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The Middle kingdoms of India
India
were the political entities in India
India
from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE. The period begins after the decline of the Maurya Empire, and the corresponding rise of the Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty, beginning with Simuka, from 230 BCE. The "Middle" period lasted for about 1500 years and ended in the 13th century, with the rise of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, founded in 1206, and the end of the Later Cholas
Later Cholas
( Rajendra Chola
Rajendra Chola
III, who died in 1279 CE). This period encompasses two eras: Classical India, from the Maurya Empire up until the end of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
in the 6th century CE, and early Medieval India from the 6th century onwards.[1] It also encompasses the era of classical Hinduism, which is dated from 200 BCE to 1100 CE.[2] From 1 CE until 1000 CE, India's economy is estimated to have been the largest in the world, having between one-third and one-quarter of the world's wealth.[3][4] It is followed by the late Medieval period in the 13th century.

Contents

1 The Northwest

1.1 The Indo-Scythian Sakas 1.2 The Indo-Greeks 1.3 The Yavanas 1.4 The Indo-Parthians 1.5 The Pahlavas 1.6 The Western Satraps 1.7 The Kushans 1.8 The Indo-Sasanians 1.9 The Hephthalite Hunas 1.10 The Rais 1.11 The Gandharan Kambojas 1.12 The Karkotas 1.13 The Kabul
Kabul
Shahis

2 The Gangetic Plains and Deccan

2.1 The Satavahana
Satavahana
Empire 2.2 The Mahameghavahana dynasty 2.3 The Bharshiva dynasty 2.4 The Guptas 2.5 The Vakatakas 2.6 The Harsha
Harsha
Vardhana 2.7 The Gurjars 2.8 The Vishnukundinas 2.9 The Maitrakas 2.10 The Gurjara
Gurjara
Pratiharas 2.11 The Rajputs

2.11.1 Katoch
Katoch
Dynasty 2.11.2 The Chauhans 2.11.3 The Kachwaha 2.11.4 The Paramaras 2.11.5 Chalukyas 2.11.6 Tomaras of Delhi

2.12 The Pratihars 2.13 The Palas 2.14 The Candras 2.15 The Eastern Gangas 2.16 The Senas 2.17 The Varmans

3 The Northeast

3.1 Kamarupa

3.1.1 The Varmans 3.1.2 The Mlechchhas 3.1.3 The Palas

3.2 The Twipra

4 The Deccan plateau and South

4.1 The Sangam Era Kingdoms 4.2 The Cheras 4.3 The Kalabhras 4.4 The Kadambas 4.5 The Western Gangas 4.6 The Badami
Badami
Chalukyas 4.7 The Pallavas 4.8 The Eastern Chalukyas 4.9 The Pandyas 4.10 The Rashtrakutas 4.11 The Western Chalukyas 4.12 The Yadavas 4.13 The Kakatiyas 4.14 The Kalachuris 4.15 The Hoysalas 4.16 The Cholas

5 See also 6 References

6.1 Citations 6.2 Sources

The Northwest[edit] During the 2nd century BCE, the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
became a collage of regional powers with overlapping boundaries. The whole northwest attracted a series of invaders between 200 BCE and 300 CE. The Puranas speak of many of these tribes as foreigners and impure barbarians (Mlecchas). First the Satavahana dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
and then the Gupta Empire, both successor states to the Maurya Empire, attempt to contain the expansions of the successive before eventually crumbling internally due pressure exerted by these wars. The invading tribes were influenced by Buddhism
Buddhism
which continued to flourish under the patronage of both invaders and the Satavahanas
Satavahanas
and Guptas and provides a cultural bridge between the two cultures. Over time, the invaders became "Indianized" as they influenced society and philosophy across the Gangetic plains
Gangetic plains
and were conversely influenced by it. This period is marked by both intellectual and artistic achievements inspired by cultural diffusion and syncretism as the new kingdoms straddle the Silk Road. The Indo-Scythian Sakas[edit] Main articles: Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
and Saka The Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
are a branch of the Sakas who migrated from southern Siberia
Siberia
into Bactria, Sogdia, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE. The first Saka
Saka
king in India
India
was Maues
Maues
or Moga who established Saka
Saka
power in Gandhara
Gandhara
and gradually extended supremacy over north-western India. Indo-Scythian rule in India
India
ended with the last of the Western Satraps, Rudrasimha III, in 395 CE. The invasion of India
India
by Scythian tribes from Central Asia, often referred to as the "Indo-Scythian invasion", played a significant part in the history of India
India
as well as nearby countries. In fact, the Indo-Scythian war is just one chapter in the events triggered by the nomadic flight of Central Asians from conflict with Chinese tribes which had lasting effects on Bactria, Kabul, Parthia
Parthia
and India
India
as well as far off Rome in the west. The Scythian groups that invaded India and set up various kingdoms, included besides the Sakas[5] other allied tribes, such as the Medes,[6][better source needed][citation needed] Scythians,[6][7] Massagetae,[citation needed] Getae,[8] Parama Kamboja Kingdom, Avars,[citation needed] Bahlikas, Rishikas and Parada Kingdom. The Indo-Greeks[edit] Main article: Indo-Greek Kingdom

Silver coin of the founder of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, Demetrius (r. c. 205–171 BC).

The Indo-Greek Kingdom
Indo-Greek Kingdom
covered various parts of the Northwestern South Asia during the last two centuries BCE, and was ruled by more than 30 Hellenistic kings, often in conflict with each other. The kingdom was founded when Demetrius I of Bactria
Bactria
invaded the Hindu Kush early in the 2nd century BCE. The Greeks in India
India
were eventually divided from the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
centered in Bactria
Bactria
(now the border between Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Uzbekistan). The expression "Indo-Greek Kingdom" loosely describes a number of various dynastic polities. There were numerous cities, such as Taxila[9] Pakistan's Punjab, or Pushkalavati
Pushkalavati
and Sagala.[10] These cities would house a number of dynasties in their times, and based on Ptolemy's Geography and the nomenclature of later kings, a certain Theophila in the south was also probably a satrapal or royal seat at some point. Euthydemus I
Euthydemus I
was, according to Polybius[11] a Magnesian Greek. His son, Demetrius, founder of the Indo-Greek kingdom, was therefore of Greek descent from his father at minimum. A marriage treaty was arranged for Demetrius with a daughter of Antiochus III the Great, who had partial Persian descent.[12] The ethnicity of later Indo-Greek rulers is less clear.[13] For example, Artemidoros Aniketos
Artemidoros Aniketos
(80 BCE) may have been of Indo-Scythian descent. Intermarriage also occurred, as exemplified by Alexander the Great, who married Roxana
Roxana
of Bactria, or Seleucus I Nicator, who married Apama of Sogdia. During the two centuries of their rule, the Indo-Greek kings combined the Greek and Indian languages and symbols, as seen on their coins, and blended Greek, Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist
Buddhist
religious practices, as seen in the archaeological remains of their cities and in the indications of their support of Buddhism, pointing to a rich fusion of Indian and Hellenistic influences.[14] The diffusion of Indo-Greek culture had consequences which are still felt today, particularly through the influence of Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist
art. The Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
ultimately disappeared as a political entity around 10 CE following the invasions of the Indo-Scythians, although pockets of Greek populations probably remained for several centuries longer under the subsequent rule of the Indo-Parthians and Kushan Empire.[15] The Yavanas[edit] Main article: Yona The Yavana or Yona
Yona
people, literally "Ionian" and meaning "Western foreigner", were described as living beyond Gandhara. Yavanas, Sakas, the Pahlavas and Hunas were sometimes described as mlecchas, "barbarians". Kambojas
Kambojas
and the inhabitants of Madra, the Kekeya Kingdom, the Indus River
Indus River
region and Gandhara
Gandhara
were sometimes also classified as mlecchas. This name was used to indicate their cultural differences with the culture of the Kuru Kingdom
Kuru Kingdom
and Panchala.[citation needed] The Indo-Parthians[edit] Main article: Indo-Parthian Kingdom The Indo-Parthian Kingdom
Indo-Parthian Kingdom
was founded by Gondophares
Gondophares
around 20 BCE. The kingdom lasted only briefly until its conquest by the Kushan Empire in the late 1st century CE and was a loose framework where many smaller dynasts maintained their independence. The Pahlavas[edit] Main article: The Pahlavas The Pahlavas are a people mentioned in ancient Indian texts like the Manusmṛti, various Puranas, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Brhatsamhita. In some texts the Pahlavas are synonymous with the Pallava dynasty
Pallava dynasty
of South India. While the Vayu Purana distinguishes between Pahlava and Pahnava, the Vamana Purana and Matsya Purana refer to both as Pallava. The Brahmanda Purana and Markendeya Purana refer to both as Pahlava or Pallava. The Bhishama Parava of the Mahabharata does not distinguish between the Pahlavas and Pallavas. The Pahlavas are said to be same as the Parasikas, a Saka
Saka
group. According to P. Carnegy,[16] the Pahlava are probably those people who spoke Paluvi or Pehlvi, the Parthian language. Buhler similarly suggests Pahlava is an Indic form of Parthava meaning "Parthian".[17] In a 4th-century BCE, the Vartika of Kātyāyana mentions the Sakah-Parthavah, demonstrating an awareness of these Saka-Parthians, probably by way of commerce.[18] The Western Satraps[edit] Main article: Western Satraps The Western Satraps
Western Satraps
(35-405 CE) were Saka
Saka
rulers of the western and central part of India
India
(Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, southern Sindh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
states). Their state, or at least part of it, was called "Ariaca" according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. They were successors to the Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
and were contemporaneous with the Kushan Empire, which ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and were possibly their overlords, and the Satavahana dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
of Andhra who ruled in Central India. They are called "Western" in contrast to the "Northern" Indo-Scythian satraps who ruled in the area of Mathura, such as Rajuvula, and his successors under the Kushans, the "Great Satrap" Kharapallana and the "Satrap" Vanaspara.[19] Although they called themselves "Satraps" on their coins, leading to their modern designation of "Western Satraps", Ptolemy's Geography still called them "Indo-Scythians".[20] Altogether, there were 27 independent Western Satrap rulers during a period of about 350 years. The Kushans[edit] Main article: Kushan Empire

Kushan Empire

The Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
(c. 1st–3rd centuries) originally formed in Bactria
Bactria
on either side of the middle course of the Amu Darya
Amu Darya
in what is now northern Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan; during the 1st century CE, they expanded their territory to include the Punjab
Punjab
and much of the Ganges
Ganges
basin, conquering a number of kingdoms across the northern part of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
in the process.[21][22] The Kushans conquered the central section of the main Silk Road
Silk Road
and, therefore, had control of the overland trade between India, and China to the east, and the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and Persia to the west. Emperor Kanishka
Emperor Kanishka
was a great patron of Buddhism; however, as Kushans expanded southward toward the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
the deities of their later coinage came to reflect its new Hindu
Hindu
majority.[23][24] The Indo-Sasanians[edit] Main article: Indo-Sasanians The rise of new Persian power, the Sasanian Empire, saw them exert their influence into the Indus region and conquer lands from the Kushan Empire, setting up the Indo-Sasanians
Indo-Sasanians
around 240 CE. They were to maintain their influence in the region until they were overthrown by the Rashidun Caliphate. Afterwards, they were displaced in 410 CE by the invasions of the Hephthalite Empire. The Hephthalite Hunas[edit] Main articles: Huna people
Huna people
and Hephthalite Empire

Billon drachma of the Huna King Napki Malka ( Afghanistan
Afghanistan
or Gandhara, c. 475–576).

The Hephthalite Empire
Hephthalite Empire
was another Central Asian
Central Asian
nomadic group to invade. They are also linked to the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
who had founded the Kushan Empire. From their capital in Bamyan
Bamyan
(present-day Afghanistan) they extended their rule across the Indus and North India, thereby causing the collapse of the Gupta Empire. They were eventually defeated by the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
allied with Turkic peoples. The Rais[edit] Main article: Rai dynasty The Rai dynasty of Sindh
Sindh
were patrons of Buddhism
Buddhism
even though they also established a huge temple of Shiva
Shiva
in Sukkur
Sukkur
close to their capital, Aror. The Gandharan Kambojas[edit] Main articles: Gandhara
Gandhara
and Kambojas The Gandhara
Gandhara
Satrapy became an independent kingdom based from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and vied with the Tang dynasty, Tibetan Empire, the Islamic Caliphate
Islamic Caliphate
and Turkic tribes for domination in the region. The Karkotas[edit] Main article: Karkota Empire

Extent of the Karkota Empire
Karkota Empire
during the reign of Lalitaditya Muktapida (8th century), according to Kalhana's Rajatarangini. Note that Kalhana highly exaggerated the conquests of Lalitaditya.[25][26]

The Karkota Empire
Karkota Empire
was established around 625 CE. During the eighth century they consolidated their rule over Kashmir.[27] The most illustrious ruler of the dynasty was Lalitaditya Muktapida. According to Kalhana's Rajatarangini, he defeated the Tibetans and Yashovarman of Kanyakubja, and subsequently conquered eastern kingdoms of Magadha, Kamarupa, Gauda, and Kalinga. Kalhana also states that he extended his influence of Malwa
Malwa
and Gujarat
Gujarat
and defeated Arabs
Arabs
at Sindh.[28][29] According to historians, Kalhana highly exaggerated the conquests of Lalitaditya.[25][26] The Kabul
Kabul
Shahis[edit] Main article: Kabul
Kabul
Shahi The Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi
dynasties ruled portions of the Kabul
Kabul
valley and Gandhara
Gandhara
from the decline of the Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
in the 3rd century to the early 9th century.[30] The kingdom was known as the Kabul
Kabul
Shahan or Ratbelshahan from 565 CE-670 CE, when the capitals were located in Kapisa and Kabul, and later Udabhandapura, also known as Hund[31] for its new capital. In ancient time, the title Shahi appears to be a quite popular royal title in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the northwestern areas of the Indian subcontinent. Variants were used much more priorly in the Near East,[32] but as well later on by the Sakas, Kushans Hunas, Bactrians, by the rulers of Kapisa/ Kabul
Kabul
and Gilgit.[33] In Persian form, the title appears as Kshathiya, Kshathiya Kshathiyanam, Shao of the Kushanas and the Ssaha of Mihirakula
Mihirakula
(Huna chief).[34] The Kushanas are stated to have adopted the title Shah-in-shahi ("Shaonano shao") in imitation of Achaemenid practice.[35] The Shahis are generally split up into two eras—the Buddhist
Buddhist
Shahis and the Hindu Shahis, with the change-over thought to have occurred sometime around 870 CE. The Gangetic Plains and Deccan[edit] Following the demise of the Mauryan Empires the Satavahanas
Satavahanas
rose as the successor state to check and contend with the influx of the Central Asian
Central Asian
tribes from the Northwest. The Satavahanas
Satavahanas
straddling the Deccan plateau also provided a link for transmission of Buddhism and contact between the Northern Gangetic plains
Gangetic plains
and the Southern regions even as the Upanishads
Upanishads
were gaining ground. Eventually weakened both by contention with the northwestern invaders and internal strife they broke up and gave rise to several nations around Deccan and central India
India
regions even as the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
arose in the Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
and ushered in a "Golden Age" and rebirth of empire as decentralized local administrative model and the spread of Indian culture until collapse under the Huna invasions. After the fall of Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
the Gangetic region broke up into several states temporarily reunited under Harsha
Harsha
then giving rise to the Rajput dynasties. In the Deccan, the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
arose forming a formidable nation marking the migration of the centers of cultural and military power long held in the Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
to the new nations forming in the southern regions of India. The Satavahana
Satavahana
Empire[edit] Main article: Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty The Sātavāhana dynasty began as feudatories to the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
but declared independence with its decline. They were the first Indic rulers to issue coins struck with their rulers embossed and are known for their patronage of Buddhism, resulting in Buddhist
Buddhist
monuments from the Ellora Caves
Ellora Caves
to Amaravathi village, Guntur district. They formed a cultural bridge and played a vital role in trade and the transfer of ideas and culture to and from the Gangetic plains
Gangetic plains
to the southern tip of India. The Sātavāhanas had to compete with the Shunga Empire
Shunga Empire
and then the Kanva dynastys of Magadha
Magadha
to establish their rule. Later they had to contend in protecting their domain from the incursions of Sakas, Yonas and the Pahlavas. In particular their struggles with the Western Satraps weakened them and the empire split into smaller states. The Mahameghavahana dynasty[edit] Main article: Mahameghavahana dynasty The Mahameghavahana dynasty
Mahameghavahana dynasty
(c. 250s BCE-400s CE) was an ancient ruling dynasty of Kalinga after the decline of the Mauryan Empire. The third ruler of the dynasty, Khārabēḷa, conquered much of India
India
in a series of campaigns at the beginning of the common era.[36] Kaḷingan military might was reinstated by Khārabēḷa: under Khārabēḷa's generalship, the Kaḷinga state had a formidable maritime reach with trade routes linking it to the then-Simhala (Sri Lanka), Burma
Burma
(Myanmar), Siam (Thailand), Vietnam, Kamboja (Cambodia), Borneo, Bali, Samudra (Sumatra) and Jabadwipa (Java). Khārabēḷa led many successful campaigns against the states of Magadha, Anga, the Satavahanas
Satavahanas
and the South Indian
South Indian
regions ruled by the Pandyan dynasty (modern Andhra Pradesh) and expanded Kaḷinga as far as the Ganges and the Kaveri. The Kharavelan state had a formidable maritime empire with trading routes linking it to Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Borneo, Bali, Sumatra
Sumatra
and Java. Colonists from Kalinga settled in Sri Lanka, Burma, as well as the Maldives
Maldives
and Maritime Southeast Asia. Even today Indians are referred to as Keling in Malaysia because of this.[37] Although religiously tolerant, Khārabēḷa patronised Jainism,[38][39] and was responsible for the propagation of Jainism
Jainism
in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
but his importance is neglected in many accounts of Indian history. The main source of information about Khārabeḷa is his famous seventeen line rock-cut Hātigumphā inscription in the Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves
Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves
near Bhubaneswar, Odisha. According to the Hathigumpha inscription, he attacked Rajagriha in Magadha, thus inducing the Indo-Greek king Demetrius I of Bactria
Bactria
to retreat to Mathura.[40] The Bharshiva dynasty[edit] Main article: Bharshiva Dynasty Before the rise of the Guptas, Bharshiva Kings ruled most of the Indo-Gangetic plains. They perform ten Ashvamedha
Ashvamedha
sacrifices on the banks of Ganga River. Samudragupta
Samudragupta
mention Naga rulers in his Allahabad pillar.[41] The Guptas[edit] Main article: Gupta Empire

Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I
Kumara Gupta I
(414–455).

The Classical Age refers to the period when much of the Indian Subcontinent was reunited under the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
(ca. 320 CE–550 CE).[42] This period is called the Golden Age of India[43] and was marked by extensive achievements in science, technology, engineering, art, dialectic, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu
Hindu
culture.[44] The decimal numeral system, including the concept of zero, was invented in India
India
during this period.[citation needed] The peace and prosperity created under Guptas leadership enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors in India.[45] The high points of this cultural creativity is seen in Gupta architecture, sculpture and painting.[46] The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa, Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Vishnu
Vishnu
Sharma, and Vatsyayana who made advances in a variety of academic fields.[47] Science and political administration advanced during the Gupta era.[citation needed][clarification needed] Trade ties made the region an important cultural center and set the region up as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in Burma, Sri Lanka, and both maritime and mainland Southeast Asia. The Guptas performed Vedic sacrifices to legitimize their rule, but they also patronized Buddhism, which continued to provide an alternative to Brahmanical orthodoxy.[citation needed] The military exploits of the first three rulers - Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
(ca. 319–335), Samudragupta
Samudragupta
(ca. 335–376), and Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
(ca. 376–415) —brought much of India
India
under their leadership.[48] They successfully resisted the North-Western Kingdoms until the arrival of the Hunas who established themselves in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by the first half of the 5th century, with their capital at Bamiyan. Nevertheless, much of the Deccan and southern India
India
were largely unaffected by this state of flux in the north.[citation needed] The Vakatakas[edit] Main article: Vakataka

The rock-cut Buddhist
Buddhist
viharas and chaityas of Ajanta Caves, built under the patronage of the Vakataka
Vakataka
rulers.

The Vakataka
Vakataka
Empire was the contemporaries of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
and the successor state of the Satavahanas
Satavahanas
they formed the southern boundaries of the north and ruled over today's modern-day states of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra
Maharashtra
during the 3rd and 5th centuries. The rock-cut Buddhist
Buddhist
viharas and chaityas of Ajanta Caves
Ajanta Caves
(a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site), built under the patronage of the Vakataka
Vakataka
rulers. They were eventually overrun by the Chalukyas. The Harsha
Harsha
Vardhana[edit] Main article: Empire of Harsha After the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the gangetic plains fractured into numerous small nations. Harsha
Harsha
of Kannauj
Kannauj
was able to briefly bind them together under his rulership as the Empire of Harsha. Only a defeat at the hands of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
(Pulakeshin II) prevented him from expanding his reign south of the Narmada River. This unity did not last long beyond his reign and his empire fractured soon after his death in 647 AD. The Gurjars[edit] Main article: Gurjar From 550 to 1018 AD, the Gurjars played a great part in history of Northern India
India
nearly for 500 years.[49] Present day Rajasthan
Rajasthan
was under the rule of Gurjars for centuries with capital at Bhilmal ( Bhinmal
Bhinmal
or Srimal), situated nearly 50 miles to the north west of Mount Abu.[49] The Gurjars of Bhilmal conquered Kannuaj on the Ganges at the beginning of the 9th century and transferred their capital to Kannuaj and founded an empire which at its peak was bounded on the east by Bihar, on the west by the lost river, the Hakra, and the Arabian Sea, on the North By the Himalaya
Himalaya
and Sutlaj, and on the South by the Jumna
Jumna
and Narmada.[49] The region round Broach, which was offshoot of this kingdom, was also ruled by the Gurjaras of Nandipuri (or Nadol).[50] The Vishnukundinas[edit] Main article: Vishnukundina The Vishnukundina
Vishnukundina
Empire was an Indian dynasty that ruled over the Deccan, Odisha
Odisha
and parts of South India
South India
during the 5th and 6th centuries carving land out from the Vakataka
Vakataka
Empire. The Vishnukundin reign came to an end with the conquest of the eastern Deccan by the Chalukya, Pulakeshin II. Pulakeshin appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
as Viceroy to rule over the conquered lands. Eventually Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
declared his independence and started the Eastern Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasty. The Maitrakas[edit] Main article: Maitraka The Maitraka
Maitraka
Empire ruled Gujarat
Gujarat
in western India
India
from the c. 475 to 767 CE. The founder of the dynasty, Senapati (general) Bhatarka, was a military governor of Saurashtra peninsula under Gupta Empire, who had established himself as the independent ruler of Gujarat
Gujarat
approximately in the last quarter of the 5th century. The first two Maitraka
Maitraka
rulers Bhatarka and Dharasena I used only the title of Senapati (general). The third ruler Dronasimha declared himself as the Maharaja.[51] King Guhasena stopped using the term Paramabhattaraka Padanudhyata along his name like his predecessors, which denotes the cessation of displaying of the nominal allegiance to the Gupta overlords. He was succeeded by his son Dharasena II, who used the title of Mahadhiraja. His son, the next ruler Siladitya I, Dharmaditya was described by Hiuen Tsang as a "monarch of great administrative ability and of rare kindness and compassion". Siladitya I was succeeded by his younger brother Kharagraha I.[52] Virdi copperplate grant (616 CE) of Kharagraha I proves that his territories included Ujjain. The Gurjara
Gurjara
Pratiharas[edit] Main article: Gurjara
Gurjara
Pratihara The Gurjara Pratihara
Gurjara Pratihara
Empire (Hindi: गुर्जर प्रतिहार)[53] formed an Indian dynasty that ruled much of Northern India
India
from the 6th to the 11th centuries. At its peak of prosperity and power (c. 836–910 CE), it rivaled the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
in the extent of its territory.[54] Pointing out the importance of the Gurjara Pratihara
Gurjara Pratihara
empire in the history of India
India
Dr. R. C. Majumdar has observed, "the Gurjara Pratihara
Pratihara
Empire which continued in full glory for nearly a century, was the last great empire in Northern India
India
before the Muslim conquest." This honour is accorded to the empire of Harsha
Harsha
by many historians of repute but without any real justification, for the Pratihara
Pratihara
empire was probably larger, certainly not less in extent rivalled the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
and brought political unity and its attendant blessings upon a large part of Northern India. But its chief credit lies in its succecessful resistance to the foreign invasions from the west, from the days of Junaid. This was frankly recognised by the Arab
Arab
writers themselves. Historians of India, since the days of Eliphinstone, has wondered at slow progress of Muslim
Muslim
invaders in India
India
compared to their rapid advance in other parts of the world. Arguments of doubtful validity have often been put forward to explain this unique phenomenon. Now there can be little doubt that it was the power of the Gurjara Pratihara
Pratihara
army that effectively barred the progress of the Muslims beyond the confines of Sindh, their first conquest for nearly three hundred years. In the light of later events this might be regarded as the "chief contribution of the Gurjara
Gurjara
Pratiharas
Pratiharas
to the history of India".[55] The Rajputs[edit] Main article: Rajput The Rajput
Rajput
were a Hindu
Hindu
clan who rose to power across a region stretching from the gangaetic plains to the Afghan mountains, and refer to the various dynasties of the many kingdoms in the region in the wake of the collapse of the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
and Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
and marks the transition of Buddhist
Buddhist
ruling dynasties to Hindu
Hindu
ruling dynasties. Katoch
Katoch
Dynasty[edit] Main article: Katoch The Katoch
Katoch
were a Hindu
Hindu
Rajput
Rajput
clan of the Chandravanshi lineage; with recent research suggests that Katoch
Katoch
may be one of the oldest royal dynasty in the world.[56] The Chauhans[edit] Main articles: Chauhan dynasty and Chahamanas of Shakambhari

Statue of Prithvi Raj Chauhan
Prithvi Raj Chauhan
at Ajmer

The Chauhan dynasty flourished from the 8th to 12th centuries CE. It was one of the three main Rajput
Rajput
dynasties of that era, the others being Pratiharas
Pratiharas
and Paramaras. Chauhan dynasties established themselves in several places in North India
North India
and in the state of Gujarat
Gujarat
in Western India. They were also prominent at Sirohi in the southwest of Rajputana, and at Bundi and Kota in the east. Inscriptions also associate them with Sambhar, the salt lake area in the Amber
Amber
(later Jaipur) district (the Sakhambari branch remained near lake Sambhar and married into the ruling Gurjara–Pratihara, who then ruled an empire in Northern India). Chauhans adopted a political policy that saw them indulge largely in campaigns against the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and the invading Muslim
Muslim
hordes. In the 11th century, they founded the city of Ajayameru (Ajmer) in the southern part of their kingdom, and in the 12th century, the Chauhans captured Dhilika (the ancient name of Delhi) from the Tomaras and annexed some of their territory along the Yamuna
Yamuna
River. The Chauhan Kingdom became the leading state in Northern India
India
under King Prithviraj III
Prithviraj III
(1165–1192 CE), also known as Prithvi Raj Chauhan or Rai Pithora. Prithviraj III
Prithviraj III
has become famous in folk tales and historical literature as the Chauhan king of Delhi
Delhi
who resisted and repelled the invasion by Mohammed of Ghor
Mohammed of Ghor
at the first Battle of Tarain in 1191. Armies from other Rajput
Rajput
kingdoms, including Mewar, assisted him. The Chauhan kingdom collapsed after Prithviraj and his armies fled[57][58] from Mohammed of Ghor
Mohammed of Ghor
in 1192 at the Second Battle of Tarain. The Kachwaha[edit] Main article: Kachwaha The Kachwaha
Kachwaha
originated as tributaries of the preceding powers of the region. Some scholars point out that it was only following the downfall, in the 8th-10th century, of Kannauj
Kannauj
(the regional seat-of-power, following the break-up of Harsha's empire), that the Kacchapaghata state emerged as a principal power in the Chambal valley of present-day Madhya Pradesh.[59] The Paramaras[edit] Main article: Paramara
Paramara
dynasty The Paramara dynasty
Paramara dynasty
was an early medieval Indian dynasty who ruled over Malwa
Malwa
region in central India. This dynasty was founded by Upendra in c. 800 CE. The most significant ruler of this dynasty was Bhoja I who was a philosopher king and polymath. The seat of the Paramara
Paramara
kingdom was Dhara Nagari (the present day Dhar
Dhar
city in Madhya Pradesh state).[60] Chalukyas[edit] Main article: Chaulukya dynasty

Modhera Sun Temple
Modhera Sun Temple
built by the Chaulukyas.

The Chaulukyas (also called Solankis) in vernacular literature) were Hindu. In Gujarat, Anhilwara
Anhilwara
(modern Siddhpur Patan) served as their capital. Gujarat
Gujarat
was a major center of Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
trade, and Anhilwara
Anhilwara
was one of the largest cities in India, with population estimated at 100,000 in the year 1000. The Chaulukyas were patrons of the great seaside temple of Shiva
Shiva
at Somnath Patan
Somnath Patan
in Kathiawar; Bhima Dev helped rebuild the temple after it was sacked by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1026. His son, Karna, conquered the Bhil
Bhil
king Ashapall or Ashaval, and after his victory established a city named Karnavati on the banks of the Sabarmati River, at the site of modern Ahmedabad. Tomaras of Delhi[edit] Main article: Tomara dynasty During 9th-12th century, the Tomaras of Delhi
Delhi
ruled parts of the present-day Delhi
Delhi
and Haryana.[61] Much of the information about this dynasty comes from bardic legends of little historical value, and therefore, the reconstruction of their history is difficult.[62] According to the bardic tradition, the dynasty's founder Anangapal Tuar (that is Anangapala I Tomara) founded Delhi
Delhi
in 736 CE.[63] However, the authenticity of this claim is doubtful.[62] The bardic legends also state that the last Tomara king (also named Anangapal) passed on the throne of Delhi
Delhi
to his maternal grandson Prithviraj Chauhan. This claim is also inaccurate: historical evidence shows that Prithviraj inherited Delhi
Delhi
from his father Someshvara.[62] According to the Bijolia
Bijolia
inscription of Someshvara, his brother Vigraharaja IV had captured Dhillika (Delhi) and Ashika (Hansi); he probably defeated a Tomara ruler.[64] The Pratihars[edit] Pratihars ruled from Mandore, near present day Jodhpur, they held the title of Rana before being defeated by Guhilots of Chittore. The Palas[edit] Main article: Pala Empire

Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire

Pala Empire
Pala Empire
was a Buddhist
Buddhist
dynasty that ruled from the north-eastern region of the Indian subcontinent. The name Pala (Modern Bengali: পাল pal) means protector and was used as an ending to the names of all Pala monarchs. The Palas were followers of the Mahayana
Mahayana
and Tantric schools of Buddhism. Gopala was the first ruler from the dynasty. He came to power in 750 CE in Gaur by a democratic election. This event is recognized as one of the first democratic elections in South Asia
South Asia
since the time of the Mahā Janapadas. He reigned from 750-770 CE and consolidated his position by extending his control over all of Bengal. The Buddhist
Buddhist
dynasty lasted for four centuries (750-1120 CE) and ushered in a period of stability and prosperity in Bengal. They created many temples and works of art as well as supported the Universities of Nalanda
Nalanda
and Vikramashila. Somapura Mahavihara built by Dharmapala is the greatest Buddhist
Buddhist
Vihara
Vihara
in the Indian Subcontinent. The empire reached its peak under Dharmapala and Devapala. Dharmapala extended the empire into the northern parts of the Indian Subcontinent. This triggered once again the power struggle for the control of the subcontinent. Devapala, successor of Dharmapala, expanded the empire to cover much of South Asia
South Asia
and beyond. His empire stretched from Assam
Assam
and Utkala in the east, Kamboja (modern-day Afghanistan) in the north-west and Deccan in the south. According to Pala copperplate inscription Devapala exterminated the Utkalas, conquered the Pragjyotisha (Assam), shattered the pride of the Huna, and humbled the lords of Pratiharas, Gurjara
Gurjara
and the Dravidas. The death of Devapala ended the period of ascendancy of the Pala Empire and several independent dynasties and kingdoms emerged during this time. However, Mahipala I rejuvenated the reign of the Palas. He recovered control over all of Bengal
Bengal
and expanded the empire. He survived the invasions of Rajendra Chola
Rajendra Chola
and the Chalukyas. After Mahipala I the Pala dynasty again saw its decline until Ramapala, the last great ruler of the dynasty, managed to retrieve the position of the dynasty to some extent. He crushed the Varendra
Varendra
rebellion and extended his empire farther to Kamarupa, Odisha
Odisha
and Northern India. The Pala Empire
Pala Empire
can be considered as the golden era of Bengal. Palas were responsible for the introduction of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
in Tibet, Bhutan
Bhutan
and Myanmar. The Palas had extensive trade as well as influence in south-east Asia. This can be seen in the sculptures and architectural style of the Sailendra
Sailendra
Empire (present-day Malaya, Java, Sumatra). The Candras[edit] Main article: Candra Dynasty The Candra Dynasty
Dynasty
who ruled over eastern Bengal
Bengal
and were contemporaries of the Palas. The Eastern Gangas[edit] Main article: Eastern Ganga dynasty See also: Konark Sun Temple
Konark Sun Temple
and Jagannath Temple (Puri)

Konark Sun Temple
Konark Sun Temple
at Konark, Odisha, built by King Narasimhadeva I (1236–1264 AD) also a World Heritage site.

The Eastern Ganga dynasty
Eastern Ganga dynasty
rulers reigned over Kalinga which consisted of the parts of the modern-day Indian states of Odisha, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
from the 11th century to the early 15th century.[65] Their capital was known by the name Kalinganagar, which is the modern Srimukhalingam
Srimukhalingam
in Srikakulam District of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
bordering Odisha. Today they are most remembered as the builders of the Konark Sun Temple
Konark Sun Temple
a World Heritage site at Konark, Odisha. It was built by King Narasimhadeva I (1238–1264 CE). During their reign (1078-1434 CE) a new style of temple architecture came into being, commonly called as Indo-Aryan architecture. This dynasty was founded by King Anantavarma Chodaganga Deva (1078–1147 CE). He was a religious person and a patron of art and literature. He is credited for having built the famous Jagannath Temple of Puri
Puri
in Odisha. King Anantavarman Chodagangadeva was succeeded by a long line of illustrious rulers such as Narasimhadeva I
Narasimhadeva I
(1238–1264 CE). The rulers of Eastern Ganga dynasty
Eastern Ganga dynasty
not only defended their kingdom from the constant attacks of the Muslim
Muslim
rulers from both northern and southern India
India
but were perhaps one of the few empires to have successfully invaded and defeated their Muslim
Muslim
adversaries. The Eastern Ganga King Narasimha Deva I invaded the Muslim
Muslim
kingdom of Bengal
Bengal
and handed a heavy defeat to the Sultan. This ensured that Sultanate never encroached upon the domains of the Ganga Emperors for nearly a century. His military exploits still survive today as folklore in Odisha. This kingdom prospered through trade and commerce and the wealth was mostly used in the construction of temples. The rule of the dynasty came to end under the reign of King Bhanudeva IV (1414–1434 CE), in the early 15th century. The Senas[edit] Main article: Sena Empire The Palas were followed by the Sena dynasty
Sena dynasty
who brought Bengal
Bengal
under one ruler during the 12th century. Vijay Sen the second ruler of this dynasty defeated the last Pala emperor Madanapala and established his reign. Ballal Sena introduced Kulīna System in Bengal
Bengal
and made Nabadwip
Nabadwip
the capital. The fourth king of this dynasty Lakshman Sen expanded the empire beyond Bengal
Bengal
to Bihar, Assam, northern Odisha
Odisha
and probably to Varanasi. Lakshman was later defeated by the Muslims and fled to eastern Bengal
Bengal
where he ruled few more years. The Sena dynasty brought a revival of Hinduism
Hinduism
and cultivated Sanskrit literature
Sanskrit literature
in India. The Varmans[edit] The Varman Dynasty
Dynasty
(not to be confused with the Varman dynasty
Varman dynasty
of Kamarupa) ruled over eastern Bengal
Bengal
and were contemporaries of the Senas. The Northeast[edit] Kamarupa[edit] Main article: Kamarupa
Kamarupa
Kingdom The Kāmarūpa, also called Pragjyotisha, was one of the historical kingdoms of Assam
Assam
alongside Davaka,[66] that existed from 350 to 1140 CE. Ruled by three dynasties from their capitals in present-day Guwahati, North Guwahati
Guwahati
and Tezpur, it at its height covered the entire Brahmaputra Valley, North Bengal, Bhutan
Bhutan
and parts of Bangladesh, and at times portions of West Bengal
Bengal
and Bihar.[67] The Varmans[edit] The Varman dynasty
Varman dynasty
(350-650 CE), the first historical rulers of Kamarupa; was established by Pushyavarman, a contemporary of Samudragupta.[68][69] This dynasty became vassals of the Gupta Empire, but as the power of the Guptas waned, Mahendravarman (470-494 CE) performed two horse sacrifices and threw off the imperial yoke.[70] The first of the three Kamarupa
Kamarupa
dynasties, the Varmans were followed by the Mlechchha and then the Pala dynasties. The Mlechchhas[edit] The Mlechchha dynasty
Mlechchha dynasty
succeeded the Varman dynasty
Varman dynasty
and ruled to the end of the 10th century. They ruled from their capital in the vicinity of the Harrupeshwara (Tezpur). The rulers were aboriginals, with lineage from Narakasura. According to historical records, there were ten rulers in this dynasty. The Mlechchha dynasty
Mlechchha dynasty
in Kamarupa
Kamarupa
was followed by the Pala kings.

9th-10th century lion sculpture representing powerful Kamarupa-Palas, Madan Kamdev

The Palas[edit] The Pala dynasty of Kamarupa
Kamarupa
succeeded the Mlechchha dynasty, ruled from its capital at Durjaya
Durjaya
(North Gauhati). Dynasty
Dynasty
reigned till the end of the 12th century. Brahma Pala
Brahma Pala
(900-920 CE), was founder Pala dynasty (900–1100 CE) of Kamarupa. Dynasty
Dynasty
ruled from its capital Durjaya, modern-day North Guwahati. The greatest of the Pala kings, Dharma Pala
Dharma Pala
had his capital at Kamarupa
Kamarupa
Nagara, now identified with North Guwahati. Ratna Pala
Ratna Pala
was another notable sovereign of this line. Records of his land-grants have been found at Bargaon and Sualkuchi, while a similar relic of Indra Pala, has been discovered at Guwahati. Pala dynasty come to end with Jaya Pala
Jaya Pala
(1075-1100 CE).[71] The Twipra[edit] The Twipra Kingdom ruled ancient Tripura. Kingdom was established around the confluence of the Brahmaputra river with the Meghna and Surma rivers in today's Central Bangladesh
Bangladesh
area. The capital was called Khorongma and was along the Meghna river in the Sylhet Division of present-day Bangladesh. The Deccan plateau and South[edit] In the first half of the millennium the South saw various smalled kingdoms rise and fall mostly independent to the turmoil in the Gangetic plains
Gangetic plains
and the spread of the Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
to the southern tip of India. During the second half of the millennium after the fall of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
we see a gradual shift of the balance of power both military and cultural from the northern states to the rise of large southern states. In fact, from the mid-seventh to the mid-13th centuries, regionalism was the dominant theme of political or dynastic history of the Indian subcontinent. Three features commonly characterize the sociopolitical realities of this period.

First, the spread of Brahmanical religions was a two-way process of Sanskritization of local cults and localization of Brahmanical social order. Second was the ascendancy of the Brahman priestly and landowning groups that later dominated regional institutions and political developments. Third, because of the seesawing of numerous dynasties that had a remarkable ability to survive perennial military attacks, regional kingdoms faced frequent defeats but seldom total annihilation.

Peninsular India
India
was involved in an 8th-century tripartite power struggle among the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
(556–757 CE), the Pallavas
Pallavas
(300–888 CE) of Kanchipuram, and the Pandyas. The Chalukya
Chalukya
rulers were overthrown by their subordinates, the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
(753-973 CE). Although both the Pallava
Pallava
and Pandya
Pandya
kingdoms were enemies, the real struggle for political domination was between the Pallava
Pallava
and Chalukya realms. The emergence of the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
heralded a new era in the history of South India. The idiom of a Pan-Indian empire had moved to south. South Indian
South Indian
kingdoms had hitherto ruled areas only up to and south of the Narmada River. It was the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
who first forged north to the Gangetic plains
Gangetic plains
and successfully contested their might against the Palas of Bengal
Bengal
and the Rajput
Rajput
Prathiharas of Gujarat. Despite interregional conflicts, local autonomy was preserved to a far greater degree in the south where it had prevailed for centuries. The absence of a highly centralized government was associated with a corresponding local autonomy in the administration of villages and districts. Extensive and well-documented overland and maritime trade flourished with the Arabs
Arabs
on the west coast and with Southeast Asia. Trade facilitated cultural diffusion in Southeast Asia, where local elites selectively but willingly adopted Indian art, architecture, literature, and social customs. The interdynastic rivalry and seasonal raids into each other's territory notwithstanding, the rulers in the Deccan and South India patronized all three religions - Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism. The religions vied with each other for royal favor, expressed in land grants but more importantly in the creation of monumental temples, which remain architectural wonders. The cave temples of Elephanta Island (near Mumbai
Mumbai
or Bombay, as it was known formerly), Ajanta, and Ellora (in Maharashtra), and structural temples of Pattadakal, Aihole, Badami
Badami
in Karnataka
Karnataka
and Mahaballipuram
Mahaballipuram
and Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
in Tamil Nadu are enduring legacies of otherwise warring regional rulers. By the mid-7th century, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
began to decline as sectarian Hindu
Hindu
devotional cults of Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu
Vishnu
vigorously competed for popular support. Although Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was the language of learning and theology in South India, as it was in the north, the growth of the bhakti (devotional) movements enhanced the crystallization of vernacular literature in Dravidian languages: Kannada
Kannada
and Tamil; they often borrowed themes and vocabulary from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
but preserved much local cultural lore. Examples of Tamil literature
Tamil literature
include two major poems, Cilappatikaram (The Jewelled Anklet) and Manimekalai
Manimekalai
(The Jewelled Belt); the body of devotional literature of Shaivism
Shaivism
and Vaishnavism— Hindu
Hindu
devotional movements; and the reworking of the Ramayana
Ramayana
by Kamban in the 12th century. A nationwide cultural synthesis had taken place with a minimum of common characteristics in the various regions of South Asia, but the process of cultural infusion and assimilation would continue to shape and influence India's history through the centuries. The Sangam Era Kingdoms[edit] Main articles: Sangam period
Sangam period
and Ancient Tamil country Farther south were three ancient Tamil states — Chera (on the west), Chola
Chola
(on the east), and Pandya
Pandya
(in the south). They were involved in internecine warfare seeking regional supremacy. They are mentioned in Greek and Ashokan sources as important Indian kingdoms beyond the Mauryan Empire. A corpus of ancient Tamil literature, known as Sangam (academy) works, provides much useful information about life in these kingdoms in the era 300 BCE to 200 CE. Dravidian social order was based on different ecoregions rather than on the Aryan varna paradigm, although the Brahmans had a high status at a very early stage. Segments of society were characterized by matriarchy and matrilineal succession—which survived well into the 19th century—cross-cousin marriage, and strong regional identity. Tribal chieftains emerged as "kings" just as people moved from pastoralism toward agriculture sustained by irrigation based on rivers by small-scale water tanks (as man-made ponds are called in India) and wells, as well as maritime trade with Rome and Southeast Asia. Discoveries of Roman gold coins in various sites attest to extensive South Indian
South Indian
links with the outside world. As with Pataliputra
Pataliputra
in the northeast and Taxila
Taxila
in the northwest (in modern Pakistan), the city of Madurai, the capital of the Pandyan Kingdom
Pandyan Kingdom
(in modern Tamil Nadu), was the center of intellectual and literary activity. Poets and bards assembled there under royal patronage at successive concourses to composed anthologies of poems and expositions on Tamil grammar. By the end of the 1st century BCE, South Asia
South Asia
was crisscrossed by overland trade routes, which facilitated the movements of Buddhist
Buddhist
and Jain missionaries and other travelers and opened the area to a synthesis of many cultures. The Cheras[edit] Main article: Chera Empire From early pre-historic times, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
was the home of the four Tamil states of the Chera, Chola, Pandya
Pandya
and Pallavas. The oldest extant literature, dated between 300 BCE and 600 CE mentions the exploits of the kings and the princes, and of the poets who extolled them. Cherans, who spoke Tamil language
Tamil language
ruled from the capital of Karur
Karur
in the west and traded extensively with West Asian kingdoms. An unknown dynasty called Kalabhras
Kalabhras
invaded and displaced the three Tamil kingdoms between the 4th and the 7th centuries. This is referred to as the Dark Age in Tamil history. They were eventually expelled by the Pallavas
Pallavas
and the Pandyas. The Kalabhras[edit] Main article: Kalabhras Little of their origins or the time during which they ruled is known beyond that they ruled over the entirety of the southern tip of India during the 3rd to the 6th century, overcoming the Sangam era kingdoms. The appear to be patrons of Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
as the only source of information on them is the scattered mentions in the many Buddhist
Buddhist
and Jain
Jain
literature of the time. They were contemporaries of the Kadambas and the Western Ganga Dynasty. They were overcome by the rise of the Pallavas
Pallavas
and the resurgence of the Pandyan Kingdom. The Kadambas[edit] Main article: Kadambas

Kadamba tower at Doddagaddavalli

The Kadamba Dynasty
Dynasty
(Kannada: ಕದಂಬರು) (345–525 CE) was an ancient royal family of Karnataka
Karnataka
that ruled from Banavasi
Banavasi
in present-day Uttara Kannada
Uttara Kannada
district. The dynasty later continued to rule as a feudatory of larger Kannada
Kannada
empires, the Chalukya
Chalukya
and the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empires for over five hundred years during which time they branched into Goa
Goa
and Hanagal. At the peak of their power under King Kakushtavarma, they ruled large parts of Karnataka. During the pre-Kadamba era the ruling families that controlled Karnataka, the Mauryas, Satavahanas
Satavahanas
and Chutus were not natives of the region and the nucleus of power resided outside present day Karnataka. The Kadambas were the first indigenous dynasty to use Kannada, the language of the soil at an administrative level. In the history of Karnataka, this era serves as a broad based historical starting point in the study of the development of region as an enduring geo-political entity and Kannada as an important regional language. The dynasty was founded by Mayurasharma
Mayurasharma
in 345 which at times showed the potential of developing into imperial proportions, an indication to which is provided by the titles and epithets assumed by its rulers. One of his successors, Kakusthavarma
Kakusthavarma
was a powerful ruler and even the kings of imperial Gupta Dynasty
Dynasty
of northern India
India
cultivated marital relationships with his family, giving a fair indication of the sovereign nature of their kingdom. Tiring of the endless battles and bloodshed, one of the later descendants, King Shivakoti adopted Jainism. The Kadambas
Kadambas
were contemporaries of the Western Ganga Dynasty of Talakad
Talakad
and together they formed the earliest native kingdoms to rule the land with absolute autonomy. The Western Gangas[edit]

Statue of Bahubali
Bahubali
as Gommateshvara built by the Western Ganga is one of the largest monolithic statues in the world.

Main article: Western Gangas The Western Ganga Dynasty
Dynasty
(350–1000 CE) (Kannada: ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಗಂಗ ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನ) was an important ruling dynasty of ancient Karnataka
Karnataka
in India. They are known as Western Gangas
Western Gangas
to distinguish them from the Eastern Gangas, who in later centuries ruled over modern Odisha. The general belief is the Western Gangas
Western Gangas
began their rule during a time when multiple native clans asserted their freedom due to the weakening of the Pallava dynasty
Pallava dynasty
of South India, a geo-political event sometimes attributed to the southern conquests of Samudragupta. The Western Ganga sovereignty lasted from about 350 to 550 CE, initially ruling from Kolar
Kolar
and later moving their capital to Talakad
Talakad
on the banks of the Kaveri
Kaveri
in modern Mysore district. After the rise of the imperial Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
of Badami, the Gangas accepted Chalukya
Chalukya
overlordship and fought for the cause of their overlords against the Pallavas
Pallavas
of Kanchipuram. The Chalukyas
Chalukyas
were replaced by the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
of Manyakheta
Manyakheta
in 753 CE as the dominant power in the Deccan. After a century of struggle for autonomy, the Western Gangas
Western Gangas
finally accepted Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
overlordship and successfully fought alongside them against their foes, the Chola dynasty of Tanjavur. In the late 10th century, north of Tungabhadra river, the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
were replaced by the emerging Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola
Chola
Dynasty
Dynasty
saw renewed power south of the Kaveri. The defeat of the Western Gangas
Western Gangas
by Cholas
Cholas
around 1000 resulted in the end of Ganga influence over the region. Though territorially a small kingdom, the Western Ganga contribution to polity, culture and literature of the modern south Karnataka
Karnataka
region is considered important. The Western Ganga kings showed benevolent tolerance to all faiths but are most famous for their patronage towards Jainism
Jainism
resulting in the construction of monuments in places such as Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
and Kambadahalli. The kings of this dynasty encouraged the fine arts due to which literature in Kannada
Kannada
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
flourished. Chavundaraya's writing, Chavundaraya
Chavundaraya
Purana of 978 CE, is an important work in Kannada
Kannada
prose. Many classics were written on subjects ranging from religious topics to elephant management. The Badami
Badami
Chalukyas[edit] Main article: Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire See also: Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
Architecture, Pattadakal, Badami
Badami
Cave Temples, and Aihole The Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire, natives of the Aihole
Aihole
and Badami
Badami
region in Karnataka, were at first a feudatory of the Kadambas.[72][73] [74][75][76] They encouraged the use of Kannada
Kannada
in addition to the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language in their administration.[77][78] In the middle of the 6th century the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
came into their own when Pulakeshin I made the hill fortress in Badami
Badami
his center of power.[79] During the rule of Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
a south Indian empire sent expeditions to the north past the Tapti River
Tapti River
and Narmada River
Narmada River
for the first time and successfully defied Harshavardhana, the King of Northern India (Uttarapatheswara). The Aihole
Aihole
inscription of Pulakeshin II, written in classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language and old Kannada
Kannada
script dated 634,[80][81] proclaims his victories against the Kingdoms of Kadambas, Western Gangas, Alupas
Alupas
of South Canara, Mauryas
Mauryas
of Puri, Kingdom of Kosala, Malwa, Lata and Gurjaras of southern Rajasthan. The inscription describes how King Harsha
Harsha
of Kannauj
Kannauj
lost his Harsha (joyful disposition) on seeing a large number of his war elephants die in battle against Pulakeshin II.[82][83][84][85][86]

Badami
Badami
Cave Temples No 3. (Vishnu)

These victories earned him the title Dakshinapatha Prithviswamy (lord of the south). Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
continued his conquests in the east where he conquered all kingdoms in his way and reached the Bay of Bengal
Bengal
in present-day Odisha. A Chalukya
Chalukya
viceroyalty was set up in Gujarat
Gujarat
and Vengi (coastal Andhra) and princes from the Badami
Badami
family were dispatched to rule them. Having subdued the Pallavas
Pallavas
of Kanchipuram, he accepted tributes from the Pandyas
Pandyas
of Madurai, Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
and Cheras of the Kerala region. Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
thus became the master of India, south of the Narmada River.[87] Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
is widely regarded as one of the great kings in Indian history.[88][89] Hiuen-Tsiang, a Chinese traveller visited the court of Pulakeshin II at this time and Persian emperor Khosrau II
Khosrau II
exchanged ambassadors.[90] However, the continuous wars with Pallavas
Pallavas
took a turn for the worse in 642 when the Pallava
Pallava
king Narasimhavarman I
Narasimhavarman I
avenged his father's defeat,[91] conquered and plundered the capital of Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
who may have died in battle.[91][92] A century later, Chalukya Vikramaditya II
Vikramaditya II
marched victoriously into Kanchipuram, the Pallava capital and occupied it on three occasions, the third time under the leadership of his son and crown prince Kirtivarman II. He thus avenged the earlier humiliation of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
by the Pallavas
Pallavas
and engraved a Kannada
Kannada
inscription on the victory pillar at the Kailasanatha Temple.[93][94][95][96] He later overran the other traditional kingdoms of Tamil country, the Pandyas, Cholas
Cholas
and Keralas in addition to subduing a Kalabhra
Kalabhra
ruler.[97] The Kappe Arabhatta
Kappe Arabhatta
record from this period (700) in tripadi (three line) metre is considered the earliest available record in Kannada poetics. The most enduring legacy of the Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
is the architecture and art that they left behind.[98] More than one hundred and fifty monuments attributed to them, built between 450 and 700, have survived in the Malaprabha
Malaprabha
basin in Karnataka.[99] The constructions are centred in a relatively small area within the Chalukyan heartland. The structural temples at Pattadakal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the cave temples of Badami, the temples at Mahakuta and early experiments in temple building at Aihole
Aihole
are their most celebrated monuments.[98] Two of the famous paintings at Ajanta cave no. 1, "The Temptation of the Buddha" and "The Persian Embassy" are also credited to them. [100] [101] Further, they influenced the architecture in far off places like Gujarat
Gujarat
and Vengi as evidenced in the Nava Brahma temples at Alampur.[102] The Pallavas[edit] Main article: Pallava
Pallava
Empire

Shore Temple
Shore Temple
in Mamallapuram
Mamallapuram
built by the Pallavas. (c. eighth century CE)

The 7th century Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
saw the rise of the Pallavas
Pallavas
under Mahendravarman I
Mahendravarman I
and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I. The Pallavas were not a recognised political power before the 2nd century.[103] It has been widely accepted by scholars that they were originally executive officers under the Satavahana
Satavahana
Empire.[104] After the fall of the Satavahanas, they began to get control over parts of Andhra and the Tamil country. Later they had marital ties with the Vishnukundina who ruled over the Deccan. It was around 550 AD under King Simhavishnu that the Pallavas
Pallavas
emerged into prominence. They subjugated the Cholas and reigned as far south as the Kaveri
Kaveri
River. Pallavas
Pallavas
ruled a large portion of South India
South India
with Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
as their capital. Dravidian architecture reached its peak during the Pallava
Pallava
rule.[citation needed] Narasimhavarman II
Narasimhavarman II
built the Shore Temple
Shore Temple
which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Many sources describe Bodhidharma, the founder of the Zen
Zen
school of Buddhism
Buddhism
in China, as a prince of the Pallava dynasty.[105] The Eastern Chalukyas[edit] Main article: Eastern Chalukyas Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
were a South Indian
South Indian
dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. Their capital was Vengi and their dynasty lasted for around 500 years from the 7th century until c. 1130 CE when the Vengi kingdom merged with the Chola
Chola
empire. The Vengi kingdom was continued to be ruled by Eastern Chalukyan kings under the protection of the Chola
Chola
empire until 1189 CE, when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
and the Yadavas. They had their capital originally at Vengi now (Pedavegi, Chinavegi and Denduluru) near Eluru
Eluru
of the West Godavari district
West Godavari district
end later changed to Rajamahendravaram (Rajamundry). Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
were closely related to the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Vatapi (Badami). Throughout their history they were the cause of many wars between the more powerful Cholas
Cholas
and Western Chalukyas
Chalukyas
over the control of the strategic Vengi country. The five centuries of the Eastern Chalukya
Chalukya
rule of Vengi saw not only the consolidation of this region into a unified whole, but also saw the efflorescence of Telugu culture, literature, poetry and art during the later half of their rule. It can be said to be the golden period of Andhra history. The Pandyas[edit] Main article: Pandyan Empire Pallavas
Pallavas
were replaced by the Pandyas
Pandyas
in the 8th century. Their capital Madurai
Madurai
was in the deep south away from the coast. They had extensive trade links with the Southeast Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and their successors. As well as contacts, even diplomatic, reaching as far as the Roman Empire. During the 13th century of the Christian era Marco Polo
Marco Polo
mentioned it as the richest empire in existence.[citation needed] Temples like Meenakshi Amman Temple
Meenakshi Amman Temple
at Madurai
Madurai
and Nellaiappar Temple
Nellaiappar Temple
at Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
are the best examples of Pandyan Temple architecture.[106][107] The Pandyas
Pandyas
excelled in both trade as well as literature and they controlled the pearl fisheries along the South Indian
South Indian
coast, between Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and India, which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world. The Rashtrakutas[edit] Main article: Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Empire See also: Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
literature, Economy of Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire of Manyakheta, Society of Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire of Manyakheta, and Ellora Caves

Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Empire in 800 CE, 915 CE.

Kailash Temple in Ellora Caves

In the middle of the 8th century the Chalukya
Chalukya
rule was ended by their feudatory, the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
family rulers of Berar (in present-day Amravati district
Amravati district
of Maharashtra). Sensing an opportunity during a weak period in the Chalukya
Chalukya
rule, Dantidurga trounced the great Chalukyan "Karnatabala" (power of Karnata).[108][109] Having overthrown the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
made Manyakheta
Manyakheta
their capital (modern Malkhed in Gulbarga district).[110][111] Although the origins of the early Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
ruling families in central India
India
and the Deccan in the 6th and 7th centuries is controversial, during the eighth through the 10th centuries they emphasised the importance of the Kannada language
Kannada language
in conjunction with Sanskrit
Sanskrit
in their administration. Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
inscriptions are in Kannada
Kannada
and Sanskrit only. They encouraged literature in both languages and thus literature flowered under their rule.[112][113][114][115][116] The Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
quickly became the most powerful Deccan empire, making their initial successful forays into the doab region of Ganges River and Jamuna River during the rule of Dhruva Dharavarsha.[117] The rule of his son Govinda III
Govinda III
signaled a new era with Rashtrakuta victories against the Pala Dynasty
Dynasty
of Bengal
Bengal
and Gurjara Pratihara
Gurjara Pratihara
of north western India
India
resulting in the capture of Kannauj. The Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
held Kannauj
Kannauj
intermittently during a period of a tripartite struggle for the resources of the rich Gangetic plains.[118] Because of Govinda III's victories, historians have compared him to Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and Pandava
Pandava
Arjuna
Arjuna
of the Hindu epic Mahabharata.[119] The Sanjan inscription states the horses of Govinda III
Govinda III
drank the icy water of the Himalayan stream and his war elephants tasted the sacred waters of the Ganges
Ganges
River.[120] Amoghavarsha I, eulogised by contemporary Arab
Arab
traveller Sulaiman as one among the four great emperors of the world, succeeded Govinda III to the throne and ruled during an important cultural period that produced landmark writings in Kannada
Kannada
and Sanskrit.[121][122][123] The benevolent development of Jain
Jain
religion was a hallmark of his rule. Because of his religious temperament, his interest in the arts and literature and his peace-loving nature,[121] he has been compared to emperor Ashoka.[124] The rule of Indra III
Indra III
in the 10th century enhanced the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
position as an imperial power as they conquered and held Kannauj
Kannauj
again.[125] Krishna III
Krishna III
followed Indra III to the throne in 939. A patron of Kannada
Kannada
literature and a powerful warrior, his reign marked the submission of the Paramara
Paramara
of Ujjain
Ujjain
in the north and Cholas
Cholas
in the south.[126] An Arabic writing Silsilatuttavarikh (851) called the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
one among the four principle empires of the world.[127] Kitab-ul-Masalik-ul-Mumalik (912) called them the "greatest kings of India" and there were many other contemporaneous books written in their praise.[128] The Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire at its peak spread from Cape Comorin in the south to Kannauj
Kannauj
in the north and from Banaras
Banaras
in the east to Broach (Bharuch) in the west.[129] While the Rashtrakutas built many fine monuments in the Deccan, the most extensive and sumptuous of their work is the monolithic Kailasanatha temple at Ellora, the temple being a splendid achievement.[130] In Karnataka their most famous temples are the Kashivishvanatha temple and the Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal. All of the monuments are designated UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites.[131] The Western Chalukyas[edit] Main article: Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire See also: Kannada
Kannada
literature in the Western Chalukya Empire
Western Chalukya Empire
and Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Architecture In the late 10th century, the Western Chalukyas, also known as the Kalyani Chalukyas
Chalukyas
or 'Later' Chalukyas
Chalukyas
rose to power by overthrowing the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
under whom they had been serving as feudatories. Manyakheta
Manyakheta
was their capital early on before they moved it to Kalyani (modern Basavakalyan). Whether the kings of this empire belonged to the same family line as their namesakes, the Badami
Badami
Chalukyas
Chalukyas
is still debated.[132][133] Whatever the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
origins, Kannada remained their language of administration and the Kannada
Kannada
and Sanskrit literature of their time was prolific.[115][134][135][136] Tailapa II, a feudatory ruler from Tardavadi (modern Bijapur district), re-established the Chalukya
Chalukya
rule by defeating the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
during the reign of Karka II. He timed his rebellion to coincide with the confusion caused by the invading Paramara
Paramara
of Central India
India
to the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
capital in 973.[137][138][139] This era produced prolonged warfare with the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
of Tamilakam for control of the resources of the Godavari River– Krishna River
Krishna River
doab region in Vengi. Someshvara I, a brave Chalukyan king, successfully curtailed the growth of the Chola
Chola
Empire to the south of the Tungabhadra
Tungabhadra
River region despite suffering some defeats[140][141] while maintaining control over his feudatories in the Konkan, Gujarat, Malwa
Malwa
and Kalinga regions.[142] For approximately 100 years, beginning in the early 11th century, the Cholas
Cholas
occupied large areas of South Karnataka region (Gangavadi).[143]

Gadag style pillars, Western Chalukya
Chalukya
art.

In 1076 CE, the ascent of the most famous king of this Chalukya family, Vikramaditya VI, changed the balance of power in favour of the Chalukyas.[144] His fifty-year reign was an important period in Karnataka's history and is referred to as the " Chalukya
Chalukya
Vikrama era".[145] His victories over the Cholas
Cholas
in the late 11th and early 12th centuries put an end to the Chola
Chola
influence in the Vengi region permanently.[144] Some of the well known contemporaneous feudatory families of the Deccan under Chalukya
Chalukya
control were the Hoysalas, the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty
Kakatiya dynasty
and the Southern Kalachuri.[146] At their peak, the Western Chalukyas
Chalukyas
ruled a vast empire stretching from the Narmada River
Narmada River
in the north to the Kaveri River in the south. Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
is considered one of the most influential kings of Indian history.[147][148] Important architectural works were created by these Chalukyas, especially in the Tungabhadra river valley, that served as a conceptual link between the building idioms of the early Badami
Badami
Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and the later Hoysalas.[149][150] With the weakening of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
in the decades following the death of Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
in 1126, the feudatories of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
gained their independence. The Kalachuris of Karnataka, whose ancestors were immigrants into the southern deccan from central India, had ruled as a feudatory from Mangalavada (modern Mangalavedhe in Maharashtra).[151] Bijjala II, the most powerful ruler of this dynasty, was a commander (mahamandaleswar) during the reign of Chalukya
Chalukya
Vikramaditya VI.[152] Seizing an opportune moment in the waning power of the Chalukyas, Bijjala II declared independence in 1157 and annexed their capital Kalyani.[153] His rule was cut short by his assassination in 1167 and the ensuing civil war caused by his sons fighting over the throne ended the dynasty as the last Chalukya
Chalukya
scion regained control of Kalyani. This victory however, was short-lived as the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
were eventually driven out by the Seuna Yadavas.[154] The Yadavas[edit] Main article: Yadava dynasty The Seuna, Sevuna or Yadava dynasty
Yadava dynasty
(Marathi: देवगिरीचे यादव, Kannada: ಸೇವುಣರು) (c. 850–1334 CE) was an Indian dynasty, which at its peak ruled a kingdom stretching from the Tungabhadra
Tungabhadra
to the Narmada rivers, including present-day Maharashtra, north Karnataka
Karnataka
and parts of Madhya Pradesh, from its capital at Devagiri (present-day Daulatabad in Maharashtra). The Yadavas initially ruled as feudatories of the Western Chalukyas. Around the middle of the 12th century, they declared independence and established rule that reached its peak under Singhana II. The foundations of Marathi culture was laid by the Yadavas and the peculiarities of Maharashtra's social life developed during their rule.[citation needed] The Kakatiyas[edit] Main article: Kakatiya dynasty The Kakatiya dynasty
Kakatiya dynasty
was a South Indian
South Indian
dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Telangana, India
India
from 1083 to 1323 CE. They were one of the great Telugu kingdoms that lasted for centuries. The Kalachuris[edit] Main article: Kalachuri

Sangamanatha temple at Kudalasangama, North Karnataka

Kalachuri
Kalachuri
is this the name used by two kingdoms who had a succession of dynasties from the 10th-12th centuries, one ruling over areas in Central India
India
(west Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan) and were called Chedi or Haihaya (Heyheya) (northern branch) and the other southern Kalachuri
Kalachuri
who ruled over parts of Karnataka. They are disparately placed in time and space. Apart from the dynastic name and perhaps a belief in common ancestry, there is little in known sources to connect them.[citation needed] The earliest known Kalachuri
Kalachuri
family (550–620 CE) ruled over northern Maharashtra, Malwa
Malwa
and western Deccan. Their capital was Mahismati situated in the Narmada river valley. There were three prominent members; Krishnaraja, Shankaragana and Buddharaja. They distributed coins and epigraphs around this area.[155] Kalachuris of Kalyani
Kalachuris of Kalyani
or the southern Kalachuris (1130–1184 CE) at their peak ruled parts of the Deccan extending over regions of present-day North Karnataka
Karnataka
and parts of Maharashtra. This dynasty rose to power in the Deccan between 1156 and 1181 CE. They traced their origins to Krishna who was the conqueror of Kalinjar and Dahala in Madhya Pradesh. It is said that Bijjala a viceroy of this dynasty established the authority over Karnataka. He wrested power from the Chalukya
Chalukya
king Taila III. Bijjala was succeeded by his sons Someshwara and Sangama but after 1181 CE, the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
gradually retrieved the territory. Their rule was a short and turbulent and yet very important from the socio-religious movement point of view; a new sect called the Lingayat
Lingayat
or Virashaiva
Virashaiva
sect was founded during these times.[155] A unique and purely native form of Kannada
Kannada
literature-poetry called the Vachanas
Vachanas
was also born during this time. The writers of Vachanas were called Vachanakaras (poets). Many other important works like Virupaksha Pandita's Chennabasavapurana, Dharani Pandita's Bijjalarayacharite and Chandrasagara Varni's Bijjalarayapurana were also written. Kalachuris of Tripuri
Kalachuris of Tripuri
(Chedi) ruled in central India
India
with its base at the ancient city of Tripuri (Tewar); it originated in the 8th century, expanded significantly in the 11th century, and declined in the 12th–13th centuries. The Hoysalas[edit] Main article: Hoysala Empire See also: Literature in the Hoysala Empire, Economy of the Hoysala Empire, and Hoysala architecture

Shilabalika, Chennakeshava temple, Belur.

The Hoysalas
Hoysalas
had become a powerful force even during their rule from Belur
Belur
in the 11th century as a feudatory of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
(in the south Karnataka
Karnataka
region).[156] In the early 12th century they successfully fought the Cholas
Cholas
in the south, convincingly defeating them in the battle of Talakad
Talakad
and moved their capital to nearby Halebidu.[157][158] Historians refer to the founders of the dynasty as natives of Malnad
Malnad
Karnataka, based on the numerous inscriptions calling them Maleparolganda or "Lord of the Male (hills) chiefs" (Malepas).[156][159][160][161][162][163] With the waning of the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
power, the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
declared their independence in the late 12th century. During this period of Hoysala control, distinctive Kannada
Kannada
literary metres such as Ragale (blank verse), Sangatya (meant to be sung to the accompaniment of a musical instrument), Shatpadi (seven line) etc. became widely accepted.[115][164][165][166] The Hoysalas
Hoysalas
expanded the Vesara
Vesara
architecture stemming from the Chalukyas,[167] culminating in the Hoysala architectural articulation and style as exemplified in the construction of the Chennakesava Temple
Chennakesava Temple
at Belur
Belur
and the Hoysaleswara temple at Halebidu.[168] Both these temples were built in commemoration of the victories of the Hoysala Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
against the Cholas
Cholas
in 1116.[169][170] Veera Ballala II, the most effective of the Hoysala rulers, defeated the aggressive Pandya
Pandya
when they invaded the Chola
Chola
kingdom and assumed the titles "Establisher of the Chola Kingdom" (Cholarajyapratishtacharya), "Emperor of the south" (Dakshina Chakravarthi) and "Hoysala emperor" (Hoysala Chakravarthi).[171] The Hoysalas
Hoysalas
extended their foothold in areas known today as Tamil Nadu around 1225, making the city of Kannanur Kuppam near Srirangam
Srirangam
a provincial capital.[157] This gave them control over South Indian politics that began a period of Hoysala hegemony in the southern Deccan.[172][173] In the early 13th century, with the Hoysala power remaining unchallenged, the first of the Muslim
Muslim
incursions into South India began. After over two decades of waging war against a foreign power, the Hoysala ruler at the time, Veera Ballala III, died in the battle of Madurai
Madurai
in 1343.[174] This resulted in the merger of the sovereign territories of the Hoysala empire with the areas administered by Harihara I, founder of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire, located in the Tungabhadra
Tungabhadra
region in present-day Karnataka. The new kingdom thrived for another two centuries with Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
as its capital.[175] The Cholas[edit] Main article: Chola
Chola
Empire See also: Early Cholas, Medieval Cholas, and Later Cholas

Chola
Chola
Empire under Rajendra Chola
Rajendra Chola
c. 1030 CE

By the 9th century, under Rajaraja Chola
Chola
and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas
Cholas
rose as a notable power in south Asia. The Chola
Chola
Empire stretched as far as Bengal. At its peak, the empire spanned almost 3,600,000 km2 (1,389,968 sq mi). Rajaraja Chola
Chola
conquered all of peninsular South India
South India
and parts of the Sri Lanka. Rajendra Chola's navies went even further, occupying coasts from Burma
Burma
(now Myanmar) to Vietnam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Sumatra, Java, Malaya in South East Asia and Pegu islands. He defeated Mahipala, the king of the Bengal, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital and named it Gangaikonda Cholapuram.[citation needed] The Cholas
Cholas
excelled in building magnificent temples. Brihadeshwara Temple in Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is a classical example of the magnificent architecture of the Chola
Chola
kingdom. Brihadshwara temple is an UNESCO Heritage Site under "Great Living Chola
Chola
Temples."[176] Another example is the Chidambaram Temple
Chidambaram Temple
in the heart of the temple town of Chidambaram. See also[edit]

History of India History of Hinduism History of Bengal History of Bihar Political history of medieval Karnataka

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Stein, B. (27 April 2010), Arnold, D., ed., A History of India
History of India
(2nd ed.), Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, p. 105, ISBN 978-1-4051-9509-6  ^ Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, p. 32  ^ "The World Economy (GDP) : Historical Statistics by Professor Angus Maddison" (PDF). World Economy. Retrieved 21 May 2013.  ^ Maddison, Angus (2006). The World Economy – Volume 1: A Millennial Perspective and Volume 2: Historical Statistics. OECD Publishing by Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. p. 656. ISBN 9789264022621.  ^ Cunningham, (1888) p. 33. ^ a b Cunningham (1888), p. 33. ^ Barstow (1928)[better source needed][citation needed], reprint 1985, pp. 105-135, 63, 155, 152, 145. ^ Latif (1984), p. 56. ^ Mortimer Wheeler Flames over Persepolis (London, 1968). Pp. 112 ff. It is unclear whether the Hellenistic street plan found by John Marshall's excavations dates from the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
or from the Kushans, who would have encountered it in Bactria; Tarn (1951, pp. 137, 179) ascribes the initial move of Taxila
Taxila
to the hill of Sirkap to Demetrius I, but sees this as "not a Greek city but an Indian one"; not a polis or with a Hippodamian plan. ^ "Menander had his capital in Sagala" Bopearachchi, "Monnaies", p.83. McEvilley supports Tarn on both points, citing Woodcock: "Menander was a Bactrian Greek king of the Euthydemid dynasty. His capital (was) at Sagala
Sagala
(Sialkot) in the Punjab, "in the country of the Yonakas (Greeks)"." McEvilley, p.377. However, "Even if Sagala
Sagala
proves to be Sialkot, it does not seem to be Menander's capital for the Milindapanha states that Menander came down to Sagala
Sagala
to meet Nagasena, just as the Ganges
Ganges
flows to the sea." ^ 11.34 ^ Polybius 11.34 ^ "Notes on Hellenism in Bactria
Bactria
and India". W. W. Tarn. Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 22 (1902), pages 268–293 ^ "A vast hoard of coins, with a mixture of Greek profiles and Indian symbols, along with interesting sculptures and some monumental remains from Taxila, Sirkap and Sirsukh, point to a rich fusion of Indian and Hellenistic influences", India, the Ancient Past, Burjor Avari, p.130 ^ "When the Greeks of Bactria
Bactria
and India
India
lost their kingdom they were not all killed, nor did they return to Greece. They merged with the people of the area and worked for the new masters; contributing considerably to the culture and civilization in southern and central Asia." Narain, "The Indo-Greeks" 2003, p. 278. ^ See: Notes on the Races, Tribes, and Castes inhabiting the Province of Oudh, Lucknow, Oudh Government Press 1868, p 4; The Geographical Data in Early Puranas, a Critical Studies, 1972, p 135, Dr M. R. Singh; Sacred Books of the East, XXV, Intr. p cxv, Rapson, Coins of Ancient India, p 37, n.2. ^ The Geographical Data in Early Puranas, a Critical Studies, 1972, p 135, M. R. Singh; Sacred Books of the East, XXV, Intr. p cxv; Rapson, Coins of Ancient India, p 37, n.2. ^ Agarwala (1954), p. 444. ^ Kharapallana and Vanaspara are known from an inscription discovered in Sarnath, and dated to the 3rd year of Kanishka, in which they were paying allegiance to the Kushanas. Source: "A Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc..." Rapson, p ciii ^ Ptolemy, Geographia, Chap 7 ^ Hill (2009), pp. 29, 31. ^ Hill (2004) ^ Grégoire Frumkin (1970). Archaeology in Soviet Central Asia. Brill Archive. pp. 51–. GGKEY:4NPLATFACBB.  ^ Rafi U. Samad (2011). The Grandeur of Gandhara: The Ancient Buddhist Civilization of the Swat, Peshawar, Kabul
Kabul
and Indus Valleys. Algora Publishing. pp. 93–. ISBN 978-0-87586-859-2.  ^ a b Chadurah, 1991 & 45. ^ a b Hasan 1959, pp. 54. ^ Singh 2008, p. 571. ^ Majumdar 1977, pp. 260–3. ^ Wink, 1991 & 72-74. ^ Shahi Family. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 16 October 2006 [1]. ^ Sehrai, Fidaullah (1979). Hund: The Forgotten City of Gandhara, p. 2. Peshawar Museum Publications New Series, Peshawar. ^ Darius used titles like "Kshayathiya, Kshayathiya Kshayathiyanam" etc. ^ The Shahi Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Punjab, 1973, pp 1, 45-46, 48, 80, Dr D. B. Pandey; The Úakas in India
India
and Their Impact on Indian Life and Culture, 1976, p 80, Vishwa Mitra Mohan - Indo-Scythians; Country, Culture and Political life in early and medieval India, 2004, p 34, Daud Ali. ^ Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1954, pp 112 ff; The Shahis of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Punjab, 1973, p 46, Dr D. B. Pandey; The Úakas in India
India
and Their Impact on Indian Life and Culture, 1976, p 80, Vishwa Mitra Mohan - Indo-Scythians. ^ India, A History, 2001, p 203, John Keay. ^ Agrawal, Sadananda (2000): Śrī Khāravela, Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack, Odisha ^ Keling_English Version Archived 26 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Visvacomplex.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12. ^ "Maharaja Kharavela". Archived from the original on 2001-05-03. Retrieved 2012-01-16.  ^ "Maharaja Kharavela's Family". Archived from the original on 2001-05-03. Retrieved 2012-01-16.  ^ Shashi Kant (2000): The Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharavela
Kharavela
and the Bhabru Edict of Ashoka, D K Printworld Pvt. Ltd. ^ A Panorama of Indian Culture: Professor A. Sreedhara Menon Felicitation Volume edited by K. K. Kusuman, Page no 153 ^ India
India
- Historical Setting - The Classical Age - Gupta and Harsha ^ [2] Archived 2 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ The Age of the Guptas and After Archived 4 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Gupta dynasty (Indian dynasty) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ^ Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ^ The Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
of India
India
Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
Samudragupta ^ Trade The Story of India
India
- Photo Gallery PBS ^ a b c The Gurjaras of Rajputana
Rajputana
and Kannauj, Vincent A. Smith, The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, (Jan., 1909), pp. 53-75 ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar; Achut Dattatrya Pusalker; A. K. Majumdar; Dilip Kumar Ghose; Vishvanath Govind Dighe (1977). The History and Culture of the Indian People: The classical age. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 66.  ^ Roychaudhuri, H.C. (1972). Political History of Ancient India, University of Calcutta, Calcutta, pp.553-4 ^ Mahajan V.D. (1960, reprint 2007). Ancient India, S. Chand & Company, New Delhi, ISBN 81-219-0887-6, pp.594-6 ^ Panchānana Rāya (1939). A historical review of Hindu
Hindu
India: 300 B. C. to 1200 A. D. I. M. H. Press. p. 125.  ^ Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
dynasty definition of Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
dynasty in the Free Online Encyclopedia ^ Radhey Shyam Chaurasia (2002). History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A. D. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 207 to 208. ISBN 978-81-269-0027-5.  ^ Dharam Prakash Gupta, "Seminar on Katoch
Katoch
dynasty trail". Himachal Plus. On line. ^ Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals (1206-1526) - I By Satish Chandra ^ A History of India
History of India
by August Friedrich Rudolf Hoernle, Herbert Alick Stark ^ Stella Snead - Guardian Lion ^ Agnivansha: Paramara
Paramara
Dynasty ^ Upinder Singh 2008, p. 571. ^ a b c D. C. Ganguly 1981, p. 704. ^ Sailendra
Sailendra
Nath Sen 1999, p. 339. ^ Dilip Kumar Ganguly 1984, p. 117. ^ Ganga Dynasty
Dynasty
www.britannica.com. ^ Suresh Kant Sharma, Usha Sharma - 2005,"Discovery of North-East India: Geography, History, Culture, ... - Volume 3", Page 248, Davaka (Nowgong) and Kamarupa
Kamarupa
as separate and submissive friendly kingdoms. ^ (Sircar 1990:63–68) ^ Arun Bhattacharjee (1993), Assam
Assam
in Indian Independence, Page 143 While Pushyavarman
Pushyavarman
was the contemporary of the Gupta Emperor Samudra Gupta, Bhaskaravarman was the contemporary of Harshavardhana of Kanauj. ^ "Three thousand years after these mythical ancestors (Naraka, Bhagadatta and Vajradatta) there occurred Pushyavarman
Pushyavarman
as the first historical king, after whom we have an uninterrupted line of rulers up to Bhaskarvarman." (Sharma 1978, p. xxix) ^ "According to him (D C Sircar) Narayanavarma, the father of Bhutivarman, was the first Kamarupa
Kamarupa
king to perform horse-sacrifices and thus for the first time since the days of Pusyavarman freedom from the Gupta political supremacy was declared by Narayanavarma. But a careful study or even a casual perusal of the seal attached to the Dubi C.P. and of the nalanda seals should show that it is Sri Mahendra, the father of Narayanavarma himself, who is described as the performer of two horse-sacrifices." (Sharma 1978, p. 8) ^ Samiti, Kamarupa
Kamarupa
Anusandhana (1984). Readings in the history & culture of Assam. Kamarupa
Kamarupa
Anusandhana Samiti. p. 227.  ^ N. Laxminarayana Rao and S. C. Nandinath in Kamath 2001, p57 ^ Keay (2000), p168 ^ Jayasimha and Ranaraga, ancestors of Pulakeshin I, were administrative officers in the Badami
Badami
province under the Kadambas (Fleet in Kanarese Dynasties, p343), (Moraes 1931, p51) ^ Thapar (2003), p328 ^ Quote:"They belonged to the Karnataka
Karnataka
country and their mother tongue was Kannada" (Sen 1999, p360); Kamath (2001), p58, ^ Considerable number of their records are in Kannada
Kannada
(Kamath 2001, p67) ^ 7th century Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptions call Kannada
Kannada
the natural language (Thapar 2003, p345) ^ Sen (1999), p360 ^ In this composition, the poet deems himself an equal to Sanskrit scholars of lore like Bharavi and Kalidasa
Kalidasa
(Sastri 1955, p312 ^ Kamath (2001), p59 ^ Keay (2000), p169 ^ Sen (1999), pp361–362 ^ Kamath (2001), pp59–60 ^ Some of these kingdoms may have submitted out of fear of Harshavardhana of Kannauj
Kannauj
(Majumdar in Kamat 2001, p59) ^ The rulers of Kosala were the Panduvamshis of South Kosala (Sircar in Kamath 2001, pp59) ^ Keay (2000), p170 ^ Kamath (2001), pp58 ^ Ramesh 1984, p76 ^ From the notes of Arab
Arab
traveller Tabari (Kamath 2001, p60) ^ a b Smith, Vincent Arthur (1904). The Early History of India. The Clarendon press. pp. 325–327.  ^ Sen (1999), p362 ^ Thapar (2003), p331, p345 ^ Sastri (1955) p140 ^ Ramesh (1984), pp159–160 ^ Sen (1999), p364 ^ Ramesh (1984), p159 ^ a b Hardy (1995), p65–66 ^ Over 125 temples exist in Aihole
Aihole
alone, Michael D. Gunther, 2002. "Monuments of India". Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Arthikaje, Mangalore. "History of Karnataka— Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Badami". © 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Archived from the original on 2006-11-04. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ The Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
introduced in the western Deccan a glorious chapter alike in heroism in battle and cultural magnificence in peace (K.V. Sounderrajan in Kamath 2001, p68 ^ Kamath (2001), p68 ^ K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India
History of South India
pp 91–92 ^ Durga Prasad, History of the Andhras up to 1565 A. D., pp 68 ^ Kamil V. Zvelebil (1987). "The Sound of the One Hand", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 107, No. 1, p. 125-126. ^ 'Advanced History of India', K.A. Nilakanta Sastri (1970)p. 181-182, Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi ^ http://www.whatsindia.org[permanent dead link] ^ From the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
inscriptions (Kamath 2001, p57, p64) ^ The Samangadh copper plate grant (753) confirms that feudatory Dantidurga defeated the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and humbled their great Karnatik army (referring to the army of the Badami
Badami
Chalukyas) (Reu 1933, p54) ^ A capital which could put to shame even the capital of gods-From Karda plates (Altekar 1934, p47) ^ A capital city built to excel that of Indra (Sastri, 1955, p4, p132, p146) ^ Altekar (1934), pp411–413 ^ Chopra (2003), p87, part1; Literature in Kannada
Kannada
and Sanskrit flowered during the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
rule (Kamath 2001, p73, pp 88–89) ^ Even royalty of the empire took part in poetic and literary activities (Thapar 2003, p334) ^ a b c Narasimhacharya (1988), p68, p17–21 ^ Reu (1933), pp37–38 ^ Chopra (2003), p89, part1; His victories were a "digvijaya" gaining only fame and booty in that region (Altekar in Kamath 2001, p75) ^ Chopra (2003), p90, part1 ^ Keay (2000), p199) ^ Kamath 2001, p76 ^ a b Chopra (2003), p91, part1 ^ Kavirajamarga
Kavirajamarga
in Kannada
Kannada
and Prashnottara Ratnamalika in Sanskrit (Reu 1933, p38) ^ Kamath (2001), p90 ^ Panchamukhi in Kamath (2001), p80 ^ Chopra (2003), p92, part1; Altekar in Kamath 2001, p81 ^ Chopra (2003), p92–93, part1 ^ Reu (1933), p39 ^ Murujul Zahab by Al Masudi (944), Kitabul Akalim by Al Istakhri (951), Ashkal-ul-Bilad by Ibn Haukal (976) (Reu 1933, p41–42) ^ From the Sanjan inscriptions, Dr. Jyotsna Kamat. "The Rashrakutas". 1996–2006 Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 2006-12-20.  ^ Keay (2000), p200 ^ Vijapur, Raju S. "Reclaiming past glory". Deccan Herald. Spectrum. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 2007-02-27.  ^ Chopra (2003), p137, part1 ^ Fleet, Bhandarkar and Altekar and Gopal B.R. in (Kamath 2001, p100) ^ Sen (1999), p. 393 ^ Sastri (1955), pp356–358; Kamath (2001), p114 ^ More inscriptions in Kannada
Kannada
are attributed to the Chalukya
Chalukya
King Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
than to any other king prior to the 12th century, Kamat, Jyotsna. " Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyana". 1996–2006 Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 2006-12-24.  ^ From the 957 and 965 records (Kamath 2001, p101) ^ Sastri 1955, p162 ^ Tailapa II
Tailapa II
was helped in this campaign by the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Hanagal (Moraes 1931, pp 93–94) ^ Ganguli in Kamath 2001, p103 ^ Sastri (1955), p167–168 ^ Kamath (2001), p104 ^ Sastri (1955), p164, p174; The Cholas
Cholas
occupied Gangavadi from 1004–1114 (Kamath 2001, p118) ^ a b Chopra (2003), p139, part1 ^ Thapar, 2003, pp 468–469 ^ Chopra (2003), p139, part 1 ^ Poet Bilhana in his Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work wrote "Rama Rajya" regarding his rule, poet Vijnaneshwara called him "A king like none other" (Kamath 2001, p106) ^ Sastri (1955), p6 ^ Sastri (1955), pp 427–428; Quote:"Their creations have the pride of place in Indian art
Indian art
tradition" (Kamath 2001, p115) ^ Quote:"Of the city of Kalyana, situated in the north of Karnataka nothing is left, but a fabulous revival in temple building during the 11th century in central Karnataka
Karnataka
testifies to the wealth during Kalyan Chalukya
Chalukya
rule"(Foekema (1996), p14) ^ Kamath (2001), p107 ^ From the 1142 and 1147 records, Kamath (2001), p108 ^ Chopra (2003), p139, part1; From the Chikkalagi records (Kamath 2001, p108) ^ Chopra (2003), p140, part1; Kamath (2001) p109 ^ a b Students' Britannica India
India
By Dale Hoiberg, Indu Ramchandani. ^ a b Sen (1999), p498 ^ a b Sen (1999), p499 ^ Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
made many military conquests later to be further expanded by his successors into one of the most powerful empires of South India—William Coelho. He was the true maker of the Hoysala kingdom—B.S.K. Iyengar in Kamath (2001), p124–126 ^ B.L. Rice in Kamath (2001), p123 ^ Keay (2000), p251 ^ Thapar (2003), p367 ^ Kamath (2001), p123 ^ Natives of south Karnataka
Karnataka
(Chopra, 2003, p150 Part1) ^ Shiva
Shiva
Prakash in Ayyappapanicker (1997), pp164, 203; Rice E. P. (1921), p59 ^ Kamath (2001), pp132–134 ^ Sastri (1955), p359, p361 ^ Sastri (1955), p427 ^ Sen (1999), pp500–501 ^ Foekema (1996), p14 ^ Kamath (2001), p124 ^ The most outstanding of the Hoysala kings according to Barrett and William Coelho in Kamath (2001), p126 ^ B.S.K. Iyengar in Kamath (2001), p126 ^ Keay (2000), p252 ^ Sen (1999), p500 ^ Two theories exist about the origin of Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I. One states that they were Kannadiga
Kannadiga
commanders of the Hoysala army and another that they were Telugu speakers and commanders of the earlier Kakatiya Kingdom (Kamath 2001, pp 159–160) ^ Great Living Chola
Chola
Temples.

Sources[edit]

Books

Agarwala, V. S. (1954). India
India
as Known to Panini. Barstow, A.E., The Sikhs: An Ethnology, Reprinted by B.R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi, India, 1985, first published in 1928. Alexander Cunningham
Alexander Cunningham
(1888) Coins of the Indo-Scythians, Sakas, and Kushans, Reprint: Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1971. D. C. Ganguly (1981). R. S. Sharma, ed. A Comprehensive History of India
India
(A. D. 300-985). 3, Part 1. Indian History Congress / Orient Longmans.  Dilip Kumar Ganguly (1984). History and Historians in Ancient India. Abhinav. ISBN 978-0-391-03250-7.  Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilüe 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation.Weilue: The Peoples of the West Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1. Latif, S.M., (1891) History of the Panjab, Reprinted by Progressive Books, Lahore, Pakistan, 1984. Chadurah, Haidar Malik (1991). History of Kashmir. Bhavna Prakashan.  Hasan, Mohibbul (1959). Kashmir
Kashmir
Under the Sultans. Aakar. ISBN 9788187879497.  Sailendra
Sailendra
Nath Sen (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age. ISBN 9788122411980.  Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0.  Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan (Bombay, Inde), Majumdar, R. C., Pusalker, A. D., & Majumdar, A. K. (1988). The history and culture of the Indian people: 3. (History and culture of the Indian people.) Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.

Website

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. - India

v t e

Middle kingdoms of India

Timeline and cultural period

Northwestern India (Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)

Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India

Upper Gangetic Plain (Kuru-Panchala)

Middle Gangetic Plain Lower Gangetic Plain

IRON AGE

Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period (Brahmin ideology)[a] Painted Grey Ware culture

Late Vedic Period (Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)[b] Northern Black Polished Ware

Pre-history

 6th century BC Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation" Rise of Shramana
Shramana
movements Jainism
Jainism
- Buddhism
Buddhism
- Ājīvika
Ājīvika
- Yoga

Pre-history

 5th century BC (Persian rule)

Shishunaga dynasty

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

 4th century BC (Greek conquests) Nanda empire

HISTORICAL AGE

Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history Sangam period (300 BC – 200 AD)

 3rd century BC Maurya Empire Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - " Hindu
Hindu
Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD)[e][f] Epics - Puranas
Puranas
- Ramayana
Ramayana
- Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
- Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism Sangam period (continued) (300 BC – 200 AD)

 2nd century BC Indo-Greek Kingdom Shunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty

Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

 1st century BC

 1st century AD

Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians

Kuninda Kingdom

 2nd century Kushan Empire

 3rd century Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom Kalabhra
Kalabhra
dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[g] Puranas Co-existence of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism

 4th century Kidarites Gupta Empire Varman dynasty

Kalabhra
Kalabhra
dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty

 5th century Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Kalabhra
Kalabhra
dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Vishnukundina

 6th century Nezak Huns Kabul
Kabul
Shahi

Maitraka

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Badami
Badami
Chalukyas Kalabhra
Kalabhra
dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture Late-Classical Hinduism
Hinduism
(ca. AD 650-1100)[h] Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
- Tantra Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

 7th century Indo-Sassanids

Vakataka
Vakataka
dynasty Empire of Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Pandyan Kingdom(Revival) Pallava

 8th century Kabul
Kabul
Shahi

Pala Empire Pandyan Kingdom Kalachuri

 9th century

Gurjara-Pratihara

Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
dynasty Pandyan Kingdom Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10th century Ghaznavids

Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty

Kalyani Chalukyas Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai Rashtrakuta

References and sources for table

References

^ Samuel ^ Samuel ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Micheals (2004) p.40 ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

Sources

Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge Univ

.