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Marrakesh
Marrakesh
(/məˈrækɛʃ/ or /ˌmærəˈkɛʃ/;[4] Arabic: مراكش‎ Murrākuš; Berber languages: ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech,[5] is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco. It is the fourth largest city in the country, after Casablanca, Fez and Tangier.[3] It is the capital city of the mid-southwestern region of Marrakesh-Safi. Located to the north of the foothills of the snow-capped Atlas Mountains, Marrakesh is situated 580 km (360 mi) southwest of Tangier, 327 km (203 mi) southwest of the Moroccan capital of Rabat, 239 km (149 mi) south of Casablanca, and 246 km (153 mi) northeast of Agadir. Marrakesh
Marrakesh
is possibly the most important of Morocco's four former imperial cities. The region has been inhabited by Berber farmers since Neolithic
Neolithic
times, but the actual city was founded in 1062 by Abu Bakr ibn Umar, chieftain and cousin of Almoravid king Yusuf ibn Tashfin. In the 12th century, the Almoravids built many madrasas (Koranic schools) and mosques in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
that bear Andalusian influences. The red walls of the city, built by Ali ibn Yusuf
Ali ibn Yusuf
in 1122–1123, and various buildings constructed in red sandstone during this period, have given the city the nickname of the "Red City" or "Ochre City". Marrakesh grew rapidly and established itself as a cultural, religious, and trading centre for the Maghreb
Maghreb
and sub-Saharan Africa; Jemaa el-Fnaa is the busiest square in Africa. After a period of decline, the city was surpassed by Fes, but in the early 16th century, Marrakesh
Marrakesh
again became the capital of the kingdom. The city regained its preeminence under wealthy Saadian sultans Abu Abdallah al-Qaim and Ahmad al-Mansur, who embellished the city with sumptuous palaces such as the El Badi Palace
El Badi Palace
(1578) and restored many ruined monuments. Beginning in the 17th century, the city became popular among Sufi pilgrims for Morocco's seven patron saints, who are entombed here. In 1912 the French Protectorate in Morocco
Morocco
was established and T'hami El Glaoui
T'hami El Glaoui
became Pasha
Pasha
of Marrakesh
Marrakesh
and held this position nearly throughout the duration of the protectorate until the role was dissolved upon independence of Morocco
Morocco
and the reestablishment of the monarchy in 1956. In 2009, Marrakesh
Marrakesh
mayor Fatima Zahra Mansouri became the second woman to be elected mayor in Morocco. Like many Moroccan cities, Marrakesh
Marrakesh
comprises an old fortified city packed with vendors and their stalls (the medina, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site),[6] bordered by modern neighbourhoods, the most prominent of which is Gueliz. Today it is one of the busiest cities in Africa
Africa
and serves as a major economic centre and tourist destination. Tourism is strongly advocated by the reigning Moroccan monarch, Mohammed VI, with the goal of doubling the number of tourists visiting Morocco
Morocco
to 20 million by 2020. Despite the economic recession, real estate and hotel development in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
has grown dramatically in the 21st century. Marrakesh
Marrakesh
is particularly popular with the French, and numerous French celebrities own property in the city. Marrakesh has the largest traditional market (souk) in Morocco, with some 18 souks selling wares ranging from traditional Berber carpets to modern consumer electronics. Crafts employ a significant percentage of the population, who primarily sell their products to tourists. Marrakesh is one of North Africa’s largest centres of wildlife trade, despite the illegality of much of this trade. Much of this trade can be found in the medina and adjacent squares. Tortoises are particularly popular for sale as pets but Barbary macaques and snakes can also be seen.[7][8][9] Marrakesh
Marrakesh
is served by Ménara International Airport and the Marrakesh railway station, which connects the city to Casablanca
Casablanca
and northern Morocco. Marrakesh
Marrakesh
has several universities and schools, including Cadi Ayyad University. A number of Moroccan football clubs are located here, including Najm de Marrakech, KAC Marrakech, Mouloudia de Marrakech
Marrakech
and Chez Ali Club de Marrakech. The Marrakesh
Marrakesh
Street Circuit hosts the World Touring Car Championship, Auto GP and FIA Formula Two Championship races.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Demographics 5 Economy 6 Politics and administration 7 Landmarks

7.1 Jemaa el-Fnaa 7.2 Souks 7.3 City walls and gates 7.4 Gardens 7.5 Palaces and Riads

7.5.1 El Badi Palace 7.5.2 Royal Palace 7.5.3 Bahia Palace

7.6 Mosques

7.6.1 Koutoubia Mosque 7.6.2 Ben Youssef Mosque 7.6.3 Kasbah
Kasbah
Mosque 7.6.4 Mouassine Mosque

7.7 Tombs

7.7.1 Saadian Tombs 7.7.2 Tombs of the Seven Saints

7.8 Mellah 7.9 Hotels

8 Culture

8.1 Museums

8.1.1 Marrakech
Marrakech
Museum 8.1.2 Dar Si Said Museum 8.1.3 Museum of Islamic Art

8.2 Music, theatre and dance 8.3 Crafts 8.4 Festivals 8.5 Cuisine

9 Education

9.1 Ben Youssef Madrasa

10 Sports 11 Transport and communications

11.1 Rail 11.2 Road 11.3 Air

12 Healthcare 13 Gallery 14 International relations

14.1 Twin towns – sister cities

15 See also 16 References

16.1 Bibliography

17 Further reading 18 External links

Etymology[edit] The exact meaning of the name is debated.[10] The probable origin of the name Marrakesh
Marrakesh
is from the Berber (Amazigh) words amur (n) akush (ⴰⵎⵓⵔ ⵏ ⴰⴽⵓⵛ), which means "Land of God".[5] According to historian Susan Searight, however, the town's name was first documented in an 11th-century manuscript in the Qarawiyyin library in Fez, where its meaning was given as "country of the sons of Kush".[11] The word mur [12] is used now in Berber mostly in the feminine form tamurt. The same word "mur" appears in Mauretania, the North African kingdom from antiquity, although the link remains controversial as this name possibly originates from μαύρος mavros, the ancient Greek word for black.[10] The common English spelling is "Marrakesh",[13][14] although "Marrakech" (the French spelling) is also widely used.[5] The name is spelt Mṛṛakc in the Berber Latin alphabet, Marraquexe in Portuguese, Marraquech in Spanish,[13][14] and "Mer-raksh" in Moroccan Arabic.[12] From medieval times until around the beginning of the 20th century, the entire country of Morocco
Morocco
was known as the "Kingdom of Marrakesh", as the kingdom's historic capital city was often Marrakesh.[15][16] The name for Morocco
Morocco
is still "Marrakesh" to this day in Persian and Urdu
Urdu
(مراكش) as well as many other South Asian languages. Various European names for Morocco
Morocco
(Marruecos, Marrocos, Maroc, Marokko, etc.) are directly derived from the Berber word Murakush. Conversely, the city itself was in earlier times simply called Marocco City (or similar) by travelers from abroad. The name of the city and the country diverged after the Treaty of Fez divided Morocco
Morocco
into a French protectorate in Morocco
Morocco
and Spanish protectorate in Morocco, but the old interchangeable usage lasted widely until about the interregnum of Mohammed Ben Aarafa (1953–1955).[17] The latter episode set in motion the country's return to independence, when Morocco
Morocco
officially became al-Mamlaka al-Maġribiyya (المملكة المغربية) ("The Maghreb
Maghreb
Kingdom"), its name no longer referring to the city of Marrakesh. Marrakesh
Marrakesh
is known by a variety of nicknames, including the "Red City", the "Ochre City" and "the Daughter of the Desert", and has been the focus of poetic analogies such as one comparing the city to "a drum that beats an African identity into the complex soul of Morocco."[18] History[edit] Main articles: History of Marrakesh
History of Marrakesh
and Timeline of Marrakesh The Marrakesh
Marrakesh
area was inhabited by Berber farmers from Neolithic times, and numerous stone implements have been unearthed in the area.[11] Marrakesh
Marrakesh
was founded in 1062 (454 in the Hijri calendar) by Abu Bakr ibn Umar, chieftain and second cousin of the Almoravid king Yusuf ibn Tashfin
Yusuf ibn Tashfin
(c. 1061–1106).[19][20][21] Under the Almoravids, pious and learned warriors from the desert, numerous mosques and madrasas (Koranic schools) were built, developing the community into a trading centre for the Maghreb
Maghreb
and sub-Saharan Africa.[22] Marrakesh grew rapidly and established itself as a cultural and religious centre, supplanting Aghmat, which had long been the capital of Haouz. Andalusian craftsmen from Cordoba and Seville
Seville
built and decorated numerous palaces in the city, developing the Umayyad
Umayyad
style characterised by carved domes and cusped arches.[11][23] This Andalusian influence merged with designs from the Sahara and West Africa, creating a unique style of architecture which was fully adapted to the Marrakesh
Marrakesh
environment. Yusuf ibn Tashfin
Yusuf ibn Tashfin
completed the city's first mosque (the Ben Youssef mosque, named after his son), built houses, minted coins, and brought gold and silver to the city in caravans.[11] The city became the capital of the Almoravid Emirate,[24] stretching from the shores of Senegal
Senegal
to the centre of Spain
Spain
and from the Atlantic coast to Algiers.

Gold coin minted during the reign of Ali ibn Yusef

Marrakesh
Marrakesh
is one of the great citadels of the Muslim world.[18] The city was fortified by Tashfin's son, Ali ibn Yusuf, who in 1122–1123 built the ramparts which remain to this day, completed further mosques and palaces, and developed an underground water system in the city known as the rhettara to irrigate his new garden.[11] In 1125, the preacher Ibn Tumert
Ibn Tumert
settled in Tin Mal
Tin Mal
in the mountains to the south of Marrakesh. He preached against the Almoravids and influenced a revolt which succeeded in bringing about the fall of nearby Aghmat, but stopped short of bringing down Marrakesh
Marrakesh
following an unsuccessful siege in 1130.[11] The Almohads, Masmouda tribesmen from the High Atlas mountains
Atlas mountains
who practiced orthodox Islam, took the city in 1147 under leader Abd al-Mu'min.[11] After a long siege and the killing of some 7,000 people, the last of the Almoravids were exterminated apart from those who sought exile in the Balearic Islands. As a result, almost all the city's monuments were destroyed.[11] The Almohads constructed a range of palaces and religious buildings, including the famous Koutoubia Mosque
Koutoubia Mosque
(1184–1199), and built upon the ruins of an Almoravid palace.[11] It was a twin of the Giralda
Giralda
in Seville
Seville
and the unfinished Hassan Tower
Hassan Tower
in Rabat, all built by the same designer.[25] The Kasbah
Kasbah
housed the residence of the caliph, a title borne by the Almohad rulers from the reign of Abd al-Mu'min, rivaling the far eastern Abbasid Caliphate. The Kasbah
Kasbah
was named after the caliph Yaqub al-Mansur. The irrigation system was perfected to provide water for new palm groves and parks, including the Menara Garden.[11] As a result of its cultural reputation, Marrakesh
Marrakesh
attracted many writers and artists, especially from Andalusia, including the famous philosopher Averroes
Averroes
of Cordoba. The death of Yusuf II in 1224 began a period of instability. Marrakesh became the stronghold of the Almohad tribal sheikhs and the ahl ad-dar (descendants of Ibn Tumart), who sought to claw power back from the ruling Almohad family. Marrakesh
Marrakesh
was taken, lost and retaken by force multiple times by a stream of caliphs and pretenders, such as during the brutal seizure of Marrakesh
Marrakesh
by the Sevillan caliph Abd al-Wahid II al-Ma'mun in 1226, which was followed by a massacre of the Almohad tribal sheikhs and their families and a public denunciation of Ibn Tumart's doctrines by the caliph from the pulpit of the Kasbah Mosque.[26] After al-Ma'mun's death in 1232, his widow attempted to forcibly install her son, acquiring the support of the Almohad army chiefs and Spanish mercenaries with the promise to hand Marrakesh
Marrakesh
over to them for the sack. Hearing of the terms, the people of Marrakesh sought to make an agreement with the military captains and saved the city from destruction with a sizable payoff of 500,000 dinars.[26] In 1269, Marrakesh
Marrakesh
was conquered by nomadic Zenata
Zenata
tribes who overran the last of the Almohads.[27] The city then fell into a state of decline, which soon led to the loss of its status as capital to rival city Fes.

El Badi Palace

In the early 16th century, Marrakesh
Marrakesh
again became the capital of the kingdom, after a period when it was the seat of the Hintata emirs. It quickly reestablished its status, especially during the reigns of the Saadian sultans Abu Abdallah al-Qaim and Ahmad al-Mansur. Thanks to the wealth amassed by the Sultans, Marrakesh
Marrakesh
was embellished with sumptuous palaces while its ruined monuments were restored. El Badi Palace, built by Ahmad al-Mansur
Ahmad al-Mansur
in 1578, was a replica of the Alhambra
Alhambra
Palace, made with costly and rare materials including marble from Italy, gold dust from Sudan, porphyry from India and jade from China. The palace was intended primarily for hosting lavish receptions for ambassadors from Spain, England and the Ottoman Empire, showcasing Saadian Morocco
Morocco
as a nation whose power and influence reached as far as the borders of Niger
Niger
and Mali.[28] Under the Saadian dynasty, Marrakesh
Marrakesh
regained its former position as a point of contact for caravan routes from the Maghreb, the Mediterranean and sub-Saharan African. For centuries Marrakesh
Marrakesh
has been known as the location of the tombs of Morocco's seven patron saints (sebaatou rizjel). When sufism was at the height of its popularity during the late 17th century reign of Moulay Ismail, the festival of these saints was founded by Abu Ali al-Hassan al-Yusi at the request of the sultan.[29] The tombs of several renowned figures were moved to Marrakesh
Marrakesh
to attract pilgrims, and the pilgrimage associated with the seven saints is now a firmly established institution. Pilgrims visit the tombs of the saints in a specific order, as follows: Sidi Yusuf Ali Sangadji (1196–97), a leper; Kadi Iyad or Kadi of Cueta (1083–1149), a theologian and author of Ash-Shifa
Ash-Shifa
(treatises on the virtues of Muhammad); Sidi Bel Abbas (1130–1204), known as the patron saint of the city and most revered in the region; Sidi Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Jazuli (1465), a well known Sufi who founded the Djazuli brotherhood; Abdelaziz al-Tebaa (1508), a student of Djazuli; Abdallah al-Ghazwani (1528), known as Mawla; and Sidi Abu al-Qasim Al-Suhayli, (1185), also known as Imam Al Suhyani.[30] Until 1867, European Christians were not authorised to enter the city unless they acquired special permission from the sultan; east European Jews were permitted. [16] During the early 20th century, Marrakesh
Marrakesh
underwent several years of unrest. After the premature death in 1900 of the grand vizier Ba Ahmed, who had been designated regent until the designated sultan Abd al-Aziz became of age, the country was plagued by anarchy, tribal revolts, the plotting of feudal lords, and European intrigues. In 1907, Marrakesh
Marrakesh
caliph Moulay Abd al-Hafid
Moulay Abd al-Hafid
was proclaimed sultan by the powerful tribes of the High Atlas
High Atlas
and by Ulama
Ulama
scholars who denied the legitimacy of his brother, Abd al-Aziz.[31] It was also in 1907 that Dr. Mauchamp, a French doctor, was murdered in Marrakesh, suspected of spying for his country.[32] France
France
used the event as a pretext for sending its troops from the eastern Moroccan town of Oujda to the major metropolitan centre of Casablanca
Casablanca
in the west. The French colonial army encountered strong resistance from Ahmed al-Hiba, a son of Sheikh Ma al-'Aynayn, who arrived from the Sahara accompanied by his nomadic Reguibat tribal warriors. On 30 March 1912, the French Protectorate in Morocco
Morocco
was established.[33] After the Battle of Sidi Bou Othman, which saw the victory of the French Mangin column over the al-Hiba forces in September 1912, the French seized Marrakesh. The conquest was facilitated by the rallying of the Imzwarn tribes and their leaders from the powerful Glaoui family, leading to a massacre of Marrakesh
Marrakesh
citizens in the resulting turmoil.[34]

T'hami El Glaoui, Pasha
Pasha
of Marrakesh
Marrakesh
(1912 to 1956).

T'hami El Glaoui, known as "Lord of the Atlas", became Pasha
Pasha
of Marrakesh, a post he held virtually throughout the 44-year duration of the Protectorate (1912–1956).[35] Glaoui dominated the city and became famous for his collaboration with the general residence authorities, culminating in a plot to dethrone Mohammed Ben Youssef (Mohammed V) and replace him with the Sultan's cousin, Ben Arafa.[35] Glaoui, already known for his amorous adventures and lavish lifestyle, became a symbol of Morocco's colonial order. He could not, however, subdue the rise of nationalist sentiment, nor the hostility of a growing proportion of the inhabitants. Nor could he resist pressure from France, who agreed to terminate its Moroccan Protectorate in 1956 due to the launch of the Algerian War
Algerian War
(1954–1962) immediately following the end of the war in Indochina
Indochina
(1946–1954), in which Moroccans had been conscripted to fight in Vietnam
Vietnam
on behalf of the French Army. After two successive exiles to Corsica
Corsica
and Madagascar, Mohammed Ben Youssef was allowed to return to Morocco
Morocco
in November 1955, bringing an end to the despotic rule of Glaoui over Marrakesh and the surrounding region. A protocol giving independence to Morocco was then signed on 2 March 1956 between French Foreign Minister Christian Pineau and M’Barek Ben Bakkai.[36]

Marrakesh
Marrakesh
in April 2013

Since the independence of Morocco, Marrakesh
Marrakesh
has thrived as a tourist destination. In the 1960s and early 1970s the city became a trendy "hippie mecca". It attracted numerous western rock stars and musicians, artists, film directors and actors, models, and fashion divas,[37] leading tourism revenues to double in Morocco
Morocco
between 1965 and 1970.[38] Yves Saint Laurent, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones
and Jean-Paul Getty
Jean-Paul Getty
all spent significant time in the city; Laurent bought a property here and renovated the Majorelle Gardens.[39][40] Expatriates, especially those from France, have invested heavily in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
since the 1960s, and developed many of the riads and palaces.[39] Old buildings were renovated in the Old Medina, new residences and commuter villages were built in the suburbs, and new hotels began to spring up. United Nations
United Nations
agencies became active in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
beginning in the 1970s, and the city's international political presence has subsequently grown. In 1985, UNESCO
UNESCO
declared the old town area of Marrakesh
Marrakesh
a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, raising international awareness of the cultural heritage of the city.[41] In the 1980s, Patrick Guerand-Hermes purchased the 30 acres (12 ha) Ain el Quassimou, built by the family of Leo Tolstoy. [40] On 15 April 1994, the Marrakesh Agreement was signed here to establish the World Trade Organisation,[42] and in March 1997 Marrakesh
Marrakesh
served as the site of the World Water Council's first World Water Forum, which was attended by over 500 international participants.[43] In the 21st century, property and real estate development in the city has boomed, with a dramatic increase in new hotels and shopping centres, fuelled by the policies of Mohammed VI of Morocco, who aims to increase the number of tourists annually visiting Morocco
Morocco
to 20 million by 2020. In 2010, a major gas explosion occurred in the city. On 28 April 2011, a bomb attack took place in the Jemaa el-Fnaa square, killing 15 people, mainly foreigners. The blast destroyed the nearby Argana Cafe.[44] Police sources arrested three suspects and claimed the chief suspect was loyal to Al-Qaeda, although Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
in the Islamic Maghreb
Maghreb
denied involvement.[45] On November 2016 the city hosted the 2016 United Nations
United Nations
Climate Change Conference. Geography[edit]

In winter, the Atlas mountains
Atlas mountains
typically are covered in snow and ice

By road, Marrakesh
Marrakesh
is located 580 kilometres (360 mi) southwest of Tangier, 327 kilometres (203 mi) southwest of the Moroccan capital of Rabat, 239 kilometres (149 mi) southwest of Casablanca, 196 kilometres (122 mi) southwest of Beni Mellal, 177 kilometres (110 mi) east of Essaouira, and 246 kilometres (153 mi) northeast of Agadir.[46] The city has expanded north from the old centre with suburbs such as Daoudiat], Diour El Massakine, Yamama, Sidi Abbad, Sakar and Malizia, to the southeast with Sidi Youssef Ben Ali, to the west with Massima, and southwest to Hay Annahda, Berradiand beyond the airport.[46] On the P2017 road leading south out of the city are large villages such as Douar Lahna, Touggana, Lagouassem, and Lahebichate, leading eventually through desert to the town of Tahnaout
Tahnaout
at the edge of the High Atlas, the highest mountainous barrier in North Africa.[46] The average elevation of the snow-covered High Atlas
High Atlas
lies above 3,000 metres (9,800 ft). It is mainly composed of Jurassic
Jurassic
limestone. The mountain range runs along the Atlantic coast, then rises to the east of Agadir
Agadir
and extends northeast into Algeria before disappearing into Tunisia.[47]

The Ourika River
Ourika River
valley

The Ourika River
Ourika River
valley is located about 30 kilometres (19 mi) south of Marrakesh.[48] The "silvery valley of the Ourika river curving north towards Marrakesh", and the "red heights of Jebel Yagour still capped with snow" to the south are sights in this area.[49] David Prescott Barrows, who describes Marrakesh
Marrakesh
as Morocco's "strangest city", describes the landscape in the following terms: "The city lies some fifteen or twenty miles [25–30 km] from the foot of the Atlas mountains, which here rise to their grandest proportions. The spectacle of the mountains is superb. Through the clear desert air the eye can follow the rugged contours of the range for great distances to the north and eastward. The winter snows mantle them with white, and the turquoise sky gives a setting for their grey rocks and gleaming caps that is of unrivaled beauty."[34] With 130,000 hectares of greenery and over 180,000 palm trees in its Palmeraie, Marrakesh
Marrakesh
is an oasis of rich plant variety. Throughout the seasons, fragrant orange, fig, pomegranate and olive trees display their color and fruits in Agdal Garden, Menara Garden
Menara Garden
and other gardens in the city.[50] The city's gardens feature numerous native plants alongside other species that have been imported over the course of the centuries, including giant bamboos, yuccas, papyrus, palm trees, banana trees, cypress, philodendrons, rose bushes, bougainvilleas, pines and various kinds of cactus plants. Climate[edit] A hot semi-arid climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
BSh) predominates at Marrakesh. Average temperatures range from 12 °C (54 °F) in the winter to 26–30 °C (79–86 °F) in the summer.[51] The relatively wet winter and dry summer precipitation pattern of Marrakesh
Marrakesh
mirrors precipitation patterns found in Mediterranean climates. However, the city receives less rain than is typically found in a Mediterranean climate, resulting in a semi-arid climate classification. Between 1961 and 1990 the city averaged 281.3 millimetres (11.1 in) of precipitation annually.[51] Barrows says of the climate, "The region of Marrakesh
Marrakesh
is frequently described as desert in character, but, to one familiar with the southwestern parts of the United States, the locality does not suggest the desert, but rather an area of seasonal rainfall, where moisture moves underground rather than by surface streams, and where low brush takes the place of the forests of more heavily watered regions. The location of Marrakesh on the north side of the Atlas, rather than the south, forbids its from being described as a desert city, but it remains the northern focus of the Saharan lines of communication, and its history, its types of dwellers, and its commerce and arts, are all related to the great south Atlas spaces that reach further into the Sahara desert."[52]

Climate data for Marrakesh, Morocco
Morocco
(Menara International Airport) 1961–1990, extremes 1900–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 30.1 (86.2) 34.3 (93.7) 37.0 (98.6) 39.6 (103.3) 44.4 (111.9) 46.9 (116.4) 49.6 (121.3) 48.6 (119.5) 44.8 (112.6) 38.7 (101.7) 35.2 (95.4) 30.0 (86) 49.6 (121.3)

Average high °C (°F) 18.4 (65.1) 19.9 (67.8) 22.3 (72.1) 23.7 (74.7) 27.5 (81.5) 31.3 (88.3) 36.8 (98.2) 36.5 (97.7) 32.5 (90.5) 27.5 (81.5) 22.2 (72) 18.7 (65.7) 26.4 (79.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) 12.2 (54) 13.8 (56.8) 15.8 (60.4) 17.3 (63.1) 20.6 (69.1) 23.8 (74.8) 28.3 (82.9) 28.3 (82.9) 25.3 (77.5) 21.1 (70) 16.3 (61.3) 12.6 (54.7) 19.6 (67.3)

Average low °C (°F) 5.9 (42.6) 7.6 (45.7) 9.4 (48.9) 11.0 (51.8) 13.8 (56.8) 16.3 (61.3) 19.9 (67.8) 20.1 (68.2) 18.2 (64.8) 14.7 (58.5) 10.4 (50.7) 6.5 (43.7) 12.8 (55)

Record low °C (°F) −2.3 (27.9) −3.0 (26.6) 0.4 (32.7) 2.8 (37) 6.8 (44.2) 9.0 (48.2) 10.4 (50.7) 6.0 (42.8) 10.0 (50) 1.1 (34) 0.0 (32) −1.6 (29.1) −3.0 (26.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 32.2 (1.268) 37.9 (1.492) 37.8 (1.488) 38.8 (1.528) 23.7 (0.933) 4.5 (0.177) 1.2 (0.047) 3.4 (0.134) 5.9 (0.232) 23.9 (0.941) 40.6 (1.598) 31.4 (1.236) 281.3 (11.075)

Average precipitation days 7.6 6.8 7.5 7.7 4.8 1.2 0.6 1.2 2.8 5.5 6.6 6.5 58.8

Average relative humidity (%) 65 66 61 60 58 55 47 47 52 59 62 65 58

Mean monthly sunshine hours 220.6 209.4 247.5 254.5 287.2 314.5 335.2 316.2 263.6 245.3 214.1 220.6 3,128.7

Source #1: NOAA[51]

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(record highs for February, April, May, September and November, and humidity),[53] Meteo Climat (record highs and record lows for June, July and August only)[54]

Demographics[edit] According to the 2014 census, the population of Marrakesh
Marrakesh
was 928,850 against 843,575 in 2004. The number of households in 2014 was 217,245 against 173,603 in 2004.[55][56] Economy[edit]

Sofitel Hotel, April 2013

Marrakesh
Marrakesh
is a vital component to the economy and culture of Morocco.[57] Improvements to the highways from Marrakesh
Marrakesh
to Casablanca, Agadir
Agadir
and the local airport have led to a dramatic increase in tourism in the city, which now attracts over two million tourists annually. Because of the importance of tourism to Morocco's economy, King Mohammed VI
King Mohammed VI
has vowed to attract 20 million tourists a year to Morocco
Morocco
by 2020, doubling the number of tourists from 2012.[58] The city is popular with the French, and many French celebrities have bought property in the city, including fashion moguls Yves St Laurent and Jean-Paul Gaultier.[59] In the 1990s very few foreigners lived in the city, but real estate developments have dramatically increased in the last 15 years; by 2005 over 3,000 foreigners had purchased properties in the city, lured by its culture and the relatively cheap house prices.[59] It has been cited in French weekly magazine Le Point as the second St Tropez: "No longer simply a destination for a scattering of adventurous elites, bohemians or backpackers seeking Arabian Nights fantasies, Marrakech
Marrakech
is becoming a desirable stopover for the European jet set."[59] However, despite the tourism boom, the majority of the city's inhabitants are still poor, and as of 2010[update], some 20,000 households still have no access to water or electricity.[60] Many enterprises in the city are facing colossal debt problems.[60] Despite the global economic crisis that began in 2007, investments in real estate progressed substantially in 2011 both in the area of tourist accommodation and social housing. The main developments have been in facilities for tourists including hotels and leisure centres such as golf courses and health spas, with investments of 10.9 billion dirham (US$1.28 billion) in 2011.[61][62] The hotel infrastructure in recent years has experienced rapid growth. In 2012, alone, 19 new hotels were scheduled to open, a development boom often compared to Dubai.[58] Royal Ranches Marrakech, one of Gulf Finance House's flagship projects in Morocco, is a 380 hectares (940 acres) resort under development in the suburbs and one of the world's first five star Equestrian Resorts.[63] The resort is expected to make a significant contribution to the local and national economy, creating many jobs and attracting thousands of visitors annually; as of April 2012 it was about 45% complete.[64] The Avenue Mohammed VI, formerly Avenue de France, is a major city thoroughfare. It has seen rapid development of residential complexes and many luxury hotels. Avenue Mohammed VI contains what is claimed to be Africa's largest nightclub:[65] Pacha Marrakech, a trendy club that plays house and electro house music.[66] It also has two large cinema complexes, Le Colisée à Gueliz and Cinéma Rif, and a new shopping precinct, Al Mazar.

Gueliz district in Marrakech

Trade and crafts are extremely important to the local tourism-fueled economy. There are 18 souks in Marrakesh, employing over 40,000 people in pottery, copperware, leather and other crafts. The souks contain a massive range of items from plastic sandals to Palestinian-style scarves imported from India or China. Local boutiques are adept at making western-style clothes using Moroccan materials.[59] The Birmingham Post
Birmingham Post
comments: "The souk offers an incredible shopping experience with a myriad of narrow winding streets that lead through a series of smaller markets clustered by trade. Through the squawking chaos of the poultry market, the gory fascination of the open-air butchers' shops and the uncountable number of small and specialist traders, just wandering around the streets can pass an entire day."[57] Marrakesh
Marrakesh
has several supermarkets including Marjane Acima, Asswak Salam and Carrefour, and three major shopping centres, Al Mazar Mall, Plaza Marrakech
Marrakech
and Marjane Square; a branch of Carrefour
Carrefour
opened in Al Mazar Mall in 2010.[67][68] Industrial production in the city is centred in the neighbourhood of Sidi Ghanem Al Massar, containing large factories, workshops, storage depots and showrooms. Ciments Morocco, a subsidiary of a major Italian cement firm, has a factory in Marrakech.[69] The AeroExpo Marrakech
Marrakech
International Exhibition of aeronautical industries and services is held here, as is the Riad Art Expo. Politics and administration[edit]

Marrakesh
Marrakesh
City Hall

Marrakesh, the regional capital, constitutes a prefecture-level administrative unit of Morocco, Marrakech
Marrakech
Prefecture, forming part of the region of Marrakech-Safi. Marrakesh
Marrakesh
is a major centre for law and jurisdiction in Morocco
Morocco
and most of the major courts of the region are located here. These include the regional Court of Appeal, the Commercial Court, the Administrative Court, the Court of First Instance, the Court of Appeal of Commerce, and the Administrative Court of Appeal.[70] Numerous organizations of the region are based here, including the regional government administrative offices, the Regional Council of Tourism office, and regional public maintenance organisations such as the Governed Autonomous Water Supply and Electricity and Maroc Telecom.[71] Testament to Marrakesh's development as a modern city, on 12 June 2009, Fatima-Zahra Mansouri, a then 33-year-old lawyer and daughter of a former assistant to the local authority chief in Marrakesh, was elected the first female mayor of the city, defeating outgoing Mayor Omar Jazouli by 54 votes to 35 in a municipal council vote.[72][73] Mansouri became the second woman in the history of Morocco
Morocco
to obtain a mayoral position, after Asma Chaabi, mayor of Essaouira.[72] The Secretary General of her Authenticity and Modernity Party
Authenticity and Modernity Party
(PAM), Mohamed Cheikh Biadillah, stated that "her election reflects the image of a modern Morocco."[72] Her appointment was shrouded in controversy and resulted in her temporarily losing her seat the following month after a court ruled that the election had been fixed. The court found that "some ballots were distributed before the legal date and some vote records were destroyed."[74] Her party called for a 48-hour strike to "protest the plot against the democratic process."[74] On 7 July 2011, Mansouri presented her resignation from the city council of Marrakesh, but reconsidered her decision the next day.[75] Since the legislative elections in November 2011, the ruling political party in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
has, for the first time, been the Justice and Development Party or PDJ which also rules at the national level. The party, which advocates Islamism
Islamism
and Islamic democracy, won five seats; the National Rally of Independents (RNI) took one seat, while the PAM won three.[76] In the partial legislative elections for the Guéliz Ennakhil constituency in October 2012, the PDJ under the leadership of Ahmed El Moutassadik was again declared the winner with 10,452 votes. The PAM, largely consisting of friends of King Mohammed VI, came in second place with 9,794 votes.[77] Landmarks[edit] Main article: Landmarks of Marrakesh Jemaa el-Fnaa[edit]

Medina
Medina
of Marrakesh

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Jemaa el-Fnaa
Jemaa el-Fnaa
place

Criteria Cultural: i, ii, iv, v

Reference 331

Inscription 1985 (9th Session)

Area 1,107 ha

The Jemaa el-Fnaa
Jemaa el-Fnaa
is one of the best-known squares in Africa
Africa
and is the centre of city activity and trade. It has been described as a "world-famous square", "a metaphorical urban icon, a bridge between the past and the present, the place where (spectacularized) Moroccan tradition encounters modernity."[78] It has been part of the UNESCO World Heritage site since 1985.[79] The name roughly means "the assembly of trespassers" or malefactors.[80] Jemaa el-Fnaa
Jemaa el-Fnaa
was renovated along with much of the Marrakech
Marrakech
city, whose walls were extended by Abu Yaqub Yusuf and particularly by Yaqub al-Mansur
Yaqub al-Mansur
in 1147–1158. The surrounding mosque, palace, hospital, parade ground and gardens around the edges of the marketplace were also overhauled, and the Kasbah
Kasbah
was fortified. Subsequently, with the fluctuating fortunes of the city, Jemaa el-Fnaa
Jemaa el-Fnaa
saw periods of decline and renewal.[81] Historically this square was used for public decapitations by rulers who sought to maintain their power by frightening the public. The square attracted dwellers from the surrounding desert and mountains to trade here, and stalls were raised in the square from early in its history. The square attracted tradesmen, snake charmers ("wild, dark, frenzied men with long disheveled hair falling over their naked shoulders"), dancing boys of the Chleuh
Chleuh
Atlas tribe, and musicians playing pipes, tambourines and African drums.[80] Richard Hamilton said that Jemaa el-Fnaa
Jemaa el-Fnaa
once "reeked of Berber particularism, of backward-looking, ill-educated countrymen, rather than the reformist, pan-Arab internationalism and command economy that were the imagined future."[82] Today the square attracts people from a diversity of social and ethnic backgrounds and tourists from all around the world. Snake charmers, acrobats, magicians, mystics, musicians, monkey trainers, herb sellers, story-tellers, dentists, pickpockets, and entertainers in medieval garb still populate the square.[79][83] Souks[edit]

Olives and colourful bejewelled slippers for sale

Marrakesh
Marrakesh
has the largest traditional Berber market in Morocco
Morocco
and the image of the city is closely associated with its souks. Paul Sullivan cites the souks as the principal shopping attraction in the city: "A honeycomb of intricately connected alleyways, this fundamental section of the old city is a micro-medina in itself, comprising a dizzying number of stalls and shops that range from itsy kiosks no bigger than an elf's wardrobe to scruffy store-fronts that morph into glittering Aladdin's Caves once you're inside."[84] Historically the souks of Marrakesh
Marrakesh
were divided into retail areas for particular goods such as leather, carpets, metalwork and pottery. These divisions still roughly exist but with significant overlap. Many of the souks sell items like carpets and rugs, traditional Muslim attire, leather bags, and lanterns.[84] Haggling
Haggling
is still a very important part of trade in the souks.[85] One of the largest souks is Souk
Souk
Semmarine, which sells everything from brightly coloured bejewelled sandals and slippers and leather pouffes to jewellery and kaftans.[86] Souk
Souk
Ableuh contains stalls which specialize in lemons, chilis, capers, pickles, green, red, and black olives, and mint, a common ingredient of Moroccan cuisine and tea. Similarly, Souk
Souk
Kchacha specializes in dried fruit and nuts, including dates, figs, walnuts, cashews and apricots.[87] Rahba Qedima contains stalls selling hand-woven baskets, natural perfumes, knitted hats, scarves, tee shirts, Ramadan tea, ginseng, and alligator and iguana skins. Criee Berbiere, to the northeast of this market, is noted for its dark Berber carpets and rugs.[86] Souk
Souk
Siyyaghin is known for its jewellery, and Souk
Souk
Smata nearby is noted for its extensive collection of babouches and belts. Souk
Souk
Cherratine specializes in leatherware, and Souk
Souk
Belaarif sells modern consumer goods.[85] Souk
Souk
Haddadine specializes in ironware and lanterns.[88] Ensemble Artisanal is a government-run complex of small arts and crafts which offers a range of leather goods, textiles and carpets. Young apprentices are taught a range of crafts in the workshop at the back of this complex.[89] City walls and gates[edit]

Bab Agnaou

The ramparts of Marrakesh, which stretch for some 19 kilometres (12 mi) around the medina of the city, were built by the Almoravids in the 12th century as protective fortifications. The walls are made of a distinct orange-red clay and chalk, giving the city its nickname as the "red city"; they stand up to 19 feet (5.8 m) high and have 20 gates and 200 towers along them.[90] Bab Agnaou
Bab Agnaou
was built in the 12th century during the Almohad dynasty. The Berber name Agnaou, like Gnaoua, refers to people of Sub-Saharan African origin (cf. Akal-n-iguinawen – land of the black). The gate was called Bab al Kohl (the word kohl also meaning "black") or Bab al Qsar (palace gate) in some historical sources. The corner-pieces are embellished with floral decorations. This ornamentation is framed by three panels marked with an inscription from the Quran
Quran
in Maghrebi script
Maghrebi script
using foliated Kufic
Kufic
letters, which were also used in Al-Andalus. Bab Agnaou was renovated and its opening reduced in size during the rule of sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah. Bab Aghmat
Aghmat
is located east of the Jewish and Muslim cemeteries, and is near the tomb of Ali ibn Yusuf.[91] Bab Berrima with its solid towers stands near the Badi Palace.[92] Bab er Robb (meaning "Lord's gate") is a southern exit from the city, near Bab Agnaou. Built in the 12th century, it provides access to roads leading to the mountain towns of Amizmiz
Amizmiz
and Asni. Bab el Khémis, situated in the medina's northeastern corner, is one of the city's main gates and features a man-made spring.[93] Gardens[edit]

Agdal Gardens

The Menara gardens
Menara gardens
are located to the west of the city, at the gates of the Atlas mountains. They were built around 1130 by the Almohad ruler Abd al-Mu'min. The name menara derives from the pavilion with its small green pyramid roof (menzeh). The pavilion was built during the 16th century Saadi dynasty
Saadi dynasty
and renovated in 1869 by sultan Abderrahmane of Morocco, who used to stay here in summertime.[94]

Medina
Medina
walls of Marrakesh

The pavilion and a nearby artificial lake are surrounded by orchards and olive groves. The lake was created to irrigate the surrounding gardens and orchards using a sophisticated system of underground channels called a qanat. The basin is supplied with water through an old hydraulic system which conveys water from the mountains located approximately 30 kilometres (19 mi) away from Marrakesh. There is also a small amphitheater and a symmetrical pool[95] where films are screened. Carp fish can be seen in the pond.[96]

Saadian garden pavilion of the Menara gardens

The Museum of Islamic Art, painted in Majorelle Blue, at the Majorelle Garden

The Majorelle Garden, on Avenue Yacoub el Mansour, was at one time the home of the landscape painter Jacques Majorelle. Famed designer Yves Saint Laurent bought and restored the property, which features a stele erected in his memory,[97] and the Museum of Islamic Art, which is housed in a dark blue building.[98] The garden, open to the public since 1947, has a large collection of plants from five continents including cacti, palms and bamboo.[99] The Agdal Gardens, located south of the medina and also built in the 12th century, are royal orchards surrounded by pise walls. Measuring 400 hectares (990 acres) in size, the gardens feature citrus, apricot, pomegranate, olive and cypress trees. Sultan Moulay Hassan's harem resided at the Dar al Baida pavilion, which was situated within these gardens.[95] This site is also known for its historic swimming pool, where a Sultan is said to have drowned.[100] The Koutoubia Gardens are situated behind the Koutoubia Mosque. They feature orange and palm trees, and are frequented by storks.[95] The Mamounia Gardens, more than 100 years old and named after Prince Moulay Mamoun, have olive and orange trees as well as a variety of floral displays.[101] Palaces and Riads[edit] The historic wealth of the city is manifested in palaces, mansions and other lavish residences. The main palaces are El Badi Palace, the Royal Palace and Bahia Palace. Riads (Moroccan mansions) are common in Marrakesh. Based on the design of the Roman villa, they are characterized by an open central garden courtyard surrounded by high walls. This construction provided the occupants with privacy and lowered the temperature within the building.[102] Buildings of note inside the Medina
Medina
are Riad Argana, Riad Obry, Riad Enija, Riad el Mezouar, Riad Frans Ankone, Dar Moussaine, Riad Lotus, Riad Elixir, Riad les Bougainvilliers, Riad Dar Foundouk, Dar Marzotto, Dar Darma, and Riad Pinco Pallino. Others of note outside the Medina
Medina
area include Ksar Char Bagh, Amanjena, Villa Maha, Dar Ahlam, Dar Alhind and Dar Tayda.[103] El Badi Palace[edit] The El Badi Palace
El Badi Palace
flanks the eastern side of the Kasbah. It was built by Saadian sultan Ahmad al-Mansur
Ahmad al-Mansur
after his success against the Portuguese at the Battle of the Three Kings
Battle of the Three Kings
in 1578.[92] The lavish palace, which took around a quarter of a century to build, was funded by compensation from the Portuguese and African gold and sugar cane revenue. This allowed Carrara marble
Carrara marble
to be brought from Italy and other materials to be shipped from France, Spain
Spain
and India.[92] It is a larger version of the Alhambra's Court of the Lions.[104] Although the palace is now a ruin with little left but the outer walls, the site has become the location of the annual Marrakech
Marrakech
Folklore Festival and other events.[105] Royal Palace[edit] The Royal Palace, also known as Dar el-Makhzen, is located next to the Badi Palace. The Almohads built the palace in the 12th century on the site of their kasba,[104] and it was partly remodeled by the Saadians in the 16th century and the Alaouites in the 17th century.[105] Historically it was one of the palaces owned by the Moroccan king,[106] who employed some of the most talented craftsmen in the city for its construction.[107][108] The palace is not open to the public, and is now privately owned by French businessman Dominique du Beldi.[105][107] The rooms are large, with unusually high ceilings for Marrakesh, with zellij (elaborate geometric terracotta tile work covered with enamel) and cedar painted ceilings.[109] Bahia Palace[edit]

Back courtyard of the Bahia Palace

The Bahia Palace, set in extensive gardens, was built in the late 19th century by the Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
of Marrakesh, Si Ahmed ben Musa (Bou-Ahmed). Bou Ahmed resided here with his four wives, 24 concubines and many children.[110] With a name meaning "brilliance", it was intended to be the greatest palace of its time, designed to capture the essence of Islamic and Moroccan architectural styles. Bou-Ahmed paid special attention to the privacy of the palace in its construction and employed architectural features such as multiple doors which prevented passers-by from seeing into the interior.[110] The palace took seven years to build, with hundreds of craftsmen from Fes
Fes
working on its wood, carved stucco and zellij.[111] The palace is set in a two-acre (8,000 m²) garden with rooms opening onto courtyards. The palace acquired a reputation as one of the finest in Morocco
Morocco
and was the envy of other wealthy citizens. Upon the death of Bou-Ahmed in 1900,[112] the palace was raided by Sultan Abd al-Aziz.[110] Mosques[edit] Koutoubia Mosque[edit]

Minaret
Minaret
of the Koutoubia Mosque

Koutoubia Mosque
Koutoubia Mosque
is the largest mosque in the city, located in the southwest medina quarter of Marrakesh
Marrakesh
alongside the square. It was completed under the reign of the Almohad Caliph Yaqub al-Mansur (1184–1199), and has inspired other buildings such as the Giralda
Giralda
of Seville
Seville
and the Hassan Tower
Hassan Tower
of Rabat. The mosque is made of red stone and brick and measures 80 metres (260 ft) long and 60 metres (200 ft) wide. The minaret was designed to prevent a person at the top of the tower from viewing activity within the king's harems. The Umayyad-style minaret is constructed from sandstone and stands 77 metres (253 ft) high. It was originally covered with Marrakshi pink plaster, but in the 1990s experts opted to remove the plaster to expose the original stone work. The spire atop the minaret is decorated with gilded copper balls that decrease in size towards the top, a style unique to Morocco.[113] Ben Youssef Mosque[edit] Ben Youssef Mosque, distinguished by its green tiled roof and minaret, is located in the medina and is Marrakesh's oldest mosque.[114] It was originally built in the 12th century by the Almoravid Sultan Ali ibn Yusuf in honor of Yusuf ibn Ali al-Sanhaji.[114] When built it was the city's largest mosque but today it is half its original size. It was rebuilt in the 1560s[115] by Saadian Sultan Abdallah al-Ghalib, as the original had fallen into ruin. He also built a madrasa with a large library beside the mosque, but this also deteriorated over time, leaving only the 19th-century mosque intact.[116] The Almoravid Koubba Ba’adiyn, a two-storied kiosk, was discovered in a sunken location on the mosque site in 1948. In the Moroccan architectural style, its arches are scalloped on the first floor, while those on the second floor bear a twin horseshoe shape embellished with a turban motif. The dome of the kiosk is framed by a battlement decorated with arches and seven-pointed stars. The interior of the octagonally arched dome is decorated with distinctive carvings bordered by a Kufic
Kufic
frieze inscribed with the name of its patron, Sultan Ali ibn Yusuf. The quinches at the corners of the dome are covered with muqarnas.[117] The kiosk has motifs of pine cones, palms and acanthus leaves which are also replicated in the Ben Youssef Madrasa.[118] Kasbah
Kasbah
Mosque[edit] The Kasbah
Kasbah
Mosque overlooks Place Moulay Yazid in the Kasbah
Kasbah
district of Marrakesh, close to the El Badi Palace. It was built by the Almohad caliph Yaqub al-Mansour in the late 12th century to serve as the main mosque of the kasbah (citadel) where he and his high officials resided.[119] It features a unique floor plan and courtyard layout that sets it apart from other classic Moroccan mosques. It contended with the Koutoubia Mosque
Koutoubia Mosque
for prestige and the decoration of its minaret was highly influential in subsequent Moroccan architecture.[119] The mosque was repaired by the Saadi sultan Moulay Abd Allah al-Ghalib following a devastating explosion at a nearby gunpowder reserve in the second half of the 16th century.[120] Notably, the Saadian Tombs
Saadian Tombs
were built just outside its qibla (southern) wall, and visitors pass behind the mosque to see them today. Mouassine Mosque[edit] The Mouassine Mosque (also known as the Al Ashraf Mosque) was built by the Marinids in the 14th century in the style popularized by the Almohads.[121] It is located in Mouassine and is part of the Mouassine complex, which includes a library, hamman, madrasa (school) and the Mouassine Fountain, the largest and most important in the city. Located on a small square to the north of the mosque, it is a triple-arched fountain of Saadian origin.[121][122] It is decorated with geometric patterns and calligraphy.[123] Tombs[edit] Saadian Tombs[edit]

Saadian Tombs

The Saadian Tombs
Saadian Tombs
were built in the 16th century as a mausoleum to bury numerous Saadian sultans. It was lost for many years until the French rediscovered it in 1917 using aerial photographs. The mausoleum comprises the corpses of about sixty members of the Saadi Dynasty
Saadi Dynasty
that originated in the valley of the Draa River.[83][90] Among the tombs are those of Saadian sultan Ahmad al-Mansur
Ahmad al-Mansur
and his family; al-Mansur buried his mother in this dynastic necropolis in 1590 after enlarging the original square funeral structure. It is located next to the south wall of the Almohad mosque of the Kasba,[124] in a cemetery that contains several graves of Mohammad's descendants.[125] His own tomb, richly embellished with decorations, was modeled on the Nasrid mausoleum in Granada, Spain.[124] The building is composed of three rooms; the best known has a roof supported by twelve columns and encloses the tomb of al-Mansur's son. The room exemplifies Islamic architecture with floral motifs, calligraphy, zellij and carrara marble, and the stele is in finely worked cedar wood and stucco.[83][90] Outside the building are a garden and the graves of soldiers and servants. Tombs of the Seven Saints[edit] The Medina
Medina
holds the tombs of the seven patron saints of Morocco, which are visited every year by pilgrims during the week-long ziara pilgrimage. According to tradition, it is believed that these saints are only sleeping and will awaken one day to resume their good deeds. A pilgrimage to the tombs offers an alternative to the hajj to Mecca and Medina
Medina
for people of western Morocco
Morocco
who could not visit Arabia due to the arduous and costly journey involved.[126] Circumambulation of the tombs is undertaken by devotees to achieve inner purity. This ritual is performed on Fridays in the following ordained sequence: Sidi Yusuf ibn Ali Sanhaji, Sidi al-Qadi Iyyad al-Yahsubi, Sidi Bel Abbas, Sidi Mohamed ibn Sulayman al-Jazouli, Sidi Abdellaziz Tabba'a, Sidi Abdellah al-Ghazwani, and lastly, Sidi Abderrahman al-Suhayli.[127] The most important of the seven tombs is the shrine of Sidi Bel Abbas.[126] Mellah[edit] The old Jewish Quarter (Mellah) is situated in the kasbah area of the city's medina, east of Place des Ferblantiers. It was created in 1558 by the Saadians at the site where the sultan's stables were previously located.[128] At the time, the Jewish community consisted of a large portion of the city's bankers, jewelers, metalworkers, tailors and sugar traders. During the 16th century, the Mellah
Mellah
had its own fountains, gardens, synagogues and souks. Until the arrival of the French in 1912, Jews could not own property outside of the Mellah; all growth was consequently contained within the limits of the neighborhood, resulting in narrow streets, small shops and higher residential buildings. The Mellah, today reconfigured as a mainly residential zone renamed Hay Essalam, currently occupies an area smaller than its historic limits and has an almost entirely Muslim population. The Alzama Synagogue, built around a central courtyard, is located in the Mellah.[129] The Jewish cemetery here is the largest of its kind in Morocco. Characterized by white-washed tombs and sandy graves,[129] the cemetery is located within the Medina
Medina
on land adjacent to the Mellah.[130] Hotels[edit]

Hotel Marrakech

As one of the principal tourist cities in Africa, Marrakesh
Marrakesh
has over 400 hotels. Mamounia Hotel is a five-star hotel in the Art Deco-Moroccan fusion style, built in 1925 by Henri Prost and A. Marchis.[131] It is considered the most eminent hotel of the city[132][133] and has been described as the "grand dame of Marrakesh hotels." The hotel has hosted numerous internationally renowned people including Winston Churchill, Prince Charles of Wales and Mick Jagger.[133] Churchill used to relax within the gardens of the hotel and paint there.[134] The 231-room hotel,[135] which contains a casino, was refurbished in 1986 and again in 2007 by French designer Jacques Garcia.[134][133] Other hotels include Eden Andalou Hotel, Hotel Marrakech, Sofitel Marrakech, Palm Plaza Hotel & Spa, Royal Mirage Hotel, Piscina del Hotel, and Palmeraie Golf
Golf
Palace. In March 2012, Accor
Accor
opened its first Pullman-branded hotel in Marrakech, Pullman Marrakech
Marrakech
Palmeraie Resort & Spa. Set in a 17 hectares (42 acres) olive grove at La Palmeraie, the hotel has 252 rooms, 16 suites, six restaurants and a 535 square metres (5,760 sq ft) conference room.[136]

Culture[edit] Museums[edit] Marrakech
Marrakech
Museum[edit]

Marrakech
Marrakech
Museum

Museum of Moroccan Arts

The Marrakech
Marrakech
Museum, housed in the Dar Menebhi Palace in the old city centre, was built at the end of the 19th century by Mehdi Menebhi. The palace was carefully restored by the Omar Benjelloun Foundation and converted into a museum in 1997.[137] The house itself represents an example of classical Andalusian architecture, with fountains in the central courtyard, traditional seating areas, a hammam and intricate tilework and carvings.[138] It has been cited as having "an orgy of stalactite stucco-work" which "drips from the ceiling and combines with a mind-boggling excess of zellij work."[138] The museum holds exhibits of both modern and traditional Moroccan art together with fine examples of historical books, coins and pottery produced by Moroccan Jewish, Berber and Arab peoples.[139][140] Dar Si Said Museum[edit] Dar Si Said Museum, also known as the Museum of Moroccan Arts is located to the north of the Bahia Palace. It was the townhouse of Sidi Said, brother to Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Bow Ahmad, and was constructed at the same time as Ahmad's own Palace De La Bahia. The townhouse was the envy of reigning sultan Abd al-Aziz, and after the Vizier’s death the sultan had this house ransacked.[110] The collection of the museum is considered to be one of the finest in Morocco, with "jewellery from the High Atlas, the Anti Atlas and the extreme south; carpets from the Haouz
Haouz
and the High Atlas; oil lamps from Taroudannt; blue pottery from Safi and green pottery from Tamgroute; and leatherwork from Marrakesh."[110] Museum of Islamic Art[edit] The Museum of Islamic Art (Musée d'Art Islamique) is a blue-coloured building located in the Marjorelle Gardens. The private museum was created by Yves Saint Laurent and Pierre Bergé
Pierre Bergé
in the home of Jacques Majorelle,[104] who had his art studio there. Recently renovated, its small exhibition rooms have displays of Islamic artifacts and decorations including Irke pottery, polychrome plates, jewellery, and antique doors.[141][142] Music, theatre and dance[edit] Two types of music are traditionally associated with Marrakesh. Berber music is influenced by Andalusian classical music and typified by its oud accompaniment. By contrast, Gnaoua
Gnaoua
music is loud and funky with a sound reminiscent of the Blues. It is performed on handmade instruments such as castanets, ribabs (three-stringed banjos) and deffs (handheld drums). Gnaoua
Gnaoua
music's rhythm and crescendo take the audience into a mood of trance; the style is said to have emerged in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
and Essaouira
Essaouira
as a ritual of deliverance from slavery.[143] More recently, several Marrakesh
Marrakesh
female music groups have also risen to popularity.[144] The Théâtre Royal de Marrakesh, the Institut Français and Dar Chérifa are major performing arts institutions in the city. The Théâtre Royal, built by Tunisian architect Charles Boccara, puts on theatrical performances of comedy, opera, and dance in French and Arabic.[145] A greater number of theatrical troupes perform outdoors and entertain tourists on the main square and the streets, especially at night. Christopher Hudson of the Daily Mail
Daily Mail
noted that "men dressed as women performed bawdy street theatre, to the delight of a ring of onlookers of all ages."[146] Crafts[edit]

Locally made hats

The market in Marrakesh

The arts and crafts of Marrakesh
Marrakesh
have had a wide and enduring impact on Moroccan handicrafts to the present day. Riad décor is widely used in carpets and textiles, ceramics, woodwork, metal work and zelij. Carpets and textiles are weaved, sewn or embroidered, sometimes used for upholstering. Moroccan women who practice craftsmanship are known as Maalems (expert craftspeople) and make such fine products as Berber carpets and shawls made of sabra (cactus silk).[144] Ceramics are in monochrome Berber-style only, a limited tradition depicting bold forms and decorations.[144] Wood crafts are generally made of cedar, including the riad doors and palace ceilings. Orange wood
Orange wood
is used for making ladles known as harira (lentil soup ladles). Thuya
Thuya
craft products are made of caramel coloured thuya, a conifer indigenous to Morocco. Since this species is almost extinct, these trees are being replanted and promoted by the artists' cooperative Femmes de Marrakech.[144] Metalwork made in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
includes brass lamps, iron lanterns, candle holders made from recycled sardine tins, and engraved brass teapots and tea trays used in the traditional serving of tea. Contemporary art includes sculpture and figurative paintings. Blue veiled Tuareg figurines and calligraphy paintings are also popular.[144] Festivals[edit] Festivals, both national and Islamic, are celebrated in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
and throughout the country, and some of them are observed as national holidays.[147] Cultural festivals of note held in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
include the National Folklore Festival, the Marrakech
Marrakech
Festival of Popular Arts (in which a variety of famous Moroccan musicians and artists participate), and the Berber Festival.[147][148] The International Film Festival of Marrakech, which aspires to be the North African version of the Cannes Film Festival, was established in 2001.[149] The festival, which showcases over 100 films from around the world annually, has attracted Hollywood stars such as Martin Scorsese, Francis Ford Coppola, Susan Sarandon, Jeremy Irons, Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
and many European, Arabic and Indian film stars.[149] The Marrakech Bienniale was established in 2004 by Vanessa Branson as a cultural festival in various disciplines, including visual arts, cinema, video, literature, performing arts, and architecture.[150] Cuisine[edit]

Left: Tanjias are prepared in tangia pots sealed with paper. Right: Tea is prepared with green tea, fresh mint and sugar.

Surrounded by lemon, orange, and olive groves, the city's culinary characteristics are rich and heavily spiced but not hot, using various preparations of Ras el hanout
Ras el hanout
(which means "Head of the shop"), a blend of dozens of spices which include ash berries, chilli, cinnamon, grains of paradise, monk’s pepper, nutmeg, and turmeric.[151] A specialty of the city and the symbol of its cuisine is tanjia marrakshia a local tajine prepared with beef meat, spices and "smen" and slow-cooked in a traditional oven in hot ashes.[152] Tajines can be prepared with chicken, lamb, beef or fish, adding fruit, olives and preserved lemon, vegetables and spices, including cumin, peppers, saffron, turmeric, and ras el hanout. The meal is prepared in a tajine pot and slow-cooked with steam. Another version of tajine includes vegetables and chickpeas seasoned with flower petals.[153] Tajines may also be basted with "smen" moroccan ghee that has a flavour similar to blue cheese.[154] Shrimp, chicken and lemon-filled briouats are another traditional specialty of Marrakesh. Rice is cooked with saffron, raisins, spices, and almonds, while couscous may have added vegetables. A pastilla is a filo-wrapped pie stuffed with minced chicken or pigeon that has been prepared with almonds, cinnamon, spices and sugar.[155] Harira
Harira
soup in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
typically includes lamb with a blend of chickpeas, lentils, vermicelli, and tomato paste, seasoned with coriander, spices and parsley. Kefta
Kefta
(mince meat), liver in crépinette, merguez and tripe stew are commonly sold at the stalls of Jemaa el-Fnaa.[156] The desserts of Marrakesh
Marrakesh
include chebakia (sesame spice cookies usually prepared and served during Ramadan), tartlets of filo dough with dried fruit, or cheesecake with dates.[157] The Moroccan tea culture
Moroccan tea culture
is practiced in Marrakesh; green tea with mint is served with sugar from a curved teapot spout into small glasses.[158] Another popular non-alcoholic drink is orange juice.[159] Under the Almoravids, alcohol consumption was common;[160] historically, hundreds of Jews produced and sold alcohol in the city.[161] In the present day, alcohol is sold in some hotel bars and restaurants.[162] Education[edit]

Université Privée de Marrakech

Marrakesh
Marrakesh
has several universities and schools, including Cadi Ayyad University (also known as the University of Marrakech), and its component, the École nationale des sciences appliquées de Marrakech (ENSA Marrakech), which was created in 2000 by the Ministry of Higher Education and specializes in engineering and scientific research, and the La faculté des sciences et techniques-gueliz which known to be number one in Morocco
Morocco
in its kind of faculties. [163][164] Cadi Ayyad University was established in 1978 and operates 13 institutions in the Marrakech
Marrakech
Tensift Elhaouz and Abda Doukkala regions of Morocco
Morocco
in four main cities, including Kalaa of Sraghna, Essaouira
Essaouira
and Safi in addition to Marrakech.[165] Sup de Co Marrakech, also known as the École Supérieure de Commerce de Marrakech, is a private four-year college that was founded in 1987 by Ahmed Bennis. The school is affiliated with the École Supérieure de Commerce of Toulouse, France; since 1995 the school has built partnership programs with numerous American universities including the University of Delaware, University of St. Thomas, Oklahoma State University, National-Louis University, and Temple University. Ben Youssef Madrasa[edit]

A patio of the madrasa

The Ben Youssef Madrasa, located to the north of the Medina, was an Islamic college in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
named after the Almoravid sultan Ali ibn Yusuf (1106–1142) who expanded the city and its influence considerably. It is the largest madrasa in all of Morocco
Morocco
and was one of the largest theological colleges in North Africa, at one time housing as many as 900 students.[166] The college, which was affiliated with the neighbouring Ben Youssef Mosque, was founded during the Marinid
Marinid
dynasty in the 14th century by Sultan Abu al-Hassan.[166] This education complex specialized in Koranic law and was linked to similar institutions in Fez, Taza, Salé, and Meknes.[117] The Madrasa was re-constructed by the Saadian Sultan Abdallah al-Ghalib (1557–1574) in 1564 as the largest and most prestigious madrasa in Morocco.[117] The construction ordered by Abdallah al-Ghalib
Abdallah al-Ghalib
was completed in 1565, as attested by the inscription in the prayer room.[167] Its 130 student dormitory cells cluster around a courtyard richly carved in cedar, marble and stucco. In accordance with Islam, the carvings contain no representation of humans or animals, consisting entirely of inscriptions and geometric patterns. One of the school's best known teachers was Mohammed al-Ifrani (1670–1745). After a temporary closure beginning in 1960, the building was refurbished and reopened to the public as a historical site in 1982.[168] Sports[edit] Football clubs based in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
include Najm de Marrakech, KAC Marrakech, Mouloudia de Marrakech and Chez Ali Club de Marrakech. The city contains the Circuit International Automobile Moulay El Hassan
Circuit International Automobile Moulay El Hassan
a race track which hosts the World Touring Car Championship
World Touring Car Championship
and from 2017 FIA Formula E. The Marrakech Marathon is also held here.[169] Roughly 5000 runners turn out for the event annually.[170] Also, here takes place Grand Prix Hassan II tennis tournament (on clay) part of ATP World Tour series. Golf
Golf
is a popular sport in Marrakech. The city has three golf courses, located just outside the city limits and played almost through the year. The three main courses are the Golf
Golf
de Amelikis on the road to Ourazazate, the Palmeraie Golf
Golf
Palace near the Palmeraie, and the Royal Golf
Golf
Club, the oldest of the three courses.[171] Transport and communications[edit] Rail[edit]

Marrakesh
Marrakesh
railway station

The Marrakesh railway station
Marrakesh railway station
is linked by several trains running daily to other major cities in Morocco
Morocco
such as Casablanca, Tangiers, Fez, Meknes
Meknes
and Rabat. A modern high-speed rail system has been planned.[172] In 2015, a tramway is proposed. Road[edit] The main road network within and around Marrakesh
Marrakesh
is well paved. The major highway connecting Marrakesh
Marrakesh
with Casablanca
Casablanca
to the south is A7, a toll expressway, 210 km (130 mi) in length. The road from Marrakesh
Marrakesh
to Settat, a 146 km (91 mi) stretch, was inaugurated by King Mohammed VI
King Mohammed VI
in April 2007, completing the 558 km (347 mi) highway to Tangiers. Highway A7 connects also Marrakesh
Marrakesh
to Agadir, 233 km (145 mi) to the south-west.[172] Air[edit]

Marrakesh
Marrakesh
Menara Airport

The Marrakesh-Menara Airport
Marrakesh-Menara Airport
(RAK) is 3 km (1.9 mi) southwest of the city centre. It is an international facility that receives several European flights as well as flights from Casablanca and several Arab nations.[173] The airport is located at an elevation of 471 metres (1,545 ft) at 31°36′25″N 008°02′11″W / 31.60694°N 8.03639°W / 31.60694; -8.03639.[174] It has two formal passenger terminals, but these are more or less combined into one large terminal. A third terminal is being built.[175] The existing T1 and T2 terminals offer a space of 42,000 m2 (450,000 sq ft) and have a capacity of 4.5 million passengers per year. The blacktopped runway is 4.5 km (2.8 mi) long and 45 m (148 ft) wide. The airport has parking space for 14 Boeing 737
Boeing 737
and four Boeing 747
Boeing 747
aircraft. The separate freight terminal has 340 m2 (3,700 sq ft) of covered space.[176] Healthcare[edit] Marrakesh
Marrakesh
has long been an important centre for healthcare in Morocco, and the regional rural and urban populations alike are reliant upon hospitals in the city. The psychiatric hospital installed by the Merinid Caliph Ya'qub al-Mansur
Ya'qub al-Mansur
in the 16th century was described by the historian 'Abd al-Wahfd al- Marrakushi as one of the greatest in the world at the time.[177] A strong Andalusian influence was evident in the hospital, and many of the physicians to the Caliphs came from places such as Seville, Zaragoza
Zaragoza
and Denia
Denia
in eastern Spain.[177] A severe strain has been placed upon the healthcare facilities of the city in the last decade as the city population has grown dramatically.[178] Ibn Tofail University Hospital is one of the major hospitals of the city.[179] In February 2001, the Moroccan government signed a loan agreement worth eight million U.S. dollars with The OPEC Fund for International Development to help improve medical services in and around Marrakesh, which led to expansions of the Ibn Tofail and Ibn Nafess hospitals. Seven new buildings were constructed, with a total floor area of 43,000 square metres (460,000 sq ft). New radiotherapy and medical equipment was provided and 29,000 square metres (310,000 sq ft) of existing hospital space was rehabilitated.[178] In 2009, king Mohammed VI inaugurated a regional psychiatric hospital in Marrakesh, built by the Mohammed V Foundation for Solidarity, costing 22 million dirhams (approximately 2.7 million U.S. dollars).[180] The hospital has 194 beds, covering an area of 3 hectares (7.4 acres).[180] Mohammed VI has also announced plans for the construction of a 450 million dirham military hospital in Marrakesh.[181] Gallery[edit]

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Morocco Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Marrakesh
Marrakesh
is twinned with:

Scottsdale, Arizona, USA[182] Granada, Spain Marseille, France Clermont-Ferrand, France[183] Ajaccio, France Timbuktu, Mali Kerkrade, Netherlands

See also[edit]

Morocco
Morocco
portal

List of people from Marrakech Marrakech
Marrakech
in popular culture

References[edit]

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Encounter. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74179-316-1.  Bloom, Jonathan M.; Blair, Sheila (2009). The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture: Delhi to Mosque. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1.  Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1989). Encyclopaedia of Islam, Fascicle 107. Brill Archive. ISBN 978-90-04-09082-8.  Caldicott, Chris; Caldicott, Carolyn (2001). The spice routes: chronicles and recipes from around the world. frances lincoln ltd. ISBN 978-0-7112-1756-0.  Casas, Joseph; Solh, Mahmoud; Hafez, Hala (1999). The National Agricultural Research Systems in West Asia and North Africa
Africa
Region. ICARDA. ISBN 978-92-9127-096-5.  Cheurfi, Achour (2007). L'encyclopédie maghrébine. Casbah éditions. ISBN 978-9961-64-641-0.  Christiani, Kerry (2009). Frommer's Marrakech
Marrakech
Day by Day. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-71711-0.  Clammer, Paul (2009). Morocco. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-971-8.  Cornell, Vincent J. (1998). Realm of the Saint: Power and Authority in Moroccan Sufism. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71210-2.  Clark, Des (2012). Mountaineering in the Moroccan High Atlas. Cicerone Press Limited. ISBN 978-1-84965-717-4.  Davies, Ethel (2009). North Africa: The Roman Coast. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-84162-287-3.  Delbeke, M.; Schraven, M. (2011). Foundation, Dedication and Consecration in Early Modern Europe. BRILL. p. 185. ISBN 978-90-04-21757-7.  Denby, Elaine (2004). Grand Hotels: Reality and Illusion. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-121-1.  Egginton, Jane; Pitz, Anne (2010). NG Spirallo Marrakech
Marrakech
(in German). Mair Dumont Spirallo. ISBN 978-3-8297-3274-1.  Febvre, Lucien Paul Victor (1988). Annales. A. Colin.  Gerteiny, Alfred G. (1967). Mauritania. Praeger.  Gottreich, Emily (2007). The Mellah
Mellah
of Marrakesh: Jewish And Muslim Space in Morocco's Red City. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-21863-6.  Gottreich, Emily (2003). "On the Origins of the Mellah
Mellah
of Marrakesh". International Journal of Middle East Studies. Cambridge University Press. 35 (2): 287–305. doi:10.1017/s0020743803000126. JSTOR 3879621.  Hal, Fatéma (2002). Food of Morocco: Authentic Recipes from the North African Coast. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-962-593-992-6.  Hamilton, Richard (2011). The Last Storytellers: Tales from the Heart of Morocco. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84885-491-8.  Harrison, Rodney (2012). Heritage: Critical Approaches. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-26766-6.  Hoisington (2004). The Assassination of Jacques Lemaigre Dubreuil: A Frenchman between France
France
and North Africa. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-35032-7.  Howe, Marvine (2005). Morocco: The Islamist Awakening and Other Challenges. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516963-8.  Humphrys, Darren (2010). Frommer's Morocco. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-56022-8.  Jacobs, Daniel (2013). The Rough Guide to Morocco. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-4093-3267-1.  Koehler, Jeff (2012). Morocco: A Culinary Journey with Recipes: A Culinary Journey with Recipes from the Spice-Scented Markets. Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-1-4521-1365-4.  Laet, Sigfried J. de (1994). History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century. UNESCO. ISBN 978-92-3-102813-7.  Layton, Monique (2011). Notes from Elsewhere: Travel and Other Matters. iUniverse. ISBN 978-1-4620-3649-3.  Lehmann, Ingeborg; Henss, Rita; Szerelmy, Beate (2009). Baedeker Morocco. Baedeker. ISBN 978-3-8297-6623-4.  Listri, Massimo; Rey, Daniel (2005). Marrakech: Living on the Edge of the Desert. Images Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86470-152-4.  Loizillon, Sophie (2008). Maroc (in French). Editions Marcus. ISBN 978-2-7131-0271-4.  Mallos, Tess (2006). A Little Taste Of-- Morocco. Murdoch Books. ISBN 978-1-74045-754-5.  Mayhew, Bradley; Dodd, Jan (2003). Morocco. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74059-361-8.  Michelin (2001). Morocco. Michelin Travel Publications.  Messier, Ronald A. (2010). The Almoravids and the Meanings of Jihad. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-38589-6.  Nanjira, Daniel Don (2010). African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy From Antiquity to the 21st Century. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-37982-6.  Naylor, Phillip C. (2009). North Africa: A History from Antiquity to the Present. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71922-4.  Pons, Pau Obrador; Crang, Mike; Travlou, Penny (2009). Cultures of Mass Tourism: Doing the Mediterranean in the Age of Banal Mobilities. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7546-7213-5.  Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M.; Boda, Sharon La (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Middle East and Africa. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. ISBN 978-1-884964-03-9.  Rogerson, Barnaby; Lavington, Stephen (2004). Marrakech: The Red City. Sickle Moon. ISBN 978-1-900209-18-2.  Rogerson, Barnaby (2000). Marrakesh, Fez, Rabat. New Holland Publishers. ISBN 978-1-86011-973-6.  Searight, Susan (1999). Maverick Guide to Morocco. Pelican Publishing. ISBN 978-1-56554-348-5.  Shackley, Myra (2012). Atlas of Travel and Tourism Development. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-42782-4.  Shillington, Kevin (2005). Encyclopedia of African history. Fitzroy Dearborn.  Sullivan, Paul (2006). A Hedonist's Guide to Marrakech. A Hedonist's guide to... ISBN 978-1-905428-06-9.  Venison, Peter J. (2005). In the Shadow of the Sun: Travels And Adventures in the World of Hotels. iUniverse. ISBN 978-0-595-35458-0.  Vorhees, Mara; Edsall, Heidi (2005). Morocco. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74059-678-7. 

Further reading[edit]

Auzias, Dominique; Labourdette, Jean-Paul (2011). Marrakech
Marrakech
2011 – 2012 (in French). Collectif, Petit Futé. ISBN 978-2-7469-3014-8. Retrieved 8 October 2012.  Bing, Alison (2006). Best of Marrakesh. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74059-594-0.  Bing, Alison (2011). Marrakesh
Marrakesh
Encounter. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74179-316-1.  Brown, Hamish M. (2007). The Mountains Look on Marrakech. Whittles. ISBN 978-1-870325-29-5.  Canetti, Elias (2012). The Voices of Marrakesh: A Record of a Visit. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-0-14-119562-9.  Charvet, Marie (2003). Marrakesh. Everyman. ISBN 978-1-84159-073-8.  Christiani, Kerry (2010). Frommer's Marrakech
Marrakech
Day by Day. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-71711-0.  Editors of Time Out (2008). Time Out Shortlist Marrakech. Time Out. ISBN 978-1-84670-076-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Fernea, Elizabeth Warnock (1988). A Street in Marrakech: A Personal View of Urban Women in Morocco. Waveland Press. ISBN 978-0-88133-404-3.  Gottreich, Emily (2007). The Mellah
Mellah
of Marrakesh: Jewish And Muslim Space in Morocco's Red City. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-21863-6.  Gould, Stephen Jay (2011). The Lying Stones of Marrakech: Penultimate Reflections in Natural History. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-06167-5.  Humphreys, Andrew (2008). Marrakech. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-1-4053-2827-2.  Humphreys, Andrew (2010). DK Eyewitness Top 10 Travel Guide: Marrakech: Marrakech. Dorling Kindersley Limited. ISBN 978-1-4053-6690-8.  Jacobs, Daniel (2004). Marrakesh
Marrakesh
Directions. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84353-321-4.  Listri, Massimo; Rey, Daniel (2006). Marrakech: Living on the Edge of the Desert. Images Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86470-152-4.  McGuinness, Justin (2002). Footprint Marrakech
Marrakech
& the High Atlas Handbook: The Travel Guide. Footprint Handbooks. ISBN 978-1-903471-12-8.  McGuinness, Justin (2004). Marrakech. Footprint Handbooks. ISBN 978-1-903471-81-4.  Mourad, Khireddine (1994). Marrakech
Marrakech
Et La Mamounia
La Mamounia
(in French). www.acr-edition.com. ISBN 978-2-86770-081-1.  Nichols, Fiona (2009). Marrakech
Marrakech
Travel Pack. Globetrotter. ISBN 978-1-84773-472-3.  Sullivan, Paul (2006). A Hedonist's Guide to Marrakech. A Hedonist's guide to... ISBN 978-1-905428-06-9.  Sweeney, Sarah (2009). Marrakesh. Insight Guides. ISBN 978-981-282-122-5.  Wilbaux, Quentin; Lebrun, Michel; McElhearn, Kirk (2009). Marrakesh: The Secret of Courtyard Houses. www.acr-edition.com. ISBN 978-2-86770-130-6.  Wilde, Tatiana (2012). Select Marrakech. APA Publications UK, Limited. ISBN 978-1-78005-285-4. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marrakech.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Marrakesh.

Parliament of Morocco

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Marrakesh

Subdivisions

Communes

Mechouar Kasba Annakhil Gueliz Marrakech-Medina Menara Sidi Youssef Ben Ali Alouidane Harbil M'Nabha Ouahat Sidi Brahim Oulad Hassoune Ouled Dlim Agafay Ait Imour Loudaya Saada Sid Zouine Souihla Tassoultante

Neighbourhoods

Bab Ghmat Arset El Baraka Arset Moulay Bouaza Djane Ben Chogra Arset El Houta Bab Aylan Arset Sidi Youssef Derb Chtouka Bab Hmar Bab Agnaou Quartier Jnan Laafia Toureg Kasbah Mellah Arset El Maach Arset Moulay Moussa Riad Zitoun Jdid Kennaria Rahba Kedima Kaat Benahid Zaouiat Lahdar El Moukef Riad Laarous Assouel Kechich Douar Fekhara Arset Tihiri Sidi Ben Slimane El Jazouli Diour Jdad Rmila Zaouia Sidi Rhalem Kbour Chou Ain Itti Bab Doukkala El Hara Arset El Bilk Daoudiate Diour El Massakine Yamama Sidi Abbad Sakar Malizia Sidi Youssef Ben Ali Massima Hay Annahda Berradi Douar Lahna Touggana Lagouassem Lahebichate

History

Timeline Battle of Sidi Bou Othman

Economy

souks

Souk
Souk
Semmarine Souk
Souk
Ableuh Souk
Souk
Kchacha Souk
Souk
Siyyaghin Souk
Souk
Smata Souk
Souk
Cherratine Souk
Souk
Belaarif Souk
Souk
Haddadine

hospitals

Ibn Tofail University Hospital Ibn Nafess Hospital

Transport

Marrakesh-Menara Airport Marrakesh
Marrakesh
railway station Avenue Mohammed VI

Education

Cadi Ayyad University École nationale des sciences appliquées de Marrakech Sup de Co Marrakech Lycée Hassan II Ben Youssef Madrasa Lycée Victor Hugo

Sports

clubs

Najm de Marrakech KAC Marrakech Mouloudia de Marrakech Chez Ali Club de Marrakech Royal Ranches Marrakech

competitions

World Touring Car Championship Formula Two Auto GP Marrakech
Marrakech
Marathon

sport venues

Stade de Marrakech Marrakech
Marrakech
Street Circuit Stade El Harti

Landmarks

squares places

Jemaa el-Fnaa El Mashwar El Moussalla Place Bab Doukkala Square Charles de Foucauld Place de la Liberté Place du 16 Novembre Place des Ferblantiers Place Sidi Ahmed El Kamel Place Youssef Ben Tachfine Place Mourabiten Square Bir Anzaran

places of worship

Koutoubia Mosque Ben Youssef Medrassa Ben Youssef Mosque Kasbah
Kasbah
Mosque: Moulay Alyazid Mosque Mansouria Mosque Barrima Mosque Mouassine Mosque Zaouia of Sidi Bel Abbes Zaouia of Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Jazuli Zaouia of Sidi Youssef Ben Ali Sidi Moulay el Ksour Mosque Synagogue Beth-El Synagogue Salat el Azama Synagogue Salat Rabi Pinhasse

mausoleums cemetery

Saadian Tombs Mausoleum of Ahmed el-Mansour Koubba of Fatima Zohra Almoravid Koubba Koubba Cadi Ayyad Jewish Cemetery Sidi Abd el Aziz Sidi es Suhayli

city walls gates

Bab Aghmat Bab Agnaou Bab Ahmar Bab al-Arissa Bab al-Arset ben Brahim Bab Aylen Bab Berrima Bab ech Charia Bab Debbagh Bab Doukkala Bab Fteuh Bab Hmar Bab Ighli Bab el Jédid Bab el Khémis Bab Ksiba Bab el Makhzen Bab Nkob Bab er Raha Bab al-Ra'is Bab er Rharaza Bab er Robb Bab Taghzout

landmarks

El Badi Palace Royal Palace Bahia Palace Aïn Kassimou

museums

Dar Si Saïd Museum Marrakech
Marrakech
Museum Bert Flint Museum Islamic Art Museum

parks gardens

Menara gardens Majorelle Garden Agdal Gardens Annakhil: Palm Grove Aarssat Elhamed Aarssat Moulay Abdessalam Aarssat Elbilk Ghabat Achabab Bab Errab Garden

People

See Category:People from Marrakesh

v t e

Marrakesh-Safi
Marrakesh-Safi
region

Capital: Marrakesh

Provinces

Al Haouz
Haouz
Province Chichaoua
Chichaoua
Province Essaouira
Essaouira
Province Kelaat Sraghna Province Marrakech
Marrakech
Prefecture Rehamna Province Safi Province Youssoufia Province

Cities

Aït Dawd Ait Ourir Amizmiz Assahrij Ben Guerir Chichaoua Echemmaia El Hanchane Essaouira Imin tanout Kelaat Sraghna Jamaat Shaim Laattaouia Lalla Takerkoust Marrakesh Moulay Brahim Ounagha Safi Sebt Gzoula Sidi Abdallah Ghiat Sidi Bou Othmane Sidi Rahal Skhour Rhamna Smimou Tafetachte Tahannaout Talmest Tamallalt Tamanar Tameslouht Youssoufia

v t e

Prefectures and provinces of Morocco

Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima

Prefectures

Tangier-Assilah M'diq-Fnideq

Provinces

Fahs-Anjra Tétouan Al Hoceïma Larache Chefchaouen Ouezzane

Oriental

Prefecture

Oujda-Angad

Provinces

Berkane Taourirt Jerada Figuig Nador Driouch Guercif

Fès-Meknès

Prefectures

Fès Meknès

Provinces

Boulemane Sefrou Moulay Yacoub El Hajeb Ifrane Taounate Taza

Rabat-Salé-Kénitra

Prefectures

Rabat Salé Skhirate-Témara

Provinces

Kénitra Khémisset Sidi Kacem Sidi Slimane

Béni Mellal-Khénifra

Provinces

Béni-Mellal Khouribga Khénifra Azilal Fquih Ben Salah

Casablanca-Settat

Prefectures

Casablanca Mohammedia

Provinces

Settat Berrechid Benslimane Sidi Bennour Nouaceur Médiouna El Jadida

Marrakesh-Safi

Prefecture

Marrakesh

Provinces

Al Haouz Chichaoua El Kelâa des Sraghna Essaouira Safi Rehamna Youssoufia

Drâa-Tafilalet

Provinces

Errachidia Zagora Midelt Ouarzazate Tinghir

Souss-Massa

Prefectures

Agadir-Ida Ou Tanane Inezgane-Aït Melloul

Provinces

Taroudant Tiznit Chtouka Aït Baha Tata

Guelmim-Oued Noun

Provinces

Assa-Zag Guelmim Tan-Tan Sidi Ifni

Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra

Provinces

Laâyoune Tarfaya Boujdour Es Semara

Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab

Provinces

Aousserd Oued Ed-Dahab

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Morocco

Northern

Medina
Medina
of Fez Rabat, Modern Capital and Historic City: a Shared Heritage Medina
Medina
of Tétouan
Tétouan
(formerly known as Titawin) Archaeological Site of Volubilis Historic City of Meknes

Central

Medina
Medina
of Essaouira
Essaouira
(formerly Mogador) Medina
Medina
of Marrakech Portuguese City of Mazagan (El Jadida)

Southern

Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 260256435 GND: 4037684-9 BNF: cb11933506n (d

.