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An economically important monocot

SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION _

Kingdom: Plantae

Clade_: Angiosperms
Angiosperms

_Clade_: MONOCOTS

TYPE GENUS

_ Lilium _ L.

ORDERS

* alismatid monocots

* Acorales * Alismatales

* lilioid monocots

* Asparagales * Dioscoreales * Liliales * Pandanales * Petrosaviales

* commelinid monocots

* Arecales * Commelinales * Poales * Zingiberales

SYNONYMS

* Alternifoliae Bessey * Endogenae DC. * Lilianae Takht. * Liliatae Cronquist , Takht. & W.Zimm. * Liliidae Takht. * Liliopsida Batsch * Monocotyleae Eichler * Monocotyledoneae E.Morren ex Mez * Mononocotyledones

MONOCOTYLEDONS (/ˌmɒnəˌkɒtəˈliːdən, -ˌkɒtˈliː-/ ), commonly referred to as MONOCOTS, (LILIANAE _sensu _ Chase ">_ Allium crenulatum _ ( Asparagales ), an onion, with typical monocot perianth and parallel leaf venation Onion slice: Parallel veins in cross section

GENERAL

The monocots or monocotyledons have, as the name implies, a single (mono-) cotyledon , or embryonic leaf, in their seeds . Historically, this feature was used to contrast the monocots with the dicotyledons or dicots which typically have two cotyledons; however modern research has shown that the dicots are not a natural group, and the term can only be used to indicate all angiosperms that are not monocots and is used in that respect here. From a diagnostic point of view the number of cotyledons is neither a particularly useful characteristic (as they are only present for a very short period in a plant's life), nor is it completely reliable. The single cotyledon is only one of a number of modifications of the body plan of the ancestral monocotyledons, but whose adaptive advantages are poorly understood, but may have been related to adaption to aquatic habitats , prior to radiation to terrestrial habitats. Nevertheless, monocots are sufficiently distinctive that there has rarely been disagreement as to membership of this group, despite considerable diversity in terms of external morphology. However, morphological features that reliably characterise major clades are rare.

Thus monocots are distinguishable from other angiosperms both in terms of their uniformity and diversity. On the one hand the organisation of the shoots, leaf structure and floral configuration are more uniform than in the remaining angiosperms, yet within these constraints a wealth of diversity exists, indicating a high degree of evolutionary success. Monocot diversity includes perennial geophytes such as ornamental flowers including (orchids ( Asparagales ), tulips and lilies ) ( Liliales ), rosette and succulent epiphytes (Asparagales), mycoheterotrophs (Liliales, Dioscoreales , Pandanales ), all in the lilioid monocots , major cereal grains (maize , rice , barley , rye and wheat ) in the grass family and forage grasses ( Poales ) as well as woody tree-like palm trees ( Arecales ), bamboo , reeds and bromeliads (Poales), bananas and ginger ( Zingiberales ) in the commelinid monocots , as well as both emergent (Poales, Acorales ) and aroids , as well as floating or submerged aquatic plants such as seagrass ( Alismatales ).

VEGETATIVE

Organisation, growth and life forms

The most important distinction is their growth pattern, lacking a lateral meristem (cambium ) that allows for continual growth in diameter with height (secondary growth ), and therefore this characteristic is a basic limitation in shoot construction. Although largely herbaceous, some arboraceous monocots reach great height, length and mass. The latter include agaves , palms , pandans , and bamboos . This creates challenges in water transport that monocots deal with in various ways. Some, such as species of _ Yucca _, develop anomalous secondary growth, while palm trees utilise an anomalous primary growth form described as establishment growth (_see_ Vascular system ). The axis undergoes primary thickening, that progresses from internode to internode, resulting in a typical inverted conical shape of the basal primary axis (_see_ Tillich, Figure 1). The limited conductivity also contributes to limited branching of the stems. Despite these limitations a wide variety of adaptive growth forms has resulted (Tillich, Figure 2) from epiphytic orchids (Asparagales) and bromeliads (Poales) to submarine Alismatales (including the reduced Lemnoideae ) and mycotrophic Burmanniaceae (Dioscreales) and Triuridaceae (Pandanales). Other forms of adaptation include the climbing vines of Araceae (Alismatales) which use negative phototropism (skototropism ) to locate host trees (_i.e._ the darkest area), while some palms such as _Calamus manan _ ( Arecales ) produce the longest shoots in the plant kingdom, up to 185 m long. Other monocots, particularly Poales , have adopted a therophyte life form . Leaves

The cotyledon, the primordial Angiosperm leaf consists of a proximal leaf base or hypophyll and a distal hyperphyll. In moncots the hypophyll tends to be the dominant part in contrast to other angiosperms. From these, considerable diversity arises. Mature monocot leaves are generally narrow and linear, forming a sheathing around the stem at its base, although there are many exceptions. Leaf venation is of the striate type, mainly arcuate-striate or longitunally striate (parallel), less often palmate-striate or pinnate-striate with the leaf veins emerging at the leaf base and then running together at the apices. There is usually only one leaf per node because the leaf base encompasses more than half the circumference. The evolution of this monocot characteristic has been attributed to developmental differences in early zonal differentiation rather than meristem activity (leaf base theory). Roots and underground organs

The lack of cambium in the primary root limits its ability to grow sufficiently to maintain the plant. This necessitates early development of roots derived from the shoot (adventitious roots). In addition to roots, monocots develop runners and rhizomes , which are creeping shoots. Runners serve vegetative propagation , have elongated internodes , run on or just below the surface of the soil and in most case bear scale leaves . Rhizomes frequently have an additional storage function and rhizome producing plants are considered geophytes (Tillich, Figure 11). Other geophytes develop bulbs , a short axial body bearing leafs whose bases store food. Additional outer non-storage leaves may form a protective function (Tillich, Figure 12). Other storage organs may be tubers or corms , swollen axes. Tubers may form at the end of underground runners and persist. Corms are short lived vertical shoots with terminal inflorescences and shrivel once flowering has occurred. However, intermediate forms may occur such as in _ Crocosmia _ (Asparagales). Some monocots may also produce shoots that grow directly down into the soil, these are geophilous shoots (Tillich, Figure 11) that help overcome the limited trunk stability of large woody monocots.

REPRODUCTIVE

Flowers

In nearly all cases the perigone consists of two alternating trimerous whorls of tepals , being homochlamydeous, without differentiation between calyx and corolla . In zoophilous (pollinated by animals) taxa, both whorls are corolline (petal-like). Anthesis (the period of flower opening) is usually short fugacious (short lived). Some of the more persistent perigones demonstrate thermonastic opening and closing (responsive to changes in temperature). About two thirds of monocots are zoophilous , predominantly by insects . These plants need to advertise to pollinators and do so by way of phaneranthous (showy) flowers. Such optical signalling is usually a function of the tepal whorls but may also be provided by semaphylls (other structures such as filaments , staminodes or stylodia which have become modified to attract pollinators). However, some monocot plants may have aphananthous (inconspicuous) flowers and still be pollinated by animals. In these the plants rely either on chemical attraction or other structures such as coloured bracts fulfill the role of optical attraction. In some phaneranthous plants such structures may reinforce floral structures. The production of fragrances for olfactory signalling are common in monocots. The perigone also functions as a landing platform for pollinating insects. Fruit and seed

The embryo consists of a single cotyledon, usually with two vascular bundles .

COMPARISON WITH "DICOTS"

_ Comparison of a monocot (grass : Poales ) sprouting (left) with a dicot (right) Yucca brevifolia _ (Joshua Tree: Asparagales)

The traditionally listed differences between monocots and "dicots" are as follows. This is a broad sketch only, not invariably applicable, as there are a number of exceptions. The differences indicated are more true for monocots versus eudicots .

FEATURE IN MONOCOTS IN "DICOTS"

Growth form Mostly herbaceous , occasionally arboraceous Herbaceous or arboraceous

Leaves Leaf shape oblong or linear, often sheathed at base, petiole seldom developed, stipules absent. Major leaf veins usually parallel Broad, seldom sheathed, petiole common often with stipules. Veins usually reticulate (pinnate or palmate)

Roots Primary root of short duration, replaced by adventitial roots forming fibrous or fleshy root systems Develops from the radicle . Primary root often persists forming strong taproot and secondary roots

Plant stem : Vascular bundles Numerous scattered bundles in ground parenchyma , cambium rarely present, no differentiation between cortical and stelar regions Ring of primary bundles with cambium, differentiated into cortex and stele (eustelic)

Flowers Parts in threes (trimerous ) or multiples of three (_e.g._ 3, 6 or 9 petals) Fours (tetramerous) or fives (pentamerous)

Pollen : Number of apertures (furrows or pores) Monocolpate (single aperture or colpus) Tricolpate (three)

Embryo : Number of cotyledons (leaves in the seed ) One, endosperm frequently present in seed Two, endosperm present or absent

Comparison of monocots and "dicots"

A number of these differences are not unique to the monocots, and while still useful no one single feature, will infallibly identify a plant as a monocot. For example, trimerous flowers and monosulcate pollen are also found in magnoliids , of which exclusively adventitious roots are found in some of the Piperaceae . Similarly, at least one of these traits, parallel leaf veins, is far from universal among the monocots. Monocots with broad leaves and reticulate leaf veins, typical of dicots, are found in a wide variety of monocot families: for example, _ Trillium _, _ Smilax _ (greenbriar), and _Pogonia _ (an orchid), and the Dioscoreales (yams). _Potamogeton _ are one of several monocots with tetramerous flowers. Other plants exhibit a mixture of characteristics. Nymphaeaceae (water lilies) have reticulate veins, a single cotyledon, adventitious roots and a monocot like vascular bundle. These examples reflect their shared ancestry. Nevertheless, this list of traits is a generally valid set of contrasts, especially when contrasting monocots with eudicots rather than non-monocot flowering plants in general.

APOMORPHIES

Monocot apomorphies (characteristics that are derived during radiation rather than inherited from an ancestral form) include herbaceous habit, leaves with parallel venation and sheathed base, embryo with a single cotyledon, atactostele stele , numerous adventitious roots, sympodial growth, and trimerous (3 parts per whorl ) flowers that are pentacyclic (5 whorled) with 3 sepals, 3 petals, 2 whorls of 3 stamens each and 3 carpels. In contrast monosculate pollen is considered an ancestral trait, probably plesiomorphic .

SYNAPOMORPHIES

The distinctive features of the monocots have contributed to the relative taxonomic stability of the group. Douglas E. Soltis and others identify thirteen synapomorphies (shared characteristics that unite monophyletic groups of taxa);

* Calcium oxalate raphides * Absence of vessels in leaves * Monocotyledonous anther wall formation* * Successive microsporogenesis * Syncarpous gynoecium * Parietal placentation * Monocotyledonous seedling * Persistent radicle * Haustorial cotyledon tip * Open cotyledon sheath * Steroidal saponins * * Fly pollination* * Diffuse vascular bundles and absence of secondary growth

VASCULAR SYSTEM

_ Roystonea regia _ palm ( Arecales ) stems showing anomalous secondary growth in monocots, with characteristic fibrous roots

Monocots have a distinctive arrangement of vascular tissue known as an atactostele in which the vascular tissue is scattered rather than arranged in concentric rings. Collenchyma is absent in monocot stems, roots and leaves. Many monocots are herbaceous and do not have the ability to increase the width of a stem (secondary growth ) via the same kind of vascular cambium found in non-monocot woody plants . However, some monocots do have secondary growth, and because it does not arise from a single vascular cambium producing xylem inwards and phloem outwards, it is termed "anomalous secondary growth". Examples of large monocots which either exhibit secondary growth, or can reach large sizes without it, are palms ( Arecaceae ), screwpines ( Pandanaceae
Pandanaceae
), bananas ( Musaceae ), _ Yucca _, _ Aloe
Aloe
_, _Dracaena _, and _ Cordyline
Cordyline
_.

TAXONOMY

The monocots form one of five major lineages of mesangiosperms (core angiosperms), which in themselves form 99.95% of all angiosperms . The monocots and the eudicots , are the largest and most diversified angiosperm radiations accounting for 22% and 75% of all angiosperm species respectively.

Of these, the grass family (Poaceae) is the most economically important, which together with the orchids Orchidaceae account for half of the species diversity, accounting for 34% and 17% of all monocots respectively and are among the largest families of angiosperms. They are also among the dominant members of many plant communities.

EARLY HISTORY

Illustrations of cotyledons by John Ray
John Ray
1682, after Malpighi
Malpighi

The monocots are one of the major divisions of the flowering plants or angiosperms. They have been recognized as a natural group since John Ray
John Ray
's studies of seed structure in the 17th century. Ray was the first botanical systematist , and in his examination of seeds, first observed the dichotomy of cotyledon structure. He reported his findings in a paper read to the Royal Society
Royal Society
on 17 December 1674, entitled "A Discourse on the Seeds of Plants". _A Discourse on the Seeds of Plants_

The greatest number of plants that come of seed spring at first out of the earth with two leaves which being for the most part of a different figure from the succeeding leaves are by our gardeners not improperly called the seed leaves... In the first kind the seed leaves are nothing but the two lobes of the seed having their plain sides clapt together like the two halfs of a walnut and therefore are of the just figure of the seed slit in sunder flat wise... Of seeds that spring out of the earth with leaves like the succeeding and no seed leaves I have observed two sorts. 1. Such as are congenerous to the first kind precedent that is whose pulp is divided into two lobes and a radicle... 2. Such which neither spring out of the ground with seed leaves nor have their pulp divided into lobes John Ray
John Ray
(1674), pp. 164, 166

Since this paper appeared a year before the publication of Malpighi 's _Anatome Plantarum_ (1675–1679), Ray has the priority. At the time, Ray did not fully realise the importance of his discovery but progressively developed this over successive publications. And since these were in Latin, "seed leaves" became _folia seminalia_ and then _cotyledon_, following Malpighi
Malpighi
. Malpighi
Malpighi
and Ray were familiar with each other's work, and Malpighi
Malpighi
in describing the same structures had introduced the term cotyledon, which Ray adopted in his subsequent writing. _De seminum vegetatione_

_Mense quoque Maii, alias seminales plantulas Fabarum, text-align: right;">Marcello Malpighi
Malpighi
(1679), p. 18

In this experiment, Malpighi
Malpighi
also showed that the cotyledons were critical to the development of the plant, proof that Ray required for his theory. In his _Methodus plantarum nova_ Ray also developed and justified the "natural" or pre-evolutionary approach to classification, based on characteristics selected _a posteriori _ in order to group together taxa that have the greatest number of shared characteristics. This approach, also referred to as polythetic would last till evolutionary theory enabled Eichler to develop the phyletic system that superseded it in the late nineteenth century, based on an understanding of the acquisition of characteristics. He also made the crucial observation _Ex hac seminum divisione sumum potest generalis plantarum distinctio, eaque meo judicio omnium prima et longe optima, in eas sci. quae plantula seminali sunt bifolia aut διλόβω, et quae plantula sem. adulta analoga._ (From this division of the seeds derives a general distinction amongst plants, that in my judgement is first and by far the best, into those seed plants which are bifoliate, or bilobed, and those that are analogous to the adult), that is between monocots and dicots. He illustrated this with by quoting from Malpighi
Malpighi
and including reproductions of Malpighi's drawings of cotyledons (see figure). Initially Ray did not develop a classification of flowering plants (florifera) based on a division by the number of cotyledons, but developed his ideas over successive publications, coining the terms _Monocotyledones_ and _Dicotyledones_ in 1703, in the revised version of his _Methodus_ (_Methodus plantarum emendata_), as a primary method for dividing them, _Herbae floriferae, dividi possunt, ut diximus, in Monocotyledones & Dicotyledones_ (Flowering plants, can be divided, as we have said, into Monocotyledons & Dicotyledons).

Post Linnean

Although Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(1707–1778) did not utilise Ray's discovery, basing his own classification solely on floral reproductive morphology , the term was used shortly after his classification appeared (1753) by Scopoli and who is credited for its introduction. Every taxonomist since then, starting with De Jussieu and De Candolle , has used Ray's distinction as a major classification characteristic. In De Jussieu\'s system (1789), he followed Ray, arranging his Monocotyledones into three classes based on stamen position and placing them between Acotyledones and Dicotyledones. De Candolle\'s system (1813) which was to predominate thinking through much of the 19th century used a similar general arrangement, with two subgroups of his _Monocotylédonés_ (Monocotyledoneae). Lindley (1830) followed De Candolle in using the terms Monocotyledon and Endogenae interchangeably. They considered the monocotyledons to be a group of vascular plants (_Vasculares_) whose vascular bundles were thought to arise from within (_Endogènes_ or endogenous ).

Monocotyledons remained in a similar position as a major division of the flowering plants throughout the nineteenth century, with minor variations. George Bentham
George Bentham
and Hooker (1862–1883) used Monocotyledones, as would Wettstein , while August Eichler used Mononocotyleae and Engler , following de Candolle, Monocotyledoneae. In the twentieth century, some authors used alternative names such as Bessey 's (1915) Alternifoliae and Cronquist 's (1966) Liliatae. Later (1981) Cronquist changed Liliatae to Liliopsida, usages also adopted by Takhtajan
Takhtajan
simultaneously. Thorne (1992) and Dahlgren (1985) also used Liliidae as a synonym.

Taxonomists had considerable latitude in naming this group, as the Monocotyledons were a group above the rank of family. Article 16 of the _ ICBN
ICBN
_ allows either a descriptive name or a name formed from the name of an included family.

In summary they have been variously named, as follows:

* class Monocotyledoneae in the de Candolle system and the Engler system * class Monocotyledones in the Bentham padding:0;">

Amborellales

Nymphaeales

Austrobaileyales

magnoliids

Chloranthales

MONOCOTS

Ceratophyllales

eudicots

basal angiosperms core angiosperms

SUBDIVISION

While the monocotyledons have remained extremely stable in their outer borders as a well-defined and coherent monophylectic group, the deeper internal relationships have undergone considerable flux, with many competing classification systems over time.

Historically, Bentham (1877), considered the monocots to consist of four alliances , Epigynae, Coronariae, Nudiflorae and Glumales, based on floral characteristics. He describes the attempts to subdivide the group since the days of Lindley as largely unsuccessful. Like most subsequent classification systems it failed to distinguish between two major orders, Liliales and Asparagales , now recognised as quite separate. A major advance in this respect was the work of Rolf Dahlgren (1980), which would form the basis of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 's (APG) subsequent modern classification of monocot families. Dahlgren who used the alternate name Lilliidae considered the monocots as a subclass of angiosperms characterised by a single cotyledon and the presence of triangular protein bodies in the sieve tube plastids . He divided the monocots into seven superorders , Alismatiflorae, Ariflorae, Triuridiflorae, Liliiflorae , Zingiberiflorae, Commeliniflorae and Areciflorae. With respect to the specific issue regarding Liliales and Asparagales, Dahlgren followed Huber (1969) in adopting a splitter approach, in contrast to the longstanding tendency to view Liliaceae as a very broad sensu lato family . Following Dahlgren's untimely death in 1987, his work was continued by his widow, Gertrud Dahlgren , who published a revised version of the classification in 1989. In this scheme the suffix _-florae_ was replaced with _-anae_ (_e.g._ Alismatanae ) and the number of superorders expanded to ten with the addition of Bromelianae, Cyclanthanae and Pandananae.

Molecular studies have both confirmed the monophyly of the monocots and helped elucidate relationships within this group. The APG system does not assign the monocots to a taxonomic rank, instead recognizing a monocots clade. However, there has remained some uncertainty regarding the exact relationships between the major lineages, with a number of competing models (including APG).

The APG system establishes eleven orders of monocots. These form three grades, the alismatid monocots , lilioid monocots and the commelinid monocots by order of branching, from early to late. In the following cladogram numbers indicate crown group (most recent common ancestor of the sampled species of the clade of interest) divergence times in mya (million years ago).

CLADOGRAM 2: THE PHYLOGENETIC COMPOSITION OF THE MONOCOTS

MONOCOTS 131

Acorales

Alismatales

122

Petrosaviales

120

Dioscoreales 115

Pandanales 91

Liliales 121

121

Asparagales 120

commelinids 118

Arecales

Poales

Zingiberales

Commelinales

Lilioid monocots Alismatid monocots

Of some 70,000 species , by far the largest number (65%) are found in two families , the orchids and grasses. The orchids ( Orchidaceae , Asparagales ) contain about 25,000 species and the grasses ( Poaceae , Poales ) about 11,000. Other well known groups within the Poales order include the Cyperaceae (sedges) and Juncaceae (rushes), and the monocots also include familiar families such as the palms ( Arecaceae , Arecales) and lilies ( Liliaceae , Liliales ).

EVOLUTION

In prephyletic classification systems monocots were generally positioned between plants other than angiosperms and dicots, implying that monocots were more primitive. With the introduction of phyletic thinking in taxonomy (from the system of Eichler 1875–1878 onwards) the predominant theory of monocot origins was the ranalean (ranalian) theory, particularly in the work of Bessey (1915), which traced the origin of all flowering plants to a Ranalean type, and reversed the sequence making dicots the more primitive group.

The monocots form a monophyletic group arising early in the history of the flowering plants , but the fossil record is meagre. The earliest fossils presumed to be monocot remains date from the early Cretaceous period. For a very long time, fossils of palm trees were believed to be the oldest monocots, first appearing 90 million years ago (mya ), but this estimate may not be entirely true. At least some putative monocot fossils have been found in strata as old as the eudicots. The oldest fossils that are unequivocally monocots are pollen from the Late Barremian Aptian Early Cretaceous period, about 120-110 million years ago, and are assignable to clade - Pothoideae -Monstereae Araceae; being Araceae, sister to other Alismatales . They have also found flower fossils of Triuridaceae (Pandanales) in Upper Cretaceous rocks in New Jersey, becoming the oldest known sighting of saprophytic /mycotrophic habits in angiosperm plants and among the oldest known fossils of monocotyledons.

Topology of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree could infer that the monocots would be among the oldest lineages of angiosperms, which would support the theory that they are just as old as the eudicots. The pollen of the eudicots dates back 125 million years, so the lineage of monocots should be that old too.

Molecular Clock Estimates

Kåre Bremer , using rbcL sequences and the mean path length method for estimating divergence times , estimated the age of the monocot crown group (i.e. the time at which the ancestor of today's _Acorus_ diverged from the rest of the group) as 134 million years. Similarly, Wikström _et al._, using Sanderson's non-parametric rate smoothing approach , obtained ages of 127–141 million years for the crown group of monocots. All these estimates have large error ranges (usually 15-20%), and Wikström _et al._ used only a single calibration point, namely the split between Fagales and Cucurbitales , which was set to 84 Ma, in the late Santonian period. Early molecular clock studies using strict clock models had estimated the monocot crown age to 200 ± 20 million years ago or 160 ± 16 million years, while studies using relaxed clocks have obtained 135-131 million years or 133.8 to 124 million years. Bremer's estimate of 134 million years has been used as a secondary calibration point in other analyses. Some estimates place the emergence of the monocots as far back as 150 mya in the Jurassic period.

Core Group

The age of the core group of so-called 'nuclear monocots' or 'core monocots', which correspond to all orders except Acorales and Alismatales, is about 131 million years to present, and crown group age is about 126 million years to the present. The subsequent branching in this part of the tree (i.e. Petrosaviaceae , Dioscoreales + Pandanales and Liliales clades appeared), including the crown Petrosaviaceae group may be in the period around 125–120 million years BC (about 111 million years so far ), and stem groups of all other orders, including Commelinidae would have diverged about or shortly after 115 million years. These and many clades within these orders may have originated in southern Gondwana , i.e. Antarctica, Australasia, and southern South America.

Aquatic Monocots

The aquatic monocots of Alismatales have commonly been regarded as "primitive". They have also been considered to have the most primitive foliage, which were cross-linked as Dioscoreales and Melanthiales . Keep in mind that the "most primitive" monocot is not necessarily "the sister of everyone else". This is because the ancestral or primitive characters are inferred by means of the reconstruction of character states, with the help of the phylogenetic tree. So primitive characters of monocots may be present in some derived groups. On the other hand, the basal taxa may exhibit many morphological autapomorphies . So although Acoraceae is the sister group to the remaining monocotyledons, the result does not imply that Acoraceae is "the most primitive monocot" in terms of its character states. In fact, Acoraceae is highly derived in many morphological characters, and that is precisely why Acoraceae and Alismatales occupied relatively derived positions in the trees produced by Chase _et al._ and others.

Some authors support the idea of an aquatic phase as the origin of monocots. The phylogenetic position of Alismatales (many water), which occupy a relationship with the rest except the Acoraceae, do not rule out the idea, because it could be 'the most primitive monocots' but not 'the most basal'. The Atactostele stem, the long and linear leaves, the absence of secondary growth (see the biomechanics of living in the water), roots in groups instead of a single root branching (related to the nature of the substrate ), including sympodial use, are consistent with a water source. However, while monocots were sisters of the aquatic Ceratophyllales , or their origin is related to the adoption of some form of aquatic habit, it would not help much to the understanding of how it evolved to develop their distinctive anatomical features: the monocots seem so different from the rest of angiosperms and it's difficult to relate their morphology, anatomy and development and those of broad-leaved angiosperms.

Other Taxa

In the past, taxa which had petiolate leaves with reticulate venation were considered "primitive" within the monocots, because of its superficial resemblance to the leaves of dicotyledons . Recent work suggests that these taxa are sparse in the phylogenetic tree of monocots, such as fleshy fruited taxa (excluding taxa with aril seeds dispersed by ants), the two features would be adapted to conditions that evolved together regardless. Among the taxa involved were _ Smilax _, _ Trillium _ (Liliales), _ Dioscorea _ (Dioscoreales), etc. A number of these plants are vines that tend to live in shaded habitats for at least part of their lives, and may also have a relationship with their shapeless stomata . Reticulate venation seems to have appeared at least 26 times in monocots, in fleshy fruits 21 times (sometimes lost later), and the two characteristics, though different, showed strong signs of a tendency to be good or bad in tandem, a phenomenon described as "concerted convergence" ("coordinated convergence").

ETYMOLOGY

The name monocotyledons is derived from the traditional botanical name "Monocotyledones" or _Monocotyledoneae_ in Latin , which refers to the fact that most members of this group have one cotyledon , or embryonic leaf, in their seeds .

ECOLOGY

EMERGENCE

Main articles: Epigeal germination and Hypogeal germination

Some monocots, such as grasses, have hypogeal emergence , where the mesocotyl elongates and pushes the coleoptile (which encloses and protects the shoot tip) toward the soil surface. Since elongation occurs above the cotyledon, it is left in place in the soil where it was planted. Many dicots have epigeal emergence , in which the hypocotyl elongates and becomes arched in the soil. As the hypocotyl continues to elongate, it pulls the cotyledons upward, above the soil surface.

CONSERVATION

The IUCN Red List describes four species as extinct , four as extinct in the wild , 626 as possibly extinct, 423 as critically endangered , 632 endangered , 621 vulnerable , and 269 near threatened of 4,492 whose status is known.

USES

Monocots are among the most important plants, economically and culturally and account for most of the staple foods of the world, such as cereal grains and starchy root crops , palms, orchids and lilies, building materials , and many medicines . Of the monocots, the grasses are of enormous economic importance as a source of animal and human food, and form the largest component of agricultural species in terms of biomass produced.

NOTES

* ^ In 1964, Takhtajan
Takhtajan
proposed that classes including Monocotyledons, be formally named with the suffix _-atae_, so that the principle of typification resulted in Liliatae for monocotyledons. The proposal was formally described in 1966 by Cronquist, Takhtajan and Zimmermann, from which is derived the descriptor "liliates". * ^ Tropicos gives an earlier authority , J.H. Schaffn. 1911 * ^ Cronquist attributes this term to De Candolle as DC. 1818 Syst. 1: 122 * ^ An Anglo- Latin pronunciation. _ OED :_ "Monocotyledon" * ^ Monocots show hypogeal development in which the cotyledon remains invisible within the seed, underground. The visible part is the first true leaf produced from the meristem * ^ * Lacking in _ Acorus _, so that if this genus is sister to the rest of the monocots, the synapomorphies do not apply to monocots as a whole. * ^ Scopoli, in his treatment of Linnaeus' scheme comments in the _Hexandria polygynia_ on the fact that _ Alisma _ is a member of the _Gens monocotyledon_ * ^ See also Lindley 's review of classification systems up to 1853, and Dahlgren 's from 1853–1982 * ^ _Endogènes_ (ενδον within + γεναω I create)

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Cronquist, Takhtajan
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1966 . * ^ Takhtajan
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1964 . * ^ Tropicos 2015 , Liliidae * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Thorne 1992a . * ^ Tropicos 2015 , Liliopsida * ^ _A_ _B_ Eichler 1886 . * ^ Tropicos 2015 , Monocotylondoneae * ^ de Candolle & 1818–1821 . * ^ "Monocotyledon". _ Merriam-Webster Dictionary _. * ^ "Monocotyledon". _ Dictionary.com Unabridged_. Random House . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Tillich 1998 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Rudall & Buzgo 2002 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Vogel 1998 . * ^ Kubitzki & Huber 1998 . * ^ Kubitzki 1998 . * ^ Davis et al. 2013 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Zeng et al 2014 . * ^ Du et al 2016 . * ^ Soltis & Soltis 2016 . * ^ Strong & Ray 1975 . * ^ Dransfield 1978 . * ^ Tillich 1998 , Figure 1 * ^ Mauseth 2017 , Anomalous forms of growth pp. 211–219 * ^ Petit et al 2014 . * ^ Tomlinson & Esler 1973 . * ^ Leck et al 2008 . * ^ Tomlinson 1970 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Takhtajan
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2009 , Liliopsida pp. 589–750 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Kubitzki, Rudall & Chase 1998 , A brief history of monocot classification p. 23 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ Chase 2004 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ NBGI 2016 , Monocots versus Dicots. * ^ _A_ _B_ Stevens 2015 . * ^ Soltis et al. 2005 , p. 92. * ^ Donoghue & Doyle 1989b . * ^ _A_ _B_ Loconte & Stevenson 1991 . * ^ Doyle & Donoghue 1992 . * ^ Lersten 2004 . * ^ Donoghue 2005 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Soltis et al. 2005 . * ^ Pavord 2005 . * ^ Ray 1674 , pp. 164, 166. * ^ _A_ _B_ Raven 1950 . * ^ Ray 1682 , _De foliis plantarum seminalibus dictis_ p. 7. * ^ Short & George 2013 , p. 15. * ^ Ray 1682 , _De plantula seminali reliquisque femine contentis_ p. 13. * ^ _A_ _B_ Malpighi
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1679 , _De seminum vegetatione_ p. 18. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bewley, Black & Halmer 2006 , History of seed research p. 334. * ^ Ray 1682 . * ^ Stuessy 2009 , Natural classification p. 47. * ^ Datta 1988 , Systems of classification p. 21. * ^ Stace 1989 , The development of plant taxonomy p. 17. * ^ Raven 1950 , p. 195. * ^ Ray 1682 , _De foliis plantarum seminalibus dictis_ p. 11. * ^ Ray 1696 . * ^ Ray 1703 , pp. 1–2. * ^ Ray 1703 , p. 16. * ^ Scopoli 1772 , _Alisma_ pp. 266–267 * ^ Lindley 1853 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Dahlgren & Clifford 1982 . * ^ Jussieu 1789 . * ^ Lindley 1830 . * ^ Wettstein 1924 . * ^ Engler 1886 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Cronquist 1981 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Dahlgren, Clifford & Yeo 1985 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Chase et al 1993 . * ^ _A_ _B_ APG 1998 . * ^ _A_ _B_ APG III 2009 . * ^ Bremer & Wanntorp 1978 . * ^ Chase et al. 1995b . * ^ APG II 2003 . * ^ LAPGIII 2009 . * ^ Chase & Reveal 2009 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ APG IV 2016 . * ^ Bentham 1877 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Fay 2013 . * ^ Dahlgren 1980 . * ^ Huber 1969 . * ^ Dahlgren 1989 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Chase et al 1995 . * ^ Chase et al 2000 . * ^ Davis et al 2004 . * ^ Soltis & Soltis 2004 . * ^ Cantino et al 2007 . * ^ Hertwick et al. 2015 . * ^ CoL 2015 , Liliopsida * ^ _A_ _B_ Panis 2008 . * ^ Ganfolfo et al 1998 . * ^ Smith et al 2010 , p. 38. * ^ Herendeen & Crane 1995 . * ^ Herendeen, Crane & Drinnan 1995 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Gandolfo, Nixon & Crepet 2002 . * ^ Friis, Pedersen & Crane 2004 . * ^ Friis, Pedersen & Crane 2006 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Bremer 2000 . * ^ Bremer 2002 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Wikström, Savolainen & Chase 2001 . * ^ Sanderson 1997 . * ^ Sanderson et al 2004 . * ^ Savard et al 1994 . * ^ Goremykin, Hansman & Martin 1997 . * ^ Leebens-Mack et al 2005 . * ^ Moore et al 2007 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Janssen & Bremer 2004 . * ^ Hedges & Kumar 2009 , p. 205. * ^ Bremer & Janssen 2006 . * ^ Hallier 1905 . * ^ Arber 1925 . * ^ Hutchinson 1973 . * ^ Cronquist 1988 . * ^ Takhtajan
Takhtajan
2009 . * ^ Takhtajan
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1991 . * ^ Stebbins 1974 . * ^ Thorne 1976 . * ^ Thorne 1992b . * ^ Stevenson & Loconte 1995 . * ^ Henslow 1893 . * ^ Zimmermann & Tomlinson 1972 . * ^ Tomlinson 1995 . * ^ Patterson & Givnish 2002 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Givnish et al. 2005 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Givnish et al. 2006 . * ^ Cameron -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">

BOOKS

Historical

* Batsch, August Johann Georg Karl (1802). _Tabula affinitatum regni vegetabilis, quam delineavit, et nunc ulterius adumbratam tradit A.J.G.C. Batsch ..._ (in Latin). Weimar : Landes-Industrie-Comptoir. * Bentham, G. ; Hooker, J.D. (1862–1883). _Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita_ (in Latin). London: L Reeve & Co. * Birch, Thomas , ed. (1757). _The History of the Royal Society
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of London for Improving of Natural Knowledge from Its First Rise, in which the Most Considerable of Those Papers Communicated to the Society, which Have Hitherto Not Been Published, are Inserted as a Supplement to the Philosophical Transactions, Volume 3_. London: Millar. * de Candolle, Augustin Pyramus (1818–1821). _Regni vegetabilis systema naturale, sive Ordines, genera et species plantarum secundum methodi naturalis normas digestarum et descriptarum 2 vols._ Paris: Treuttel et Würtz. * de Candolle, AP (1819) . _Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l’art de décrire et d’etudier les végétaux_ (2nd ed.). * Eichler, August W. (1886) . _Syllabus der Vorlesungen über specielle und medicinisch-pharmaceutische Botanik_ (4th ed.). Berlin: Borntraeger. * Engler, Adolf (1886). _Führer durch den Königlich botanischen Garten der Universität zu Breslau_ (in German). J.U. Kerns Verlag (Max Müller). Retrieved 2 May 2015. * Jussieu, Antoine Laurent de (1789). _Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam_. Paris. OCLC 5161409 . * Lindley, John (1830). _An introduction to the natural system of botany: or, A systematic view of the organisation, natural affinities, and geographical distribution, of the whole vegetable kingdom: together with the uses of the most important species in medicine, the arts, and rural or domestic economy_ (1st ed.). London: Longman. * Lindley, John (1853) . _The Vegetable Kingdom: or, The structure, classification, and uses of plants, illustrated upon the natural system_ (3rd. ed.). London: Bradbury & Evans. * Malpighi, Marcello (1675). _Anatome plantarum: Cui subjungitur appendix, iteratas & auctas ejusdem authoris de ovo incubato observationes continens_ (in Latin). London: Johannis Martyn. Retrieved 13 December 2015. * Malpighi, Marcello (1679). _Anatome plantarum: Pars altera_ (in Latin). London: Johannis Martyn. Retrieved 13 December 2015. * Ray, John (1682). _Methodus plantarum nova: brevitatis & perspicuitatis causa synoptice in tabulis exhibita, cum notis generum tum summorum tum subalternorum characteristicis, observationibus nonnullis de seminibus plantarum & indice copioso_ (in Latin). London: Faithorne & Kersey. * Ray, John (1696). _De Variis Plantarum Methodis Dissertatio Brevis_ (in Latin). London: Smith & Walford. * Ray, John (1703). _Methodus plantarum emendata et aucta: In quãa notae maxime characteristicae exhibentur, quibus stirpium genera tum summa, tum infima cognoscuntur & áa se mutuo dignoscuntur, non necessariis omissis. Accedit methodus graminum, juncorum et cyperorum specialis_ (in Latin). London: Smith & Walford.

* Sachs, Julius von (1875). _Geschichte der Botanik vom 16. Jahrhundert bis 1860_ (in German). Munich: Oldenbourg. Retrieved 13 December 2015.

* Sachs, Julius von (1890) . _Geschichte der Botanik vom 16. Jahrhundert bis 1860_ . translated by Henry E. F. Garnsey, revised by Isaac Bayley Balfour. Oxford: Oxford University Press . doi :10.5962/bhl.title.30585 . Retrieved 13 December 2015. , see also _History of botany (1530-1860)_ at Google Books

* Scopoli, Giovanni Antonio (1772). _Flora Carniolica exhibens plantas Carnioliae indigenas et distributas in classes, genera, species, varietates, ordine Linnaeano_. Vindobonensis (Vienna): Ioannis Pauli Krauss.

Modern

* Arber, Agnes (1925). _Monocotyledons: a morphological study_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .

* Bell, Adrian D. (2008) . _ Plant Form. An illustrated guide to flowering plant morphology_. Oxford University Press.

* 1st edition ISBN 9780198542193

* Bewley, J.Derek; Black, Michael; Halmer, Peter, eds. (2006). _The encyclopedia of seeds: science, technology and uses_. Wallingford: CABI. ISBN 978-0-85199-723-0 . Retrieved 15 December 2015. * Crane, Peter R. ; Blackmore, Stephen , eds. (1989). _Evolution, Systematics, and Fossil History of Hamamelidae. vol. I_. Oxford: Clarendon Press . Retrieved 14 December 2015. * Cronk, Quentin C.B.; Bateman, Richard M.; Hawkins, Julie A., eds. (2002). _Developmental genetics and plant evolution_. London: Taylor & Francis . ISBN 9781420024982 . * Cronquist, Arthur (1981). _An integrated system of classification of flowering plants_. New York: Columbia University Press . ISBN 978-0-231-03880-5 . * Cronquist, Arthur (1988) . _The evolution and classification of flowering plants_ (2nd ed.). Bronx, N.Y., USA: New York Botanical Garden. ISBN 9780893273323 . * Dahlgren, Rolf
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; Clifford, H. T. (1982). _The monocotyledons: A comparative study_. London and New York: Academic Press. ISBN 9780122006807 . * Dahlgren, R.M. ; Clifford, H.T.; Yeo, P.F. (1985). _The families of the monocotyledons_. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-642-64903-5 . Retrieved 10 February 2014. * Datta, Subhash Chandra (1988). _Systematic Botany_ (4 ed.). New Delhi: New Age Intl. ISBN 81-224-0013-2 . Retrieved 25 January 2015. * Fernholm, Bo; Bremer, Kåre; Jörnvall, Hans, eds. (1989). _The hierarchy of life: molecules and morphology in phylogenetic analysis: proceedings from Nobel symposium 70 held at Alfred Nobel\'s Björkborn, Karlskoga, Sweden, August 29-September 2, 1988_. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica. ISBN 9780444810731 . * Hedges, S. Blair; Kumar, Sudhir, eds. (2009), _The timetree of life_, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780191560156 * Hutchinson, John (1973). _The families of flowering plants, arranged according to a new system based on their probable phylogeny. 2 vols_ (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press . ISBN 9783874291606 . * Kubitzki, Klaus ; Huber, Herbert , eds. (1998). _The families and genera of vascular plants. Vol.3. Flowering plants. Monocotyledons: Lilianae (except Orchidaceae)_. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-64060-6 . Retrieved 14 January 2014. * Kubitzki, Klaus , ed. (1998). _The families and genera of vascular plants. Vol. 4. Flowering Plants. Monocotyledons: Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae)_. Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. ISBN 978-3-662-03531-3 . * Leck, Mary Allessio; Parker, V. Thomas; Simpson, Robert L., eds. (2008). _ Seedling ecology and evolution_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521873055 . * Lersten, Nels R. (2004). _ Flowering plant embryology with emphasis on economic species_. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Pub. ISBN 9780470752678 . * Mauseth, James D. (2017) . _Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology_ (6th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett. ISBN 9781284077537 . * Pavord, Anna (2005). _The naming of names the search for order in the world of plants._ New York: Bloomsbury. ISBN 9781596919655 . Retrieved 18 February 2015. See also ebook 2010 * Raven, Peter H. ; Evert, Ray F.; Eichhorn, Susan E. (2013). _Biology of plants_ (8th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 9781464113512 . * Radosevich, Steven R.; Holt, Jodie S.; Ghersa, Claudio (1997). _Weed ecology: implications for management_ (2nd ed.). New York: J. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-11606-8 . * Raven, Charles E. (1950) . _John Ray, naturalist: his life and works_ (2nd ed.). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521310833 . Retrieved 10 December 2015. * Reed, Barbara, ed. (2008). _ Plant cryopreservation a practical guide_. New York: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-72276-4 . * Short, Emma; George, Alex (2013). _A primer of botanical Latin with vocabulary_. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107693753 . Retrieved 14 December 2015. * Smith, Alison M ; et al. (2010). _ Plant biology_. New York, NY: Garland Science. ISBN 9780815340256 . Retrieved 14 December 2015. * Stace, Clive A. (1989) . _ Plant taxonomy and biosystematics_ (2nd. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press . ISBN 978-0-521-42785-2 . Retrieved 29 April 2015. * Stebbins, G. Ledyard (1974). _Flowering plants: evolution above the species level_. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press . ISBN 0-674-30685-6 . Retrieved 16 December 2015. * Stuessy, Tod F. (2009). _ Plant Taxonomy: The Systematic Evaluation of Comparative Data_. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-14712-0 . Retrieved 6 February 2014. * Soltis, D.E. ; Soltis, P.S. ; Endress, P.K.; Chase, M.W. (2005). _Phylogeny and evolution of angiosperms_. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer. (_see also_: Excerpts at Amazon * Takhtajan, Armen Leonovich (1966). "Lilianae". _Система и филогения цветкорых растений (Sistema i filogeniia tsvetkovykh rastenii)_ (in Russian). trans. C Jeffrey, as _Flowering plants: Origin and dispersal_, Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1969. Moscow: Наука. p. 473. ISBN 0-05-001715-2 . Retrieved 14 August 2015. * Takhtajan, Armen (1991). _Evolutionary trends in flowering plants_. New York: Columbia University Press . ISBN 9780231073288 . * Takhtajan, Armen Leonovich (2009). _Flowering Plants_. Springer. ISBN 1-4020-9609-7 . Retrieved 7 January 2014. * Wettstein, Richard (1924). _Handbuch der Systematischen Botanik 2 vols._ (3rd ed.). Retrieved 15 April 2015.

SYMPOSIA

* Columbus, J. T.; Friar, E. A.; Porter, J. M.; Prince, L. M.; Simpson, M. G., eds. (2006). "Symposium issue: Monocots: comparative biology and evolution (excluding Poales). _Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Comparative Biology of the Monocotyledons, 31 Mar–4 Apr 2003_". _ Aliso _. Claremont, Ca.: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 22 (1). ISSN 0065-6275 . Retrieved 18 January 2014. * Rudall, P.J. ; Cribb, P.J.; Cutler, D.F.; Humphries, C.J., eds. (1995). _Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution (Proceedings of the International Symposium on Monocotyledons: Systematics and Evolution, Kew 1993)_. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens. ISBN 978-0-947643-85-0 . Retrieved 14 January 2014. * Wilkin, Paul; Mayo, Simon J, eds. (2013). _Early events in monocot evolution_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-01276-9 . Retrieved 9 December 2015. * Wilson, K. L.; Morrison, D. A., eds. (2000), _Monocots: Systematics and evolution (Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Comparative Biology of the Monocotyledons, Sydney, Australia 1998)_, Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO , ISBN 0-643-06437-0 , retrieved 14 January 2014 Excerpts * Seberg, Ole; Petersen, Gitte; Barfod, Anders; Davis, Jerrold I., eds. (2010). _Diversity, phylogeny, and evolution in the Monocotyledons: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Comparative Biology of the Monocotyledons and the Fifth International Symposium on Grass Systematics and Evolution_. Århus: Aarhus University Press . ISBN 978 87 7934 398 6 . * Tomlinson, P. B.; Zimmerman, Martin, eds. (1978). _Tropical Trees as Living Systems (Proceedings of the fourth Cabot Symposium held at Harvard Forest, Petersham Massachusetts on April 26-30, 1976)_. Cambridge University Press . ISBN 978-0-521-14247-2 .

CHAPTERS

* Anderson, CL; Janssen, T. _Monocots_. pp. 203–212. , in Hedges Duvall, M. R.; Hills, H. G.; Conran, J. G.; Cox, A. V.; Eguiarte, L. E.; Hartwell, J.; Fay, M. F.; Caddick, L. R.; Cameron, K. M.; Hoot, S. _ Molecular phylogenetics of Lilianae_ (PDF). pp. 109–137. , In Rudall et al. (1995) . * Chase, M.W. ; Soltis, D. E. ; Soltis, P. S. ; Rudall, P. J. ; Fay, M. F. ; Hahn, W. H.; Sullivan, S.; Joseph, J.; Molvray, M.; Kores, P. J.; Givnish, T. J. ; Sytsma, K. J.; Pires, J. C. _Higher-level systematics of the monocotyledons: An assessment of current knowledge and a new classification_. pp. 3–16. , in Wilson Stevenson, D. W.; Wilkin, P.; Rudall, P. J. _Monocot systematics: A combined analysis_. 2. pp. 685–730. , In Rudall et al. (1995) * Davis, Jerrold I.; Mcneal, Joel R.; Barrett, Craig F.; Chase, Mark W. ; Cohen, James I.; Duvall, Melvin R.; Givnish, Thomas J. ; Graham, Sean W.; Petersen, Gitte; Pires, J. Chris; Seberg, Ole; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Leebens-Mack, Jim (2013), "Contrasting patterns of support among plastid genes and genomes for major clades of the monocotyledons", _Early Events in Monocot Evolution_, pp. 315–349, ISBN 9781139002950 , doi :10.1017/CBO9781139002950.015 , in Wilkin Doyle, James A. (1989). _ Phylogenetic studies of seed plants and angiosperms based on morphological characters_ (PDF). pp. 181–193. , in Fernholm, Bremer Doyle, James A. (1989). _ Phylogenetic analysis of angiosperms and the relationships of Hamamelidae_ (PDF). pp. 17–45. , In Crane & Blackmore (1989) * Dransfield, John . _ Growth forms of rain forest palms_. pp. 247–268. , in Tomlinson Pires, J.C.; Graham, S.W.; McPherson, M.A.; Prince, L.M.; Patterson, T.B.; Rai, H.S.; Roalson, E.R.; Evans, T.M.; Hahn, W.J; Millam, K.C.; Meerow, A.W. ; Molvray, M.; Kores, P.; O'Brien, H.E.; Kress, W.J.; Hall, J.; Sytsma, K.J. _Phylogeny of the monocotyledons based on the highly informative plastid gene_ ndh_F: evidence for widespread concerted convergence_ (PDF). pp. 28–51. Retrieved 4 January 2014. In Columbus et al. (2006) * Herendeen, P. S.; Crane, P. R. (1995). _The fossil history of the monocotyledons_. pp. 1–21. In Rudall et al. (1995) * Kubitzki, K ; Rudall, PJ ; Chase, MW (1998). _Systematics and evolution_. pp. 23–33. ISBN 9783662035337 . , In Kubitzki & Huber (1998) . * Panis, Bart (2008). _Cryopreservation of monocots_. pp. 241–280. doi :10.1007/978-0-387-72276-4_11 . , in Reed (2008) * Ray, John (1674). _A discourse on the seeds of plants_. pp. 162–169. , in Birch (1757) * Rudall, Paula J. ; Buzgo, Matyas. _Evolutionary history of the monocot leaf_. pp. 431–458. doi :10.1201/9781420024982.ch23 . , in Cronk, Bateman Loconte, H. _ Cladistic analysis of monocot families_. pp. 543–578. in Rudall et al. (1995) * Tillich, H.-J. _Development and Organization_. pp. 1–19. , In Kubitzki & Huber (1998) * Tomlinson, P. B. (1995). _Non-homology of vascular organisation in monocotyledons and dicotyledons_. pp. 589–622. In Rudall et al. (1995) * Vogel, S (1998). _Floral biology_. pp. 34–48. , In Kubitzki & Huber (1998) .

ARTICLES

* Bentham, George (February 1877). "On the Distribution of the Monocotyledonous Orders into Primary Groups, more especially in reference to the Australian Flora, with notes on some points of Terminology.". _Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany_. 15 (88): 490–520. doi :10.1111/j.1095-8339.1877.tb00261.x . * Bessey, Charles E. (1915). "The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants". _ Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden _. 2 (1/2): 109–164. JSTOR 2990030 . doi :10.2307/2990030 . (also at "Botanicus.org". Missouri Botanical Garden . Retrieved 5 February 2017. ) * Bremer, K. (2000). " Early Cretaceous lineages of monocot flowering plants" (PDF). _ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA_. 97 (9): 4707–4711. doi :10.1073/pnas.080421597 . * Bremer, K. (2002). "Gondwanan evolution of the grass alliance families (Poales)". _Evolution_. 56 (7): 1374–1387. doi :10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb01451.x . * Bremer, Kåre ; Janssen, Thomas (2006). "Gondwanan origin of major monocot groups inferred from dispersal-vicariance analysis". _Aliso_. 22: 22–27. * Cameron, K. M.; Dickison, W. C. (1998). "Foliar architecture of vanilloid orchids: Insights into the evolution of reticulate leaf venation in monocots". _Bot. J. Linnean Soc_. 128: 45–70. doi :10.1006/bojl.1998.0183 . * Christenhusz, Maarten JM & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". _Phytotaxa_. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi :10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1 . * Clifford, H T (1977). "Quantitative Studies of Inter-relationships Amongst the _Liliatae_" (PDF). _ Plant Syst. Evol_. Suppl. 1: 77–95. ISBN 978-3-211-81434-5 . doi :10.1007/978-3-7091-7076-2_6 . Retrieved 27 December 2015. * Cronquist, Arthur ; Takhtajan, Armen ; Zimmermann, Walter (April 1966). "On the Higher Taxa of Embryobionta". _Taxon _. 15 (4): 129–134. JSTOR 1217531 . doi :10.2307/1217531 . * Cronquist, Arthur (April 1969). "Broad Features of the System of Angiosperms". _Taxon_. 18 (2): 188–193. JSTOR 1218676 . doi :10.2307/1218676 . * Dahlgren, Gertrud (July 1989). "An updated angiosperm classification". _ Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society _. 100 (3): 197–203. doi :10.1111/j.1095-8339.1989.tb01717.x . * Dahlgren, R. M. T. (February 1980). "A revised system of classification of the angiosperms". _Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society _. 80 (2): 91–124. doi :10.1111/j.1095-8339.1980.tb01661.x .

* Dahlgren, Rolf; Rasmussen, Finn N. (1983). "Monocotyledon Evolution: Characters and Phylogenetic Estimation". _Evolutionary Biology_. 16: 255–395. doi :10.1007/978-1-4615-6971-8_7 . * Donoghue, Michael J. (2005). "Key innovations, convergence, and success: macroevolutionary lessons from plant phylogeny" (PDF). _Paleobiology_. 31: 77–93. doi :10.1666/0094-8373(2005)0312.0.CO;2 .

* Doyle, James A; Donoghue, Michael J (April–June 1992). "Fossils and seed plant phylogeny reanalyzed" (PDF). _Brittonia_. 44 (2): 89106. JSTOR 2806826 . * Fay, Michael F. (May 2013). "Monocots". _Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society_. 172 (1): 1–4. doi :10.1111/boj.12052 . * Friis, E. M.; Pedersen, K. R.; Crane, P. R. (2004). " Araceae from the early Cretaceous of Portugal: Evidence on the emergence of monocotyledons" . _ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences _. 101 (47): 16565–16570. PMC 534535  _. PMID 15546982 . doi :10.1073/pnas.0407174101 . * Friis, E. M.; Pedersen, K. R.; Crane, P. R. (2006). "Cretaceous angiosperm flowers: innovation and evolution in plant reproduction". Palaeogeog. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol_. 232 (2–4): 251–293. doi :10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.07.006 . * Gandolfo, M. A; Nixon, K. C.; Crepet, W. L.; Stevenson, D. W.; Friis, E. M. (6 August 1998). "Oldest known fossils of monocotyledons". _Nature_. 394 (6693): 532–533. doi :10.1038/28974 .

* Gandolfo, M. A.; Nixon, K. C.; Crepet, W. L. (2002). "Triuridaceae fossil flowers from the Upper Cretaceous of New Jersey". _American Journal of Botany _. 89 (12): 1940–1957. PMID 21665623 . doi :10.3732/ajb.89.12.1940 . * Hallier, Hans (31 July 1905). "Provisional scheme of the natural (phylogenetic) system of the flowering plants". _ New Phytologist _. 4 (7): 151–162. doi :10.1111/j.1469-8137.1905.tb05894.x . * Henslow, George (May 1893). "A Theoretical Origin of Endogens from Exogens, through Self-Adaptation to an Aquatic Habit". _Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society _. 29 (204): 485–528. doi :10.1111/j.1095-8339.1893.tb02273.x . * Herendeen, Patrick S.; Crane, Peter R. ; Drinnan, Andrew N. (January 1995). "Fagaceous flowers, fruits, and cupules from the Campanian (Late Cretaceous) of Central Georgia, USA". _International Journal of Plant Sciences_. 156 (1): 93–116. JSTOR 2474901 . doi :10.1086/297231 . * Hertweck, Kate L.; Kinney, Michael S.; Stuart, Stephanie A.; Maurin, Olivier; Mathews, Sarah; Chase, Mark W. ; Gandolfo, Maria A.; Pires, J. Chris (July 2015), "Phylogenetics, divergence times and diversification from three genomic partitions in monocots", _Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society _, 178 (3): 375–393, doi :10.1111/boj.12260 * Huber, H (1969). "Die Samenmerkmale und Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse der Liliiflorae". _Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml._ (in German). 8: 219–538. Retrieved 10 February 2015. * Moore, John P.; Lindsey, George G.; Farrant, Jill M.; Brandt, Wolf F. (2007). "An Overview of the Biology of the Desiccation-tolerant Resurrection Plant _Myrothamnus flabellifolia_" (PDF). _Annals of Botany _. 99 (2): 211–217. doi :10.1093/aob/mcl269 . Retrieved November 3, 2015. * Petit, G.; DeClerck, F. A. J.; Carrer, M.; Anfodillo, T. (31 January 2014). "Axial vessel widening in arborescent monocots". _Tree Physiology_. 34 (2): 137–145. doi :10.1093/treephys/tpt118 . * Sanderson, Michael J. (1997). "A nonparametric approach to estimating divergence times in the absence of rate constancy" (pdf). _Molecular Biology and Evolution_. 14 (12): 1218–1231. doi :10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025731 . * Sanderson, M. J.; Thorne, J. L.; Wikström, N.; Bremer, K. (2004). "Molecular evidence on plant divergence times". _American Journal of Botany _. 91 (10): 1656–1665. doi :10.3732/ajb.91.10.1656 . * Strong, Donald R.; Ray, Thomas S. (1 January 1975). "Host Tree Location Behavior of a Tropical Vine (_Monstera gigantea_) by Skototropism". _Science _. 190 (4216): 804–806. JSTOR 1741614 . doi :10.1126/science.190.4216.804 . * Takhtajan, A. (June 1964). "The Taxa of the Higher Plants above the Rank of Order". _Taxon _. 13 (5): 160–164. JSTOR 1216134 . doi :10.2307/1216134 . * Tang, Cuong Q.; Orme, C. David L.; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Jones, F. Andrew; Powell, Silvana; Chase, Mark W.; Barraclough, Timothy G.; Savolainen, Vincent (October 2016). "Global monocot diversification: geography explains variation in species richness better than environment or biology". _ Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society _. doi :10.1111/boj.12497 . * Thorne, Robert F. (1976). "A phylogenetic classification of the Angiospermae". _Evolutionary Biology_. 9: 35–106. ISBN 978-1-4615-6952-7 . doi :10.1007/978-1-4615-6950-3_2 . * Thorne, R. F. (1992a). "Classification and geography of the flowering plants". _The Botanical Review_. 58 (3): 225–348. doi :10.1007/BF02858611 . * Thorne, R. F. (1992b). "An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants". _Aliso_. 13: 365–389. * Tomlinson, P. B. (1970). " Monocotyledons - towards an understanding of their morphology and anatomy". _Adv. Bot. Res_. 3: 207–292. * Tomlinson, P. B.; Esler, A. E. (1 December 1973). "Establishment growth in woody monocotyledons native to New Zealand". _New Zealand Journal of Botany _. 11 (4): 627–644. doi :10.1080/0028825X.1973.10430305 . * Wikström, Niklas; Savolainen, Vincent; Chase, Mark W. (2001). "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree" . _Proceedings of the Royal Society
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Phylogenetics

* Bremer, Kåre ; Wanntorp, Hans-Erik (Aug 1978). "Phylogenetic Systematics in Botany". _Taxon_. 27 (4): 317–329. JSTOR 1220367 . doi :10.2307/1220367 . * Cantino, Philip D.; Doyle, James A.; Graham, Sean W.; Judd, Walter S. ; Olmstead, Richard G.; Soltis, Douglas E. ; Soltis, Pamela S. ; Donoghue, Michael J. (2007). "Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of _Tracheophyta_" (PDF). _Taxon _. 56 (3): 822–846. doi :10.2307/25065865 . * Chase, Mark W. ; Soltis, Douglas E. ; Olmstead, Richard G.; Morgan, David; Les, Donald H.; Mishler, Brent D.; Duvall, Melvin R.; Price, Robert A.; Hills, Harold G.; Qiu, Yin-Long; Kron, Kathleen A.; Rettig, Jeffrey H.; Conti, Elena; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Manhart, James R.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.; Michaels, Helen J.; Kress, W. John; Karol, Kenneth G.; Clark, W. Dennis; Hedren, Mikael; Gaut, Brandon S.; Jansen, Robert K.; Kim, Ki-Joong; Wimpee, Charles F.; Smith, James F.; Furnier, Glenn R.; Strauss, Steven H.; Xiang, Qui-Yun; Plunkett, Gregory M.; Soltis, Pamela S. ; Swensen, Susan M.; Williams, Stephen E.; Gadek, Paul A.; Quinn, Christopher J.; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Golenberg, Edward; Learn, Gerald H.; Graham, Sean W.; Barrett, Spencer C. H.; Dayanandan, Selvadurai; Albert, Victor A. (1993). " Phylogenetics of Seed Plants: An Analysis of Nucleotide Sequences from the Plastid Gene _rbc_L". _Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden _. 80 (3): 528. doi :10.2307/2399846 . * Chase, Mark W. (2004). "Monocot relationships: an overview". _ American Journal of Botany _. 91 (10): 1645–1655. PMID 21652314 . doi :10.3732/ajb.91.10.1645 . * Davis, Jerrold I.; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole; Campbell, Lisa M.; Freudenstein, John V.; Goldman, Douglas H.; Hardy, Christopher R.; Michelangeli, Fabian A.; Simmons, Mark P.; Specht, Chelsea D.; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Gandolfo, María (1 July 2004). "A Phylogeny of the Monocots, as Inferred from _rbcL_ and _atpA_ Sequence Variation, and a Comparison of Methods for Calculating Jackknife and Bootstrap Values" (PDF). _Systematic Botany_. 29 (3): 467–510. doi :10.1600/0363644041744365 . * Du, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Qing-Feng (July 2016). " Phylogenetic tree of vascular plants reveals the origins of aquatic angiosperms". _Journal of Systematics and Evolution_. 54 (4): 342–348. doi :10.1111/jse.12182 . * Duvall, Melvin R.; Clegg, Michael T.; Chase, Mark W. ; Clark, W. Dennis; Kress, W. John; Hills, Harold G.; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Smith, James F.; Gaut, Brandon S.; Zimmer, Elizabeth A.; Learn, Gerald H. (1 January 1993). " Phylogenetic Hypotheses for the Monocotyledons Constructed from _rbc_L Sequence Data". _Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden _. 80 (3): 607–619. JSTOR 2399849 . doi :10.2307/2399849 . * Endress, P. K.; Doyle, J. A. (8 January 2009). "Reconstructing the ancestral angiosperm flower and its initial specializations". _ American Journal of Botany _. 96 (1): 22–66. PMID 21628175 . doi :10.3732/ajb.0800047 . * Givnish, Thomas J. ; Pires, J.Chris; Graham, Sean W.; McPherson, Marc A.; Prince, Linda M.; Patterson, Thomas B.; Rai, Hardeep S.; Roalson, Eric H.; Evans, Timothy M.; Hahn, William J; Millam, Kendra C.; Meerow, Alan W ; Molvray, Mia; Kores, Paul J.; O'Brien, Heath E.; Hall, Jocelyn C.; Kress, W. John; Sytsma, Kenneth J. (2005). "Repeated evolution of net venation and fleshy fruits among monocots in shaded habitats confirms _a priori_ predictions: evidence from an _ndhF_ phylogeny" . _Proceedings of the Royal Society
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* Savard, L.; Strauss, S. H.; Chase, M. W. ; Michaud, M.; Bosquet, J. (May 1994). "Chloroplast and nuclear gene sequences indicate late Pennsylvanian time for the last common ancestor of extant seed plants". _ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America_. 91 (11): 5163–5167. doi :10.1073/pnas.91.11.5163 . * Soltis, Pamela S ; Soltis, Douglas E (2004). "The origin and diversification of angiosperms". _American Journal of Botany_. 91 (10): 1614–1626. PMID 21652312 . doi :10.3732/ajb.91.10.1614 . * Soltis, D. E. ; Smith, S. A.; Cellinese, N.; Wurdack, K. J.; Tank, D. C.; Brockington, S. F.; Refulio-Rodriguez, N. F.; Walker, J. B.; Moore, M. J.; Carlsward, B. S.; Bell, C. D.; Latvis, M.; Crawley, S.; Black, C.; Diouf, D.; Xi, Z.; Rushworth, C. A.; Gitzendanner, M. A.; Sytsma, K. J.; Qiu, Y.-L.; Hilu, K. W.; Davis, C. C.; Sanderson, M. J.; Beaman, R. S.; Olmstead, R. G.; Judd, W. S.; Donoghue, M. J.; Soltis, P. S. (8 April 2011). " Angiosperm phylogeny: 17 genes, 640 taxa". _ American Journal of Botany _. 98 (4): 704–730. PMID 21613169 . doi :10.3732/ajb.1000404 . * Soltis, Pamela S ; Soltis, Douglas E (April 2016). "Ancient WGD events as drivers of key innovations in angiosperms" (PDF). _Current Opinion in Plant Biology _. 30: 159–165. doi :10.1016/j.pbi.2016.03.015 . * Trias-Blasi, Anna; Baker, William J.; Haigh, Anna L.; Simpson, David A.; Weber, Odile; Wilkin, Paul (25 June 2015). "A genus-level phylogenetic linear sequence of monocots". _Taxon _. 64 (3): 552–581. doi :10.12705/643.9 . * Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Renran; Kong, Hongzhi; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Hong (24 September 2014). "Resolution of deep angiosperm phylogeny using conserved nuclear genes and estimates of early divergence times". _ Nature Communications _. 5 (4956): 4956. doi :10.1038/ncomms5956 .

APG

* APG (1998). "An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants". _ Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden _. 85 (4): 531–553. JSTOR 2992015 . doi :10.2307/2992015 . * APG II (2003). "An Update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II". _ Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society _. 141 (4): 399–436. doi :10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x . * APG III (2009). "An Update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". _ Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society _. 161 (2): 105–121. doi :10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x . Retrieved 3 January 2014. * APG IV (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". _ Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society _. 181 (1): 1–20. doi :10.1111/boj.12385 . Retrieved 13 June 2016. * Chase, Mark W ; Reveal, James L (2009). "A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III" (PDF). _ Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society _. 161 (2): 122–127. doi :10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.01002.x . Retrieved 21 April 2015. * Haston, Elspeth; Richardson, James E.; Stevens, Peter F. ; Chase, Mark W. ; Harris, David J. (2009). "The Linear Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (LAPG) III: a linear sequence of the families in APG III". _