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Mexican Americans
Americans
(Spanish: mexicoamericanos or estadounidenses de origen mexicano) are Americans
Americans
of full or partial Mexican descent. Some members of the community prefer to call themselves Chicanos. As of July 2016, Mexican Americans
Americans
made up 11.2% of the United States' population, as 36.3 million U.S. residents identified as being of full or partial Mexican ancestry.[1] As of July 2016, Mexican Americans comprised 63.2% of all Hispanics
Hispanics
and Latinos in the United States.[1] Over 60% of all Mexican Americans
Americans
reside in the states of California and Texas.[2] The United States
United States
is home to the second-largest Mexican community in the world, second only to Mexico
Mexico
itself, and comprising more than 24% of the entire Mexican-origin population of the world[3] Mexican American families of indigenous heritage have been in the country for at least 15,000 years, and mestizo Mexican American
Mexican American
history spans more than 400 years, since the 1598 founding of Spanish New Mexico. Spanish subjects of New Spain
New Spain
in the Southwest included New Mexican Hispanos and Pueblo Indians
Pueblo Indians
and Genizaros, Tejanos, Californios
Californios
and Mission Indians have existed since the area was part of New Spain. The majority of these historically primarily Hispanophone populations eventually adopted English as their first language as part of their overall Americanization. Approximately ten percent of the current Mexican-American
Mexican-American
population are descended from the early colonial settlers.,[4] who became U.S. citizens in 1848 via the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo which ended the Mexican-American
Mexican-American
War. Although most of the original Mexican American
Mexican American
population were officially deemed white by the treaty, many indigenous Mexican Americans
Americans
were not granted citizenship until the 1920s. Despite assurances to the contrary, the property rights of formerly Mexican citizens were often not honored by the U.S. in accordance with modifications to and interpretations of the Treaty.[5][6][7] Continuous large-scale migration, particularly after the 1910 Mexican Revolution, added to this original population. During the Great Depression, Mexican Americans
Americans
were scapegoated and subjected to a campaign of mass deportation which affected an estimated 500,000 to two million people.[8][9][10][11] An estimated 60% were birthright citizens.[11] The remaining population became more homogenous and politically active during the New Deal
New Deal
and World War II
World War II
era, which brought about the guest-worker Bracero Program. The Chicano
Chicano
movement, which began in the 1960s, aimed for a variety of civil rights reforms. Inspired by the African American
African American
civil rights movement, demands ranged from the restoration of land grants, to farm workers' rights, to enhanced education, to voting and political rights, as well as emerging awareness of collective history. Immigration from Mexico
Mexico
greatly increased in the 1980s and 1990s, peaking in the mid-2000s. In 2015, the United States
United States
admitted 157,227 Mexican immigrants,[12] and as of November 2016, 1.31 million Mexicans were on the waiting list to immigrate to the United States
United States
through legal means.[13]

Contents

1 History of Mexican Americans

1.1 19th-century and 20th-century Mexican migration 1.2 20th century

2 Race and ethnicity

2.1 US census bureau classifications 2.2 Politics and debate of racial classification

3 Economic and social issues

3.1 Immigration issues

4 Discrimination and stereotypes 5 Social status and assimilation

5.1 Intermarriage

6 Segregation issues

6.1 Housing market practices 6.2 Battle of Chavez Ravine 6.3 Latino
Latino
segregation versus Black segregation 6.4 Segregated schools 6.5 Immigration and segregation

7 The Chicano
Chicano
movement and the Chicano
Chicano
Moratorium 8 Education

8.1 Parental Involvement

9 Mexican American
Mexican American
communities

9.1 Major US destinations 9.2 List of states by Mexican American
Mexican American
population

10 Notable people

10.1 Historical Figures 10.2 Cinema 10.3 Music 10.4 Journalists and Writers 10.5 Entertainment personalities 10.6 Comedians 10.7 Government 10.8 Business 10.9 Military 10.10 Science and Technology 10.11 Sport 10.12 Religious Leaders

11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography/further reading 14 External links

History of Mexican Americans[edit] Main article: History of Mexican Americans

Symbols of the Southwest: a string of chili peppers (a ristra) and a bleached white cow's skull hang in a market near Santa Fe

In 1900, there were slightly more than 500,000 Hispanics
Hispanics
of Mexican descent living in New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Colorado, California and Texas.[14] Most were Mexican Americans
Americans
of Spanish descent and other Hispanicized European settlers who settled in the Southwest during Spanish colonial times, as well as local and Mexican Indians. As early as 1813, some of the Tejanos who colonized Texas
Texas
in the Spanish Colonial Period established a government in Texas
Texas
that desired independence from Spanish-ruled Mexico. In those days, there was no concept of identity as Mexican. Many Mexicans
Mexicans
were more loyal to their states/provinces than to their country as a whole, which was a colony of Spain. This was particularly true in frontier regions such as Zacatecas, Texas, Yucatán, Oaxaca, New Mexico, etc.[15] As shown by the writings of colonial Tejanos such as Antonio Menchaca, the Texas
Texas
Revolution was initially a colonial Tejano cause. Mexico encouraged immigration from the United States
United States
to settle east Texas and, by 1831, English-speaking settlers outnumbered Tejanos ten to one in the region. Both groups were settled mostly in the eastern part of the territory.[16] The Mexican government became concerned about the increasing volume of Anglo-American immigration and restricted the number of settlers from the United States
United States
allowed to enter Texas. Consistent with its abolition of slavery, the Mexican government banned slavery within the state, which angered American slave owners.[17] The American settlers, along with many of the Tejano, rebelled against the centralized authority of Mexico
Mexico
City and the Santa Anna regime, while other Tejano remained loyal to Mexico, and still others were neutral.[18][19] Author
Author
John P. Schmal wrote of the effect Texas
Texas
independence had on the Tejano community:[20]

A native of San Antonio, Juan Seguín
Juan Seguín
is probably the most famous Tejano to be involved in the War of Texas
Texas
Independence. His story is complex because he joined the Anglo
Anglo
rebels and helped defeat the Mexican forces of Santa Anna. But later on, as Mayor of San Antonio, he and other Tejanos felt the hostile encroachments of the growing Anglo
Anglo
power against them. After receiving a series of death threats, Seguín relocated his family in Mexico, where he was coerced into military service and fought against the US in 1846–1848 Mexican–American War. Although the events of 1836 led to independence for the people of Texas, the Hispanic
Hispanic
population of the state was very quickly disenfranchised, to the extent that their political representation in the Texas
Texas
State Legislature disappeared entirely for several decades.

Mural in Chicano
Chicano
Park, San Diego
San Diego
stating "All the way to the Bay"

As a Spanish colony, the territory of California
California
also had an established population of colonial settlers. Californios
Californios
is the term for the Spanish-speaking residents of modern-day California; they were the original Mexicans
Mexicans
(regardless of race) and local Hispanicized Indians in the region (Alta California) before the United States acquired it as a territory. In the mid-19th century, more settlers from the United States
United States
began to enter the territory. In California, Spanish settlement began in 1769 with the establishment of the Presidio and Catholic mission of San Diego. 20 more missions were established along the California
California
coast by 1823, along with military Presidios and civilian communities. Settlers in California tended to stay close to the coast and outside of the California interior. The California
California
economy was based on agriculture and livestock. In contrast to central New Spain, coastal colonists found little mineral wealth. Some became farmers or ranchers, working for themselves on their own land or for other colonists. Government officials, priests, soldiers, and artisans settled in towns, missions, and presidios.[21] One of the most important events in the history of Mexican settlers in California
California
occurred in 1833, when the Mexican Government secularized the missions. In effect this meant that the government took control of large and vast areas of land. These lands were eventually distributed among the population in the form of Ranchos, which soon became the basic socio-economic units of the province.[21] Relations between Californios
Californios
and English-speaking settlers were relatively good until 1846, when military officer John C. Fremont arrived in Alta California
California
with a United States
United States
force of 60 men on an exploratory expedition. Fremont made an agreement with Comandante Castro that he would stay in the San Joaquin Valley
San Joaquin Valley
only for the winter, then move north to Oregon. However, Fremont remained in the Santa Clara Valley
Santa Clara Valley
then headed towards Monterey. When Castro demanded that Fremont leave Alta California, Fremont rode to Gavilan Peak, raised a US flag and vowed to fight to the last man to defend it. After three days of tension, Fremont retreated to Oregon
Oregon
without a shot being fired. With relations between Californios
Californios
and Americans
Americans
quickly souring, Fremont returned to Alta California, where he encouraged European-American settlers to seize a group of Castro's soldiers and their horses. Another group seized the Presidio of Sonoma
Presidio of Sonoma
and captured Mariano Vallejo.

The Henry B. González Convention Center and Lila Cockrell Theater along the San Antonio
San Antonio
River Walk. The Tower of the Americas
Tower of the Americas
is visible in the background.

The Americans
Americans
chose William B. Ide
William B. Ide
as chosen Commander
Commander
in Chief and on July 5, he proclaimed the creation of the Bear Flag Republic. On July 9, US military forces reached Sonoma; they lowered the Bear Flag Republic's flag, replacing it with a US flag. Californios
Californios
organized an army to defend themselves from invading American forces after the Mexican army retreated from Alta California
California
to defend other parts of Mexico. The Californios
Californios
defeated an American force in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
on September 30, 1846. In turn, they were defeated after the Americans
Americans
reinforced their forces in what is now southern California. Tens of thousands of miners and associated people arrived during the California
California
Gold Rush, and their activities in some areas meant the end of the Californios' ranching lifestyle. Many of the English-speaking 49ers turned from mining to farming and moved, often illegally, onto land granted to Californios
Californios
by the former Mexican government.[22] The United States
United States
had first come into conflict with Mexico
Mexico
in the 1830s, as the westward spread of United States
United States
settlements and of slavery brought significant numbers of new settlers into the region known as Tejas (modern-day Texas), then part of Mexico. The Mexican–American War, followed by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
in 1848 and the Gadsden Purchase
Gadsden Purchase
in 1853, extended US control over a wide range of territory once held by Mexico, including the present-day borders of Texas
Texas
and the states of New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California.

An example of a Chicano-themed mural in the Richard Riordan Central Library

Although the treaty promised that the landowners in this newly acquired territory would have their property rights preserved and protected as if they were citizens of the United States, many former citizens of Mexico
Mexico
lost their land in lawsuits before state and federal courts over terms of land grants, or as a result of legislation passed after the treaty.[23] Even those statutes which Congress passed to protect the owners of property at the time of the extension of the United States' borders, such as the 1851 California Land Act, had the effect of dispossessing Californio
Californio
owners. They were ruined by the cost over years of having to maintain litigation to support their land titles. Following the concession of California
California
to the United States
United States
under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexicans
Mexicans
were repeatedly targeted by legislation that targeted their socio-economic standing in the area. One significant instance of this is exemplified by the passage of legislation that placed the heaviest tax burden on land. The fact that there was such a heavy tax on land was important to the socio-economic standing of Mexican Americans, because it essentially limited their ability to keep possession of the Ranchos that had been originally granted to them by the Mexican government.[21] 19th-century and 20th-century Mexican migration[edit]

The first Mexican braceros arrived in California
California
in 1917.

Trend of Mexican migration to the United States. Here the term immigrant refers to those who were not born in the U.S. but are now currently residing in the U.S. This can include naturalized U.S. citizens, legal permanent residents, employees and students on visas, and the undocumented.[24]

In the late nineteenth century, liberal Mexican President Porfirio Díaz embarked on a program of economic modernization that triggered not only a wave of internal migration in Mexico
Mexico
from rural areas to cities, but also Mexican emigration to the United States. A railway network was constructed that connected central Mexico
Mexico
to the U.S. border and also opened up previously isolated regions. The second factor was the shift in land tenure that left Mexican peasants without title or access to land for farming on their own account.[25] For the first time, Mexicans
Mexicans
in increasing numbers migrated north into the U.S. for better economic opportunities. In the early 20th century, the first main period of migration to the United States
United States
happened between the 1910s to the 1920s, referred to as the Great Migration.[26] During this time period the Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
was taking place, creating turmoil within and against the Mexican government causing civilians to seek out economic and political stability in the United States. Over 1.3 million Mexicans
Mexicans
relocated to the United States
United States
from 1910 well into the 1930s, with significant increases each decade.[27] Many of these immigrants found agricultural work, being contracted under private laborers.[28] The second period of increased migration is known as the Bracero Era from 1942 to 1964, referring to the Bracero program implemented by the United States, contracting agricultural labor from Mexico
Mexico
due to labor shortages from the World War II
World War II
draft. An estimated 4.6 million Mexican immigrants were pulled into U.S. through the Bracero Program
Bracero Program
from the 1940s to the 1960s.[29] The lack of agricultural laborers due to increases in military drafts for World War II opened up a chronic need for low wage workers to fill jobs. 20th century[edit]

Mexican community in Seattle.

While Mexican Americans
Americans
were once concentrated in the Southwest: California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado
Colorado
and Texas, during World War I they moved to industrial communities such as St. Louis, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and other steel-producing regions, where they gained industrial jobs. Like European immigrants, they were attracted to work that did not require proficiency in English. Industrial restructuring in the second half of the century put many Mexican Americans
Americans
out of work in addition to people of other ethnic groups. Their industrial skills were not as useful in the changing economies of these areas. During the first half of the 20th century, Mexican-American
Mexican-American
workers formed unions of their own and joined integrated unions. The most significant union struggle involving Mexican Americans
Americans
was the effort to organize agricultural workers and the United Farm Workers' long strike and boycott aimed at grape growers in the San Joaquin and Coachella valleys in the late 1960s. Leaders César Chávez
César Chávez
and Dolores Huerta
Dolores Huerta
gained national prominence as they led a workers' rights organization that helped workers get unemployment insurance to an effective union of farmworkers almost overnight. The struggle to protect rights and sustainable wages for migrant workers has continued. Since the late 20th century, undocumented Mexican immigrants have increasingly become a large part of the workforce in industries such as meat packing, where processing centers have moved closer to ranches in relatively isolated rural areas of the Midwest; in agriculture in the southeastern United States; and in the construction, landscaping, restaurant, hotel and other service industries throughout the country.

Mariachi
Mariachi
bands, who are available for hire, wait at the Mariachi
Mariachi
Plaza in Los Angeles

Mexican-American
Mexican-American
identity has changed throughout these years. Over the past hundred years, activist Mexican Americans
Americans
have campaigned for their constitutional rights as citizens, to overturn discrimination in voting and to gain other civil rights. They have opposed educational and employment discrimination, and worked for economic and social advancement. In numerous locations, court cases have been filed under the Voting Rights Act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965
to challenge practices, such as poll taxes and literacy tests in English, that made it more difficult for Spanish-language minorities to register and vote. At the same time, many Mexican Americans
Americans
have struggled with defining and maintaining their community's cultural identity as distinct from mainstream United States. That changes in response to the absorption of countless new immigrants. In the 1960s and 1970s, some Latino/ Hispanic
Hispanic
student groups flirted with Mexican nationalism, and differences over the proper name for members of the community. Discussion over self-identification as Chicano/Chicana, Latino/Latina, Mexican Americans, or Hispanics
Hispanics
became tied up with deeper disagreements over whether to integrate into or remain separate from mainstream American society. There were divisions between those Mexican Americans
Americans
whose families had lived in the United States for two or more generations and more recent immigrants, in addition to distinctions from other Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino
Latino
immigrants from nations in Central and South America with their own distinct cultural traditions. During this period, civil rights groups such as the National Mexican-American
Mexican-American
Anti-Defamation Committee were founded. By the early 21st century, the states with the largest percentages and populations of Mexican Americans
Americans
are California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, Nevada, and Utah. There have also been markedly increasing populations in Oklahoma, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Illinois.[30] In terms of religion, Mexican Americans
Americans
are primarily Roman Catholic. A large minority are Evangelical Protestants. Notably, according to a Pew Hispanic
Hispanic
Center report in 2006 and the Pew Religious Landscape Survey in 2008, Mexican Americans
Americans
are significantly less likely than other Hispanic
Hispanic
groups to abandon Catholicism for Protestant churches.[31][32] Race and ethnicity[edit] Main article: Mexicans Ethnically, Mexican Americans
Americans
are a diverse population, including those of European ancestry (mostly Spanish), Indigenous ancestry, a mixture of both, and Mexicans
Mexicans
of Middle Eastern descent (mainly Lebanese). The Mexican population is majority Mestizo, which in colonial times meant to be a person of half European and half Native American ancestry. Nonetheless the meaning of the word has changed through time, currently being used to refer to the segment of the Mexican population who does not speak indigenous languages,[33] thus in Mexico, the term "Mestizo" has become a cultural label rather than a racial one, it's vaguely defined and includes people who does not have Indigenous ancestry, people who does not have European ancestry as well as people of African ancestry.[34] Such transformation of the word is not a casualty but the result of a concept known as "mestizaje", which was promoted by the post-revolutionary Mexican government in an effort to create a united Mexican ethno-cultural identity with no racial distinctions.[35] It's because of this that sometimes the Mestizo
Mestizo
population in Mexico
Mexico
is estimated to be as high as 93% of the Mexican population.[36] Per the 2010 US Census, the majority (52.8%) of Mexican Americans identified as being White.[37] The remainder identified themselves as being of "some other race" (39.5%), "two or more races" (5.0%), Native American (1.4%), black (0.9%), and Asian / Pacific Islander (0.4%).[37]

2010 U.S Census[37]

Self-identified Race

Percent of population

White alone

52.8%

Black

0.9%

Asian

0.4%

American Indians and Alaska
Alaska
Natives

1.4%

Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians
and Other Pacific Islanders

0.2%

Two or more races

5.0%

Some Other Race

39.5%

Total

100%

This identification as "some other race" reflects activism among Mexican Americans
Americans
as claiming a cultural status and working for their rights in the United States, as well as the separation due to different language and culture. Hispanics
Hispanics
are not a racial classification, however, but an ethnic group. In the 21st century, genetic studies done in the Mexican population have concluded that a high proportion of the Mexican population has predominately European ancestry. In some studies, the population is shown to be majority European, comparable to South American countries in which a higher proportion of the population has traditionally been classified as European or 'white' such as Chile
Chile
and Costa Rica, who have an estimated average European ancestry of 51%.[38] and 60% respectively,[39] while studies made in the Mexican population have found European ancestry ranging from 56%[40] going to 60%,[41] 64%[42] and up to 78%.[43] There is genetic asymmetry, with the direct paternal line predominately European and the maternal line predominately Amerindian. For instance, a 2006 study conducted by Mexico's National Institute of Genomic Medicine (INMEGEN), which genotyped 104 samples, reported that Mestizo
Mestizo
Mexicans
Mexicans
are 58.96% European, 35.05% "Asian" (primarily Amerindian), and 5.03% Other.[44] According to a 2009 report by the Mexican Genome Project, which sampled 300 Mestizos
Mestizos
from six Mexican states and one indigenous group, the gene pool of the Mexican Mestizo population was calculated to be 55.2% percent indigenous, 41.8% European, 1.0% African, and 1.2% Asian.[45] A 2012 study published by the Journal of Human Genetics found the deep paternal ancestry of the Mexican Mestizo
Mestizo
population to be predominately European (64.9%) followed by Amerindian (30.8%) and Asian (1.2%).[46] An autosomal ancestry study performed on Mexico
Mexico
City reported that the European ancestry of Mexicans
Mexicans
was 52% with the rest being Amerindian and a small African contribution, additionally maternal ancestry was analyzed, with 47% being of European origin. Unlike previous studies which only included Mexicans
Mexicans
who self-identified as Mestizos, the only criteria for sample selection in this study was that the volunteers self-identified as Mexicans.[47] While Mexico
Mexico
does not have comprehensive modern racial censuses, some international publications believe that Mexican people
Mexican people
of predominately European descent (Spanish or other European) make up approximately one-sixth (16.5%), this based on the figures of the last racial census in the country, made in 1921,[48] albeit such numbers might be too low to accurately reflect the racial composition of modern Mexico
Mexico
considering that recent research has determined that 18.5%[49] to 23%[50] of the Mexican population has blond hair and 28.5% has light eyes.[49] This further highlights the vagueness and subjetivity of the Mestizo
Mestizo
classification, as it includes persons with a European admixture as high or higher than 90% as well as people who does not have native admixture at all,[51] producing an overlap between them. The Mexican government, therefore, decided to abandon racial classifications due to it being of little use to delineate between "White" and "Mestizo" in these cases, focusing it's contemporary ethno-racial research in phenotypical traits such as skin and hair color, said surveys performed by the government, with the intent of having a precise outlook of social and economic inequalities between light skinned European looking Mexicans
Mexicans
and Indigenous/African looking Mexicans[52] suggest a modern White Mexican
White Mexican
population of about 20%[53][54] US census bureau classifications[edit] As the United States' borders expanded, the United States
United States
Census Bureau changed its racial classification methods for Mexican Americans under United States
United States
jurisdiction. The Bureau's classification system has evolved significantly from its inception:

From 1790 to 1850, there was no distinct racial classification of Mexican Americans
Americans
in the US census. The categories recognized by the Census Bureau
Census Bureau
were White, Free People of Color, and Black. The Census Bureau estimates that during this period the number of persons who could not be categorized as white or black did not exceed 0.25% of the total population based on 1860 census data.[55]

From 1850 through 1920, the Census Bureau
Census Bureau
expanded its racial categories to include multi-racial persons, under Mestizos, Mulattos, as well as new categories of distinction of Amerindians
Amerindians
and Asians. It classified Mexicans
Mexicans
and Mexican Americans
Americans
as "White".[55] The 1930 US census revoked generic white status for Mexican Americans due to protests among certain parts of the population over a diluted definition of "whiteness." This decision followed a period in which Virginia
Virginia
and some other racially segregated states passed laws imposing binary classification and the one-drop rule, requiring classification of all persons with any known African ancestry as "black."[citation needed] The new form asked for "color or race." Census workers were instructed to differentiate between European whites and known people of Mexican descent, and to "write ‘W’ for White; and ’Mex’ for Mexican."[56]

In the 1940 census, due to widespread protests by the Mexican American community following the 1930 changes, Mexican Americans
Americans
were re-classified as White, . Instructions for enumerators were: "Mexicans – Report 'White' (W) for Mexicans
Mexicans
unless they are definitely of indigenous or other non-white race." During the same census, however, the bureau began to track the White population of Spanish mother tongue. This practice continued through the 1960 census.[55] The 1960 census also used the title "Spanish-surnamed American" in their reporting data of Mexican Americans; this category also covered Cuban Americans, Puerto Ricans and others under the same category. From 1970 to 1980, there was a dramatic increase in the number of people who identified as "of Other Race" in the census, reflecting the addition of a question on ' Hispanic
Hispanic
origin' to the 100-percent questionnaire, an increased propensity for Hispanics
Hispanics
to identify as other than White as they agitated for civil rights, and a change in editing procedures to accept reports of "Other race" for respondents who wrote in ethnic Hispanic
Hispanic
entries, such as Mexican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican. In 1970, such responses in the Other race category were reclassified and tabulated as White. During this census, the bureau attempted to identify all Hispanics
Hispanics
by use of the following criteria in sampled sets:[55]

Spanish speakers and persons belonging to a household where the head of household was a Spanish speaker persons with Spanish heritage by birth location or surname Persons who self-identified Spanish origin or descent

From 1980 on, the Census Bureau
Census Bureau
has collected data on Hispanic
Hispanic
origin on a 100-percent basis. The bureau has noted an increasing number of respondents who identify as of Hispanic
Hispanic
origin but not of the White race.[55]

For certain purposes, respondents who wrote in "Chicano" or "Mexican" (or indeed, almost all Hispanic
Hispanic
origin groups) in the "Some other race" category were automatically re-classified into the "White race" group.[57] Politics and debate of racial classification[edit]

Part of a series on

Chicanos
Chicanos
and Mexican Americans

Chicano · La Raza · Latino Mexican American · Hispanic

Pre- Chicano
Chicano
Movement

Mexican–American History Mexican–American War Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mutualista · San Elizario Salt War Sleepy Lagoon trial · Zoot Suit Riots

Chicano
Chicano
Movement

Chicanismo · Aztlán Chicano
Chicano
nationalism Chicana feminism Plan Espiritual de Aztlán Plan de Santa Bárbara Land grant struggle Chicano
Chicano
Blowouts Chicano
Chicano
Moratorium Farm worker rights campaign Católicos por La Raza

Supreme Court cases

Hernandez v. Texas Plyler v. Doe Mendez v. Westminster

Organizations

MEChA · United Farm Workers Brown Berets Comisión Femenil Mexicana Nacional League of United Latin American Citizens American GI Forum Mexican American
Mexican American
Legal Defense and Education
Education
Fund Mexican American
Mexican American
Political Association National Council of La Raza

Language

Chicano
Chicano
Spanish Chicano
Chicano
Spanish words / phrases Chicano
Chicano
English New Mexican Spanish Spanish language
Spanish language
in the United States

Music

Chicano
Chicano
rap · Chicano
Chicano
rock Tejano music

Culture

Chicano
Chicano
literature Estrada Courts murals Cholo · Pachuco Lowrider · Zoot suit Teatro Campesino · Chicano
Chicano
Park Tex-Mex
Tex-Mex
cuisine Dia de los muertos Cinco de Mayo

Lists

U.S. communities with Hispanic
Hispanic
majority Notable Chicanos / Hispanics

v t e

In some cases, legal classification of white racial status has made it difficult for Mexican-American
Mexican-American
rights activists to prove minority discrimination. In the case Hernandez v. Texas
Texas
(1954), civil rights lawyers for the appellant, named Pedro Hernandez, were confronted with a paradox: because Mexican Americans
Americans
were classified as white by the federal government and not as a separate race in the census, lower courts held that they were not being denied equal protection by being tried by juries that excluded Mexican Americans
Americans
by practice. The lower court ruled there was no violation of the Fourteenth Amendment by excluding people with Mexican ancestry among the juries. Attorneys for the state of Texas
Texas
and judges in the state courts contended that the amendment referred only to racial, not "nationality," groups. Thus, since Mexican Americans
Americans
were tried by juries composed of their racial group—whites—their constitutional rights were not violated. The US Supreme Court ruling in Hernandez v. Texas
Texas
case held that "nationality" groups could be protected under the Fourteenth Amendment, and it became a landmark in the civil rights history of the United States.[58] While Mexican Americans
Americans
were allowed to serve in all-white units during World War II, many Mexican–American veterans were discriminated against and even denied medical services by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs when they arrived home. They created the G.I. Forum to work for equal treatment.[59] In times and places in the United States
United States
where Mexicans
Mexicans
were classified as white, they were permitted by law to intermarry with what today are termed "non- Hispanic
Hispanic
whites." Social customs typically approved of such marriages only if the Mexican partner was not of visible indigenous ancestry.[60] Legally, Mexican Americans
Americans
could vote and hold elected office; however, in many states electoral practices discriminated against them, especially as a language minority. After they created political organizations such as the League of United Latin America Citizens and the G.I. Forum, Mexican Americans
Americans
began to exert more political influence and gain elective office. Edward Roybal's election to the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
City Council in 1949 and to Congress in 1962 also represented this rising Mexican-American
Mexican-American
political power. In the late 1960s the founding of the Crusade for Justice in Denver and the land grant movement in New Mexico
New Mexico
in 1967 set the bases for what would become known as Chicano
Chicano
(Mexican American) nationalism. The 1968 Los Angeles, California
California
school walkouts expressed Mexican-American
Mexican-American
demands to end de facto ethnic segregation (also based on residential patterns), increase graduation rates, and reinstate a teacher fired for supporting student political organizing. A notable event in the Chicano
Chicano
movement was the 1972 Convention of La Raza Unida (United People) Party, which organized with the goal of creating a third party to give Chicanos
Chicanos
political power in the U.S.[59] In the past, Mexicans
Mexicans
were legally considered "White" because either they were accepted as being of Spanish ancestry, or because of early treaty obligations to Spaniards and Mexicans
Mexicans
that conferred citizenship status to Mexican peoples before the American Civil War. Numerous slave states bordered Mexican territory at a time when 'whiteness' was nearly a prerequisite for US citizenship in those states.[61][62] Although Mexican Americans
Americans
were legally classified as "White" in terms of official federal policy, many organizations, businesses, and homeowners associations and local legal systems had official policies in the early 20th century to exclude Mexican Americans
Americans
in a racially discriminatory way.[63] Throughout the Southwest, discrimination in wages was institutionalized in "white wages" versus lower "Mexican wages" for the same job classifications.[63] For Mexican Americans, opportunities for employment were largely limited to guest worker programs.[63] The bracero program, begun in 1942 during World War II, when many United States
United States
men were drafted for war, allowed Mexicans
Mexicans
temporary entry into the U.S. as migrant workers at farms throughout California and the Southwest. This program continued until 1964.[44][64][65] A number of western states passed anti-miscegenation laws, directed chiefly at Chinese and Japanese. As Mexican Americans
Americans
were then classified as "white" by the census, they could not legally marry African or Asian Americans
Americans
(See Perez v. Sharp). According to historian Neil Foley in his book The White Scourge: Mexicans, Blacks, and Poor Whites in Texas
Texas
Cotton Culture, Mexicans
Mexicans
and Mexican- Americans
Americans
in Texas
Texas
did marry non-whites, typically without reprisal.[66] While of racial segregation and discrimination against both Mexican American and African American
African American
minorities were subject to segregation and racial discrimination, they were treated differently. There were legal racial demarcations between whites and blacks in a state like Texas, whereas the line between whites and Mexican Americans
Americans
was not legally defined. Mexican Americans
Americans
could attend white schools and colleges (which were racially segregated against blacks), mix socially with whites and, marry whites. These choices were prohibited to African Americans
Americans
under state laws. Racial segregation operated separately from economic class and was rarely as rigid for Mexican Americans
Americans
as it was for African Americans. For instance, even when some African Americans
Americans
in Texas
Texas
enjoyed higher economic status than Mexican Americans
Americans
(or whites) in an area, they were still segregated by law.[67][page needed] Economic and social issues[edit] Immigration issues[edit] See also: 2006 United States immigration reform protests
2006 United States immigration reform protests
and Illegal immigration to the United States

See also Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope, a pastoral letter written by both the United States
United States
Conference of Catholic Bishops and the Mexican Episcopal Conference, which deals with the issue of migration in the context of the United States
United States
and Mexico.

Cesar Chavez, supporters say his work led to numerous improvements for union laborers. Although the UFW
UFW
faltered a few years after Chavez died in 1993, he became an iconic "folk saint" in the pantheon of Mexican Americans.

Since the 1960s, Mexican immigrants have met a significant portion of the demand for cheap labor in the United States.[68] Fear of deportation makes them highly vulnerable to exploitation by employers. Many employers, however, have developed a "don't ask, don't tell" attitude toward hiring undocumented Mexican nationals. In May 2006, hundreds of thousands of undocumented immigrants, Mexicans
Mexicans
and other nationalities, walked out of their jobs across the country in protest to support immigration reform (many in hopes of a path to citizenship similar to the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986
signed into law by President Ronald Reagan, which granted citizenship to Mexican nationals living and working without documentation in the US).

A rally on May Day 2006 in Chicago. The protests began in response to proposed legislation known as H.R. 4437, which would raise penalties for illegal immigration and classify undocumented immigrants and anyone who helped them enter or remain in the US as felons.

Even legal immigrants to the United States, both from Mexico
Mexico
and elsewhere, have spoken out against illegal immigration. However, according to a survey conducted by the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
in June 2007, 63% of Americans
Americans
would support an immigration policy that would put undocumented immigrants on a path to citizenship if they "pass background checks, pay fines and have jobs, learn English", while 30% would oppose such a plan. The survey also found that if this program was instead labeled "amnesty", 54% would support it, while 39% would oppose.[69] Alan Greenspan, former Chairman of the Federal Reserve, has said that the growth of the working-age population is a large factor in keeping the economy growing and that immigration can be used to grow that population. According to Greenspan, by 2030, the growth of the US workforce will slow from 1 percent to 1/2 percent, while the percentage of the population over 65 years will rise from 13 percent to perhaps 20 percent.[70] Greenspan has also stated that the current immigration problem could be solved with a "stroke of the pen", referring to the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 which would have strengthened border security, created a guest worker program, and put undocumented immigrants currently residing in the US on a path to citizenship if they met certain conditions.[71] According to data published by the Bank of Mexico, Mexicans
Mexicans
in the United States
United States
sent $24.7 billion in remittances to Mexico
Mexico
in 2015.[72] Discrimination and stereotypes[edit] Main articles: Anti-Mexican sentiment
Anti-Mexican sentiment
and Hispanophobia

Lowrider
Lowrider
it began in the Mexican-American
Mexican-American
Barrios of Los Angeles California
California
in the mid-to-late 1940s and during the post-war prosperity of the 1950s. Initially, some youths would place sandbags in the trunk of their customized cars in order to create a lowered effect.

Throughout US history, Mexican Americans
Americans
have endured various types of negative stereotypes which have long circulated in media and popular culture.[73][74] Mexican Americans
Americans
have also faced discrimination based on ethnicity, race, culture, poverty, and use of the Spanish language.[75] Since the majority of undocumented immigrants in the US have traditionally been from Latin America, the Mexican American
Mexican American
community has been the subject of widespread immigration raids.[citation needed] During The Great Depression, the United States
United States
government sponsored a Mexican Repatriation
Mexican Repatriation
program which was intended to encourage people to voluntarily move to Mexico, but thousands were deported against their will. More than 500,000 individuals were deported, approximately 60 percent of which were actually United States
United States
citizens.[76][77] In the post-war McCarthy era, the Justice Department launched Operation Wetback.[77]

Zoot Suit Riots
Zoot Suit Riots
were a series of racial attacks in June 1943 in Los Angeles, California, United States, between Mexican American
Mexican American
youths and European American servicemen stationed in Southern California.

During World War II, more than 300,000 Mexican Americans
Americans
served in the US armed forces.[23] Mexican Americans
Americans
were generally integrated into regular military units; however, many Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
veterans were discriminated against and even denied medical services by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs
United States Department of Veterans Affairs
when they arrived home.[44] In 1948, war veteran Hector P. Garcia
Hector P. Garcia
founded the American GI Forum to address the concerns of Mexican American
Mexican American
veterans who were being discriminated against. The AGIF's first campaign was on the behalf of Felix Longoria, a Mexican American
Mexican American
private who was killed in the Philippines
Philippines
while in the line of duty. Upon the return of his body to his hometown of Three Rivers, Texas, he was denied funeral services because of his nationality. In the 1948 case of Perez v. Sharp, the Supreme Court of California recognized that interracial bans on marriage violated the Fourteenth Amendment of the Federal Constitution. The case involved Andrea Perez, a Mexican-American
Mexican-American
woman listed as White, and Sylvester Davis, an African American
African American
man. In 2006, Time magazine reported that the number of hate groups in the United States
United States
increased by 33% since 2000, with illegal immigration being used as a foundation for recruitment.[78] According to the 2011 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Hate Crimes Statistics Report, 56.9% of the 939 victims of crimes motivated by a bias toward the victims’ ethnicity or national origin were directed at Hispanics.[79] In California, the state with the largest Mexican American population, the number of hate crimes committed against Latinos almost doubled from 2003 to 2007.[80][81] In 2011, hate crimes against Hispanics
Hispanics
declined 31% in the United States
United States
and 43% in California.[82] Social status and assimilation[edit] Barrow (2005) finds increases in average personal and household incomes for Mexican Americans
Americans
in the 21st century. US-born Americans of Mexican heritage earn more and are represented more in the middle and upper-class segments more than most recently arriving Mexican immigrants.

Mexican food
Mexican food
has become part of the mainstream American market just as Italian food
Italian food
did decades before and assimilated to the American market like Tex-Mex.

Most immigrants from Mexico, as elsewhere, come from the lower classes and from families generationally employed in lower skilled jobs. They also are most likely from rural areas. Thus, many new Mexican immigrants are not skilled in white collar professions. Recently, some professionals from Mexico
Mexico
have been migrating, but to make the transition from one country to another involves re-training and re-adjusting to conform to US laws —i.e. professional licensing is required.[citation needed]

Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
celebration at the White House.In the U.S. the date has become associated with the celebration of Mexican-American
Mexican-American
culture. In Mexico, the commemoration of the battle continues to be mostly ceremonial, such as through military parades.

According to James P. Smith of the Research and Development Corporation, the children and grandchildren of Latino
Latino
immigrants tend to lessen educational and income gaps with White American. Immigrant Latino
Latino
men earn about half of what whites make, while second generation US-born Latinos make about 78 percent of the salaries of their white counterparts and by the third generation US-born Latinos make on average identical wages to their US-born white counterparts.[83] However, the number of Mexican American professionals have been growing in size since 2010.[84] Huntington (2005) argues that the sheer number, concentration, linguistic homogeneity, and other characteristics of Latin American immigrants will erode the dominance of English as a nationally unifying language, weaken the country's dominant cultural values, and promote ethnic allegiances over a primary identification as an American. Testing these hypotheses with data from the US Census and national and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
opinion surveys, Citrin et al. (2007) show that Hispanics
Hispanics
generally acquire English and lose Spanish rapidly beginning with the second generation, and appear to be no more or less religious or committed to the work ethic than native-born non-Mexican American whites. However, the children and grandchildren of Mexican immigrants were able to make close ties with their extended families in Mexico, since United States
United States
shares a 2,000 mile border with Mexico. Many had the opportunity to visit Mexico
Mexico
on a relatively frequent basis. As a result, many Mexicans
Mexicans
were able to maintain a strong Mexican culture, language, and relationship with others.[85] South et al. (2005) examine Hispanic
Hispanic
spatial assimilation and inter-neighborhood geographic mobility. Their longitudinal analysis of seven hundred Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban immigrants followed from 1990 to 1995 finds broad support for hypotheses derived from the classical account of assimilation into American society. High income, English-language use, and embeddedness in American social contexts increased Latin American immigrants' geographic mobility into multi-ethnic neighborhoods. US citizenship and years spent in the United States
United States
were positively associated with geographic mobility into different neighborhoods while co-ethnic contact and prior experiences of ethnic discrimination decreased the likelihood that Latino immigrants would move from their original neighborhoods and into non- Hispanic
Hispanic
White census tracts.[86] Intermarriage[edit] According to 2000 census data, US-born ethnic Mexicans
Mexicans
have a high degree of intermarriage with non- Hispanic
Hispanic
Whites. Based on a sample size of 38,911 U.S.-born Mexican husbands and 43,527 U.S.-born Mexican wives:[87]

50.6% of US-born Mexican men and 45.3% of US-born Mexican women married US-born Mexicans;[87] 26.7% of US-born Mexican men and 28.1% of US-born Mexican women married non- Hispanic
Hispanic
Whites; and[87] 13.6% of US-born Mexican men and 17.4% of US-born Mexican women married Mexico-born Mexicans.[87]

In addition, based on 2000 data, there is a significant amount of ethnic absorption of ethnic Mexicans
Mexicans
into the mainstream population with 16% of the children of mixed marriages not being identified in the census as Mexican.[88] A study done by the National Research Council (US) Panel on Hispanics in the United States
United States
published in 2006 looked at not only marriages, but also non-marriage unions. It found that since at least 1980, marriage for females across all Hispanic
Hispanic
ethnic groups, including Mexican Americans, has been in a steady decline.[89] In addition, the percentage of births to unmarried mothers increased for females of Mexican descent from 20.3% in 1980 to 40.8% in 2000, more than doubling in that time frame.[89] The study also found that for females of all Hispanic
Hispanic
ethnicities, including Mexican origin, "considerably fewer births to unmarried Hispanic
Hispanic
mothers involve partnerships with non- Hispanic
Hispanic
white males than is the case for married Hispanic mothers. Second, births outside marriage are more likely to involve a non- Hispanic
Hispanic
black father than births within marriage."[89] Additionally, "Unions among partners from different Hispanic
Hispanic
origins or between Hispanics
Hispanics
and non- Hispanic
Hispanic
blacks are considerably more evident in cohabitation and parenthood than they are in marriage. In particular, unions between Hispanics
Hispanics
and non- Hispanic
Hispanic
blacks are prominent in parenthood, especially non-marital births."[89] Furthermore, for 29.7% of unmarried births to native-born females of Mexican origin and 40% of unmarried births to females of "Other Hispanic" origin, which may include Mexican American, information on the father's ethnicity was missing.[89] The study was supported by the U.S. Census Bureau, amongst other sources.[89] Segregation issues[edit] Housing market practices[edit] Studies have shown that the segregation among Mexican Americans
Americans
and Mexican immigrants seems to be declining. One study from 1984 found that Mexican American
Mexican American
applicants were offered the same housing terms and conditions as non- Hispanic
Hispanic
White Americans. They were asked to provide the same information (regarding employment, income, credit checks, etc.) and asked to meet the same general qualifications of their non- Hispanic
Hispanic
White peers.[90] In this same study, it was found that Mexican Americans
Americans
were more likely than non- Hispanic
Hispanic
White Americans
Americans
to be asked to pay a security deposit or application fee[90] and Mexican American
Mexican American
applicants were also more likely to be placed onto a waiting list than non- Hispanic
Hispanic
White applicants.[90] Battle of Chavez Ravine[edit]

View of downtown and the Palos Verdes Peninsula

The Battle of Chavez Ravine
Battle of Chavez Ravine
has several meanings, but often refers to controversy surrounding government acquisition of land largely owned by Mexican Americans
Americans
in Los Angeles' Chavez Ravine
Chavez Ravine
over approximately ten years (1951–1961). The eventual result was the removal of the entire population of Chavez Ravine
Chavez Ravine
from land on which Dodger Stadium was later constructed. The great majority of the Chavez Ravine
Chavez Ravine
land was acquired to make way for proposed public housing. The public housing plan that had been advanced as politically "progressive" and had resulted in the removal of the Mexican American
Mexican American
landowners of Chavez Ravine, was abandoned after passage of a public referendum prohibiting the original housing proposal and election of a conservative Los Angeles
Los Angeles
mayor opposed to public housing. Years later, the land acquired by the government in Chavez Ravine
Chavez Ravine
was dedicated by the city of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
as the site of what is now Dodger Stadium. Latino
Latino
segregation versus Black segregation[edit]

Viramontes' Childhood Neighborhood Was Divided by the East LA Interchange in the Early 1960s. Their Dogs Came with Them a book that focuses on the freeway construction and difficult conditions for the Mexican Americans
Americans
living in this area at the time.

When comparing the contemporary segregation of Mexican Americans
Americans
to that of Black Americans, some scholars claim that " Latino
Latino
segregation is less severe and fundamentally different from Black residential segregation." suggesting that the segregation faced by Latinos is more likely to be due to factors such as lower socioeconomic status and immigration while the segregation of African Americans
Americans
is more likely to be due to larger issues of the history of racism in the US.[91] Legally, Mexican Americans
Americans
could vote and hold elected office, however, it was not until the creation of organizations such as the League of United Latin America Citizens and the G.I. Forum that Mexican Americans
Americans
began to achieve political influence. Edward Roybal's election to the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
City Council in 1949 and then to Congress in 1962 also represented this rising Mexican American political power. In the late 1960s the founding of the Crusade for Justice in Denver
Denver
in and the land grant movement in New Mexico
New Mexico
in 1967 set the bases for what would become the Chicano
Chicano
(Mexican American) nationalism. The 1968 Los Angeles
Los Angeles
school walkouts expressed Mexican American demands to end segregation, increase graduation rates, and reinstate a teacher fired for supporting student organizing. A notable event in the Chicano
Chicano
movement was the 1972 Convention of La Raza
La Raza
Unida (United People) Party, which organized with the goal of creating a third party that would give Chicanos
Chicanos
political power in the U.S.[59]

Map of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County showing percentage of population self-identified as Mexican in ancestry or national origin by census tracts. Heaviest concentrations are in East Lost Angeles, Echo Park/Silver Lake, South Los Angeles, and San Pedro/Wilmington.

In the past, Mexicans
Mexicans
were legally considered "White" because either they were considered to be of full Spanish heritage, or because of early treaty obligations to Spaniards and Mexicans
Mexicans
that conferred citizenship status to Mexican peoples at a time when whiteness was a prerequisite for US citizenship.[61][62] Although Mexican Americans were legally classified as "White" in terms of official federal policy, many organizations, businesses, and homeowners associations and local legal systems had official policies to exclude Mexican Americans. Throughout the southwest discrimination in wages were institutionalized in "white wages" versus lower "Mexican wages" for the same job classifications. For Mexican Americans, opportunities for employment were largely limited to guest worker programs. The bracero program, which began in 1942 and officially ended in 1964, allowed them temporary entry into the U.S. as migrant workers in farms throughout California
California
and the Southwest.[44][63][64][65] Mexican Americans
Americans
legally classified as "White", following anti-miscegenation laws in most western states until the 1960s, could not legally marry African or Asian Americans
Americans
(See Perez v. Sharp). However, most were not socially considered white, and therefore, according to Historian Neil Foley in the book The White Scourge: Mexicans, Blacks, and Poor Whites in Texas
Texas
Cotton Culture, Mexicans and Mexican- Americans
Americans
did marry non-whites typically without reprisal. Despite the similarities between Mexican American
Mexican American
and African American patterns of segregation, there were important differences. The racial demarcations between whites and blacks in a state like Texas
Texas
were inviolable, whereas those between whites and Mexican Americans
Americans
were not. It was possible for Mexican Americans
Americans
to attend white schools and colleges, mix socially with whites and, on occasion, marry whites: all of these things were impossible for African Americans, largely due to the legalized nature of black-white segregation. Racial segregation was rarely as rigid for Mexican Americans
Americans
as it was for African Americans, even in situations where African Americans
Americans
enjoyed higher economic status than Mexican Americans.[67] Segregated schools[edit]

Mendez v. Westminster
Mendez v. Westminster
was a 1947 federal court case that challenged Mexican remedial schools in Orange County, California. In its ruling, the United States
United States
Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, in an en banc decision, held that the forced segregation of Mexican American students into separate "Mexican schools" was unconstitutional and unlawful because Mexicans
Mexicans
were white. It was the first ruling in the United States
United States
in favor of desegregation.

During certain periods[when?], Mexican American
Mexican American
children sometimes were forced to register at "Mexican schools", where classroom conditions were poor, the school year was shorter, and the quality of education was substandard.[92] Various reasons for the inferiority of the education given to Mexican American students have been listed by James A. Ferg-Cadima including: inadequate resources, poor equipment, unfit building construction. In 1923, the Texas
Texas
Education
Education
Survey Commission found that the school year for some non-white groups was 1.6 months shorter than the average school year.[92] Some have interpreted the shortened school year as a "means of social control" implementing policies to ensure that Mexican Americans
Americans
would maintain the unskilled labor force required for a strong economy. A lesser education would serve to confine Mexican Americans
Americans
to the bottom rung of the social ladder. By limiting the number of days that Mexican Americans
Americans
could attend school and allotting time for these same students to work, in mainly agricultural and seasonal jobs, the prospects for higher education and upward mobility were slim.[92] Immigration and segregation[edit]

El Paso Morning Times newspaper January 30, 1917 Headlinedː "Bill Before Congress To Prevent Mexicans
Mexicans
Voting" depicts the 1917 Bath Riots begun by Carmelita Torres at the Santa Fe International Bridge disinfecting plant at the El Paso, Texas
Texas
and Juarez, Mexico
Mexico
border.

Immigration hubs are popular destinations for Latino
Latino
immigrants. These segregated areas have historically served the purpose of allowing immigrants to become comfortable in the United States, accumulate wealth, and eventually leave.[93] This model of immigration and residential segregation, explained above, is the model which has historically been accurate in describing the experiences of Latino
Latino
immigrants. However, the patterns of immigration seen today no longer follows this model. This old model is termed the standard spatial assimilation model. More contemporary models are the polarization model and the diffusion model: The spatial assimilation model posits that as immigrants would live within this country's borders, they would simultaneously become more comfortable in their new surroundings, their socioeconomic status would rise, and their ability to speak English would increase. The combination of these changes would allow for the immigrant to move out of the barrio and into the dominant society. This type of assimilation reflects the experiences of immigrants of the early twentieth century.[91] Polarization model suggests that the immigration of non-Black minorities into the United States
United States
further separates Blacks and Whites, as though the new immigrants are a buffer between them. This creates a hierarchy in which Blacks are at the bottom, Whites are at the top, and other groups fill the middle. In other words, the polarization model posits that Asians
Asians
and Hispanics
Hispanics
are less segregated than their African American
African American
peers because White American society would rather live closer to Asians
Asians
or Hispanics
Hispanics
than African Americans.[93] The diffusion model has also been suggested as a way of describing the immigrant's experience within the United States. This model is rooted in the belief that as time passes, more and more immigrants enter the country. This model suggests that as the United States
United States
becomes more populated with a more diverse set of peoples, stereotypes and discriminatory practices will decrease, as awareness and acceptance increase. The diffusion model predicts that new immigrants will break down old patterns of discrimination and prejudice, as one becomes more and more comfortable with the more diverse neighborhoods that are created through the influx of immigrants.[93] Applying this model to the experiences of Mexican Americans
Americans
forces one to see Mexican American immigrants as positive additions to the "American melting pot," in which as more additions are made to the pot, the more equal and accepting society will become. The Chicano
Chicano
movement and the Chicano
Chicano
Moratorium[edit] See also: Chicano
Chicano
movement, Chicano
Chicano
studies, and Chicano
Chicano
literature

A plaque honoring Ruben Salazar mounted in the Globe Lobby of the Los Angeles Times Building in downtown Los Angeles.

In the heady days of the late 1960s, when the student movement was active around the globe, the Chicano
Chicano
movement conducted actions such as the mass walkouts by high school students in Denver
Denver
and East Los Angeles in 1968 and the Chicano
Chicano
Moratorium in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in 1970. The movement was particularly strong at the college level, where activists formed MEChA, an organization that seeks to promote Chicano
Chicano
unity and empowerment through education and political action, but also espouses revanchist ideals centered around "taking back" the American southwest for Mexicans. The Chicano
Chicano
Moratorium, formally known as the National Chicano Moratorium Committee, was a movement of Chicano
Chicano
anti-war activists that built a broad-based but fragile coalition of Mexican-American groups to organize opposition to the Vietnam War. The committee was led by activists from local colleges and members of the "Brown Berets", a group with roots in the high school student movement that staged walkouts in 1968, known as the East L.A. walkouts, also called "blowouts". The best known historical fact of the Moratorium was the death of Rubén Salazar, known for his reporting on civil rights and police brutality. The official story is that Salazar was killed by a tear gas canister fired by a member of the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County Sheriff's Department into the Silver Dollar Café at the conclusion of the August 29 rally. Education[edit] Parental Involvement[edit]

A Mexican quinceañera after mass in church.

Parents are commonly associated with being a child’s first teacher. As the child grows older, the parent’s role in their child’s learning may change; however, a parent will often continue to serve as a role model. There are multiple research articles that have looked at parental involvement and education. A key aspect of parental involvement in education is that it can be transmitted in many ways. For a long time, there has been a misconception that the parents of Mexican American
Mexican American
students are not involved in their children’s education; however, multiple studies have demonstrated that parents are involved in their children’s education (Valencia & Black, 2002).[94] It is important to know that the parents of Mexican American students frequently display their involvement through untraditional methods; such as, consejos, home-base practices, and high academic expectations.

Sal Castro
Sal Castro
was a Mexican-American
Mexican-American
educator and activist. He was most well known for his role in the 1968. See Walkout.

Literature has demonstrated that parental involvement has had a positive influence in the academic achievement of Mexican American students. Studies have shown that Mexican families show their value towards education by using untraditional methods (Kiyama, 2011).[95] One educational practice that is commonly used among Mexican families are consejos (advice). Additional research has supported the idea that parents’ consejos have had a significant influence on the education of Mexican American
Mexican American
students. Espino (2016)[96] studied the influence that parental involvement had on seven, 1st generation Mexican American PhDs. The study found that one of the participant’s father would frequently use consejos to encourage his son to continue his education. The father’s consejos served as an encouragement tool, which motivated the participant to continue his education. Consejos are commonly associated with the parents’ occupation. Parents use their occupation as leverage to encourage their child to continue his or her education, or else they may end up working an undesirable job (Espino, 2016). While this might not be the most common form of parental involvement, studies have shown that it has been an effective tool that encourages Mexican American
Mexican American
students. Although that might be an effective tool for Mexican American
Mexican American
students, a mother can be just as an important figure for consejos. A mothers role teaches their child the importance of everyday tasks Ssuch as knowing how to cook, clean and care for oneself in order to be independent and also to help out around the house. The children of single mothers have a huge impact on their children in pushing them to be successful in school in order to have a better life than what they provided to their children. Most single mothers live in poverty and are dependent of the government, so they want the best for their children so they are always encouraging their children to be focused and do their best.

Protesters are seen in June 2011 in support of the Tucson Unified School District's Mexican-American
Mexican-American
studies program. A new state law effectively ended the program saying it was divisive.

Another study emphasized the importance of home-based parental involvement. Altschul (2011)[97] conducted a study that tested the effects of six different types of parental involvement and their effect on Mexican American
Mexican American
students. The study used previous data from the National Education
Education
Longitudinal Study (NELS) of 1988. The data was used to evaluate the influence of parental practices in the 8th grade and their effect on students once they were in the 10th grade. Altschul (2011) noted that home-based parental involvement had a more positive effect on the academic achievement of Mexican American students, than involvement in school organizations. The literature suggests that parental involvement in the school setting is not necessary, parents can impact the academic achievement of their children from their home. Additional literature has demonstrated that parent involvement also comes in the form of parent expectations. Valencia and Black (2002) argued that Mexican parents place a significant amount of value on education and hold high expectations for their children. The purpose of their study was to debunk the notion that Mexicans
Mexicans
do not value education by providing evidence that shows the opposite. Setting high expectations and expressing their desire for their children to be academically successful has served as powerful tools to increase of the academic achievement among Mexican American
Mexican American
students (Valencia & Black, 2002). Keith and Lichtman (1995)[98] also conducted a research study that measured the influence of parental involvement and academic achievement. The data was collected from the NELS and used a total of 1,714 students that identified as Mexican American (Chicana/o). The study found a higher level of academic achievement among 8th grade Mexican American
Mexican American
students and parents who had high educational aspirations for their children (Keith & Lichtman, 1995).

Lauro Cavazos
Lauro Cavazos
Secretary of Education
Education
from August 1988 to December 1990.

Additional research done by Carranza, You, Chhuon, and Hudley (2009)[99] added support to the idea that high parental expectations were associated with higher achievement levels among Mexican American students. Carranza et al. (2009) studied 298 Mexican American
Mexican American
high school students. They studied whether perceived parental involvement, acculturation, and self-esteem had any effect on academic achievement and aspirations. Results from their study demonstrated that perceived parental involvement had an influence on the students’ academic achievement and aspirations. Additionally, Carranza et al. noted that among females, those who perceived that their parents expected them to get good grades tended to study more and have higher academic aspirations (2009). The findings suggest that parental expectations can affect the academic performance of Mexican American
Mexican American
students. Based on current literature, one can conclude that parental involvement is an extremely important aspect of Mexican American students’ education. The studies demonstrated that parental involvement is not limited to participating in school activities at the school; instead, parental involvement can be displayed through various forms. There are numerous studies that suggest that parental expectations are associated with the achievement level of Mexican American students. Future research should continue to study the reasons why Mexican American
Mexican American
students perform better when their parents expect them to do well in school. Furthermore, future research can also look into whether gender influences parental expectations. Stand and Deliver
Stand and Deliver
was an inductee of the 2011 National Film
Film
Registry list.[100] [101] The National Film
Film
Board said that it was "one of the most popular of a new wave of narrative feature films produced in the 1980s by Latino
Latino
filmmakers" and that it "celebrates in a direct, approachable, and impactful way, values of self-betterment through hard work and power through knowledge."[101] Mexican American
Mexican American
communities[edit] Main article: List of Mexican-American
Mexican-American
communities

Original Ninfa's
Ninfa's
on Navigation Boulevard, established by Ninfa Laurenzo

Large Mexican American
Mexican American
populations by both size and per capita exist in the following American cities:

Los Angeles, California
California
area – the city proper home to over 1.2 million of Mexican ancestry, another 2.3 million throughout Los Angeles County, and a total of about 6.3 million in the five-county Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Area. Largest Mexican ancestry populated city in the United States. (according to the 2010 census, L.A. is now 31.9% of Mexican descent with numerous Central American
Central American
national groups).

East Los Angeles, California
California
– Unincorporated community of roughly 130,000, name synonymous with Mexican Americans, 97% Hispanic, 88% of Mexicans
Mexicans
are immigrant, 40% of east L.A. residents reportedly Mexican including American-born.[102] Culver City, California
California
– Also the site of the infamous Zoot Suit Riots in 1943. Long Beach, California
California
– Third largest city in Southern California, One of many cities in the region with a large Mexican/Hispanic population. Pomona – over 75% Latino, 60% of the city population is Mexican or Mexican American. La Puente, California
California
– about two-thirds are of Mexican ancestry or Hispanic, one of the largest Hispanic
Hispanic
(in percentage, the most Mexican-American
Mexican-American
community) populations in California. Downey, California
California
- Between 45-50% are of Mexican descent. Inland Empire, California
California
(Riverside/ San Bernardino Counties- and the cities of that namesake) – About a third of the population are of Mexican descent.

Riverside, California[103] and San Bernardino, California[103] Indio, California[103] and Coachella, California
California
(primarily Mexican-American).[104]

Southern California
California
is the highest densely populated Mexican-American region, but by areas of percentage it is South Texas.

Las Vegas, Nevada
Nevada
– 31% of the population of the city is Hispanic
Hispanic
in which 24% of that is of Mexican descent. Chicago
Chicago
– Over 1.5 million of Mexican ancestry in the Chicago metropolitan area[103] and the fourth largest Mexican community in the USA.[citation needed] Phoenix, Arizona
Arizona
– fifth largest Mexican-American
Mexican-American
population. Tucson – 30% of the almost 1 million people in the metro area.[105] Dallas/Fort Worth Area – fifth largest Mexican-American
Mexican-American
population and over 1.5 million Mexicans
Mexicans
in the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex (3rd largest foreign born Mexican population in the US per MSA). San Antonio, Texas
Texas
– over half of the population in the city proper (53.2%, 705,530) and second largest Mexican population of any city in the US.[103] Laredo, Texas
Texas
- has the largest Mexican-American
Mexican-American
community bordering with Nuevo Laredo, Mexico. The majority of Laredo speaks Spanish as their first language. San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
– also with over one million Hispanics, many of whom are Mexican Americans, both US-born and foreign-born (see also Oakland
Oakland
about 10–20% Hispanic
Hispanic
and San Francisco – the Mission District section- the city is 10–20% Latino).

Oakland
Oakland
– California's third largest Mexican-American
Mexican-American
city by percentage (over 25%) after Long Beach (about 30%). Many live in the Fruitvale district. San Jose, California
California
– Nearly one-third of the city's population is Mexican-American
Mexican-American
or of Hispanic
Hispanic
origin; San Jose has the largest Mexican-American
Mexican-American
population within the Bay Area.

Houston, Texas
Texas
– Third largest Mexican ancestry community in the United States.[106] San Diego, California
California
– slightly less than one-third of the city's population is Hispanic, primarily Mexican American; however, this percentage is the lowest of any significant border city. El Paso, Texas
Texas
– largest Mexican-American
Mexican-American
community bordering a state of Mexico. South Texas
Texas
– Heavily populated by Mexican-Americans, who are the ethnic majority, in a region spanning from Laredo to Corpus Christi to Brownsville. Central Valley of California
California
both the Sacramento
Sacramento
and San Joaquin Valleys have majority Mexican American
Mexican American
communities. Denver, Colorado
Colorado
Colorado
Colorado
has the eighth largest population of Hispanics, seventh high percentage of Hispanics, fourth largest population of Mexican-Americans, and sixth highest percentage of Mexican- Americans
Americans
in the United States. According to the 2010 census, there are over 1 million Mexican- Americans
Americans
in Colorado.[107] Over one-third of the city's population is Mexican-American
Mexican-American
or Hispanic/Latino, as well as approximately one-fourth of the entire Denver
Denver
Metropolitan area. About 17% of the cities population is foreign born, mostly from Latin America. Greeley, Colorado
Colorado
– Over one-third of the city's population is Latino, mostly Mexican-American.

Garden City is Latino
Latino
majority, and Evans has a very large Latino population as well.

Southern Colorado
Colorado
is home to many communities of Hispanics
Hispanics
descended from Mexican settlers who arrived during Spanish colonial times. Roughly half of Pueblo's population is Latino, mostly Mexican-American. Many other towns in southern Colorado
Colorado
have high proportions of Mexican-Americans. La Junta, Rocky Ford, Las Animas, Lamar, Walsenburg, and Trinidad all have large Mexican American communities.

San Luis Valley
San Luis Valley
– The San Luis Valley
San Luis Valley
has many towns with large Mexican-American
Mexican-American
populations. Antonito, Blanca, Center, Del Norte, Fort Garland, Monte Vista, and Romeo are all Latino
Latino
majority.[108]

The Yakima Valley and Tri-Cities, Washington
Tri-Cities, Washington
– This region of Washington contains many communities of Mexican-American
Mexican-American
majority thanks to high demand for agricultural labor.

Major US destinations[edit]

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Mexican cultural influence in Santa Fe, New Mexico

In the 1990s and 2000s, the Midwestern United States
United States
became a major destination for Mexican immigrants. But Mexican- Americans
Americans
were already present in the Midwest's industrial cities and urban areas. Especially Mexicans/Latinos came into states like Illinois
Illinois
(mostly in Chicago
Chicago
and close-in suburbs), Indiana
Indiana
especially the Northern section, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan
Michigan
(Especially in the Western Portion of the state.), Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska
Nebraska
and Wisconsin
Wisconsin
due to needs of the region's industrial manufacturing base. Another destination of Mexican and Latin American immigration was the Northeastern United States, in places such as the Monongahela Valley, Pennsylvania; Mahoning Valley, Ohio; throughout Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and the state of Rhode Island; New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven, Connecticut
along with other Latin American nationalities; Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
with Maryland
Maryland
and Northern Virginia
Virginia
included; the Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
and Long Island
Long Island
of New York state; the Jersey Shore
Jersey Shore
region and the Delaware
Delaware
Valley, New Jersey. Communities that consist mostly of recent-arrived immigrants from Mexico, are also present in other parts of the rural Southeastern United States, in states such as Georgia, Maryland, Tennessee, Alabama, Arkansas
Arkansas
and Oklahoma. A growing Mexican-American
Mexican-American
population is also present in urban areas such as Orlando, Florida
Orlando, Florida
with the Central Florida
Central Florida
region included; the Atlanta
Atlanta
metro area; Charlotte, North Carolina- with a majority Hispanic
Hispanic
enclave of Eastland; New Orleans which increased after Hurricane Katrina in Sep. 2005; the Hampton Roads, Virginia
Virginia
area; the states of Maine, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and Delaware; and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
especially in the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
metropolitan area. List of states by Mexican American
Mexican American
population[edit]

State/Territory Mexican American Population (2010 Census)[106] Percentage of State Population

 Alabama 122,911 2.6

 Alaska 21,642 3.0

 Arizona 1,657,668 25.9

 Arkansas 138,194 4.7

 California 11,423,146 30.7

 Colorado 757,181 15.1

 Connecticut 50,658 1.4

 Delaware 30,283 3.4

 District of Columbia 8,507 1.4

 Florida 629,718 3.3

Georgia 519,502 5.4

 Hawaii 35,415 2.6

 Idaho 148,923 9.5

 Illinois 1,602,403 12.5

 Indiana 295,373 4.6

 Iowa 117,090 3.8

 Kansas 247,297 8.7

 Kentucky 82,110 1.9

 Louisiana 78,643 1.7

 Maine 5,134 0.4

 Maryland 88,004 1.5

 Massachusetts 38,379 0.6

 Michigan 317,903 3.2

 Minnesota 176,007 3.3

 Mississippi 52,459 1.8

 Missouri 147,254 2.5

 Montana 20,048 2.0

 Nebraska 128,060 7.0

 Nevada 540,978 20.8

 New Hampshire 7,822 0.6

 New Jersey 217,715 2.5

 New Mexico 590,890 28.7

 New York 457,288 2.4

 North Carolina 486,960 5.1

  North Dakota 9,223 1.4

 Ohio 172,029 1.5

 Oklahoma 267,016 7.1

 Oregon 369,817 9.7

 Pennsylvania 129,568 1.0

 Rhode Island 9,090 0.9

 South Carolina 138,358 3.0

 South Dakota 13,839 1.7

 Tennessee 186,615 2.9

 Texas 7,951,193 31.6

 Utah 258,905 9.4

 Vermont 2,534 0.4

 Virginia 155,067 1.9

 Washington 601,768 8.9

 West Virginia 9,704 0.5

 Wisconsin 244,248 4.3

 Wyoming 37,719 6.7

Total US 31,798,258 10.3

Notable people[edit] For a more comprehensive list, see List of Mexican Americans. Historical Figures[edit]

Juan Seguin, was a political and military figure of the Texas Revolution helping to establish the independence of Texas.[109]

Antonio Menchaca, was an American soldier and politician who fought in the Texas
Texas
Revolution.

Romualdo Pacheco, became the 12th governor of California. He remains the first and only Latino
Latino
Governor of California.

Octaviano Larrazolo, served as the fourth Governor of New Mexico
New Mexico
and became the first Hispanic
Hispanic
United States
United States
Senator.

Romana Acosta Bañuelos, became the first Hispanic
Hispanic
Treasurer of the United States
United States
(1971–1974).

Cesar Chavez, a labor leader and civil rights activist, who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the United Farm Workers
United Farm Workers
union, UFW).[110]

Rosemary Barkett
Rosemary Barkett
became the first woman Chief Justice of the Florida Supreme Court and was the judge in the Iran – United States
United States
Claims Tribunal.

Laura Harring
Laura Harring
became the first Hispanic
Hispanic
woman crowned Miss USA.

Cinema[edit]

Myrtle Gonzalez, actress famous for her silent films in the 1910s, is considered the first female Latin star in Hollywood.[111]

Ramon Novarro, actor promoted by MGM as a "Latin lover" who became a leading man and one of the top box office attractions of the 1920s and early 1930s.

Lupe Vélez, a stage and film actress nicknamed The Mexican Spitfire by the media whose career spanned from the 1920s to the 1940s. She has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.[112]

Gilbert Roland, film and television actor whose career spanned seven decades from the 1920s until the 1980s. He was twice nominated for the Golden Glove Award in 1952 and 1964, and inducted to the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1960.[113]

Anthony Quinn, actor, painter and writer. He starred in numerous critically acclaimed and commercially successful films. He won the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Supporting Actor
Actor
twice: for Viva Zapata!
Viva Zapata!
in 1952 and Lust for Life in 1956.

Lynda Carter, actress, singer, songwriter and beauty pageant titleholder who was crowned Miss World America
Miss World America
1972 and also the star of the TV series Wonder Woman from 1975 to 1979.

Salma Hayek, nominated in the category of Best Actress
Actress
for an Academy Award, BAFTA Award, Screen Actors Guild Award, and Golden Globe Award. She won a Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing.

Edward James Olmos

Constance Marie
Constance Marie
nominated for Soap Opera Digest Awards

Danny Trejo, actor who has appeared in numerous Hollywood films, often as villains and anti-heroes.

Eva Longoria, actress, producer, director, and businesswoman. She received a Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
and won two Screen Actors Guild Awards.

Michael Peña, actor and musician

Jessica Alba, Choice Actress
Actress
Teen Choice Award
Teen Choice Award
and Saturn Award for Best Actress
Actress
on Television, and a Golden Globe nomination.

Music[edit]

Joan Baez, folk singer, songwriter, musician, and activist[114] whose contemporary folk music often includes songs of protest or social justice.[115]

Dave Navarro, rock star of several important bands in United States like Red Hot Chilli Peppers or Jane's Addiction.

Carlos Santana, named by Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
magazine as one of the greatest guitarists of all time.[116][117] He has won 10 Grammy Awards
Grammy Awards
and three Latin Grammy Awards.[118]

Vikki Carr
Vikki Carr
singer and humanitarian who has performed in a variety of music genres, including jazz, pop and country, but has enjoyed her greatest success singing in Spanish. She had 10 singles that made the US pop charts and 13 albums that made the US pop-album charts.

Trini Lopez, singer, guitarist, and actor who scored 13 chart singles through 1968. On the adult contemporary chart, he racked up 15 hits. He became one of the country's top nightclub performers of that era, regularly headlining in Las Vegas.

Linda Ronstadt, popular music singer. She has earned 11 Grammy Awards, three American Music Awards, two Academy of Country Music awards, an Emmy Award, an ALMA Award, was a 2013 recipient of the National Medal of Arts and was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
in April 2014.[119]

Ritchie Valens
Ritchie Valens
was an American singer, songwriter and guitarist and a rock and roll pioneer.

Fergie Duhamel
Fergie Duhamel
singer, songwriter and actress.

Demi Lovato, songwriter, actress and model who made her debut as a child actress in Barney & Friends. In 2008, Lovato rose to prominence in the Disney Channel
Disney Channel
television film Camp Rock
Camp Rock
and signed a recording contract with Hollywood Records.

Selena Gomez, actress and singer known for first featured on the children's series Barney & Friends in the early 2000s. She formed her band Selena Gomez
Selena Gomez
& the Scene after signing a recording contract with Hollywood Records
Hollywood Records
in 2008.

Becky G
Becky G
singer, songwriter, rapper, actress and model her musical style is an integration of pop-rap

Zack de la Rocha
Zack de la Rocha
American musician, poet, rapper, and activist best known as the vocalist and lyricist of rap metal band Rage Against the Machine from 1991–2000.

Los Lonely Boys
Los Lonely Boys
are an American Chicano
Chicano
rock power trio from San Angelo, Texas.

Kap G is a Mexican American
Mexican American
rapper. Journalists and Writers[edit]

María Elena Salinas

Jorge Ramos

Maria Hinojosa

Raul Peimbert

Richard Rodriguez

Helena Maria Viramontes

Lauren Sánchez

Naibe Reynoso

Entertainment personalities[edit]

Robert Rodriguez

Jonas Rivera
Jonas Rivera
is an American film producer of famous Pixar
Pixar
animation films Up and Inside Out.

Mario Lopez

Cesar Millan

Aaron Sanchez

Marcela Valladolid

Candy Ibarra

Comedians[edit]

Gabriel Iglesias

George Lopez

Louis C.K.

Cheech Marin

Paul Rodriguez

Cristela Alonzo

Anjelah Johnson

Government[edit]

Raul H. Castro, was a United States
United States
Ambassador and the 14th Governor of Arizona
Arizona
(1975–77). He was the first Mexican-born American to be elected governor of Arizona.

Toney Anaya, U.S. Democratic politician who served as the 26th Governor of New Mexico
New Mexico
from 1983 to 1987.

Bill Richardson, politician who was 30th Governor of New Mexico, from 2003 to 2011. He was U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations and Energy Secretary in the Clinton administration.

Alberto Gonzales, was the 80th United States
United States
Attorney General, appointed by President George W. Bush, becoming the highest-ranking Hispanic-American in Executive Branch government to date.[120]

Ken Salazar, served as the 50th United States
United States
Secretary of the Interior from 2009 to 2013, and previously served as a United States Senator from Colorado
Colorado
from 2005 to 2009. He and Mel Martinez (R-Florida) were the first Hispanic
Hispanic
U.S. Senators since 1977.

Brian Sandoval, is the 29th and current Governor of the U.S. state of Nevada[121] and a member of the Republican Party. Sandoval is a former judge of the United States
United States
District Court for the District of Nevada.

Catherine Cortez Masto, U.S. Democratic politician and first female Hispanic
Hispanic
U.S. senator.

Susana Martinez, is the 31st and current Governor of New Mexico
New Mexico
and current chairman of the Republican Governors Association.[122][123] She is the first Hispanic
Hispanic
woman to be elected governor.[124]

Rosa Rios
Rosa Rios
(born July 17, 1965) is the 43rd and current Treasurer of the United States. A graduate of Harvard University, she was recently selected by the university as the first Latina in its 380-year history to have a portrait commissioned in her honor. She is the first Treasurer to have her current portfolio including oversight of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the United States
United States
Mint, Fort Knox, and Chair of the Advanced Counterfeiting Deterrence Steering Committee. Business[edit]

Sol Trujillo

Arte Moreno
Arte Moreno
is the billionaire owner of the Anaheim Angels

Hector Barreto

Hector Ruiz

Rosario Marin
Rosario Marin
the 41st Treasurer of the United States

Hilda Solis
Hilda Solis
25 U.S. Secretary of Labor

Military[edit]

Marcelino Serna
Marcelino Serna
an undocumented Mexican immigrant who became the most decorated soldier from Texas
Texas
in World War I. Serna was the first Hispanic
Hispanic
to be awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.

Guy Gabaldon
Guy Gabaldon
a United States
United States
Marine who, at age 18, captured or persuaded to surrender Japanese soldiers and civilians during the battles for Saipan and Tinian islands in 1944 during World War II.

Marcario Garcia
Marcario Garcia
was the first Mexican immigrant to receive the Medal of Honor, the United States' highest military decoration. He received the award for his heroic actions as a soldier during World War II.

Major Oscar F. Perdomo
Oscar F. Perdomo
a recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross, was a United States
United States
Air Force officer who was the last "ace in a day" for the United States
United States
in World War II.

Everett Alvarez, Jr.
Everett Alvarez, Jr.
is a former U.S. Navy Commander
Commander
who endured one of the longest periods as a prisoner of war (POW) in American military history. Alvarez was the first U.S. pilot to be downed and detained during the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
and spent over eight years in captivity.

Robert Cardenas
Robert Cardenas
is a retired brigadier general of the United States Air Force. He served in World War II
World War II
and the Vietnam War

Richard E. Cavazos
Richard E. Cavazos
became the U.S. Army's first Hispanic
Hispanic
Four Star General

Alfred Valenzuela
Alfred Valenzuela
is a retired United States
United States
Army major general who commanded United States
United States
Army South (USARSO) at Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico.

Ronald J. Rábago, the first Hispanic
Hispanic
to be promoted to Rear Admiral (lower half) in the United States
United States
Coast Guard

Science and Technology[edit]

Jacob Bekenstein
Jacob Bekenstein
was a theoretical physicist who made fundamental contributions to the foundation of black hole thermodynamics and to other aspects of the connections between information and gravitation.

France Cordova is an astrophysicist, researcher and university administrator. As of March 2014, she is the director of the National Science Foundation.[125] Previously, she was the eleventh President of Purdue University.[126]

Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
is a physician, author, and researcher. He is Director of the Brain Tumor Surgery Program at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, and the Director of the Brain Tumor Stem Cell Laboratory at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

John D. Olivas
John D. Olivas
is an engineer and a former NASA
NASA
astronaut. Olivas has flown on two space shuttle missions, STS-117
STS-117
and STS-128. He performed EVAs on both missions, totaling 34hrs 28min.

Nora Volkow
Nora Volkow
is the current director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA),[127] which is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).[128]

Jose Hernandez an engineer and a former NASA
NASA
astronaut, assigned to the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-128. He developed equipment for full-field digital mammography at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Ellen Ochoa
Ellen Ochoa
became the first Hispanic
Hispanic
woman in the world to go into space. She is the current director of the Johnson Space Center.

Sidney M. Gutierrez
Sidney M. Gutierrez
former NASA
NASA
Astronaut.

Sport[edit]

Pancho Gonzales
Pancho Gonzales
has been rated one of the top players in the history of the sport.[129]

Solly Smith, was the first world boxing champion of Hispanic
Hispanic
descent.

Ted Williams, baseball hall of famer, seventeen time All-Star and regarded as one of the greatest hitters in baseball history.[130]

Jim Plunkett, Heisman Trophy winner and two time Super Bowl
Super Bowl
winning quarterback.

Joe Kapp, is a member of the Canadian Football Hall of Fame, the B.C. Sports Hall of Fame, the BC Lions Wall of Fame, the College Football Hall of Fame. He is the only player to quarterback in the Super Bowl, Rose Bowl, and the Grey Cup.

Anthony Muñoz, a Pro Football Hall of Fame
Pro Football Hall of Fame
offensive tackle who played 13 seasons in the NFL earning eleven Pro Bowls. Muñoz is considered "one of the greatest offensive linemen in the history of the National Football League."[131]

Oscar De La Hoya

Brenda Villa, U.S. Olympian and the most decorated athlete in the world of women’s water polo.

Lee Trevino, professional golfer regarded as one of the greatest players in professional golf history,[132][133][134] and the greatest Hispanic
Hispanic
golfer of all time.[135] He was inducted to the World Golf Hall of Fame in 1981.

Dallas Cowboys
Dallas Cowboys
quarterback Tony Romo
Tony Romo
is the third ranked NFL career passing leader

Nomar Garciaparra, is a retired and six-time All-Star and current SportsNet LA
SportsNet LA
analyst.

Religious Leaders[edit] Archbishop Patrick F. Flores, 1970 named the first Mexican-American catholic bishop in the United States, and first Hispanic
Hispanic
Archbishop of San Antonio, Texas. Father Antonio José Martínez, the first USA native-born Catholic priest. Bavi Edna "Nedi" Rivera, 2005 the first Hispanic
Hispanic
woman to become a bishop in the Episcopal Church. See also[edit]

La Santa Cecilia
La Santa Cecilia
performing in 2015

United States
United States
portal Mexico
Mexico
portal Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic and Latino Americans
portal

American Mexican Mexico– United States
United States
relations Hyphenated American Mexicans
Mexicans
abroad Mexican cuisine Mexican people Tex-Mex
Tex-Mex
cuisine

Ethnic:

Melting pot
Melting pot
(metaphor for cultural fusion) Amerindian White Hispanic
White Hispanic
and Latino
Latino
Americans White Mexican Olive skin Mestizo Bronze race Cosmic race Brown race Mestizos
Mestizos
in the United States

Political:

Reconquista (Mexico)

Cultural:

Chicanismo Chicano
Chicano
poetry List of Mexican American
Mexican American
writers El Pueblo de Los Ángeles Historical Monument

References[edit]

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Census Bureau
2016 American Community Survey B03001 1-Year Estimates HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN retrieved September 14, 2017. ^ "Table 4. Top Five States for Detailed Hispanic
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populations to develop genomic medicine in Mexico
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Silva-Zolezzi I, Hidalgo-Miranda A, Estrada-Gil J, Fernandez-Lopez JC, Uribe-Figueroa L, Contreras A, Balam-Ortiz E, del Bosque-Plata L, Velazquez Fernandez D, Lara C, Goya R, Hernandez-Lemus E, Davila C, Barrientos E, March S, Jimenez-Sanchez G. National Institute of Genomic Medicine May 26, 2009 " ^ a b c "The Hispanic
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Silva-Zolezzi I, Hidalgo-Miranda A, Estrada-Gil J, Fernandez-Lopez JC, Uribe-Figueroa L, Contreras A, Balam-Ortiz E, del Bosque-Plata L, Velazquez Fernandez D, Lara C, Goya R, Hernandez-Lemus E, Davila C, Barrientos E, March S, Jimenez-Sanchez G. National Institute of Genomic Medicine May 26, 2009 "In this model, their mean ancestries (±Standard Deviation) were 0.552 ±0.154 for AMI, 0.418 ±0.155 for EUR, 0.018 ±0.035 for AFR, and 0.012 ±0.018 for EA" ^ Martínez-Cortés, G; Salazar-Flores, J; Fernández-Rodríguez, LG; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Rodríguez-Loya, C; Velarde-Félix, JS; Muñoz-Valle, JF; Parra-Rojas, I; Rangel-Villalobos, H (2012). "Admixture and population structure in Mexican- Mestizos
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Bibliography/further reading[edit] Main article: Mexican American
Mexican American
bibliography

Gómez-Quiñones, Juan, and Irene Vásquez. Making Aztlán: Ideology and Culture of the Chicana and Chicano
Chicano
Movement, 1966-1977 (2014) Meier, Matt S., and Margo Gutiérrez. Encyclopedia of the Mexican American civil rights movement (Greenwood 2000) online Quiroz, Anthony (ed.), Leaders of the Mexican American
Mexican American
Generation: Biographical Essays. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado, 2015. Orozco, Cynthia E. No Mexicans, women, or dogs allowed: The rise of the Mexican American
Mexican American
civil rights movement (University of Texas
Texas
Press, 2010) online Rosales, F. Arturo. Chicano! The history of the Mexican American
Mexican American
civil rights movement (Arte Público Press, 1997); online Sánchez, George I (2006). "Ideology, and Whiteness in the Making of the Mexican American
Mexican American
Civil Rights Movement, 1930–1960". Journal of Southern History. 72 (3): 569–604. JSTOR 27649149. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mexican Americans.

Look up Mexamerican in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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