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Malwa
Malwa
is a historical region of west-central India
India
occupying a plateau of volcanic origin. Geologically, the Malwa
Malwa
Plateau
Plateau
generally refers to the volcanic upland north of the Vindhya Range. Politically and administratively, the historical Malwa
Malwa
region includes districts of central part of western Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and parts of south-eastern Rajasthan. The definition of Malwa
Malwa
is sometimes extended to include the Nimar region south of the Vindhyas. The Malwa
Malwa
region had been a separate political unit from the time of the ancient Malava Kingdom. It has been ruled by several kingdoms and dynasties, including the Avanti Kingdom, the Mauryans, the Malavas, the Guptas, the Paramaras, the Malwa
Malwa
sultans, the Mughals
Mughals
and the Marathas. Malwa
Malwa
continued to be an administrative division until 1947, when the Malwa Agency of British India
India
was merged into Madhya Bharat (also known as Malwa
Malwa
Union) state of independent India. Although its political borders have fluctuated throughout history, the region has developed its own distinct culture, influenced by the Rajasthani, Marathi and Gujarati cultures. Several prominent people in the history of India
India
have hailed from Malwa, including the poet and dramatist Kalidasa, the author Bhartrihari, the mathematicians and astronomers Varahamihira
Varahamihira
and Brahmagupta, and the polymath king Bhoja. Ujjain
Ujjain
had been the political, economic, and cultural capital of the region in ancient times, and Indore
Indore
is now the largest city and commercial centre. Overall, agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Malwa. The region has been one of the important producers of opium in the world. Wheat and soybeans are other important cash crops, and textiles are a major industry.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 Demographics 4 Economy 5 Culture 6 Tourism 7 Sports

7.1 Venues

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

History[edit]

Ceramic goblet of the Malwa culture
Malwa culture
from Navdatoli, Malwa, 1300 BCE.

Coin showing Karttikeya
Karttikeya
and Lakshmi
Lakshmi
(Ujjain, circa 150–75 BC)

Several early stone age or Lower Paleolithic
Lower Paleolithic
habitations have been excavated in eastern Malwa.[2] The name Malwa
Malwa
is derived from the name of the ancient Indian tribe of Malavas. The name Malava is said to be derived from the Sanskrit term Malav, which means “part of the abode of Lakshmi”.[3] The location of the Malwa
Malwa
or Moholo, mentioned by the 7th-century Chinese traveller Xuanzang, is plausibly identified with present-day Gujarat.[4] The region is cited as Malibah in Arabic records, such as Kamilu-t Tawarikh by Ibn Asir.[5] The Malwa
Malwa
Culture was a Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
archaeological culture which existed in the Malwa
Malwa
region, as well as nearby parts of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
to the south, during the 2nd millennium BCE.[6][7] Ujjain, also known historically as Ujjaiyini and Avanti, emerged as the first major centre in the Malwa
Malwa
region during India's second wave of urbanisation in the 7th century BC (the first wave was the Indus Valley Civilization). Around 600 BC an earthen rampart was built around Ujjain, enclosing a city of considerable size. Ujjain
Ujjain
was the capital city of the Avanti kingdom, one of the prominent mahajanapadas of ancient India. In the post- Mahabharata
Mahabharata
period—around 500 BC—Avanti was an important kingdom in western India; it was ruled by the Haihayas, a people who were responsible for the destruction of Naga power in western India.[8] The region was conquered by the Nanda Empire
Nanda Empire
in the mid-4th century BC, and subsequently became part of the Maurya Empire. Ashoka, who was later a Mauryan emperor, was governor of Ujjain
Ujjain
in his youth. After the death of Ashoka
Ashoka
in 232 BC, the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
began to collapse. Although evidence is sparse, Malwa
Malwa
was probably ruled by the Kushanas, the Shakas and the Satavahana dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
during the 1st and 2nd century CE. Ownership of the region was the subject of dispute between the Western Kshatrapas
Western Kshatrapas
and the Satavahanas during the first three centuries AD. Ujjain
Ujjain
emerged a major trading centre during the 1st century AD.

Rani Rupmati
Rupmati
Pavilion at Mandu, built by Miyan Bayezid Baz Bahadur (1555–62)

Malwa
Malwa
became part of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
during the reign of Chandragupta II (375–413), also known as Vikramaditya, who conquered the region, driving out the Western Kshatrapas. The Gupta period is widely regarded as a golden age in the history of Malwa, when Ujjain
Ujjain
served as the empire's western capital. Kalidasa, Aryabhata
Aryabhata
and Varahamihira were all based in Ujjain, which emerged as a major centre of learning, especially in astronomy and mathematics. Around 500, Malwa
Malwa
re-emerged from the dissolving Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
as a separate kingdom; in 528, Yasodharman
Yasodharman
of Malwa
Malwa
defeated the Hunas, who had invaded India
India
from the north-west. During the seventh century, the region became part of Harsha's empire, who disputed the region with the Chalukya
Chalukya
king Pulakesin II
Pulakesin II
of Badami
Badami
in the Deccan. In 756 AD Gurjara-Pratiharas
Gurjara-Pratiharas
advanced into Malwa.[9] In 786 the region was captured by the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
kings of the Deccan, and was disputed between the Rashtrakutas and the Gurjara Pratihara kings of Kannauj until the early part of the tenth century. The Emperors of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
dynasty appointed the Paramara
Paramara
rulers as governors of Malwa.[10] From the mid-tenth century, Malwa
Malwa
was ruled by the Paramaras, who established a capital at Dhar. King Bhoj, who ruled from about 1010 to 1060, was known as the great polymath philosopher-king of medieval India; his extensive writings cover philosophy, poetry, medicine, veterinary science, phonetics, yoga, and archery. Under his rule Malwa
Malwa
became an intellectual centre of India. His successors ruled until about 1305, when Malwa
Malwa
was conquered by the Delhi Sultanate. Malwa
Malwa
was several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire.[11]

Position of Malwa
Malwa
with respect to other states in c. 1200. prior to conquest by Delhi Sultanate

Dilawar Khan, previously Malwa's governor under the rule of the Delhi sultanate, declared himself sultan of Malwa
Malwa
in 1401 after the Mughal conqueror Timur
Timur
attacked Delhi, causing the break-up of the sultanate into smaller states. Khan started the Malwa Sultanate
Malwa Sultanate
and established a capital at Mandu, high in the Vindhya Range
Vindhya Range
overlooking the Narmada River valley. His son and successor, Hoshang Shah
Hoshang Shah
(1405–35), developed Mandu as an important city. Hoshang Shah's son, Ghazni Khan, ruled for only a year and was succeeded by Mahmud Khalji
Mahmud Khalji
(1436–69), the first of the Khalji sultans of Malwa, who expanded the state to include parts of Gujarat, Rajasthan, and the Deccan. The Muslim sultans invited the Rajputs to settle in the country. In the early 16th century, the sultan sought the aid of the sultans of Gujarat
Gujarat
to counter the growing power of the Rajputs, while the Rajputs sought the support of the Sesodia
Sesodia
Rajput
Rajput
kings of Mewar. Gujarat
Gujarat
stormed Mandu in 1518. In 1531, Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, captured Mandu, executed Mahmud II (1511–31), and shortly after that, the Malwa
Malwa
sultanate collapsed.[12] The Mughal emperor Akbar captured Malwa
Malwa
in 1562 and made it a subah (province) of his empire. The Malwa Subah existed from 1568 to 1743. Mandu was abandoned by the 17th century.

Sculpture of a Holkar
Holkar
courtier from Fort Ahilya

As the Mughal state weakened after 1700, the Marathas
Marathas
held sway over Malwa
Malwa
under dispatchment of Baji Rao I
Baji Rao I
under leadership of Chimnaji Appa, Nemaji Shinde and Chimnaji Damodar
Chimnaji Damodar
were the first Maratha generals to cross the boundary of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and to invade in Malwa in 1698. Subsequently, Malharrao Holkar
Malharrao Holkar
(1694–1766) became leader of Maratha
Maratha
armies in Malwa
Malwa
in 1724, and in 1733 the Maratha
Maratha
Peshwa granted him control of most of the region, which was formally ceded by the Mughals
Mughals
in 1738. Ranoji Scindia, noted Maratha
Maratha
commander, established his headquarters at Ujjain
Ujjain
in 1721. This capital was later moved to Gwalior State
Gwalior State
by Daulatrao Scindia. Another Maratha
Maratha
general, Anand Rao Pawar, established himself as the Raja of Dhar
Dhar
in 1742, and the two Pawar brothers became Rajas of Dewas
Dewas
State. At the end of the 18th century, Malwa
Malwa
became the venue of fighting between the rival Maratha
Maratha
powers and the headquarters of the Pindaris, who were irregular plunderers. The Pindaris were rooted out in a campaign by the British general Lord Hastings, and further order was established under Sir John Malcolm.[4] The Holkar
Holkar
dynasty ruled Malwa from Indore
Indore
and Maheshwar
Maheshwar
on the Narmada until 1818, when the Marathas were defeated by the British in the Third Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War, and the Holkars of Indore
Indore
became a princely state of the British Raj. After 1818 the British organised the numerous princely states of central India
India
into the Central India
India
Agency; the Malwa Agency was a division of Central India, with an area of 23,100 km2 (8,900 sq mi) and a population of 1,054,753 in 1901. It comprised the states of Dewas State
Dewas State
(senior and junior branch), Jaora, Ratlam, Sitamau
Sitamau
and Sailana, together with a large part of Gwalior, parts of Indore
Indore
and Tonk, and about 35 small estates and holdings. Political power was exercised from Neemuch.[4] Upon Indian independence in 1947, the Holkars and other princely rulers acceded to India, and most of Malwa
Malwa
became part of the new state of Madhya Bharat, which was merged into Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
in 1956. Geography[edit]

Malwa
Malwa
(central India, in yellow), as depicted in the Ostell's New General Atlas, 1814

The Malwa
Malwa
region occupies a plateau in western Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and south-eastern Rajasthan
Rajasthan
(between 21°10′N 73°45′E / 21.167°N 73.750°E / 21.167; 73.750 and 25°10′N 79°14′E / 25.167°N 79.233°E / 25.167; 79.233),[8] with Gujarat
Gujarat
in the west. The region includes the Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
districts of Agar, Dewas, Dhar, Indore, Jhabua, Mandsaur, Neemuch, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Shajapur, Ujjain, and parts of Guna and Sehore, and the Rajasthan
Rajasthan
districts of Jhalawar
Jhalawar
and parts of Kota, Banswara
Banswara
and Pratapgarh. Malwa
Malwa
is bounded in the north-east by the Hadoti
Hadoti
region, in the north-west by the Mewar
Mewar
region, in the west by the Vagad
Vagad
region and Gujarat. To the south and east is the Vindhya Range
Vindhya Range
and to the north is the Bundelkhand
Bundelkhand
upland. The plateau is an extension of the Deccan Traps, formed between 60 and 68 million years ago[13][14] at the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. In this region the main classes of soil are black, brown and bhatori (stony) soil. The volcanic, clay-like soil of the region owes its black colour to the high iron content of the basalt from which it formed. The soil requires less irrigation because of its high capacity for moisture retention. The other two soil types are lighter and have a higher proportion of sand. The average elevation of the plateau is 500 m. Some of the peaks over 800 m high are at Sigar (881 m), Janapav
Janapav
(854 m) and Ghajari (810 m). The plateau generally slopes towards the north. The western part of the region is drained by the Mahi River, while the Chambal River
Chambal River
drains the central part, and the Betwa River and the headwaters of the Dhasan and Ken rivers drain the east. The Shipra River
Shipra River
is of historical importance because of the Simhasth mela, held every 12 years. Other notable rivers are Parbati, Gambhir and Choti Kali
Kali
Sindh. Due to its altitude of about 550 to 600 meters above mean sea level, the region has comparatively cool evenings against the hot days during the summer season.[15] Even if the day temperature reaches 42 to 43 degrees Celsius, the night temperatures are always in range of 20 to 22 degrees making the climate much cooler than the other areas of the region. The cool morning wind, the karaman, and an evening breeze, the Shab-e-Malwa, make the summers less harsh. The term Shab-e-Malwa, meaning dusk in Malwa
Malwa
(from shab, Urdu
Urdu
for night), was introduced by the Mughals.

The Vindhya Range
Vindhya Range
marks the southern boundary of the plateau, and is the source of many rivers of the region.

The year is popularly divided into three seasons: summer, the rains, and winter. Summer extends over the months of Chaitra
Chaitra
to Jyestha (mid-March to mid-May). The average maximum temperature during the summer months is 37 °C, which typically rises to around 40 °C on a few days. The rainy season starts with the first showers of Aashaadha (mid-June) and extends to the middle of Ashvin (September). Most of the rain falls during the southwest monsoon spell, and ranges from about 80 cm in the west to about 10.5 cm in the east. Indore
Indore
and the immediately surrounding areas receive an average of 90 cm of rainfall a year. The growing period lasts from 90 to 150 days, during which the average daily temperature is below 30 °C, but seldom falls below 20 °C. Winter is the longest of the three seasons, extending for about five months (mid- Ashvin to Phalgun, i.e., October to mid-March). The average daily minimum temperature ranges from 6 °C to 9 °C, though on some nights it can fall as low as 3 °C. Some cultivators believe that an occasional winter shower during the months of Pausha
Pausha
and Maagha—known as Mawta—is helpful to the early summer wheat and germ crops.[8]

The Sambhar is one of the most common wild animals found in the region.

The region is part of the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion. Vegetation: The natural vegetation is tropical dry forest, with scattered teak (Tectona grandis) forests. The main trees are Butea, Bombax, Anogeissus, Acacia, Buchanania
Buchanania
and Boswellia. The shrubs or small trees include species of Grewia, Ziziphus mauritiana, Casearia, Prosopis, Capparis, Woodfordia, Phyllanthus, and Carissa. Wildlife: Sambhar (Cervus unicolor), Blackbuck
Blackbuck
(Antilope cervicapra), and Chinkara
Chinkara
(Gazella bennettii) are some common ungulates.[16] During the last century, deforestation has happened at a fast rate, leading to environmental problems such as acute water scarcity and the danger that the region is being desertified. Demographics[edit]

A girl from the Gadia Lohars nomadic tribe of Marwar, cooking on the outskirts of a village in Ratlam
Ratlam
district

The population of the Malwa
Malwa
region was about 18.9 million in 2001, with a population density of a moderate 231/km². The annual birth rate in the region was 31.6 per 1000, and the death rate 10.3. The infant mortality rate was 93.8, slightly higher than the overall rate for the Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
state. There are numerous tribes in the region, such as the Bhils—and their allied groups, the Meos the Bhilalas, Barelas and Patelias—and the Meenas, who all differ to a remarkable degree from the regional population in their dialects and social life. They encompass a variety of languages and cultures. Some tribes of the region, notably the Kanjars, were notified in the 19th century for their criminal activities, but have since been denotified. A nomadic tribe from the Marwar
Marwar
region of Rajasthan, the Gadia Lohars—who work as lohars (blacksmiths)—visit the region at the start of the agricultural season to repair and sell agricultural tools and implements, stopping temporarily on the outskirts of villages and towns and residing in their ornate metal carts. The Kalbelia
Kalbelia
is another nomadic tribe from Rajasthan
Rajasthan
that regularly visits the region.[17] Malwa
Malwa
has a significant number of Dawoodi Bohras, a subsect of Shia Muslims from Gujarat, who are mostly businessmen by profession. Besides speaking the local languages, the Bohras have their own language, Lisan al-Dawat. The Patidars, who probably originated from the Kurmis of Punjab, are mostly rural farmers who settled in Gujarat around 1400. Periods of Maratha
Maratha
rule led to the growth of sizeable Marathi communities. The region of Indore, Dhar, Dewas
Dewas
and Ujjain
Ujjain
has a considerable Marathi speaking populace. A significant number of Marwaris, Jats
Jats
and Rajputs also live in the region. The Sindhis, who settled in the region after the partition of India, are an important part of the business community. Like southern Rajasthan, the region has a significant number of Jains, who are mostly traders and business people. The region is home to smaller numbers of Goan Catholics, Anglo-Indians, Punjabis and Parsis or Zoroastrians. The Parsis are closely connected to the growth and evolution of Mhow, which has a Parsi fire temple and a Tower of Silence. Economy[edit]

Children in an opium field in Malwa

Indore
Indore
is the commercial capital of Malwa
Malwa
region. Malwa
Malwa
is one of the world's major opium producers. This crop resulted in development of close connections between the economies of Malwa, the western Indian ports and China, bringing international capital to the region in the 18th and 19th centuries. Malwa
Malwa
opium was a challenge to the monopoly of the British East India
India
Company, which was supplying Bengal
Bengal
opium to China. This led the British company to impose many restrictions on the production and trade of the drug; eventually, opium trading was pushed underground. When smuggling became rife, the British eased the restrictions. Today, the region is one of the largest producers of legal opium in the world. There is a central, government-owned opium and alkaloid factory in the city of Neemuch. Nevertheless, there is a still a significant amount of illicit opium production, which is channelled into the black market. The headquarters of India's Central Bureau of Narcotics is in Gwalior. The Rajputana-Malwa Railway was opened in 1876. The region is predominantly agricultural. The brown soil in parts of the region is particularly suitable for the cultivation of such unalu (early summer) crops as wheat, gram (Cicer arietinum) and til (Sesamum indicum). Relatively poor soil is used for the cultivation of such syalu (early winter) crops as millet (Andropogon sorghum), maize (Zea mays), mung bean (Vigna radiata), urad (Vigna mungo), batla (Pisum sativum) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea). Overall, the main crops are jowar, rice, wheat, coarse millet, peanuts and pulses, soya bean, cotton, linseed, sesame and sugarcane. Sugar mills are located in numerous small towns. The black, volcanic soil is ideal for the cultivation of cotton, and textile manufacture is an important industry. Large centres of textile production include Indore, Ujjain
Ujjain
and Nagda. Maheshwar
Maheshwar
is known for its fine Maheshwari saris, and Mandsaur for its coarse woollen blankets. Handicrafts are an important source of income for the tribal population. Coloured lacquerware from Ratlam, rag dolls from Indore, and papier-mâché articles from Indore, Ujjain
Ujjain
and several other centres are well known. Mandsaur district is the sole producer in India
India
of white- and red-coloured slate, used in the district's 110 slate pencil factories. There is a cement factory in . Apart from this, the region lacks mineral resources. The region's industries mainly produce consumer goods—but there are now many centres of large- and medium-scale industries, including Indore, Nagda and Ujjain. Indore
Indore
has a large-scale factory that produces diesel engines. Pithampur, an industrial town 25 km from Indore, is known as the Detroit of India
India
for its heavy concentration of automotive industry. Indore
Indore
is recognised as the commercial capital of Madhya Pradesh, and is the main centre for trade in textiles and agro-based products. It has one of the six Indian Institutes of Management and one of sixteen Indian Institute of Technology. Culture[edit]

A Maratha-styled sculpture from Maheshwar

The culture of Malwa
Malwa
has been significantly influenced by Rajasthani culture, because of their geographic proximity. Marathi influence is also visible, because of recent rule by the Marathas. The main language of Malwa
Malwa
is Malvi, although Hindi
Hindi
is widely spoken in the cities. This Indo-European language is subclassified as Indo-Aryan. The language is sometimes referred to as Malavi or Ujjaini. Malvi is part of the Rajasthani branch of languages; Nimadi is spoken in the Nimar region of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and in Rajasthan. The dialects of Malvi are, in alphabetical order, Bachadi, Bhoyari, Dholewari, Hoshangabadi, Jamral, Katiyai, Malvi Proper, Patvi, Rangari, Rangri and Sondwari. A survey in 2001 found only four dialects: Ujjaini (in the districts of Ujjain, Indore, Dewas
Dewas
and Sehore), Rajawari (Ratlam, Mandsaur and Neemuch), Umadwari (Rajgarh) and Sondhwari (Jhalawar, in Rajasthan). About 55% of the population of Malwa
Malwa
can converse in and about 40% of the population is literate in Hindi, the official language of the Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
state.[18] Traditional Malwa
Malwa
food has elements of Rajasthani, Gujarati and Maharashtrian cuisine. Traditionally, jowar was the staple cereal, but after the Green Revolution in India, wheat has replaced jowar as the most important food crop; many are vegetarians. Since the climate is mostly dry throughout the year, most people rely on stored foods such as pulses, and green vegetables are rare. A typical snack of Malwa
Malwa
is the bhutta ri kees (made with grated corn roasted in ghee and later cooked in milk with spices). Chakki ri shaak is made of wheat dough, which is washed under running water, steamed and then used in a gravy of curd. The traditional bread of Malwa
Malwa
is called baati/bafla, which is essentially a small, round ball of wheat flour, roasted over dung cakes, in the traditional way. Baati
Baati
is typically eaten with dal (pulses), while baflas are dripping with ghee and soaked with dal. The amli ri kadhi is kadhi made with tamarind instead of yogurt. Sweet cakes, made of a variety of wheat called tapu, are prepared during religious festivities. Sweet cereal called thulli is also typically eaten with milk or yoghurt. Traditional desserts include mawa-bati (milk-based sweet similar to Gulab jamun), khoprapak (coconut-based sweet), shreekhand (yogurt based) and malpua. Lavani
Lavani
is a widely practised form of folk music in southern Malwa, which was brought to the region by the Marathas. The Nirguni Lavani (philosophical) and the Shringari Lavani
Lavani
(erotic) are two of the main genres. The Bhils
Bhils
have their own folk songs, which are always accompanied by dance. The folk musical modes of Malwa
Malwa
are of four or five notes, and in rare cases six. The devotional music of the Nirguni cult is popular throughout Malwa. Legends of Raja Bhoj and Bijori, the Kanjar girl, and the tale of Balabau are popular themes for folk songs. Insertions known as stobha are commonly used in Malwa
Malwa
music; this can occur in four ways: the matra stobha (syllable insertion), varna stobha (letter insertion), shabda stobha (word insertion) and vakya stobha (sentence insertion).

Typical countryside near Mhow
Mhow
during the monsoon season

Malwa
Malwa
was the centre of Sanskrit literature
Sanskrit literature
during and after the Gupta period. The region's most famous playwright, Kalidasa, is considered to be the greatest Indian writer ever. His first surviving play is Malavikagnimitra (Malavika and Agnimitra). Kalidasa's second play, his masterpiece, is the Abhijñānaśākuntalam, which tells the story of king Dushyanta, who falls in love with a girl of lowly birth, the lovely Shakuntala. The last of Kalidasa's surviving plays is Vikramuurvashiiya
Vikramuurvashiiya
("Urvashi conquered by valour"). Kalidasa
Kalidasa
also wrote the epic poems Raghuvamsha
Raghuvamsha
("Dynasty of Raghu"), Ritusamhāra and Kumarasambhava ("Birth of the war god"), as well as the lyric Meghaduuta
Meghaduuta
("The cloud messenger"). Swang is a popular dance form in Malwa; its roots go back to the origins of the Indian theatre tradition in the first millennium BC. Since women did not participate in the dance-drama form, men enacted their roles. Swang incorporates suitable theatrics and mimicry, accompanied alternately by song and dialogue. The genre is dialogue-oriented rather than movement-oriented.[19] Mandana (literally painting) wall and floor paintings are the best-known painting traditions of Malwa. White drawings stand out in contrast to the base material consisting of a mixture of red clay and cow dung. Peacocks, cats, lions, goojari, bawari, the swastika and chowk are some motifs of this style. Sanjhya is a ritual wall painting done by young girls during the annual period when Hindus remember and offer ritual oblation to their ancestors. Malwa
Malwa
miniature paintings are well known for their intricate brushwork.[20] In the 17th century, an offshoot of the Rajasthani school of miniature painting, known as Malwa
Malwa
painting, was centred largely in Malwa
Malwa
and Bundelkhand. The school preserved the style of the earliest examples, such as the Rasikapriya series dated 1636 (after a poem analysing the love sentiment) and the Amaru Sataka (a 17th-century Sanskrit poem). The paintings from this school are flat compositions on black and chocolate-brown backgrounds, with figures shown against a solid colour patch, and architecture painted in vibrant colours.[21] The biggest festival of Malwa
Malwa
is the Simhastha mela, held every 12 years, in which more than 40 million pilgrims take a holy dip in river Shipra. The festival of Gana-gour is celebrated in honour of Shiva
Shiva
and Parvati. The history of the festival goes back to Rano Bai, whose parental home was in Malwa, but who was married in Rajasthan. Rano Bai was strongly attached to Malwa, and did not want to stay in Rajasthan. After marriage, she was allowed to visit Malwa
Malwa
only once a year; Gana-gour symbolises these annual return visits. The festival is observed by women in the region once in the month of Chaitra (mid-March) and Bhadra (mid-August). The Ghadlya (earthen pot) festival is celebrated by the girls of the region, who gather to visit every house in their village in the evenings, carrying earthen pots with holes for the light from oil lamps inside to escape. In front of every house, the girls recite songs connected with the Ghadlya and receive food or money in return. The Gordhan festival is celebrated on the 16th day in the month of Kartika. The Bhils
Bhils
of the region sing Heeda, anecdotal songs to the cattle, while the women sing the Chandrawali song, associated with Krishna's romance. The most popular fairs are held in the months of Phalguna, Chaitra, Bhadra, Ashvin and Kartik. The Chaitra
Chaitra
fair, held at Biaora, and the Gal yatras, held at more than two dozen villages in Malwa
Malwa
are remarkable. Many fairs are held in the tenth day of the month of Bhadra to mark the birth of Tejaji. The Triveni mela is held at Ratlam, and other fairs take place in Kartika at Ujjain, Mandhata (Nimad), among others. Tourism[edit] The main tourist destinations in Malwa
Malwa
are places of historical or religious significance. The river Shipra
Shipra
and the city of Ujjain
Ujjain
have been regarded as sacred for thousands of years. The Mahakal Temple of Ujjain
Ujjain
is one of the 12 jyotirlingas. Ujjain
Ujjain
has over 100 other ancient temples, including Harsidhhi, Chintaman Ganesh, Gadh Kalika, Kaal Bhairava
Bhairava
and Mangalnath. The Kalideh Palace, on the outskirts of the city, is a fine example of ancient Indian architecture. The Bhartrihari caves are associated with interesting legends. Since the fourth century BC, Ujjain
Ujjain
has enjoyed the reputation of being India's Greenwich,[22] as the Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian
of the Hindu geographers. The observatory built by Jai Singh II
Jai Singh II
is one of the four such observatories in India
India
and features ancient astronomical devices. The Simhastha mela, celebrated every 12 years, starts on the full moon day in Chaitra
Chaitra
(April) and continues into Vaishakha (May) until the next full moon day. Mandu was originally the fort capital of the Parmar rulers. Towards the end of the 13th century, it came under the sway of the Sultans of Malwa, the first of whom named it Shadiabad (city of joy). It remained as the capital, and in it the sultans built exquisite palaces like the Jahaz Mahal and Hindola Mahal, ornamental canals, baths and pavilions. The massive Jami Masjid and Hoshang Shah's tomb provided inspiration to the designers of the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
centuries later. Baz Bahadur
Baz Bahadur
built a huge palace in Mandu in the 16th century. Other notable historical monuments are Rewa Kund, Rupmati's Pavilion, Nilkanth Mahal, Hathi Mahal, Darya Khan's Tomb, Dai ka Mahal, Malik Mughit is Mosque and Jali Mahal. Close to Mandu is Maheshwar, a town on the northern bank of Narmada River that served as the capital of the Indore
Indore
state under Rajmata Ahilya Devi Holkar. The Maratha
Maratha
rajwada (fort) is the main attraction. A life-size statue of Rani Ahilya sits on a throne within the fort complex. Dhar
Dhar
was the capital of Malwa
Malwa
before Mandu became the capital in 1405. There, the fort is in ruins but offers a panoramic view. The Bhojashala Mosque (built in 1400) is still used as a place of worship on Fridays. The abandoned Lat Masjid
Lat Masjid
(1405) and the tomb of Kamal Maula (early 15th century), a Muslim saint, are other places of interest. Modern Indore
Indore
was planned and built by Rajmata Ahilya Devi Holkar. The grand Lal Baag Palace is one of its grandest monuments. The Bada Ganpati temple houses what is possibly the largest Ganesh idol in the world, measuring 7.6 m from crown to foot. The Kanch Mandir
Kanch Mandir
is a Jain
Jain
temple entirely inlaid with glass. The Town Hall was made in 1904 in indo-gothic style; originally named King Edward Hall, it was renamed Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Hall in 1948. The chhatris are the tombs or cenotaphs erected in memory of dead Holkar
Holkar
rulers and their family members. The shrine of Hussain Tekri, built by the Nawab of Jaora, Mohammad Iftikhar Ali Khan Bahadur, in the 19th century, is on the outskirts of Jaora
Jaora
in the Ratlam
Ratlam
district. Mohammad Iftikhar Ali Khan Bahadur was buried in the same graveyard where Hussain Tekri was buried. During the month of Moharram, thousands of people from all over the world visit the shrine of Hazrat Imam Hussain there, which is a replica of the Iraqi original. The place is famous for the rituals called Hajri to cure mental illness.

Mandu Valley

Maheshwar
Maheshwar
Fort (exterior)

Maheshwar
Maheshwar
Fort (interior)

Sports[edit] Cricket
Cricket
is one of the most popular sports in the region. Indore
Indore
is also home to the Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Cricket
Cricket
Association. The city has two international cricket ground, the Holkar
Holkar
Cricket
Cricket
Stadium. The first cricket ODI match in state was played in Indore
Indore
at Indore.

The Vijay Balla ("Victory Bat") made out of concrete with names of the players of the Indian team who won the test series against England (1971) and West Indies(1972)

Venues[edit]

No. Venue City Sport Capacity

1 Holkar
Holkar
Cricket
Cricket
Stadium Indore Cricket 30,000

2 Nehru International Cricket
Cricket
Stadium Indore Cricket 25,000

3 Indore
Indore
Sports Complex Indore Cricket 50,000

4 Abhay Khel Prashal Indore Indoor Sports 500

5 Indore
Indore
Tennis Club Indore Lawn Tennis 500

6 Emerald High School Ground Indore Cricket 500

7 Daly College Indore Field Hockey, Football, Cricket 500 each

See also[edit]

Madhya Bharat List of people from Malwa

Notes[edit]

^ Average elevation of the Malawa Plateau ^ Jacobson, Jerome (1975). "Early Stone Age Habitation Sites in Eastern Malwa". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. American Philosophical Society. 119 (4): 280–97. ISSN 0003-049X. JSTOR 986290 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).  ^ Malwa
Malwa
Plateau
Plateau
on Britannica ^ a b c Malwa
Malwa
in Encyclopædia Britannica 1911 Edition Archived 4 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Panhwar, M.H., Sindh: The Archaeological Museum of the world. ^ P. K. Basant (2012), The City and the Country in Early India: A Study of Malwa, p.85 ^ Upinder Singh (2008), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, p.227 ^ a b c Ahmad, S. H., Anthropometric measurements and ethnic affinities of the Bhil
Bhil
and their allied groups of Malwa
Malwa
area., Anthropological Survey of India,1991, ISBN 81-85579-07-5 ^ Asiatic Society of Bombay, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bombay, The Society, 1951, p. 56 ^ Ancient India
India
by Ramesh Chandra Majumdar p.294 ^ The Cambridge Shorter History of India
India
p.159-160 ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 116. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.  ^ "Geochronological Study of the Deccan Volcanism by the 40Ar-39Ar Method". Archived from the original on 2006-02-25.  ^ The Deccan beyond the plume hypothesis ^ Omkareshwar and Maheshwar: Travel Guide. Goodearth Publications. 2011. p. 79. ISBN 9789380262246.  ^ Dewas
Dewas
district Archived 9 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kalbeliya nomads ^ Ethnologue ^ 'Swang' – The Folk Dance of Malwa ^ Paintings of Mewar
Mewar
and Malwa ^ Malwa
Malwa
painting on Encyclopædia Britannica[permanent dead link] ^ Ujjain
Ujjain
district official portal Archived 17 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine.

References[edit]

Malcolm, Sir John, A Memoir of Central India
India
including Malwa
Malwa
and Adjoining Provinces. Calcutta, Spink, 1880, 2 Volumes, 1129 p., ISBN 81-7305-199-2. Chakrabarti, Manika, Malwa
Malwa
in Post-Maurya period: a critical study with special emphasis on numismatic evidences. Calcutta. Punthi Pustak, 1981. Day, Upendra Nath, Medieval Malwa: a political and cultural history 1401–1562., New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1965. Jain, Kailash Chand, Malwa
Malwa
through the ages from the earliest times to 1305 A.D., Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1972. Khare, M.D. Splendour of Malwa
Malwa
paintings., New Delhi, Cosmo Publications, 1983., ASIN B0006EHSUU Joshi, Ramchandra Vinayak, Stone age cultures of Central India., Poona, Deccan College, 1978. Seth, K.N., The growth of the Paramara
Paramara
power in Malwa., Bhopal, Progress Publishers, 1978. Sharma, R.K., ed., Art of the Paramaras of Malwa., Delhi, Agam Kala Prakashan, 1979. Sircar, D.C. Ancient Malwa
Malwa
and the Vikramaditya tradition., New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1969., ISBN 81-215-0348-5 Singh, Raghubir, Malwa
Malwa
in transition, Laurier Books, 1993, ISBN 81-206-0750-3 Srivastava, K, The revolt of 1857 in Central India-Malwa, Allied Publishers, ASIN B0007IURKI Ahmad, S. H., Anthropometric measurements and ethnic affinities of the Bhil
Bhil
and their allied groups of Malwa
Malwa
area., Anthropological Survey of India,1991, ISBN 81-85579-07-5 Farooqui, Amar, Smuggling as subversion: colonialism, Indian merchants, and the politics of opium, 1790–1843, Lexington Books, 2005, ISBN 0-7391-0886-7 Mathur, Kripa Shanker, Caste and ritual in a Malwa
Malwa
village, Asia Pub. House, 1964.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Malwa.

Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Tourism

v t e

Historical places of Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
dynasty

Achalpur Baroda Bhadgaon Elephanta Caves Ellora Caves Jura near Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh Kailasa temple, Ellora Kamthana Kannauj Kuknur Latur Malwa Mandore Manpur, Indore Manyakheta Mayuragiri Naregal Pataleshwar, Pune Pattadakal Rajputana Satara Saundatti Tardavadi province in modern Bijapur district

v t e

Historical regions of North India

Ajmer Awadh Bagelkhand Bhojpur Braj Bundelkhand Delhi Doab Doaba Dhundhar Garhwal Gird Godwar Hadoti Jaisalmer Jangladesh Kumaon Magadha Mahakoshal Majha Malwa Malwa
Malwa
(Punjab) Marwar Mewar Mewat Mithila Nimar Purvanchal Rohilkhand Shekhawati Vagad

v t e

Geography of South Asia

Mountains and plateaus

Himalayas

Mount Everest

Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Aravalli Range Nilgiris Vindhya Range Satpura Range Garo Hills Shivalik Hills Mahabharat Range Khasi Hills Anaimalai Hills Cardamom Hills Sulaiman Mountains Toba Kakar Range Karakoram Hindu Kush Chittagong Hill Tracts Deccan Plateau Thar Desert Makran Chota Nagpur Naga Hills Mysore Plateau Ladakh
Ladakh
Plateau Gandhamardan Hills Malwa

Lowlands and islands

Indo-Gangetic plain Doab Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Terai Atolls of the Maldives Coromandel Coast Konkan Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands Sundarbans Reserve Forest Greater Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Protected areas in Tamil Nadu

By country

India Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Sri Lanka Bangladesh Maldives Afghanistan

v t e

Narmada basin

Rivers

Narmada Sunar Tawa

Dams, barrages

Narmada Canal Bargi Dam Indirasagar Dam Omkareshwar Dam Sardar Sarovar Dam Tawa Reservoir Narmada Valley Development Authority

Geographical features/ regions

Marble Rocks Dhuandhar Falls Deccan Plateau Gulf of Khambhat Satpura Range Malwa Bori Reserve Forest Bori Wildlife
Wildlife
Sanctuary Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Kanha Tiger Reserve Satpura National Park Mandla Plant Fossils National Park Bagh Caves Bhimbetka rock shelters

Riparian districts

Madhya Pradesh

Anuppur Shahdol Mandla Balaghat Seoni Jabalpur Narsinghpur Sagar Damoh Chhindwara Harda Hosangabad Betul Raisen Sehore Khandwa Khargone Dewas Indore Dhar Jhabua

Maharashtra

Dhule

Gujarat

Narmada Vadodara Bharuch

Languages/ people

Indo-Aryan languages Hindi Bhili Khandeshi Marathi Gujarati

Controversies

Narmada Bachao Andolan

Transport

NH 3 NH 7 NH 8 Jabalpur–Bhusaval section Bhopal–Nagpur section

Other basins

Mahanadi–Brahmani–Baitarani Damodar Godavari Kosi Son

Coordinates: 22°43′31″N 75°51′56″E / 22.7252°N 75.8655°E / 22.7252; 75.8655

v t e

Plateaus of India

North

Changtang

South

Kolar Plateau Mysore Plateau Sigur Plateau Vallam Plateau

East

Changthang plateau Chota Nagpur Plateau Karbi-Meghalaya plateau Karbi Anglong Plateau Rohtas Plateau Shillong Plateau

West

Mangi-Tungi Kaas plateau Deccan Plateau Masai Plateau

Central

Bhander Plateau Bijawar-Panna Plateau Malwa

.