in importance as a trading post,[49] however the population of Multan
Multan
rose from approximately 40,000 in 1827 to 60,000 by 1831.[59] Sawan Mal adopted a policy of low taxation which generated immense land revenues for the state treasury.[60] Following the death of Ranjit Singh, he ceased paying tribute to a successor and instead maintained alliances of convenience with selected Sikh aristocrats.[60] He was assassinated in 1844, and succeeded by his son Diwan Mulraj Chopra, who unlike his father was seen as a despotic ruler by the local inhabitants.[60] 1848 Multan
Multan
Revolt[edit]

Multan's "Bloody Bastion" was the site of fierce fighting during the Siege of Multan
Siege of Multan
in 1848-49.

The 1848 Multan
Multan
Revolt and subsequent Siege of Multan
Siege of Multan
began on 19 April 1848 when local Sikhs loyal to Diwan Mulraj Chopra
Diwan Mulraj Chopra
murdered two emissaries of the British Raj, Vans Agnew and Lieutenant Anderson.[61] The two British visitors were in Multan
Multan
to attend a ceremony for Sardar Kahan Singh, who had been selected by the British East India Company to replace Diwan Mulraj Chopra
Diwan Mulraj Chopra
as ruler of Multan.[62] Rebellion engulfed the Multan
Multan
region under the leadership of Mulraj Chopra and Sher Singh Attariwalla.[61] The Multan
Multan
Revolt triggered the start of the Second Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
War,[62] during which the sajjada nashin of the Shrine of Bahauddin Zakariya
Shrine of Bahauddin Zakariya
sided with the British to help defeat the Sikh
Sikh
rebels.[63] The revolt eventually resulted in the fall of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
in 1849.[64] British Raj[edit]

Multan’s Ghanta Ghar dates from the British colonial period, and was built in the Indo-Saracenic
Indo-Saracenic
style.

By December 1848, the British had captured portions of Multan
Multan
city's outskirts, and destroyed the Multan Fort while bombarding the city.[65] In January 1849, the British had amassed a force of 12,000 to conquer Multan.[61] On 22 January 1849, the British had breached the walls of the Multan
Multan
Fort, leading to the surrender of Mulraj and his forces to the British.[61] The British conquest of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire was completed in February 1849, after the British victory at the Battle of Gujrat. Between the 1890s and 1920s, the British laid a vast network of canals in the Multan
Multan
region, and throughout much of central and southern Punjab province.[66] Thousands of "Canal Towns" and villages were built according to standardized plans throughout the newly irrigated swathes of land.[66] Modern[edit] The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan
Pakistan
Movement.[67] After the independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India en masse, while some Muslim refugees from the newly independent Republic of India
Republic of India
settled in the city. Geography[edit] Cityscape[edit] Multan's urban typology is similar to other ancient cities in South Asia, such as Peshawar, Lahore, and Delhi
Delhi
- all of which were founded near a major river, and included an old walled city, as well as a royal citadel.[65] Unlike those cities, Multan
Multan
has lost its royal citadel, as it was largely destroyed by the British in 1848, which negatively impacted the urban fabric of the city.[65] Multan's old neighbourhood homes exemplify Muslim concerns regarding privacy, and defense against the city's harsh climate.[65] The urban morphology is characterized by small and private cul-de-sacs branching off of bazaars and larger arteries.[65] A distinct Multani style of architecture began taking root in the 14th century with the establishment of funerary monuments,[65] and is characterized by large brick walls reinforced by wooden anchors, with inward sloping roofs.[65] Funerary architecture is also reflected in the city's residential quarters, which borrow architectural and decorative elements from Multan's mausolea.[65] Topography[edit] Multan
Multan
is located in Punjab, and covers an area of 133 square kilometres (51 sq mi). The nearest major cities are Dera Ghazi Khan and Bahawalpur. Multan
Multan
is located in a bend created by five rivers of central Pakistan. The Sutlej River
Sutlej River
separates it from Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
and the Chenab River
Chenab River
from Muzaffar Garh. The area around the city is a flat, alluvial plain that is used for citrus and mango farms. Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Multan Multan
Multan
features an arid climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
BWh) with very hot summers and mild winters. The average annual precipitations 186 millimetres (7.3 in). Multan
Multan
is known for having some of the hottest weather in the Pakistan. The highest recorded temperature is approximately 52 °C (126 °F), and the lowest recorded temperature is approximately −1 °C (30 °F).[68][69]

Climate data for Multan

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 28.3 (82.9) 32.0 (89.6) 39.0 (102.2) 45.0 (113) 48.9 (120) 52.0 (125.6) 52.2 (126) 45.0 (113) 42.5 (108.5) 40.6 (105.1) 36.0 (96.8) 29.0 (84.2) 52.2 (126)

Average high °C (°F) 21.0 (69.8) 23.2 (73.8) 28.5 (83.3) 35.5 (95.9) 40.4 (104.7) 42.3 (108.1) 39.2 (102.6) 38.0 (100.4) 37.2 (99) 34.6 (94.3) 28.5 (83.3) 22.7 (72.9) 32.59 (90.68)

Daily mean °C (°F) 12.7 (54.9) 15.4 (59.7) 21.0 (69.8) 27.5 (81.5) 32.4 (90.3) 35.5 (95.9) 33.9 (93) 33.0 (91.4) 31.0 (87.8) 26.4 (79.5) 19.7 (67.5) 14.1 (57.4) 25.22 (77.39)

Average low °C (°F) 4.5 (40.1) 7.6 (45.7) 13.5 (56.3) 19.5 (67.1) 24.4 (75.9) 28.6 (83.5) 28.7 (83.7) 28.0 (82.4) 24.9 (76.8) 18.2 (64.8) 10.9 (51.6) 5.5 (41.9) 17.86 (64.15)

Record low °C (°F) −2 (28) −1 (30) 3.3 (37.9) 9.4 (48.9) 13.5 (56.3) 20.0 (68) 21.1 (70) 21.1 (70) 16.7 (62.1) 8.9 (48) 0.6 (33.1) −1.1 (30) −2 (28)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 7.2 (0.283) 9.5 (0.374) 19.5 (0.768) 12.9 (0.508) 9.8 (0.386) 12.3 (0.484) 61.3 (2.413) 32.6 (1.283) 10.8 (0.425) 1.7 (0.067) 2.3 (0.091) 6.9 (0.272) 186.8 (7.354)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 222.3 211.6 250.8 273.3 293.5 266.8 265.0 277.6 277.6 274.9 255.0 229.2 3,097.6

Source: NOAA (1961–1990)[70]

Multan's climate is primarily influenced by:

Western Disturbances which generally occurs during the winter months between December and February. The Western Disturbance
Western Disturbance
provokes moderate rainfall, with hailstorms also sometimes occurring.

Dust storms occur during summer months. Multan's dust storm sometimes produce violent wind.

Heat waves occur during the hottest months of May and June, and can result in temperatures approaching 50° Celsius (122° Fahrenheit)

South West Monsoon occurs following the hottest months of the year, and lasts between June and September. Monsoon rains moderate temperatures, and can sometimes produce heavy rain storms.

Continental air prevails during the remaining months generally yields clear weather with little to no precipitation.[68][69]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1941 143,000 —    

1951 190,000 +32.9%

1961 358,000 +88.4%

1972 539,000 +50.6%

1981 732,000 +35.8%

1998 1,197,384 +63.6%

2017 1,871,843 +56.3%

Source: [71][72]

Multan's is home to a significant Christian minority.

Multan's Sufi
Sufi
shrines are often decorated during annual Urs
Urs
festivals. Pictured is the Wali Muhammad Shah shrine.

Multan
Multan
city had a population of 1,197,384 in the 1998 census.[73] As of 2017 census, Multan's population jumped to 1.871 million.[74] Language[edit] The linguistic breakdown of the Multan
Multan
City Tehsil as per the 1998 Census is as follows:

Rank Language 1998 census[75] Speakers

1 Saraiki 42.16% 632,602

2 Punjabi 32.34% 485,232

3 Urdu 23.5% 353,354

4 Others 2% 29,429

All Languages 100% 1,500,617

Civic Administration[edit] Administrators who are government servants have the powers of Nazims (Mayor). Multan
Multan
district is spread over an area of 3,721 square kilometres, comprising four tehsils: Multan
Multan
City, Multan
Multan
Saddar, Shujabad
Shujabad
and Jalalpur Pirwala. In 2005 Multan
Multan
was reorganised as a City District composed of six autonomous towns:

Bosan Shah Rukan e Alam Mumtazabad Sher Shah Shujabad Jalalpur Pirwala

Transportation[edit] Motorways[edit] Multan
Multan
is situated along the under-construction 6-lane Karachi– Lahore
Lahore
Motorway connecting southern and northern Pakistan that is being built as part of the $54 billion China
China
Pakistan
Pakistan
Economic Corridor. The 6-lane, 392 kilometre long M-5 section of the motorway is being built between Sukkur
Sukkur
and Multan
Multan
at a cost $2.89 billion.[76] The M-5 has been under construction since May 2016.[77] Multan
Multan
will also be connected to the city of Faisalabad
Faisalabad
via the M-4 motorway,[78][79] which in turn will connect to the M-1 and M-2 motorways that will provide access to Islamabad
Islamabad
and Peshawar. Further links with the Karakoram Highway
Karakoram Highway
will provide access to Xinjiang, China, and Central Asia. Construction of the M3 motorway also under construction at a cost of approximately $1.5 billion,[80] and was launched in November 2015[81] The motorway will branch off of the M-4 motorway and will connect Lahore
Lahore
to the M-4 at Abdul Hakeem. Rail[edit]

Multan Cantonment railway station
Multan Cantonment railway station
serves as the city's main railway station.

Multan
Multan
is connected by rail with all parts of the country and lies on the main track between Karachi, Peshawar, Lahore
Lahore
and Quetta. The Main Line-1 Railway that links Karachi
Karachi
and Peshaway passes through Multan district is being overhauled as part of the China
China
Pakistan
Pakistan
Economic Corridor. As part of the part of the project, railways will be upgraded to permit train travel at speeds of up to 160 kilometres per hour, versus the average 60 to 105 km per hour speed currently possible on existing track,[82] The project is divided into three phases, with the Peshawar
Peshawar
to Multan
Multan
portion to be completed as part of the project's first phase by 2018,[83] and the entire project is expected to be complete by 2021.[83] From Multan, links to Khanewal, Lodhran and Muzafargarh are offered by rail.[84] Multan Cantonment railway station
Multan Cantonment railway station
is the main railway station of Multan. Bus rapid transit[edit] The Multan Metrobus
Multan Metrobus
is a bus rapid transit line which commenced service in January 2017,[85] at a cost of 28.8 billion rupees.[86] The BRT route serves 21 stations over the course of 18.5 kilometres, of which 12.5 kilometres are elevated.[87] 14 stations are elevated, while the remainder are at street level. The BRT route begins at Bahauddin Zakariya University
Bahauddin Zakariya University
in northern Multan, and heads southward to pass by the eastern edge of Multan's old city at the Daulat Gate before turning east to finally terminate at the Kumharanwala Chowk in eastern Multan. The route will initially serviced by 35 buses, serving up to 95,000 passengers per day.[87] The Multan Metrobus
Multan Metrobus
is planned to ultimately have total of 4 BRT lines covering 68.82 kilometres,[88] which will be complemented by feeder lines.[88] Air[edit]

Multan International Airport
Multan International Airport
offers flights throughout Pakistan, and direct flights to Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

Multan International Airport
Multan International Airport
is located 10 km west of Multan's city centre, in the Multan
Multan
Cantonment. The airport offers flights throughout Pakistan, as well as to the Persian Gulf States. In March 2015, a new terminal building was formally inaugurated by Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.[89] Following the opening of the new terminal, passenger traffic soared from 384,571 in 2014-2015, to 904,865 in 2015-2016.[90] Education[edit] Main article: List of educational institutions in Multan The NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology, established as the training center of the National Fertilizer Corporation (NFC) of Pakistan, is a degree awarding engineering and technology institute in Multan, serving mainly the areas of Southern Punjab province.[91] Bahauddin Zakariya University
Bahauddin Zakariya University
(formerly known as Multan
Multan
University) is the main source of higher education for this region. The Swedish Institute of Technology in Multan
Multan
is a campus of the Swedish Group of Technical Institutes, the largest private-sector organisation providing technical education and vocational training in the Punjab.[92] Nishtar Medical University
Nishtar Medical University
is a world wide famous medical university in Multan. It offers many undergraduate and post-graduate programs for medical students. It is also famous for its beautiful and ancient building. Its teaching hospital is Nishtar Hospital Multan, one of the largest hospitals in South Asia. Now more universities from federal are also opening campuses in Multan, such as National University of Modern Languages (NUML).[93]. The Women University Multan[94] is the first Government Women University offering higher education to the females of Southern Punjab. It was established in 2013. Heritage[edit]

The tomb of Khawaja Awais Kagha displays use of traditional Multan tile-work on both its exterior and interior.

Prahladpuri Temple[edit] Main article: Prahladpuri Temple, Multan Prahladpuri Temple, Multan
Prahladpuri Temple, Multan
is located It is located on top of a raised platform inside the Fort of Multan, adjacent to tomb of Hazrat Baha’ul Haq Zakariya. A mosque has subsequently built adjacent to temple.[95] The original temple of Prahladpuri is said to have been built by Prahlad, son of Hiranyakashipu, the king of Multan
Multan
(Kashya-papura)[96] in honor of Narsing Avatar, an incarnation of Hindu
Hindu
god Vishnu, who emerged from the pillar to save Prahlada.[97][98][99][100] Notable saints of Multan[edit] See also: Mausoleums of Multan

The shrine of Pir Adil Shah.

Shah Yousaf Gardezi
Shah Yousaf Gardezi
(d. 1136), tomb located inner Bohar Gate Multan Mai Maharban
Mai Maharban
(11/12th Century), tomb located near Chowk Fawara, children complex Multan Bahauddin Zikarya
Bahauddin Zikarya
(1170–1267), tomb located in Multan
Multan
Fort Shah Rukne Alam (1251–1335), tomb located in Multan
Multan
Fort Khawaja Awais Kagha (d. 1300)3, tomb located in Dera Basti graveyard Multan Syed Musa Pak
Syed Musa Pak
(d. 1592) Hafiz Muhammad Jamal Multani (1747–1811) Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari
Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari
(1892–1961), buried in Jalal Bakri Syed Noor ul Hassan Bukhari (1902-1983), buried in Jalal Bakri Ahmad Saeed Kazmi
Ahmad Saeed Kazmi
(1913-1986), buried in Eid Gah, Multan

Sports[edit]

Multan
Multan
Cricket
Cricket
Stadium

The Multan Cricket Stadium
Multan Cricket Stadium
hosted many international cricket matches. Ibn-e-Qasim Bagh Stadium is the other stadium in Multan
Multan
which is used for football. Multan
Multan
is home to Multan
Multan
Tigers, the domestic cricket which represents the city in domestic tournaments and Multan
Multan
Sultans, the new franchise of Pakistan
Pakistan
Super League. Multan
Multan
has produced many international cricketers like Inzamam-ul-Haq, Sohaib Maqsood, Rahat Ali, and Sania Khan. Professional Multan
Multan
teams

Club League Sport Venue Established

Multan
Multan
Sultans Pakistan
Pakistan
Super League Cricket Multan
Multan
Cricket
Cricket
Stadium 2018

Multan
Multan
Tigers Faysal Bank T20 Cup Cricket Multan
Multan
Cricket
Cricket
Stadium 2004

Notable people from Multan[edit] Main article: List of people from Multan

Shakir Shuja Abadi, poet Yousaf Raza Gillani, politician Shah Mehmood Qureshi, politician Har Karan Ibn Mathuradas Kamboh Multani, scholar and Persian lettrist Javed Hashmi, politician Malik Muhammad Rafique Rajwana, lawyer and politician Fariduddin Ganjshakar, 12th-century Punjabi Muslim preacher and mystic Inzamam-ul-Haq, former cricketer and captain Saima Noor, actress Brahmagupta, mathematician and astronomer Qandeel Baloch, Social media celebrity

Sister cities[edit]

Rome, Italy[101] Konya,Turkey[102] Rasht, Iran[103] Shihezi, China[104]

See also[edit]

Climate of Multan City Wall of Multan History of Multan List of places in Multan Multan
Multan
District Multan
Multan
Division Multan
Multan
Fort Multan
Multan
International Airport Multan
Multan
Museum Siege of Multan Battle of Multan Mausoleums of Multan Hindu
Hindu
temples in Multan List of educational institutions in Multan Mosques of Multan

References[edit]

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Islamabad*

Punjab

Attock Bahawalpur Burewala Chakwal Chiniot Faisalabad Gujar Khan Gujranwala Gujrat Jhang Jhelum Kasur Kharian Lahore** Mianwali Multan Murree Rahim Yar Khan Rawalpindi Sadiqabad Sahiwal Sargodha Sheikhupura Sialkot Taxila Toba Tek Singh

Sindh

Badin Hyderabad Jacobabad Karachi** Khairpur Larkana Mirpurkhas Nawabshah Sukkur Thatta

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
& FATA

Abbottabad Bannu Battagram Chitral Charsada D.I.Khan Haripur Kohat Mansehra Mardan Nowshera Peshawar** Swat Swabi Timergara Tank

Balochistan

Chaman Gwadar Khuzdar Quetta** Ziarat

Azad Kashmir

Bagh Bhimber Kotli Mirpur Muzaffarabad** Rawalakot

Gilgit–Baltistan

Gilgit Skardu

*Federal capital **Provincial/Territorial capitals

v t e

Million-plus cities in Pakistan

Faisalabad Gujranwala Hyderabad Islamabad Karachi Lahore Multan Peshawar Quetta Rawalpindi Sargodha

v t e

Districts of Punjab, Pakistan

Provincial capital: Lahore

Bahawalpur

Bahawalnagar Bahawalpur Rahim Yar Khan

Dera Ghazi Khan

Dera Ghazi Khan Layyah Muzaffargarh Rajanpur

Faisalabad

Chiniot Faisalabad Jhang Toba Tek Singh

Gujranwala

Gujranwala Gujrat Hafizabad Mandi Bahauddin Narowal Sialkot

Lahore

Kasur Lahore

Multan

Khanewal Lodhran Multan Vehari

Rawalpindi

Attock Chakwal Jhelum Rawalpindi

Sargodha

Bhakkar Khushab Mianwali Sargodha

Sahiwal

Sahiwal Okara Pakpattan

Sheikhupura

Sheikhupura Nankana Sahib

See also: Districts of Punjab, India

v t e

Pakistan
Pakistan
topics

Basic topics Alphabetical index of topics

History

Ancient

Stone age Soanian Mehrgarh Indus Valley Indo-Iranics Indo-Aryan Achaemenid Greco-Bactrian Maurya Gandhara Indo-Greek Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kushan Indo-Sassanid

Medieval

Indo-Hephthalite Kamboja Rai Dynasty Shahi Pala Solanki Muhammad bin Qasim Ghaznavid Ghurid Mamluk Khalji Tughlaq Sayyid Lodi Timurid

Modern

Pre-colonial

Mughal East India Company Durrani Sikh
Sikh
Confederacy Sikh
Sikh
Empire First Anglo- Afghan War First Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
War Second Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
War Rebellion

Colonial

British Raj Second Anglo- Afghan War Durand Line Third Anglo- Afghan War Aligarh Movement Hindi– Urdu
Urdu
controversy Pakistan
Pakistan
Movement

Muslim League Two nation theory Jinnah's 14 Points Lahore
Lahore
Resolution Direct Action Day

Partition Independence

Dominion

Dominion of Pakistan Princely states 1947 War Liaquat–Nehru Pact Baghdad Pact

Republic

Indus Treaty 1965 War 1971 War Project-706 Islamisation Baloch insurgency Kargil War Liberalization War in North-West Pakistan

Geography

Features

Beaches Deserts Glaciers Islands Lakes Mountains Passes Rivers Valleys Waterfalls Wetlands

Areas

Arabian Sea Gwadar
Gwadar
Bay Indus Plain Pothohar Plateau Salt Range Sistan Basin

Geology

Coal fields Gas fields Minerals Oil fields Tectonics Volcanoes Floods

Environment

Botanical gardens Ecoregions Environmental issues Forests Protected areas

national parks game reserves sanctuaries

Wildlife

flora fauna

Zoos

Other topics

Archaeological sites Climate

weather records

Borders Natural disasters

earthquakes floods

Subdivisions

provinces districts cities

World Heritage Sites

Governance

State

President National Security Council (C2NS ECC AEDB NCA)

Government

National government

Cabinet Ministries Prime Minister

Provincial governments

Governors Chief Ministers

Local government

Union councils

Legislative

Parliament (Majlis-e-Shoora)

Senate (upper house)

Chairman

National Assembly (lower house)

Speaker

Provincial assemblies Jirga
Jirga
(tribal assembly)

Judicial

Supreme Council Supreme Court

Chief Justice

Shariat Court High Courts District Courts

Politics

Elections Foreign relations Feudalism Intelligence community Political parties Martial law

Law

Constitution

LFO PPC WPB PCO

Human rights

Forced disappearance LGBT

LGBT history Law enforcement

Police Criminal Investigation (CID) Anti-Narcotics (ANF) Capital punishment

Terrorism

State terrorism

Military

History Army Air force Navy Marines Coast Guard Paramilitary Nuclear

Economy

Infrastructure

Electricity

Thermal Hydro nuclear solar wind

Foreign aid Fuel extraction Housing Planning Commission Post Poverty Tallest buildings Telecommunications

Pakistan
Pakistan
Remote Sensing Satellite

Transportation

bridges

Water management

Water supply and sanitation

Industry

Aerospace Agriculture Defence Automobile Fishery Forestry Husbandry Labour

child

Media Mining Pharmaceuticals Textiles

Silk

Tourism

Commerce

Banking

banks

Companies Investment board Rupee (currency) Securities and Exchange Commission Stock markets Trading Corporation

Policy programmes

Corporatisation Directive investment Industrialisation Military economisation Nationalisation Privatisation Public-private partnering Redundant Islamic economisation

Society and culture

Society

Crime Culture Education

institutions

Feudalism Gender discrimination Healthcare

hospitals

Human rights

LGBT

Marriage Media Naming Pakistanis
Pakistanis
(list) Prostitution Religion Time Urbanisation Women

Demographics

Diaspora Ethnicity Immigration Languages

Urdu

Arts

Architecture Cinema

films

Dance Festivals Folklore Literature

Mushaira

Music Philosophy Textiles Theatre

Lifestyle

Clothing

Shalwar kameez Mehndi

Cuisine Etiquette Gun culture Nationalism

flags public holidays songs symbols

Sports

Athletics Baseball Boxing Cricket Cycling Field hockey Football Gilli-danda Golf Kabaddi Motorsport Marathon (Lahore) Olympics Paralympics Polo Rugby Squash Swimming Tennis

Places

Botanical gardens Cemeteries Churches Forts Gurdwaras Hindu
Hindu
temples Libraries Mausolea and shrines Mosques Museums Parks Stadiums World Heritage Sites Zoos

Category Portal Commons

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 132529642 GN

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