The Info List - Lord Mountbatten

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Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG GCB OM GCSI GCIE GCVO DSO PC FRS[1] (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British naval officer and statesman, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and second cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II. During the Second World War, he was Supreme Allied Commander, South East Asia Command
South East Asia Command
(1943–46). He was the last Viceroy of India
Viceroy of India
(1947) and the first Governor-General of independent India (1947–48). From 1954 until 1959 he was First Sea Lord, a position that had been held by his father, Prince Louis of Battenberg, some forty years earlier. Thereafter he served as Chief of the Defence Staff until 1965, making him the longest serving professional head of the British Armed Forces to date. During this period Mountbatten also served as Chairman of the NATO Military Committee
Chairman of the NATO Military Committee
for a year. In 1979, Mountbatten, his grandson Nicholas, and two others were killed by the Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army
(IRA), which had placed a bomb in his fishing boat, Shadow V, in Mullaghmore, County Sligo, Ireland.


1 Early life 2 Career

2.1 Early career 2.2 Second World War 2.3 Last viceroy of India and first Governor-General 2.4 Career after India and Pakistan 2.5 Alleged plots against Harold Wilson

3 Personal life

3.1 Marriage 3.2 Daughter as heir 3.3 Leisure interests 3.4 Mentorship of the Prince of Wales

4 Television appearances 5 Death

5.1 Assassination 5.2 Funeral 5.3 Aftermath

6 Legacy 7 Honours

7.1 Arms

8 Ancestors 9 References

9.1 Footnotes 9.2 Works cited

10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life[edit]

Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine, Prince Louis of Battenberg and their four children Princess Alice, Princess Louise, Prince George and Prince Louis.

From the time of his birth at Frogmore House
Frogmore House
in the Home Park, Windsor, Berkshire
Windsor, Berkshire
until 1917, when he and several other relations of King George V
King George V
dropped their German styles and titles, Mountbatten was known as His Serene Highness Prince Louis of Battenberg. He was the youngest child and the second son of Prince Louis of Battenberg
Prince Louis of Battenberg
and his wife Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine. His maternal grandparents were Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse, and Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, who was a daughter of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. His paternal grandparents were Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine and Julia, Princess of Battenberg.[2] His paternal grandparents' marriage was morganatic because his grandmother was not of royal lineage; as a result, he and his father were styled "Serene Highness" rather than "Grand Ducal Highness", were not eligible to be titled Princes of Hesse and were given the less exalted Battenberg title. His siblings were Princess Alice of Battenberg (mother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh), Queen Louise of Sweden, and George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven.[2] Young Mountbatten's nickname among family and friends was "Dickie", although "Richard" was not among his given names. This was because his great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, had suggested the nickname of "Nicky", but to avoid confusion with the many Nickys of the Russian Imperial Family ("Nicky" was particularly used to refer to Nicholas II, the last Tsar), "Nicky" was changed to "Dickie".[3] He was baptised in the large drawing room of Frogmore House
Frogmore House
on 17 July 1900 by the Dean of Windsor, Philip Eliot. His godparents were Queen Victoria, Nicholas II of Russia
Nicholas II of Russia
(represented by his father) and Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg (represented by Lord Edward Clinton).[4] Mountbatten was educated at home for the first 10 years of his life: he was then sent to Lockers Park School in Hertfordshire[5] and on to the Royal Naval College, Osborne
Royal Naval College, Osborne
in May 1913.[6] In childhood he visited the Imperial Court of Russia at St Petersburg and became intimate with the doomed Russian Imperial Family, harbouring romantic feelings towards his maternal first cousin Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna, whose photograph he kept at his bedside for the rest of his life.[7] Career[edit] Early career[edit] Mountbatten was posted as midshipman to the battlecruiser HMS Lion in July 1916 and, after seeing action in August 1916, transferred to the battleship HMS Queen Elizabeth during the closing phases of the First World War.[6] In June 1917, when the royal family stopped using their German names and titles and adopted the more British-sounding "Windsor", Prince Louis of Battenberg
Prince Louis of Battenberg
became Louis Mountbatten, and was created Marquess of Milford Haven. His second son acquired the courtesy title Lord Louis Mountbatten and was known as Lord Louis until he was created a peer in 1946.[8] He paid a visit of ten days to the Western Front, in July 1918.[9] He was appointed executive officer (second-in-command) of the small warship HMS P.31 on 13 October 1918 and was promoted sub-lieutenant on 15 January 1919. HMS P.31 took part in the Peace River Pageant on 4 April 1919. Mountbatten attended Christ's College, Cambridge
Christ's College, Cambridge
for two terms, starting in October 1919, where he studied English literature (including John Milton
John Milton
and Lord Byron) in a programme that was specially designed for ex-servicemen.[10][11][12] He was elected for a term to the Standing Committee of the Cambridge Union Society, and was suspected of sympathy for the Labour Party, then emerging as a potential party of government for the first time.[13] He was posted to the battlecruiser HMS Renown in March 1920 and accompanied Edward, Prince of Wales, on a royal tour of Australia in her.[8] He was promoted lieutenant on 15 April 1920.[14] HMS Renown returned to Portsmouth on 11 October 1920.[15] Early in 1921 Royal Navy personnel were used for civil defence duties as serious industrial unrest seemed imminent. Mountbatten had to command a platoon of stokers, many of whom had never handled a rifle before, in northern England.[15] He transferred to the battlecruiser HMS Repulse in March 1921 and accompanied the Prince of Wales on a Royal tour of India and Japan.[8][16] Edward and Mountbatten formed a close friendship during the trip.[8] Mountbatten survived the deep defence cuts known as the Geddes Axe. Fifty-two percent of the officers of his year had had to leave the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
by the end of 1923; although he was highly regarded by his superiors, it was rumoured that wealthy and well-connected officers were more likely to be retained.[17] He was posted to the battleship HMS Revenge in the Mediterranean Fleet
Mediterranean Fleet
in January 1923.[8]

Mountbatten in the late 1930s

Pursuing his interests in technological development and gadgetry, Mountbatten joined the Portsmouth Signals School in August 1924 and then went on briefly to study electronics at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich.[8] Mountbatten became a Member of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), now the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), which annually awards the Mountbatten Medal for an outstanding contribution, or contributions over a period, to the promotion of electronics or information technology and their application.[18] He was posted to the battleship HMS Centurion in the Reserve Fleet in 1926 and became Assistant Fleet Wireless and Signals Officer of the Mediterranean Fleet
Mediterranean Fleet
under the command of Admiral
Sir Roger Keyes in January 1927.[8] Promoted lieutenant-commander on 15 April 1928,[19] he returned to the Signals School in July 1929 as Senior Wireless Instructor.[8] He was appointed Fleet Wireless Officer to the Mediterranean Fleet
Mediterranean Fleet
in August 1931, and having been promoted commander on 31 December 1932,[20] was posted to the battleship HMS Resolution.[8] In 1934, Mountbatten was appointed to his first command – the destroyer HMS Daring.[8] His ship was a new destroyer, which he was to sail to Singapore
and exchange for an older ship, HMS Wishart.[8] He successfully brought Wishart back to port in Malta
and then attended the funeral of King George V
King George V
in January 1936.[21] Mountbatten was appointed a Personal Naval Aide-de-Camp
to King Edward VIII
Edward VIII
on 23 June 1936,[22] and, having joined the Naval Air Division of the Admiralty
in July 1936,[1] he attended the coronation of King George VI
George VI
and Queen Elizabeth in May 1937.[23] He was promoted Captain on 30 June 1937[24] and was then given command of the destroyer HMS Kelly in June 1939.[25] In July 1939, Mountbatten was granted a patent (UK Number 508,956) for a system for maintaining a warship in a fixed position relative to another ship.[26]

Mountbatten and officers on HMS Kelvin 1940.

Second World War[edit] When war broke out in September 1939, Mountbatten became commander of the 5th Destroyer Flotilla aboard HMS Kelly, which became famous for its exploits.[1] In late 1939 he brought the Duke of Windsor back from exile in France
and in early May 1940, Mountbatten led a British convoy in through the fog to evacuate the Allied forces participating in the Namsos Campaign
Namsos Campaign
during the Norwegian Campaign.[25] On the night of 9/10 May 1940, Kelly was torpedoed amidships by a German E-boat
S 31 off the Dutch coast, and Mountbatten thereafter commanded the 5th Destroyer Flotilla from the destroyer HMS Javelin.[25] He rejoined Kelly in December 1940, by which time the torpedo damage had been repaired.[25] Kelly was sunk by German dive bombers on 23 May 1941 during the Battle of Crete;[27] the incident serving as the basis for Noël Coward's film In Which We Serve.[28] Coward was a personal friend of Mountbatten and copied some of his speeches into the film.[27] Mountbatten was mentioned in despatches on 9 August 1940[29] and 21 March 1941[30] and awarded the Distinguished Service Order
Distinguished Service Order
in January 1941.[31]

Mountbatten, Walter Short, and Husband Kimmel
Husband Kimmel
in Hawaii 1941

In August 1941, Mountbatten was appointed captain of the aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious which lay in Norfolk, Virginia, for repairs following action at Malta
in the Mediterranean in January.[27] During this period of relative inactivity, he paid a flying visit to Pearl Harbor, three months before the Japanese attack on the US naval base there. Mountbatten, appalled at the base's lack of preparedness, drawing on Japan's history of launching wars with surprise attacks as well as the successful British surprise attack at the Battle of Taranto which had effectively knocked Italy's fleet out of the war, and the sheer effectiveness of aircraft against warships, accurately predicted that the US entry into the war would begin with a Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor.[27][32] Mountbatten was a favourite of Winston Churchill.[33] On 27 October 1941 Mountbatten replaced Roger Keyes as Chief of Combined Operations and promoted commodore.[27]

Clockwise from lower right, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Hastings Ismay, Mountbatten: January 1943 in Casablanca.

His duties in this role included inventing new technical aids to assist with opposed landings.[1] Noteworthy technical achievements of Mountbatten and his staff include the construction of "PLUTO", an underwater oil pipeline from the English coast to Normandy, an artificial harbour constructed of concrete caissons and sunken ships, and the development of amphibious tank-landing ships.[1] Another project that Mountbatten proposed to Churchill was Project Habakkuk. It was to be a massive and impregnable 600-metre aircraft carrier made from reinforced ice ("Pykrete"): Habakkuk was never carried out due to its enormous cost.[1] As commander of Combined Operations, Mountbatten and his staff planned the highly successful Bruneval raid, which gained important information and also captured part of a German Würzburg radar installation and one of the machine's technicians on 27 February 1942. It was Mountbatten who recognized that surprise and speed were essential to ensure the radar was captured, and saw that an airborne assault was the only viable method.[34] He was in large part responsible for the planning and organisation of The Raid at St. Nazaire in mid-1942, an operation which put out of action one of the most heavily defended docks in Nazi-occupied France
until well after war's end, the ramifications of which contributed to allied supremacy in the Battle of the Atlantic. After these two successes came the Dieppe Raid
Dieppe Raid
of 19 August 1942. He was central in the planning and promotion of the raid on the port of Dieppe. The raid was a marked failure, with casualties of almost 60%, the great majority of them Canadians.[27] Following the Dieppe raid Mountbatten became a controversial figure in Canada, with the Royal Canadian Legion distancing itself from him during his visits there during his later career.[35] His relations with Canadian veterans, who blamed him for the losses, "remained frosty" after the war.[36]

Lord Louis Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander, seen during his tour of the Arakan Front in February 1944

Mountbatten claimed that the lessons learned from the Dieppe Raid
Dieppe Raid
were necessary for planning the Normandy invasion on D-Day
nearly two years later. However, military historians such as former Royal Marine Julian Thompson have written that these lessons should not have needed a debacle such as Dieppe to be recognised.[37] Nevertheless, as a direct result of the failings of the Dieppe raid, the British made several innovations, most notably Hobart's Funnies – specialized armoured vehicles which, in the course of the Normandy Landings, undoubtedly saved many lives on those three beachheads upon which Commonwealth soldiers were landing (Gold Beach, Juno Beach, and Sword Beach).[38]

Mountbatten making an address on the steps of Municipal Building in Singapore, 1945

In August 1943, Churchill appointed Mountbatten the Supreme Allied Commander
South East Asia Command
South East Asia Command
(SEAC) with promotion to acting full admiral.[27] His less practical ideas were sidelined by an experienced planning staff led by Lieutenant-Colonel James Allason, though some, such as a proposal to launch an amphibious assault near Rangoon, got as far as Churchill before being quashed.[39] British interpreter Hugh Lunghi recounted an embarrassing episode which occurred during the Potsdam Conference, when Mountbatten, desiring to receive an invitation to visit the Soviet Union, repeatedly attempted to impress Josef Stalin
Josef Stalin
with his former connections to the Russian imperial family. The attempt fell predictably flat, with Stalin dryly inquiring whether "it was some time ago that he had been there." Says Lunghi, "The meeting was embarrassing because Stalin was so unimpressed. He offered no invitation. Mountbatten left with his tail between his legs."[40] During his time as Supreme Allied Commander of the Southeast Asia Theatre, his command oversaw the recapture of Burma from the Japanese by General William Slim.[41] A personal high point was the receipt of the Japanese surrender in Singapore
when British troops returned to the island to receive the formal surrender of Japanese forces in the region led by General Itagaki Seishiro
Itagaki Seishiro
on 12 September 1945, codenamed Operation Tiderace.[42] South East Asia Command
South East Asia Command
was disbanded in May 1946 and Mountbatten returned home with the substantive rank of rear-admiral.[43] Following the war, Mountbatten was known to have largely shunned the Japanese for the rest of his life out of respect for his men killed during the war, and as per his will, Japan was not invited to send diplomatic representatives to his funeral in 1979, though he did meet Emperor Hirohito
during a state visit to Britain in 1971, reportedly at the urging of the Queen.[44] Last viceroy of India and first Governor-General[edit] His experience in the region and in particular his perceived Labour sympathies at that time led to Clement Attlee
Clement Attlee
appointing him Viceroy of India on 20 February 1947[45][46] charged with overseeing the transition of British India to independence no later than 30 June 1948. Mountbatten's instructions emphasised a united India as a result of the transference of power but authorised him to adapt to a changing situation in order to get Britain out promptly with minimal reputational damage.[47] Soon after he arrived, Mountbatten concluded that the situation was too volatile for even that short a wait. Although his advisers favoured a gradual transfer of independence, Mountbatten decided the only way forward was a quick and orderly transfer of independence before 1947 was out. In his view, any longer would mean civil war.[48] The Viceroy also hurried so he could return to his senior technical Navy courses.[49][50]

Lord and Lady Mountbatten at Mussoorie with Congress leader Sardar Patel, his daughter Manibehn Patel
Manibehn Patel
and Nehru in the background

Mountbatten was fond of Congress leader Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
and his liberal outlook for the country. He felt differently about the Muslim leader Muhammed Ali Jinnah, but was aware of his power, stating "If it could be said that any single man held the future of India in the palm of his hand in 1947, that man was Mohammad Ali Jinnah."[50] During his meeting with Jinnah on 5 April 1947,[51] Mountbatten tried to persuade Jinnah of a united India, citing the difficult task of dividing the mixed states of Punjab and Bengal, but the Muslim leader was unyielding in his goal of establishing a separate Muslim state called Pakistan.[52]

Lord and Lady Mountbatten with Mahatma Gandhi, 1947

Given the British government's recommendations to grant independence quickly, Mountbatten concluded that a united India was an unachievable goal and resigned himself to a plan for partition, creating the independent nations of India and Pakistan.[1] Mountbatten set a date for the transfer of power from the British to the Indians, arguing that a fixed timeline would convince Indians of his and the British government's sincerity in working towards a swift and efficient independence, excluding all possibilities of stalling the process.[53] Among the Indian leaders, Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
emphatically insisted on maintaining a united India and for a while successfully rallied people to this goal. During his meeting with Mountbatten, Gandhi asked Mountbatten to invite Jinnah to form a new Central government, but Mountbatten never uttered a word of Gandhi's ideas to Jinnah.[54] And when Mountbatten's timeline offered the prospect of attaining independence soon, sentiments took a different turn. Given Mountbatten's determination, Nehru and Patel's inability to deal with the Muslim League and lastly Jinnah's obstinacy, all Indian party leaders (except Gandhi) acquiesced to Jinnah's plan to divide India,[55] which in turn eased Mountbatten's task. Mountbatten also developed a strong relationship with the Indian princes, who ruled those portions of India not directly under British rule. His intervention was decisive in persuading the vast majority of them to see advantages in opting to join the Indian Union.[56] On one hand, the integration of the princely states can be viewed as one of the positive aspects of his legacy.[57] But on the other, the refusal of Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir, and Junagadh to join one of the dominions led to future tension between Pakistan
and India.[58] Mountbatten brought forward the date of the partition from June 1948 to 15 August 1947.[59] The uncertainty of the borders caused Muslims and Hindus to move into the direction where they felt they would get the majority. Hindus and Muslims were thoroughly terrified, and the Muslim movement from the East was balanced by the similar movement of Hindus from the West.[60] A boundary committee chaired by Sir Cyril Radcliffe was charged with drawing boundaries for the new nations. With a mandate to leave as many Hindus and Sikhs in India and as many Muslims in Pakistan
as possible, Radcliffe came up with a map that split the two countries along the Punjab and Bengal
borders. This left 14 million people on the "wrong" side of the border, and very many of them fled to "safety" on the other side when the new lines were announced.[48]

Lord Mountbatten with Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
the first Prime Minister of sovereign India in Government House, Lady Mountbatten standing to their left

When India and Pakistan
attained independence at midnight on the night of 14–15 August 1947, Mountbatten remained in New Delhi
New Delhi
for 10 months, serving as India's first governor general until June 1948.[61] On Mountbatten's advice, India took the issue of Kashmir to the newly formed United Nations in January 1948. The issue of Kashmir would become a lasting thorn in his legacy, one that is not resolved to this day.[62] Accounts differ on the future Mountbatten desired for Kashmir. Pakistani accounts suggest that Mountbatten favored the accession of Kashmir to India citing his close relationship to Nehru. Mountbatten's own account says that he simply wanted the maharaja Hari Singh to make up his mind. The viceroy made several attempts to mediate between the Congress leaders, Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
and Hari Singh on issues relating to the accession of Kashmir though he was largely unsuccessful in resolving the conflict.[63] After the tribal invasion of Kashmir, it was on his suggestion that India moved to secure the accession of Kashmir from Hari Singh
Hari Singh
before sending in military forces for his defence.[64]

Lord and Lady Mountbatten with Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Notwithstanding the self-promotion of his own part in Indian independence – notably in the television series The Life and Times of Admiral of the Fleet Lord Mountbatten of Burma, produced by his son-in-law Lord Brabourne, and Freedom at Midnight by Dominique Lapierre and Larry Collins (of which he was the main quoted source) – his record is seen as very mixed; one common view is that he hastened the independence process unduly and recklessly, foreseeing vast disruption and loss of life and not wanting this to occur on the British watch, but thereby actually helping it to occur, especially in Punjab and Bengal.[65] John Kenneth Galbraith, the Canadian-American Harvard University
Harvard University
economist, who advised governments of India during the 1950s, an intimate of Nehru who served as the American ambassador from 1961 to 1963, was a particularly harsh critic of Mountbatten in this regard.[66] The creation of Pakistan
was never emotionally accepted by many British leaders, among them being Mountbatten.[67] Mountbatten clearly expressed his lack of support and faith in the Muslim League's idea of Pakistan.[68] Jinnah refused Mountbatten's offer to serve as Governor-General of Pakistan.[69] When Mountbatten was asked by Collins and Lapierre if he would have sabotaged Pakistan
had he known that Jinnah was dying of tuberculosis, he replied, "Most probably."[70] Career after India and Pakistan[edit]

Mountbatten arrives on board HMS Glasgow at Malta
to assume command of the Mediterranean Fleet, 16 May 1952

Lord Mountbatten inspects Malayan troops in Kensington Gardens
Kensington Gardens
in 1946

After India, Mountbatten served as commander of the 1st Cruiser Squadron in the Mediterranean Fleet
Mediterranean Fleet
and, having been granted the substantive rank of vice-admiral on 22 June 1949,[71] he became Second-in-Command of the Mediterranean Fleet
Mediterranean Fleet
in April 1950.[61] He became Fourth Sea Lord
Fourth Sea Lord
at the Admiralty
in June 1950. He then returned to the Mediterranean to serve as Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet and NATO
Allied Forces Mediterranean from June 1952.[61] He was promoted to the substantive rank of full admiral on 27 February 1953.[72] In March 1953, he was appointed Personal Aide-de-Camp
to the Queen.[73] Mountbatten served his final posting at the Admiralty
as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff from April 1955 to July 1959, the position which his father had held some forty years prior. This was the first time in Royal Naval history that a father and son had both attained such high rank.[74] He was promoted to Admiral
of the Fleet on 22 October 1956.[75] While serving as First Sea Lord, his primary concerns dealt with devising plans on how the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
would keep shipping lanes open if Britain fell victim to a nuclear attack. Today, this seems of minor importance but at the time few people comprehended the potentially limitless destruction nuclear weapons possess and the ongoing dangers posed by the fallout. Military commanders did not understand the physics involved in a nuclear explosion. This became evident when Mountbatten had to be reassured that the fission reactions from the Bikini Atoll
Bikini Atoll
tests would not spread through the oceans and blow up the planet.[76] As Mountbatten became more familiar with this new form of weaponry, he increasingly grew opposed to its use in combat yet at the same time he realised the potential nuclear energy had, especially with regards to submarines. Mountbatten expressed his feelings towards the use of nuclear weapons in combat in his article "A Military Commander
Surveys The Nuclear Arms Race", which was published shortly after his death in International Security in the winter of 1979–80.[77] After leaving the Admiralty, Lord Mountbatten took the position of Chief of the Defence Staff.[61] He served in this post for six years during which he was able to consolidate the three service departments of the military branch into a single Ministry of Defence.[78] Mountbatten was appointed Colonel of the Life Guards, Gold Stick in Waiting and Life Colonel Commandant of the Royal Marines in 1965.[73] He was Governor of the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
from 20 July 1965[79] and then the first Lord Lieutenant
of the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
from 1 April 1974.[80] Mountbatten was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society[1] and had received an Honorary Doctorate from Heriot-Watt University
Heriot-Watt University
in 1968.[81] In 1969, Mountbatten tried unsuccessfully to persuade his cousin, the Spanish pretender Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona, to ease the eventual accession of his son, Juan Carlos, to the Spanish throne by signing a declaration of abdication while in exile.[82] The next year Mountbatten attended an official White House dinner during which he took the opportunity to have a 20-minute conversation with Richard Nixon and Secretary of State William P. Rogers, about which he later wrote, "I was able to talk to the President a bit about both Tino [Constantine II of Greece] and Juanito [ Juan Carlos
Juan Carlos
of Spain] to try and put over their respective points of view about Greece
and Spain, and how I felt the US could help them."[82] In January 1971, Nixon hosted Juan Carlos
Juan Carlos
and his wife Sofia (sister of the exiled King Constantine) during a visit to Washington and later that year the Washington Post
Washington Post
published an article alleging that Nixon's administration was seeking to get Franco to retire in favour of the young Bourbon prince.[82] From 1967 until 1978, Mountbatten was president of the United World Colleges Organisation, then represented by a single college: that of Atlantic College
Atlantic College
in South Wales. Mountbatten supported the United World Colleges and encouraged heads of state, politicians and personalities throughout the world to share his interest. Under Mountbatten's presidency and personal involvement, the United World College of South East Asia was established in Singapore
in 1971, followed by the United World College of the Pacific (now known as the Lester B Pearson United World College of the Pacific) in Victoria, British Columbia, in 1974. In 1978, Mountbatten passed the presidency of the college to his great-nephew, the Prince of Wales.[83] Alleged plots against Harold Wilson[edit] Main article: Harold Wilson
Harold Wilson
conspiracy theories Peter Wright, in his book Spycatcher, claimed that in May 1968 Mountbatten attended a private meeting with press baron Cecil King, and the Government's Chief Scientific Adviser, Solly Zuckerman. Wright alleged that "up to thirty" MI5 officers had joined a secret campaign to undermine the crisis-stricken Labour government of Harold Wilson and that King was an MI5 agent. In the meeting, King allegedly urged Mountbatten to become the leader of a government of national salvation. Solly Zuckerman
Solly Zuckerman
pointed out that it was "rank treachery", and the idea came to nothing because of Mountbatten's reluctance to act.[84] In 2006, the BBC documentary The Plot Against Harold Wilson
Harold Wilson
alleged that there had been another plot involving Mountbatten to oust Wilson during his second term in office (1974–76). The period was characterised by high inflation, increasing unemployment and widespread industrial unrest. The alleged plot revolved around right-wing former military figures who were supposedly building private armies to counter the perceived threat from trade unions and the Soviet Union. They believed that the Labour Party, which was (and still is[update]) partly funded by affiliated trade unions, was unable and unwilling to counter these developments and that Wilson was either a Soviet agent or at the very least a Communist sympathiser – claims Wilson strongly denied. The documentary alleged that a coup was planned to overthrow Wilson and replace him with Mountbatten using the private armies and sympathisers in the military and MI5.[85] The first official history of MI5, The Defence of the Realm
The Defence of the Realm
(2009), tacitly confirmed that there was a plot against Wilson and that MI5 did have a file on him. Yet it also made clear that the plot was in no way official and that any activity centred on a small group of discontented officers. This much had already been confirmed by former cabinet secretary Lord Hunt, who concluded in a secret inquiry conducted in 1996 that "there is absolutely no doubt at all that a few, a very few, malcontents in MI5...a lot of them like Peter Wright who were right-wing, malicious and had serious personal grudges – gave vent to these and spread damaging malicious stories about that Labour government."[86] Personal life[edit] Marriage[edit]

Louis and Edwina Mountbatten

Mountbatten was married on 18 July 1922 to Edwina Cynthia Annette Ashley, daughter of Wilfred William Ashley, later 1st Baron Mount Temple, himself a grandson of the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury. She was the favourite granddaughter of the Edwardian magnate Sir Ernest Cassel
Ernest Cassel
and the principal heir to his fortune.[8] There followed a honeymoon tour of European royal courts and America which included a visit to Niagara Falls (because "all honeymooners went there").[3] Mountbatten admitted "Edwina and I spent all our married lives getting into other people's beds."[87] He maintained an affair for several years with Yola Letellier,[88] the wife of Henri Letellier, publisher of Le Journal and mayor of Deauville
(1925–28).[89] Yola Letellier's life story was the inspiration for Colette's novel Gigi.[88] Edwina and Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
became intimate friends after Indian Independence. During the summers, she would frequent the prime minister's house so she could lounge about on his veranda during the hot Delhi days. Personal correspondence between the two reveals a satisfying yet frustrating relationship. Edwina states in one of her letters. "Nothing that we did or felt would ever be allowed to come between you and your work or me and mine – because that would spoil everything."[90] Daughter as heir[edit] Lord and Lady Mountbatten had two daughters: Patricia Knatchbull, 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma (born 14 February 1924, died 13 June 2017),[91] sometime lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth II, and Lady Pamela Hicks (born 19 April 1929), who accompanied them to India in 1947–48 and was also sometime lady-in-waiting to the Queen.[2] Since Mountbatten had no sons, when he was created Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, of Romsey in the County of Southampton on 27 August 1946[92] and then Earl Mountbatten of Burma
Earl Mountbatten of Burma
and Baron Romsey, in the County of Southampton on 28 October 1947,[93] the Letters Patent were drafted such that in the event he left no sons or issue in the male line, the titles could pass to his daughters, in order of seniority of birth, and to their male heirs respectively.[94] Leisure interests[edit] Like many members of the royal family, Mountbatten was an aficionado of polo. He received U.S. patent 1,993,334 in 1931 for a polo stick.[95] Mountbatten introduced the sport to the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in the 1920s, and wrote a book on the subject.[3] He also served as Commodore of Emsworth Sailing Club in Hampshire
from 1931.[96] Mentorship of the Prince of Wales[edit] Mountbatten was a strong influence in the upbringing of his grand-nephew, Charles, Prince of Wales, and later as a mentor – "Honorary Grandfather" and "Honorary Grandson", they fondly called each other according to the Jonathan Dimbleby
Jonathan Dimbleby
biography of the Prince – though according to both the Ziegler biography of Mountbatten and the Dimbleby biography of the Prince, the results may have been mixed. He from time to time strongly upbraided the Prince for showing tendencies towards the idle pleasure-seeking dilettantism of his predecessor as Prince of Wales, King Edward VIII, whom Mountbatten had known well in their youth. Yet he also encouraged the Prince to enjoy the bachelor life while he could and then to marry a young and inexperienced girl so as to ensure a stable married life.[97] Mountbatten's qualification for offering advice to this particular heir to the throne was unique; it was he who had arranged the visit of King George VI
George VI
and Queen Elizabeth to Dartmouth Royal Naval College on 22 July 1939, taking care to include the young Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret in the invitation, but assigning his nephew, Cadet
Prince Philip of Greece, to keep them amused while their parents toured the facility. This was the first recorded meeting of Charles's future parents.[98] But a few months later, Mountbatten's efforts nearly came to naught when he received a letter from his sister Alice in Athens informing him that Philip was visiting her and had agreed to permanently repatriate to Greece. Within days, Philip received a command from his cousin and sovereign, King George II of Greece, to resume his naval career in Britain which, though given without explanation, the young prince obeyed.[99] In 1974, Mountbatten began corresponding with Charles about a potential marriage to his granddaughter, Hon. Amanda Knatchbull.[100] It was about this time he also recommended that the 25-year-old prince get on with "sowing some wild oats".[100] Charles dutifully wrote to Amanda's mother (who was also his godmother), Lady Brabourne, about his interest. Her answer was supportive, but advised him that she thought her daughter still rather young to be courted.[101] In February 1975, Charles visited New Delhi
New Delhi
to play polo and was shown around Rashtrapati Bhavan, the former Viceroy's House, by Mountbatten.[102] Four years later Mountbatten secured an invitation for himself and Amanda to accompany Charles on his planned 1980 tour of India.[101] Their fathers promptly objected. Prince Philip thought that the Indian public's reception would more likely reflect response to the uncle than to the nephew. Lord Brabourne counselled that the intense scrutiny of the press would be more likely to drive Mountbatten's godson and granddaughter apart than together.[101] Charles was rescheduled to tour India alone, but Mountbatten did not live to the planned date of departure. When Charles finally did propose marriage to Amanda later in 1979, the circumstances were changed, and she refused him.[101] Television appearances[edit] In 1969 Mountbatten participated in a 12-part autobiographical television series Lord Mountbatten: A Man for the Century, also known as The Life and Times of Lord Mountbatten, produced by Associated-Rediffusion
and scripted by historian John Terraine.[103][104] The episodes were:[105]

1. The King's Ships Were at Sea (1900–1917) 2. The Kings Depart (1917–1922) 3. Azure Main (1922–1936) 4. The Stormy Winds (1936–1941)

5. United We Conquer (1941–1943) 6. The Imperial Enemy 7. The March to Victory 8. The Meaning of Victory (1945–1947)

9. The Last Viceroy 10. Fresh Fields (1947–1955) 11. Full Circle (1955–1965) 12. A Man of This Century (1900–1968)

On 27 April 1977, shortly before his 77th birthday, Mountbatten became the first member of the Royal Family
Royal Family
to appear on the TV guest show This Is Your Life.[106] Death[edit] Assassination[edit]

Christ in Triumph over Darkness and Evil by Gabriel Loire
Gabriel Loire
(1982) at St. George's Cathedral, Cape Town, South Africa, in memory of Lord Mountbatten

Mountbatten usually holidayed at his summer home, Classiebawn Castle, in Mullaghmore, a small seaside village in County Sligo, Ireland. The village was only 12 miles (19 km) from the border with Northern Ireland and near an area known to be used as a cross-border refuge by IRA members.[107][108] In 1978, the IRA had allegedly attempted to shoot Mountbatten as he was aboard his boat, but "choppy seas had prevented the sniper lining up his target".[109] On 27 August 1979, Mountbatten went lobster-potting and tuna fishing in his 30-foot (9.1 m) wooden boat, Shadow V, which had been moored in the harbour at Mullaghmore.[108] IRA member Thomas McMahon had slipped onto the unguarded boat that night and attached a radio-controlled bomb weighing 50 pounds (23 kg). When Mountbatten was aboard, just a few hundred yards from the shore, the bomb was detonated. The boat was destroyed by the force of the blast, and Mountbatten's legs were almost blown off. Mountbatten, then aged 79, was pulled alive from the water by nearby fishermen, but died from his injuries before being brought to shore.[108][110][111] Also aboard the boat were his elder daughter Patricia (Lady Brabourne), her husband John (Lord Brabourne), their twin sons Nicholas and Timothy Knatchbull, John's mother Doreen, (dowager) Lady Brabourne, and Paul Maxwell, a young crew member from County Fermanagh.[112] Nicholas (aged 14) and Paul (aged 15) were killed by the blast and the others were seriously injured.[113] Doreen, Lady Brabourne (aged 83) died from her injuries the following day.[114] The IRA issued a statement afterward, saying:

The IRA claim responsibility for the execution of Lord Louis Mountbatten. This operation is one of the discriminate ways we can bring to the attention of the English people the continuing occupation of our country. [...] The death of Mountbatten and the tributes paid to him will be seen in sharp contrast to the apathy of the British government and the English people to the deaths of over three hundred British soldiers, and the deaths of Irish men, women and children at the hands of their forces.[107][115]

Six weeks later,[116] Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
vice-president Gerry Adams
Gerry Adams
said of Mountbatten's death:

The IRA gave clear reasons for the execution. I think it is unfortunate that anyone has to be killed, but the furor created by Mountbatten's death showed up the hypocritical attitude of the media establishment. As a member of the House of Lords, Mountbatten was an emotional figure in both British and Irish politics. What the IRA did to him is what Mountbatten had been doing all his life to other people; and with his war record I don't think he could have objected to dying in what was clearly a war situation. He knew the danger involved in coming to this country. In my opinion, the IRA achieved its objective: people started paying attention to what was happening in Ireland.[116]

In May 2015, during a meeting with Prince Charles, Adams did not apologize. He later said in an interview, "I stand over what I said then. I'm not one of those people that engages in revisionism. Thankfully the war is over".[117] On the day of the bombing, the IRA also ambushed and killed eighteen British soldiers in Northern Ireland, sixteen of them from the Parachute Regiment, in what became known as the Warrenpoint ambush. It was the deadliest attack on the British Army
British Army
during the Troubles.[108] Funeral[edit]

Mountbatten's tomb at Romsey Abbey

On 5 September 1979 Mountbatten received a ceremonial funeral at Westminster Abbey, which was attended by the Queen, the Royal Family and members of the European royal houses. Watched by thousands of people, the funeral procession, which started at Wellington Barracks, included representatives of all three British Armed Services, and military contingents from Burma, India, the United States, France
and Canada. His coffin was drawn on a gun carriage by 118 Royal Navy ratings. During the televised service, the Prince of Wales read the lesson from Psalm
107.[118] In an address, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Donald Coggan, highlighted his various achievements and his "lifelong devotion to the Royal Navy".[119] After the public ceremonies, which he had planned himself, Mountbatten was buried in Romsey Abbey.[120][121] As part of the funeral arrangements, his body had been embalmed by Desmond Henley.[122] Aftermath[edit] Thomas McMahon, who had been arrested two hours before the bomb detonated at a Garda checkpoint between Longford
and Granard
on suspicion of driving a stolen vehicle, was tried for the assassinations in Ireland, and convicted on 23 November 1979 by forensic evidence supplied by James O'Donovan that showed flecks of paint from the boat and traces of nitroglycerine on his clothes.[123] He was released in 1998 under the terms of the Good Friday Agreement.[108][124] On hearing of Mountbatten's death the then Master of the Queen's Music, Malcolm Williamson, was moved to write the Lament in Memory of Lord Mountbatten of Burma for violin and string orchestra. The 11-minute work was given its first performance on 5 May 1980 by the Scottish Baroque Ensemble, conducted by Leonard Friedman.[125] Legacy[edit] Mountbatten took pride in enhancing intercultural understanding and in 1984, with his elder daughter as the patron, the Mountbatten Institute was developed to allow young adults the opportunity to enhance their intercultural appreciation and experience by spending time abroad.[126] The city of Ottawa, Ontario, erected Mountbatten Avenue in his memory. The avenue runs from Blossom Drive to Fairbanks Avenue.[127] Honours[edit]

Ribbon Name Date awarded

Knight of the Garter
Knight of the Garter
(KG) 1946[128]

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
(GCB) 1955

Knight Commander
of the Order of the Bath (KCB) 1945[129]

Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) 1943

Member of the Order of Merit
Member of the Order of Merit
(Military Division) (OM) 1965[130]

Knight Grand Commander
of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India (GCSI) 1947

Knight Grand Commander
of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE) 1947

Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
(GCVO) 1937[131]

Knight Commander
of the Royal Victorian Order (KCVO) 1922[132]

Member of the Royal Victorian Order (MVO) 1920[133]

Companion of the Distinguished Service Order
Distinguished Service Order
(DSO) 1941[31]

Knight of Justice of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (KStJ) 1940[134]

of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (CStJ) 1929[135]

British War Medal

Victory Medal

1939–45 Star

Atlantic Star

Africa Star

Burma Star


Defence Medal

War Medal 1939–1945

Naval General Service Medal

King George V
King George V
Coronation Medal 1911

King George V
King George V
Silver Jubilee Medal 1935

King George VI
George VI
Coronation Medal 1937

Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
Coronation Medal 1952

Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
Silver Jubilee Medal 1977

Indian Independence Medal 1949

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic (Kingdom of Spain) – 1922[136]

Order of the Nile, Fourth Class (Kingdom of Egypt)  – 1922[136]

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown (Romania) – 1924[136]

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania (Romania) – 1937[136]

War Cross (Kingdom of Greece) – 1941[137]

Chief Commander
of the Legion of Merit (United States) – 1943[138]

Grand Cordon of the Order of the Cloud and Banner (Republic of China) – 1945[139]

Distinguished Service Medal (United States) – 1945[140]

Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal (United States) – 1945

Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour (France) – 1946[141]

1939–1945 War Cross (France) – 1946

Grand Commander
of the Order of the Star of Nepal (Kingdom of Nepal) – 1946[141]

King Birendra Coronation Medal (Kingdom of Nepal) – 24 February 1975

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the White Elephant (Kingdom of Thailand) – 1946[141]

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of George I (Kingdom of Greece) – 1946[142]

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands
Lion (Kingdom of the Netherlands) – 1948[143]

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Aviz (Portuguese Republic) – 1951[136]

Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim (Kingdom of Sweden) – 1952[144]

Grand Commander
of the Order of Thiri Thudhamma (Union of Burma) – 1956[138]

Grand Cross of the Order of the Dannebrog (Kingdom of Denmark) – 1962[136]

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Seal of Solomon (Ethiopian Empire) – 1965[136]


Coat of arms of Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma

This box:

view talk edit

Notes The arms of the Earl Mountbatten of Burma
Earl Mountbatten of Burma
consist of: Crest Crests of Hesse modified and Battenberg. Helm Helms of Hesse modified and Battenberg. Escutcheon Within the Garter, Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Hesse with a bordure compony argent and gules; 2nd and 3rd, Battenberg; charged at the honour point with an inescutcheon of the British Royal arms with a label of three points argent, the centre point charged with a rose gules and each of the others with an ermine spot sable (Princess Alice, his grandmother).[145] Supporters Two Lions queue fourchée and crowned all or. Motto In honour bound Orders The Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
ribbon. Honi soit qui mal y pense (Shame be to him who thinks evil of it)


Ancestors of Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma

16. Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse
Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse
and by Rhine

8. Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine

17. Landgravine Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt

4. Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine

18. Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden

9. Princess Wilhelmine of Baden

19. Landgravine Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt

2. Prince Louis of Battenberg

20. Friedrich Carl Emanuel Hauke

10. Count John Maurice Hauke

21. Maria Salomé Schweppenhäuser

5. Countess Julia Hauke

22. Franz Leopold Lafontaine

11. Sophie Lafontaine

23. Maria Theresia Kornély

1. Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma

24. Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (= 8)

12. Prince Karl of Hesse and by Rhine

25. Princess Wilhelmine of Baden
Princess Wilhelmine of Baden
(= 9)

6. Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse
Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse
and by Rhine

26. Prince Wilhelm of Prussia

13. Princess Elisabeth of Prussia

27. Landgravine Marie Anna of Hesse-Homburg

3. Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine

28. Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

14. Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

29. Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg

7. Princess Alice of the United Kingdom

30. Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn

15. Victoria of the United Kingdom

31. Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

References[edit] Footnotes[edit]

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The London Gazette
(Supplement). 29 April 1936. p. 2785.  ^ "No. 34296". The London Gazette
The London Gazette
(Supplement). 19 June 1936. p. 4012.  ^ "No. 34453". The London Gazette
The London Gazette
(Supplement). 10 November 1937. p. 7049.  ^ "No. 34414". The London Gazette. 2 July 1937. p. 4247.  ^ a b c d Heathcote (2002), p. 185. ^ "Abstract of GB508956 508,956. Speed governors". Wiki Patents. Retrieved 20 September 2012. [permanent dead link] ^ a b c d e f g Heathcote (2002), p. 186. ^ Niemi (2006), p. 70. ^ "No. 34918". The London Gazette
The London Gazette
(Supplement). 9 August 1940. p. 4919.  ^ "No. 35113". The London Gazette
The London Gazette
(Supplement). 18 March 1941. p. 1654.  ^ a b "No. 35029". The London Gazette
The London Gazette
(Supplement). 31 December 1940. p. 25.  DSO ^ O'Toole, Thomas (1982-12-07). "Mountbatten Predicted Pearl Harbor". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-07-09.  ^ Gilbert, Martin. Winston S. Churchill: Never Despair: 1945–1965. (c) 1988: p.762 ^ Otway 1966, pp. 65–66. ^ Villa (1989), pp. 240–241. ^ "Who Was Responsible For Dieppe?". CBC Archives. 9 September 1962. Retrieved 1 August 2007.  ^ Thompson (2001), p. 263–269. ^ "In pictures: D-Day
inventions: The Flail". BBC News. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ "Obituary: Lt-Col James Allason". The Telegraph. London. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ Montefiore (2004), p. 501. ^ Heathcote (2002), p. 187 ^ Park (1946), p. 2156, para 360. ^ Heathcote (2002), p. 188. ^ SPECIAL TO THE NEW YORK TIMESSEPT. 5, 1979 (1979-09-05). "Japan Is Not Invited to Lord Mountbatten's Funeral – The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2017-07-09.  ^ Talbot & Singh (2009), p. 40. ^ "No. 37916". The London Gazette. 25 March 1947. p. 1399.  ^ Ziegler (1985), p. 359. ^ a b White (2012), p. 428. ^ Wolpert (2006), p. 140 ^ a b Sardesai (2007), pp. 309–313. ^ Wolpert (2006), p. 141. ^ Greenberg, Jonathan D. (2005). "Generations of Memory: Remembering Partition in India/ Pakistan
and Israel/Palestine". Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. 25 (1): 89. doi:10.1215/1089201x-25-1-89 – via Project MUSE.  ^ Ziegler (1985), p. 355. ^ Wolpert (2006), p. 139. ^ Ziegler (1985), p. 373. ^ "How Vallabhbhai Patel, V P Menon and Mountbatten unified India".  ^ Guha (2008), p. 57. ^ Stoessinger (2010), p. 185. ^ Talbot & Singh (2009), p. xvii. ^ Khan (2007), pp. 100–01. ^ a b c d Heathcote (2002), p. 189. ^ Guha (2008), p. 87. ^ Schofield (2010), p. 29-31. ^ Guha (2008), p. 83. ^ See, e.g., Wolpert (2006). ^ "People: Scots of Windsor's Past". Windsor's Scottish Heritage. Archived from the original on 9 August 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ McGrath, Allen (1996). The Destruction of Pakistan's Democracy. Oxford University Press. p. 38. ISBN 9780195775839.  ^ Ahmed, Akbar S. (1997). Jinnah, Pakistan
and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin. Psychology Press. p. 136. ISBN 9780415149662.  ^ Wolpert, Stanley (2009). Shameful Flight: The Last Years of the British Empire in India. Oxford University Press. p. 163. ISBN 9780199745043.  ^ Ahmed, Akbar (2005). Jinnah, Pakistan
and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin. Routledge. ISBN 9781134750221.  ^ "No. 38681". The London Gazette. 2 August 1949. p. 3760.  ^ "No. 39802". The London Gazette. 17 March 1953. p. 1530.  ^ a b "Mountbatten, Louis". Oxford Biography Index. Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ Patton, Allyson (March 2005). "Broadlands: Lord Mountbatten's Country Home". British Heritage. 26 (1): 14–17 – via Academic Search Complete.  ^ "No. 40927". The London Gazette. 16 November 1956. p. 6492.  ^ Zuckerman (1981), p. 363 ^ Mountbatten, Louis (Winter 1979–1980). "A Military Commander Surveys The Nuclear Arms Race". International Security. MIT Press. 4 (3): 3–5. doi:10.2307/2626691.  ^ Heathcote (2002), p. 190. ^ "No. 43720". The London Gazette. 23 July 1965. p. 7029.  ^ "No. 46255". The London Gazette. 4 April 1974. p. 4399.  ^ webperson@hw.ac.uk. " Heriot-Watt University
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh: Honorary Graduates". www1.hw.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-11.  ^ a b c Powell (1996), pp. 50–51, 221–222. ^ "History". UWC. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ "House of Commons Proceedings". Hansard. 10 January 1996. Column 287. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ Wheeler, Brian (9 March 2006). "Wilson 'Plot': The Secret Tapes". BBC News. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ Leigh, David (10 October 2009). "The Defence of the Realm: The Authorized History of MI5 by Christopher Andrew". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ Ziegler (1985), p. 53. ^ a b Hicks (2012), p. 24 ^ Sylvie Aubenas, Virginie Chardin, Xavier Demange (2007). Elegance: The Seeberger Brothers and the Birth of Fashion Photography. Chronicle Books. pp. 91, 111. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Bailey, Katherine (April–May 2000). "India's Last Vicereine". British Heritage. 21 (3): 16.  ^ Corby, Tom (15 June 2017). "Countess Mountbatten of Burma obituary". The Guardian.  ^ "No. 37702". The London Gazette. 27 August 1946. p. 4305.  ^ "No. 38109". The London Gazette. 28 October 1947. p. 5074.  ^ "No. 44059". The London Gazette. 21 July 1966. p. 8227.  ^ " Polo
Stick: United States
United States
Patent 1993334". Free Patents On Line. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ "Emsworth to Langstone" (PDF). Retrieved 19 May 2013.  ^ Junor (2005), p. 72. ^ Edwards, Phil (31 October 2000). "The Real Prince Philip" (TV documentary). Real Lives: channel 4's portrait gallery. Channel 4. Retrieved 12 May 2007.  ^ Vickers (2000), p. 281. ^ a b Dimbleby (1994), pp. 204–206. ^ a b c d Dimbleby (1994), pp. 263–265. ^ "People in Sports". The New York Times. 22 February 1975. p. 20.  ^ "Main page". Lord Mountbatten: A Man for the Century. IMDB. 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2011. [unreliable source?] ^ "Full cast and crew". Lord Mountbatten: A Man for the Century. IMDB. 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2011. [unreliable source?] ^ "Episode list". Lord Mountbatten: A Man for the Century. IMDB. 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2011. [unreliable source?] ^ "This Is Your Life (1969–1993)". EOFF TV. Archived from the original on 22 April 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ a b "Britain: A Nation Mourns Its Loss". Time. 10 September 1979. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ a b c d e "On This Day: 27 August 1979: IRA Bomb Kills Lord Mountbatten". BBC News. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ Barratt, John. With the greatest respect: The private lives of Earl Mountbatten and Prince & Princess Michael of Kent. Sidgwick & Jackson, 1991. p.23 ^ "IRA Bombs Kill Mountbatten and 17 Soldiers". The Guardian. Londong. 28 August 1979. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ O'Brien (1995), p. 55. ^ "Queen Mother May Get Blue Plaque Tribute". The Telegraph. London.  ^ "Tim Knatchbull: The IRA Killed My Grandfather, but I'm Glad the Queen Met Their Man". The Telegraph. London. 1 July 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ Patton, Allyson (March 2005). "Broadlands: Lord Mountbatten's Country Home". British Heritage. 26 (1): 14–17.  ^ English, Richard. Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA. Pan Macmillan, 2004. p.220 ^ a b Amfitheatrof, Erik (19 November 1979). "NORTHERN IRELAND: It is Clearly a War Situation". Time Magazine. Retrieved 19 May 2015.  ^ " Gerry Adams
Gerry Adams
has no apology for Lord Mountbatten murder – earl 'knew the dangers' of coming to Ireland". Belfast Telegraph. 20 May 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2017.  ^ "The Funeral of Lord Mountbatten". Imperial War Museum.  ^ "On This Day—5 September 1979: Mountbatten Buried after Final Parade". BBC.  ^ Vickers, Hugo (November 1989). "The Man Who Was Never Wrong". Royalty Monthly: 42.  ^ Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Locations 33727-33728). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition. ^ "In Memoriam: Desmond C. Henley". Christopher Henley Limited. Archived from the original on 14 September 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2014.  ^ "Killer of Lord Mountbatten Enjoys Freedom, 30 Years on from IRA Murder". The Telegraph. London. 9 August 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ Maloney (2002), p. 176. ^ "Obituary: Malcolm Williamson". The Guardian. London. 4 March 2003. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ "Mountbatten Institute". Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ "Mountbatten Avenue". National Inventory of Military Memorials. National Defence Canada. 16 April 2008. Archived from the original on 10 February 2015.  ^ "No. 37807". The London Gazette
The London Gazette
(Supplement). 3 December 1946. p. 5945.  KG ^ "No. 37023". The London Gazette
The London Gazette
(Supplement). 6 April 1945. p. 1893.  KCB ^ "No. 43713". The London Gazette. 16 July 1965. p. 6729.  OM ^ "No. 34365". The London Gazette
The London Gazette
(Supplement). 29 January 1937. p. 693.  GCVO ^ "No. 32730". The London Gazette. 18 July 1922. p. 5353.  KCVO ^ "No. 32086". The London Gazette. 15 October 1920. p. 9987.  MVO ^ "No. 34878". The London Gazette. 21 June 1940. p. 3777.  KJStJ ^ "No. 33453". The London Gazette. 1 January 1929. p. 49.  CStJ ^ a b c d e f g Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage. Kingston upon Thames, Surrey: Kelly's Directories. 1976. p. 882 – via Google Books.  ^ "No. 35538". The London Gazette
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(Supplement). 24 April 1942. p. 1850.  Military Cross (Second Class) (Greece) ^ a b Ziegler (1989), pp. 18, 254. ^ "No. 37023". The London Gazette
The London Gazette
(Supplement). 6 April 1945. p. 1895.  Order of the Cloud and Banner
Order of the Cloud and Banner
(China) ^ "No. 37299". The London Gazette
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(Supplement). 5 October 1945. p. 4954.  DSM (US) ^ a b c "Draped with Honors Mountbatten Steps Down as Defense Chief". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press. 17 July 1965. Retrieved 13 September 2013 – via Google News.  ^ "No. 37777". The London Gazette
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(Supplement). 1 November 1946. p. 5418.  Order of George I (Greece) ^ "No. 38176". The London Gazette. 13 January 1948. p. 274.  Order of the Netherlands
Lion ^ "Mountbatten's coat of arms as a Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim". Retrieved 20 September 2012. [unreliable source?] ^ Lee (1999), pp. 15, 135 & 136.

Works cited[edit]

Dimbleby, Jonathan (1994). The Prince of Wales: A Biography. New York: Morrow. ISBN 0-688-12996-X.  Gilbert, Martin (1988). Never Despair: Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
1945–65. London: Minerva. ISBN 978-0749391041.  Guha, Ramachandra (2008). India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy. London: Pan. ISBN 978-0330396110.  Heathcote, Tony (2002). The British Admirals of the Fleet 1734–1995. Havertown: Pen & Sword. ISBN 0-85052-835-6.  Hicks, Pamela (2012). Daughter of Empire: Life as a Mountbatten. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0297864820.  Junor, Penny (2005). The Firm: The Troubled Life of the House of Windsor. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-0-312-35274-5.  Khan, Yasmin (2007). The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300120783.  King, Greg & Wilson, Penny (2003). The Fate of the Romanovs. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-20768-3.  Lee, Brian (1999). British Royal Bookplates. Aldershot: Scolar Press. ISBN 978-0859678834.  Maloney, Ed (2002). A Secret History of the IRA. Allen Lane. ISBN 0-393-32502-4.  Montefiore, Simon Sebag (2004). Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-1400042302.  Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh (1973). Burke's Guide to the Royal Family. London: Burke's Peerage. ISBN 978-0220662226.  Niemi, Robert (2006). History in the Media: Film and Television. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1576079522 – via Google Books.  Nordenvall, Per (1998). Kungl. Serafimerorden 1748–1998 [The Royal Order of the Seraphim 1748–1998] (in Swedish). Stockholm: Kungl. Maj:ts orden. ISBN 91-630-6744-7.  O'Brien, Brendan (1995). The Long War: The IRA and Sinn Féin. Dublin: The O'Brien Press. ISBN 978-0862786069. 

Otway, Lieutenant-Colonel T.B.H (1990). The Second World War
Second World War
1939-1945 Army — Airborne Forces. Imperial War Museum. ISBN 0-901627-57-7. 

Park, Keith (August 1946). Air Operations in South East Asia 3rd May 1945 to 12th September 1945 (PDF). London: War Office.  published in "No. 39202". The London Gazette
The London Gazette
(Supplement). 13 April 1951. pp. 2127–2172.  Pender, Paul (2012). The Butler Did It: My True and Terrifying Encounters with a Serial Killer. Edinburgh: Mainstream. ISBN 978-1780575612.  Powell, Charles (1996). Juan Carlos
Juan Carlos
of Spain. Houndmills: MacMillan Press, St. Antony's Series. ISBN 0-333-54726-8.  Sardesai, Damodar (2007). India: The Definitive History. Boulder, CO: Westview. ISBN 978-0813343525.  Schofield, Victoria (2010). Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan
and the Unending War. New York: I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1848851057.  Smith, Adrian (2010). Mountbatten: Apprentice War Lord 1900–1943. London: I B Tauris & Co Ltd. ISBN 978-1-848-85374-4.  Stoessinger, John (2010). Why Nations Go to War?. Boston: Wadsworth–Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0495797180.  Talbot, Ian & Singh, Gurharpal (2009). The Partition of India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521672566.  Thompson, Julian (2001). The Royal Marines: From Sea Soldiers to a Special
Force. London: Pan. ISBN 0-330-37702-7.  Vickers, Hugo (2000). Alice, Princess Andrew of Greece. London: Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-13686-5.  Villa, Brian Loring (1989). Unauthorised Action: Mountbatten and the Dieppe Raid. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-540804-7.  White, Matthew (2012). The Great Big Book of Horrible Things. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0393081923.  Wheen, Francis (2001). Tom Driberg: The Soul of Indiscretion. London: Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-84115-575-6.  Wolpert, Stanley A. (2006). Shameful Flight: The Last Years of the British Empire in India. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195393941.  Ziegler, Philip (1985). Mountbatten: The Official Biography. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0002165433.   ———  (1989). From Shore to Shore: The Tour Diaries of Earl Mountbatten of Burma
Earl Mountbatten of Burma
1953–1979. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0002176064 – via Google Books.   ———  (January 2011) [first published 2004]. "Mountbatten, Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas, first Earl Mountbatten of Burma (1900–1979)". The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online ed.). doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31480.  Zuckerman, Lord (November 1981). "Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, OM 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 27: 354–366. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1981.0014. JSTOR 769876. 

Further reading[edit]

Copland, Ian. "Lord Mountbatten and the integration of the Indian states: A reappraisal." Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 21#2 (1993): 385–408. Hough, Richard (1980). Mountbatten: Hero of Our Time. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0297778059.  Knatchbull, Timothy (2010). From a Clear Blue Sky. London: Arrow. ISBN 978-0099543589.  Leigh, David (1988). The Wilson Plot: The Intelligence Services and the Discrediting of a Prime Minister 1945–1976. London: Heinemann. ISBN 978-0434413409.  Moore, R. J. "Mountbatten, India, and the Commonwealth" Journal of Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 19.1 (1981): 5–43. Murfett, Malcolm (1995). The First Sea Lords from Fisher to Mountbatten. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-94231-7.  Roberts, Andrew (2004). Eminent Churchillians. London: Phoenix. ISBN 978-1857992137. , 55–136. Smith, Adrian (2010). Mountbatten: Apprentice War Lord 1900–1943. London: I B Tauris. ISBN 978-1848853744.  Terraine, John (1968). The Life and Times of Lord Mountbatten. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0090888108.  Von Tunzelmann, Alex (2008). Indian Summer: The Secret History of the End of an Empire. London: Pocket Books. ISBN 978-1416522256. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma.

Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl Mountbatten of Burma mountbattenofburma.com – Tribute & Memorial web-site to Louis, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma Papers of Louis, Earl Mountbatten of Burma. University of Southampton Newspaper clippings about Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW).

Government offices

Preceded by The Viscount Wavell Viceroy of India 1947 Succeeded by Himself as Governor General of India

Succeeded by Muhammad Ali Jinnah as Governor General of Pakistan

Preceded by Himself as Viceroy of India Governor General of India 1947–1948 Succeeded by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari

Honorary titles

Preceded by The Duke of Wellington Governor of the Isle of Wight 1965–1974 Succeeded by Himself as Lord Lieutenant
of the Isle of Wight

Preceded by Himself as Governor of the Isle of Wight Lord Lieutenant
of the Isle of Wight 1974–1979 Succeeded by John Nicholson

Military offices

Preceded by Herbert Packer Fourth Sea Lord 1950–1952 Succeeded by Sydney Raw

Preceded by John Edelsten Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet 1952–1954 Succeeded by Guy Grantham

Preceded by Rhoderick McGrigor First Sea Lord 1955–1959 Succeeded by Charles Lambe

Preceded by William Dickson Chief of the Defence Staff 1959–1965 Succeeded by Richard Hull

Preceded by Rustu Erdelhun Chairman of the NATO
Military Committee 1960–1961 Succeeded by Lyman Lemnitzer

Peerage of the United Kingdom

New creation Viscount Mountbatten of Burma 1946–1979 Succeeded by Patricia Knatchbull

Earl Mountbatten of Burma Baron Romsey 1947–1979

Links to related articles

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Chiefs of the Defence Staff

Sir William Dickson Earl Mountbatten of Burma Sir Richard Hull Sir Charles Elworthy Sir Peter Hill-Norton Sir Michael Carver Sir Andrew Humphrey Sir Edward Ashmore Sir Neil Cameron Sir Terence Lewin Sir Edwin Bramall Sir John Fieldhouse Sir David Craig Sir Richard Vincent Sir Peter Harding Sir Peter Inge Sir Charles Guthrie Sir Michael Boyce Sir Michael Walker Sir Jock Stirrup Sir David Richards Sir Nick Houghton Sir Stuart Peach

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First Sea Lords of the Royal Navy

Senior Naval Lords (1689–1771)

Arthur Herbert Sir John Chicheley Edward Russell Henry Priestman Earl of Orford Sir George Rooke Sir John Leake Sir George Byng Sir John Leake Sir George Byng Matthew Aylmer Sir George Byng Sir John Jennings Sir John Norris Sir Charles Wager Lord Archibald Hamilton Lord Harry Powlett Lord Archibald Hamilton Lord Vere Beauclerk Lord Anson Sir William Rowley Edward Boscawen Sir William Rowley Edward Boscawen John Forbes Earl Howe Sir Charles Saunders Augustus Keppel Sir Peircy Brett Sir Francis Holburne

First Naval Lords (1771–1904)

Augustus Hervey Sir Hugh Palliser Robert Man George Darby Sir Robert Harland Sir Hugh Pigot John Leveson-Gower Lord Hood Sir Charles Middleton James Gambier Sir Thomas Troubridge James Gambier John Markham James Gambier Sir Richard Bickerton William Domett Sir Joseph Yorke Sir Graham Moore Sir William Johnstone Hope Sir George Cockburn Sir Thomas Hardy The Hon. George Dundas Charles Adam Sir George Cockburn Sir Charles Adam Sir George Cockburn Sir William Parker Sir Charles Adam Sir James Dundas The Hon. Maurice Berkeley Hyde Parker The Hon. Maurice Berkeley The Hon. Sir Richard Dundas William Martin The Hon. Sir Richard Dundas The Hon. Sir Frederick Grey Sir Alexander Milne Sir Sydney Dacres Sir Alexander Milne Sir Hastings Yelverton Sir George Wellesley Sir Astley Key Sir Arthur Hood Lord John Hay Sir Arthur Hood Sir Richard Hamilton Sir Anthony Hoskins Sir Frederick Richards Lord Walter Kerr

First Sea Lords (1904–present)

Sir John Fisher Sir Arthur Wilson Sir Francis Bridgeman Prince Louis of Battenberg The Lord Fisher Sir Henry Jackson Sir John Jellicoe Sir Rosslyn Wemyss The Earl Beatty Sir Charles Madden, Bt Sir Frederick Field The Lord Chatfield Sir Roger Backhouse Sir Dudley Pound The Lord Cunningham of Hyndhope Sir John Cunningham The Lord Fraser of North Cape Sir Rhoderick McGrigor The Earl Mountbatten of Burma Sir Charles Lambe Sir Caspar John Sir David Luce Sir Varyl Begg Sir Michael Le Fanu Sir Peter Hill-Norton Sir Michael Pollock Sir Edward Ashmore Sir Terence Lewin Sir Henry Leach Sir John Fieldhouse Sir William Staveley Sir Julian Oswald Sir Benjamin Bathurst Sir Jock Slater Sir Michael Boyce Sir Nigel Essenhigh Sir Alan West Sir Jonathon Band Sir Mark Stanhope Sir George Zambellas Sir Philip Jones

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Viceroys of India

East India Company (1773–1858)

Warren Hastings
Warren Hastings
(1774–85) Sir John MacPherson (1785–86) The Earl Cornwallis (1786–93) The Lord Teignmouth (1793–98) Sir Alured Clarke
Alured Clarke
(1798) The Marquess Wellesley (1798–1805) The Marquess Cornwallis (1805) Sir George Barlow, Bt (1805–07) The Earl of Minto (1807–13) The Marquess of Hastings (1813–23) John Adam (1823) The Earl Amherst (1823–28) William Butterworth Bayley (1828) Lord William Bentinck
Lord William Bentinck
(1828–35) Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835–36) The Earl of Auckland (1836–42) The Earl of Ellenborough (1842–44) William Wilberforce Bird (1844) The Viscount Hardinge (1844–48) The Marquess of Dalhousie (1848–56) The Viscount Canning (1856–58)

. .

British Government1 (1858–1947)

The Earl Canning (1858–62) The Earl of Elgin (1862–63) The Lord Napier of Magdala (1863) Sir William Denison
William Denison
(1863–64) The Lord Lawrence (1864–69) The Earl of Mayo (1869–72) Sir John Strachey (1872) The Lord Napier (1872) The Earl of Northbrook (1872–76) The Earl of Lytton (1876–80) Marquess of Ripon (1880–84) The Marquess of Dufferin and Ava (1884–88) The Marquess of Lansdowne (1888–94) The Earl of Elgin (1894–99) The Lord Curzon of Kedleston (1899–1905) The Earl of Minto (1905–10) The Lord Hardinge of Penshurst (1910–16) The Lord Chelmsford (1916–21) The Earl of Reading (1921–26) The Lord Irwin (1926–31) The Earl of Willingdon (1931–36) The Marquess of Linlithgow (1936–43) The Viscount Wavell (1943–47) The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma
Viscount Mountbatten of Burma

Governors General after Indian independence2

The Earl Mountbatten of Burma
Earl Mountbatten of Burma
(1947–48) Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (1948–50)

Governors General after Pakistani independence3

Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
(1947–48) Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin
Khawaja Nazimuddin
(1948–51) Ghulam Muhammad (1951–55) Iskander Mirza
Iskander Mirza

1 Following the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny. 2 As representatives of George VI in his role as King of India (1947–50). 3 As representatives of George VI
George VI
and then Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
in their roles as King and Queen of Pakistan, respectively.

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Indian Independence Movement


Colonisation Porto Grande de Bengala Dutch Bengal East India Company British Raj French India Portuguese India Battle of Plassey Battle of Buxar Anglo-Mysore Wars

First Second Third Fourth

Anglo-Maratha Wars

First Second Third

Polygar Wars Vellore Mutiny First Anglo-Sikh War Second Anglo-Sikh War Sannyasi Rebellion Rebellion of 1857 Radcliffe Line more

Philosophies and ideologies

Ambedkarism Gandhism Hindu nationalism Indian nationalism Khilafat Movement Muslim nationalism in South Asia Satyagraha Socialism Swadeshi movement Swaraj

Events and movements

Partition of Bengal
(1905) Partition of Bengal
(1947) Revolutionaries Direct Action Day Delhi-Lahore Conspiracy The Indian Sociologist Singapore
Mutiny Hindu–German Conspiracy Champaran Satyagraha Kheda Satyagraha Rowlatt Committee Rowlatt Bills Jallianwala Bagh massacre Noakhali riots Non-Cooperation Movement Christmas Day Plot Coolie-Begar Movement Chauri Chaura incident, 1922 Kakori conspiracy Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre Flag Satyagraha Bardoli 1928 Protests Nehru Report Fourteen Points of Jinnah Purna Swaraj Salt March Dharasana Satyagraha Vedaranyam March Chittagong armoury raid Gandhi–Irwin Pact Round table conferences Act of 1935 Aundh Experiment Indische Legion Cripps' mission Quit India Bombay Mutiny Coup d'état of Yanaon Provisional Government of India Independence Day


All India Kisan Sabha All-India Muslim League Anushilan Samiti Arya Samaj Azad Hind Berlin Committee Ghadar Party Hindustan Socialist Republican Association Indian National Congress India House Indian Home Rule movement Indian Independence League Indian National Army Jugantar Khaksar Tehrik Khudai Khidmatgar Swaraj
Party more

Social reformers

A. Vaidyanatha Iyer Ayya Vaikundar Ayyankali B. R. Ambedkar Baba Amte Bal Gangadhar Tilak Dayananda Saraswati Dhondo Keshav Karve G. Subramania Iyer Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty Gopal Ganesh Agarkar Gopal Hari Deshmukh Gopaldas Ambaidas Desai Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar J. B. Kripalani Jyotirao Phule Kandukuri Veeresalingam Mahadev Govind Ranade Mahatma Gandhi Muthulakshmi Reddi Narayana Guru Niralamba Swami Pandita Ramabai Periyar E. V. Ramasamy Ram Mohan Roy Rettamalai Srinivasan Sahajanand Saraswati Savitribai Phule Shahu Sister Nivedita Sri Aurobindo Syed Ahmad Khan Vakkom Moulavi Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Vinoba Bhave Vitthal Ramji Shinde Vivekananda

Independence activists

Abul Kalam Azad Accamma Cherian Achyut Patwardhan A. K. Fazlul Huq Alluri Sitarama Raju Annapurna Maharana Annie Besant Ashfaqulla Khan Babu Kunwar Singh Bagha Jatin Bahadur Shah II Bakht Khan Bal Gangadhar Tilak Basawon Singh Begum Hazrat Mahal Bhagat Singh Bharathidasan Bhavabhushan Mitra Bhikaiji Cama Bhupendra Kumar Datta Bidhan Chandra Roy Bipin Chandra Pal C. Rajagopalachari Chandra Shekhar Azad Chetram Jatav Chittaranjan Das Dadabhai Naoroji Dayananda Saraswati Dhan Singh Dukkipati Nageswara Rao Gopal Krishna Gokhale Govind Ballabh Pant Har Dayal Hemu Kalani Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi Jatindra Mohan Sengupta Jatindra Nath Das Jawaharlal Nehru K. Kamaraj Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Khudiram Bose Shri Krishna Singh Lala Lajpat Rai M. Bhaktavatsalam M. N. Roy Mahadaji Shinde Mahatma Gandhi Mangal Pandey Mir Qasim Mithuben Petit‎ Muhammad Ali Jauhar Muhammad Ali Jinnah Muhammad Mian Mansoor Ansari Nagnath Naikwadi Nana Fadnavis Nana Sahib P. Kakkan Prafulla Chaki Pritilata Waddedar Pritilata Waddedar Purushottam Das Tandon R. Venkataraman Rahul Sankrityayan Rajendra Prasad Ram Prasad Bismil Rani Lakshmibai Rash Behari Bose Sahajanand Saraswati Sangolli Rayanna Sarojini Naidu Satyapal Dang Shuja-ud-Daula Shyamji Krishna Varma Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi Siraj ud-Daulah Subhas Chandra Bose Subramania Bharati Subramaniya Siva Surya Sen Syama Prasad Mukherjee Tara Rani Srivastava Tarak Nath Das Tatya Tope Tiruppur Kumaran Ubaidullah Sindhi V O Chidamabaram V. K. Krishna Menon Vallabhbhai Patel Vanchinathan Veeran Sundaralingam Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Virendranath Chattopadhyaya Yashwantrao Holkar Yogendra Shukla more

British leaders

Wavell Canning Cornwallis Irwin Chelmsford Curzon Ripon Minto Dalhousie Bentinck Mountbatten Wellesley Lytton Clive Outram Cripps Linlithgow Hastings


Cabinet Mission Annexation of French colonies in India Constitution Republic of India Indian annexation of Goa Indian Independence Act Partition of India Political integration Simla Conference

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Battenberg / Mountbatten family

Generations are numbered by their descent from Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine and Julia, Princess of Battenberg

1st generation

Princess Marie Prince Louis Prince Alexander Prince Henry Prince Francis Joseph

2nd generation

Princess Alice Princess Louise Prince George Prince Louis Prince Alexander Princess Victoria Eugenie Prince Leopold Prince Maurice

3rd generation

Prince Philip* Tatiana David Patricia Pamela Iris

4th generation

George Ivar

5th generation

Tatiana Henry Ella Alexandra Louise

*Not Mountbatten or Battenberg by birth. Adopted the surname Mountbatten from his maternal line on abandoning his patrilineal Greek and Danish princely titles.

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Fellows of the Royal Society
Royal Society
elected in 1966


Alan R. Battersby Brooke Benjamin Kenneth Budden Robert Ernest Davies Richard Doll Sam Edwards John Samuel Forrest Francis Charles Fraser Harry Harris Donald O. Hebb Kenneth Hutchison Alick Isaacs Basil Kassanis Ralph Kekwick Percy Edward Kent Desmond King-Hele Francis Knowles Georg Kreisel Cyril Lucas James Dwyer McGee James Menter Arthur Mourant Egon Pearson Donald Hill Perkins Mary Pickford Heinz Otto Schild Herbert Muggleton Stanley Bruce Stocker John Sutton Michael Szwarc David Whiffen Fred White

Statute 12

Louis Mountbatten


Jean Brachet Haldan Keffer Hartline Louis Néel André Weil

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Chairmen of the NATO
Military Committee

1949–1951 Omar Bradley 1951–1952 Etienne Baele 1952–1953 Charles Foulkes 1953–1954 E. J. C. Quistgaard 1954–1955 Augustin Guillaume 1955–1956 Stylianos Pallis 1956–1957 Giuseppe Mancinelli 1957–1958 B. R. P. F. Hasselman 1958–1959 Bjarne Øen 1959–1960 J. A. Beleza Ferraz 1960–1960 Rüştü Erdelhun 1960–1961 Louis Mountbatten 1961–1962 Lyman Lemnitzer 1962–1963 C. P. de Cumont 1963–1964 Adolf Heusinger 1964–1968 C. P. de Cumont 1968–1971 Nigel Henderson 1971–1974 Johannes Steinhoff 1974–1977 Peter Hill-Norton 1977–1980 H. F. Zeiner-Gundersen 1980–1983 Robert Hilborn Falls 1983–1986 Cornelis de Jager 1986–1989 Wolfgang Altenburg 1989–1993 Vigleik Eide 1993–1996 Richard Vincent 1996–1999 Klaus Naumann 1999–2002 Guido Venturoni 2002–2005 Harald Kujat 2005–2008 Ray Henault 2008–2011 Giampaolo Di Paola 2011–2015 Knud Bartels 2015–2016 Petr Pavel

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Provisional Irish Republican Army


Anti-Treaty IRA Sinn Féin Republican News An Phoblacht The Green Book The Troubles
The Troubles
(Timeline) Haughey arms crisis Officials-Provisionals split Provisional IRA campaign Arms importation Disappeared Mountjoy Prison helicopter escape Blanket protest Dirty protest HM Prison Maze Anti H-Block 1981 Irish hunger strike Maze Prison escape Armalite and ballot box strategy Smithwick Tribunal Northern Ireland peace process North American arrests Barrack buster Good Friday Agreement


IRA Army Council Internal Security Unit Active Service Unit (ASU) Provisional IRA Belfast Brigade Provisional IRA Derry Brigade Provisional IRA South Armagh Brigade Provisional IRA East Tyrone Brigade Provisional IRA Balcombe Street Gang ASU


Insurgency, 1969–1977

Battle of St Matthew's 1970 RUC booby-trap bombing Scottish soldiers' killings Balmoral showroom bombing Abercorn bombing Donegall St bombing Battle at Springmartin Bloody Friday Claudy bombing Coleraine bombings M62 coach bombing Guildford pub bombings Brook's Club bomb attack British Airways bombing attempt Birmingham pub bombings Bayardo Bar attack Caterham Arms pub bombing London Hilton bombing Green Park tube station bombing Scott's Oyster Bar bombing Walton's Restaurant bombing Drummuckavall ambush Balcombe Street siege Kingsmill massacre

Long War, 1977–1988

1978 Lisnamuck shoot-out Jonesboro Gazelle downing La Mon restaurant bombing 1978 Crossmaglen Ambush Warrenpoint ambush Dunmurry train explosion Lough Foyle attacks Chelsea Barracks bombing Hyde Park and Regent's Park bombings Harrods bombing Woolwich barracks Brighton hotel bombing Ballygawley land mine attack Newry mortar attack Ballygawley attack The Birches attack JHQ Rheindahlen bombing (Germany)

Peace Process, 1988–1998

Corporals killings Lisburn van bombing 1988 Netherlands
Attacks Inglis Barracks Ballygawley bus bombing Jonesborough ambush Deal barracks bombing Derryard attack Derrygorry Gazelle downing RFA Fort Victoria bombing Proxy bombings Downing St mortar attack Mullacreevie ambush Glenanne barracks bombing Teebane bombing Cloghoge attack 1992 Manchester bombing South Armagh sniper campaign Warrington bomb attacks Cullaville occupation Bishopsgate bombing Battle of Newry Road Shankill Road bombing Crossmaglen Lynx downing Drumcree conflict Docklands bombing 1996 Manchester bombing Osnabrück mortar attack Thiepval barracks bombing Coalisland attack July 1997 riots

Chiefs of Staff

Seán Mac Stíofáin (1969–72) Joe Cahill (1972–73) Seamus Twomey (1973) Éamonn O'Doherty (1973–74) Seamus Twomey (1974–77) Gerry Adams
Gerry Adams
(1977–78) Martin McGuinness
Martin McGuinness
(1978–82) Ivor Bell (1982–83) Kevin McKenna (1983–97) Thomas "Slab" Murphy (1997–2005)

Personalities (Volunteers)

Billy McKee Gerry Kelly Dolours Price Marian Price Roy Walsh John Joe McGirl Ruairí Ó Brádaigh Dáithí Ó Conaill George Harrison Billy Reid Michael Gaughan Pat Doherty Hugh Doherty Séanna Breathnach Proinsias MacAirt John Kelly Rose Dugdale John Francis Green Peter Cleary Kevin Coen Frank Stagg Kieran Nugent Francis Hughes Brendan Hughes Tommy McKearney Raymond McCartney Gerry McGeough Gerard Casey Thomas McMahon Eamon Collins Gerard Tuite Patrick Magee Bobby Sands Raymond McCreesh Joe McDonnell Martin Hurson Kieran Doherty Thomas McElwee Michael McKevitt Alex Maskey Fra McCann Owen Carron Paul Butler Dessie Ellis Angelo Fusco Breandán Mac Cionnaith Rita O'Hare Martin Meehan Arthur Morgan Danny Morrison Antoine Mac Giolla Bhrighde Kieran Fleming William Fleming Bernard Fox Paddy Quinn Laurence McKeown Pat McGeown Matt Devlin Pat Sheehan Siobhán O'Hanlon Jackie McMullan Patrick Joseph Kelly Larry Marley Jim Lynagh Pádraig McKearney Brendan McFarlane Charles Breslin Sean O'Callaghan Séamus McElwaine Gabriel Cleary Daniel McCann Seán Savage Mairéad Farrell Martin McCaughey Dessie Grew Fergal Caraher Patricia Black Malachy Carey Martin McGartland Joseph MacManus Paul Magee Pearse Jordan Thomas Begley Martin Doherty Ed O'Brien Diarmuid O'Neill Carál Ní Chuilín Ian Milne Conor Murphy Martina Anderson Jennifer McCann Liam Campbell Colin Duffy

Espionage & Supergrasses

Denis Donaldson Freddie Scappaticci (allegedly "Stakeknife") Martin McGartland Raymond Gilmour Kevin Fulton Joseph Fenton Eamon Collins


Cumann na mBan Fianna Éireann South Armagh Republican Action Force Direct Action Against Drugs NORAID Provisional Clan na Gael Friends of Sinn Féin Cairde na hÉireann Troops Out Movement


Continuity Irish Republican Army Real Irish Republican Army

Prominent killings

Michael Willetts Jean McConville Columba McVeigh Billy Fox Martin McBirney Steven Tibble Ross McWhirter Sammy Smyth Christopher Ewart-Biggs Jeffery Stanford Agate Robert Nairac Richard Sykes Gerard Evans Lord Mountbatten Baroness Brabourne Norman Stronge James Stronge Robert Bradford Lenny Murphy Kenneth Salvesen Anthony Berry Maurice Gibson Robert Seymour Heidi Hazell Joseph Fenton Nick Spanos Stephen Melrose Ian Gow Donald Kaberry Thomas Oliver Sammy Ward Tim Parry Jonathan Ball Ray Smallwoods Joe Bratty Raymond Elder Martin Cahill Jerry McCabe Andrew Kearney Eamon Collins Matthew Burns Robert McCartney (allegedly) James Curran Joseph Rafferty (allegedly) Paul Quinn

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 46765217 LCCN: n79145174 ISNI: 0000 0001 1060 5263 GND: 118584561 SELIBR: 206496 SUDOC: 027040879 BNF: