is a prefecture
located in the Kantō region
. Kanagawa Prefecture is the second-most populous prefecture
of Japan at 9,058,094 (1 October 2015) and has a geographic area of . Kanagawa Prefecture borders Tokyo
to the north, Yamanashi Prefecture
to the northwest and Shizuoka Prefecture
to the west.
is the capital and largest city of Kanagawa Prefecture and the second-largest city
in Japan, with other major cities including Kawasaki
. Kanagawa Prefecture is located on Japan's eastern Pacific
coast on Tokyo Bay
and Sagami Bay
, separated by the Miura Peninsula
, across from Chiba Prefecture
on the Bōsō Peninsula
. Kanagawa Prefecture is part of the Greater Tokyo Area
, the most populous metropolitan area
in the world, with Yokohama and many of its cities being major commercial hubs and southern suburb
s of Tokyo. Kanagawa Prefecture was the political and economic center of Japan during the Kamakura period
was the ''de facto
'' capital and largest city of Japan as the seat of the Kamakura Shogunate
from 1185 to 1333. Kanagawa Prefecture is a popular tourist area in the Tokyo region, with Kamakura and Hakone
being two popular side trip destinations.
The prefecture has some archaeological sites going back to the Jōmon period
(around 400 BCE). About 3,000 years ago, Mount Hakone
produced a volcanic explosion which resulted in Lake Ashi
on the western area of the prefecture.
It is believed that the Yamato dynasty
ruled this area from the 5th century onwards. In the ancient era
, its plains were very sparsely inhabited.
In medieval Japan, Kanagawa was part of the provinces of Sagami
in central Sagami was the capital of Japan during the Kamakura period
During the Edo period
, the western part of Sagami Province was governed by the ''daimyō
'' of Odawara Castle
, while the eastern part was directly governed by the Tokugawa shogunate
Commodore Matthew Perry
landed in Kanagawa in 1853 and 1854 and signed the Convention of Kanagawa
to force open Japanese ports to the United States. Yokohama
, the largest deep-water port in Tokyo Bay
, was opened to foreign traders in 1859 after several more years of foreign pressure, and eventually developed into the largest trading port in Japan. Nearby Yokosuka
, closer to the mouth of Tokyo Bay, developed as a naval port and now serves as headquarters for the U.S. 7th Fleet
and the fleet operations of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
. After the Meiji period
, many foreigners lived in Yokohama City, and visited Hakone
. The Meiji government
developed the first railways in Japan, from Shinbashi
(in Tokyo) to Yokohama in 1872.
The epicenter of the 1923 Great Kanto earthquake
was deep beneath Izu Ōshima
Island in Sagami Bay. It devastated Tokyo, the port city of Yokohama
, surrounding prefectures of Chiba
, and Shizuoka
, and caused widespread damage throughout the Kantō
region. The sea receded as much as 400 metres from the shore at Manazuru Point
, and then rushed back towards the shore in a great wall of water which swamped Mitsuishi-shima. At Kamakura
, the total death toll from earthquake, tsunami, and fire exceeded 2,000 victims. At Odawara
, ninety percent of the buildings collapsed immediately, and subsequent fires burned the rubble along with anything else left standing.
and other major cities were heavily damaged by the U.S. bombing in 1945. Total Casualties amounted to more than several thousand. After the war, General Douglas MacArthur
, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers
for the Occupation of Japan
, landed in Kanagawa, before moving to other areas. U.S. military bases still remain in Kanagawa, including Camp Zama
), Yokosuka Naval Base
, Naval Air Station Atsugi
In 1945, Kanagawa was the 15th most populous prefecture in Japan, with the population of about 1.9 million. In the years after the war, the prefecture underwent rapid urbanization as a part of the Greater Tokyo Area. The population as of September 1, 2014, is estimated to be 9.1 million. Kanagawa became the second most populous prefecture in 2006.
Kanagawa is a relatively small prefecture located at the southeastern corner of the Kantō Plain
wedged between Tokyo on the north, the foothills of Mount Fuji
on the northwest, and the Sagami Bay
and Tokyo Bay
on the south and east. The eastern side of the prefecture is relatively flat and heavily urbanized, including the large port cities of Yokohama
The southeastern area nearby the Miura Peninsula
is less urbanized, with the ancient city of Kamakura
drawing tourists to temples and shrines. The western part, bordered by Yamanashi Prefecture
and Shizuoka Prefecture
on the west,
is more mountainous and includes resort areas like Odawara
. The area, stretching from west to east and from north to south, contains of land, accounting for 0.64% of the total land area of Japan.
, 23% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks
, namely the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park
; Tanzawa-Ōyama Quasi-National Park
; and Jinba Sagamiko
, Manazuru Hantō
, and Tanzawa-Ōyama
Prefectural Natural Parks.
Topographically, the prefecture consists of three distinct areas. The mountainous western region features the Tanzawa Mountain Range
and Hakone Volcano
. The hilly eastern region is characterized by the Tama Hills
and Miura Peninsula
. The central region, which surrounds the Tama Hills and Miura Peninsula, consists of flat stream terraces and low lands around major rivers including the Sagami River
, Sakai River
, Tsurumi River
, and Tama River
The Tama River
forms much of the boundary between Kanagawa and Tokyo. The Sagami River
flows through the middle of the prefecture. In the western region, the Sakawa (river) runs through a small lowland, the Sakawa Lowland, between Hakone Volcano to the west and the Ōiso Hills to the east and flows into Sagami Bay.
The Tanzawa Mountain Range
, part of the Kantō Mountain Range
, contains Mount Hiru
(), the highest peak in the prefecture. Other mountains measure similar mid-range heights: Mount Hinokiboramaru
(), Mount Tanzawa
, (), Mount Ōmuro
(), Mount Himetsugi
(), and Mount Usu
(). The mountain range is lower in height southward leading to Hadano Basin
to the Ōiso Hills
. At the eastern foothills of the mountain range lies the Isehara Plateau
and across the Sagami River the Sagamino plateau
Nineteen cities are located in Kanagawa Prefecture.
Towns and villages
These are the towns and villages in each district
Festivals and events
*Tama River Firework event
*Yokohama Port Anniversary Festival (June)
*Kamakura Festival (April)
*Hiratsuka Tanabata Festival (July)
*Odawara Hōjō Godai Festival (May)
*Yugawara Kifune Festival (July)
Kanagawa's transport network is heavily intertwined with that of Tokyo (''see: Transportation in Greater Tokyo''). Shin-Yokohama and Odawara stations on the Tōkaidō Shinkansen are located in the prefecture, providing high-speed rail service to Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, and other major cities.
*East Japan Railway Company
**Tōkaidō Main Line
**Chūō Main Line
*Central Japan Railway Company
* Minatomirai Line
** Daiyuzan Line
* Enoshima Electric Railway
*Yokohama Municipal Subway
*Kanazawa Seaside Line
*Tokyo Bay Aqua-Line
*Route 129 (Hiratsuka-Atsugi-Sagamihara)
*Route 135 (Shimoda–Atami-Odawara)
*Route 246 (Chiyoda, Tokyo-Kawasaki-Machida-Atsugi-Isehara-Gotenba–Numazu)
*Route 357 (Chiba–Funabashi–Daiba of Tokyo-Yokohama-Yokosuka)
*Route 413 (Fujiyoshida–Lake Yamanaka-Sagamihara)
*Route 466 (Setagaya, Tokyo-Kawasaki-Yokohama)
*Yokohama Port – International container hub port
*Misaki Port – Ferry Route to Kisarazu
The Kanagawa Prefectural Board of Education manages and oversees individual municipal school districts. The board of education also directly operates most of the public high schools in the prefecture.
**Keio University – Shin Kawasaki Campus
**Meiji University – Ikuta Campus
**Senshu University – Ikuta Campus
**Japan Women's University
**Showa University of Music
**Den-en Chofu University – Aso Ward
**Nippon Medical School
**St. Marianna University, School of Medicine – Miyamae
**Japan Cinema School
**Tokyo City University – Aso Ward
**Tokyo Institute of Technology – Suzukakedai
**Tokyo University of the Arts – Naka Ward
**Yokohama National University – Hodogaya
**Yokohama City University – Kanazawa Ward
**Kanagawa University – Kanagawa Ward
**Kanto Gakuin University – Kanazawa Ward
**Toin University of Yokohama – Aoba Ward
**Tsurumi University – Tsurumi Ward
**Yokohama College of Commerce – Tsurumi Ward
**Yokohama College of Pharmacy – Totsuka Ward
**Keio University – Hiyoshi Campus
**Tokyo City University – Tsuzuki Ward
**Meiji Gakuin University – Totsuka Ward
**Nippon Sport Science University – Aoba Ward
**Toyo Eiwa University – Midori Ward
**Kokugakuin University – Tama Plaza
**Senzoku Gakuen College of Music
**Aoyama Gakuin University
**Sagami Women's University
**Joshi University of Art and Design
**Kanagawa Dental College
**Kanagawa University of Human Services
**Tokai University – Hiratsuka Campus
**Shoin University – Hiratsuka Campus
**Tokai University – Isehara Campus
**Kanto Gakuin University – Odawara Campus
**International University of Health and Welfare
**Bunkyo University – Chigasaki Campus
**Tokyo University of Agriculture – Atsugi Campus
**Kanagawa Institute of Technology
**Tokyo Polytechnic University – Atsugi Campus
Football and athletics
*Nissan Stadium (International Stadium Yokohama)—in Yokohama, the final venue of 2002 FIFA World Cup and FIFA Club World Cup in 2005–2007
*Nippatsu Mitsuzawa Stadium (Mitsuzawa Stadium)—in Yokohama, only for football
*Todoroki Athletics Stadium—in Kawasaki, the final venue of 2007 IFAF World Cup (American football).
*Hiratsuka Athletics Stadium
*Yokohama Stadium—for baseball (Yokohama DeNA BayStars) and hosted Australian rules football
*Kawasaki Stadium—former homeground of Taiyo Whales (now Yokohama BayStars) and Lotte Orions (now Chiba Lotte Marines).
*Yokosuka Stadium—home field of Shonan Searex, minor league team of Yokohama BayStars
*Yokohama Arena—also for music concert
*Yokohama Cultural Gymnasium—a volleyball venue of 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo
*Todoroki Arena—in Kawasaki and multi-purpose venue (including basketball)
*Odawara Arena—2020 Kanagawa Pre-Games training facilities
*Enoshima Yacht Course—used for 1964 Summer Olympics.
*Hakone Ekiden Course—from Tokyo to Hakone, 108.0 km, mostly on Japan National Route 1 and Route 15. Runners run on the divided route for ten parts on January 2 (to Hakone) and January 3 (to Tokyo) every year.
*Lake Sagami—hosted canoeing and rowing for the 1964 Summer Olympics.
*Kawasaki Frontale (Kawasaki)—Todoroki Athletics
*Yokohama F. Marinos (Yokohama, Yokosuka)—Nissan Stadium
*Yokohama F.C. (Yokohama)—Mitsuzawa Ballpark
*Shonan Bellmare (Hiratsuka, Odawara and some cities and towns in central and western area of Kanagawa)—Hiratsuka Athletic Stadium (football) and Odawara Arena (futsal)
*Yokohama BayStars (Yokohama)—Yokohama Stadium, and Yokosuka Stadium (for its farm team, "Shonan Searex").
*Toshiba Brave Thunders Kanagawa (Kawasaki)—Todoroki Arena
*NEC Red Rockets (Kawasaki)—Todoroki Arena
Visitors attractions and places of interest
* Yokohama Municipal Children's Botanical Garden
* Yokohama War Cemetery
Kanagawa Prefecture has sister relationships with these places:
* Maryland, United States (1981)
* Liaoning Province, China (1983)
* Odessa Oblast, Ukraine (1986)
* Baden-Württemberg, Germany (1989)
* Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea (1990)
* City of Gold Coast, Australia (1990)
* Penang, Malaysia (1991)
* Västra Götaland County, Sweden (1998)
* Aguascalientes, México (2013)
In popular culture
*Stephen Sondheim's stage musical ''Pacific Overtures'', about the "opening" of Japan to Western influence by Commodore Perry, contains the song "Welcome to Kanagawa".
*The main team in the Japanese manga and anime series ''Slam Dunk'', Shohoku, is from Kanagawa.
*The Hinata Inn and surrounding town from the manga and anime series ''Love Hina'' are located in Kanagawa.
*The Japanese manga series ''Elfen Lied'' takes place in Kanagawa, mainly in Kamakura and Enoshima (Fujisawa).
*The Japanese anime series ''S-CRY-ED'' takes place in Kanagawa Prefecture, after a seismic event raises it from the ground.
*The Japanese manga and anime series ''Kenkō Zenrakei Suieibu Umishō'' takes place in the fictional Kanagawa city of Umineko.
*The Japanese anime series ''Gundam Wings early episodes feature Kanagawa prominently, mainly Yokohama and Yokosuka.
*The Japanese anime and manga series ''Area no Kishi'' takes place in Kanagawa, mostly Kamakura.
*The Japanese anime and manga series ''Hamatora'' takes place in Kanagawa, mainly in Yokohama.
*The Japanese anime and manga series ''His and Her Circumstances'' takes place in Kanagawa Prefecture, mainly in Kawasaki city and Yokohama.
*The Japanese anime and manga series ''Neon Genesis Evangelion'' takes place in Tokyo-3, which is located in the village of Hakone, in the Ashigarashimo District
*A team from the Japanese anime and manga series ''Kuroko's Basketball'', Kaijo, is from Kanagawa.
*The manga Shonan Junai Gumi, along with its prequel bad company, and the Great Teacher Onizuka's (sequel to Shonan Junai Gumi) spin off "shonan 14 days", are set in Shonan, in Kanagawa
*The Japanese anime and manga series ''Yowamushi Pedal'', Hakone Academy is from Hakone, Kanagawa.
*The Japanese anime and manga series ''Initial D'' Fifth Stage is set in Kanagawa, and Final Stage is set in Hakone.
*The Japanese anime and manga series ''Bungo Stray Dogs'' is set in Yokohama
*The Japanese anime and manga series Aoi Hana is set in Kamakura
*The Japanese anime and manga series ''Rascal Does Not Dream of Bunny Girl Senpai'' takes place in various places in Kanagawa Prefecture, such as Fujisawa and Yokohama.
* Politics of Kanagawa
* Hammer, Joshua. (2006). ''Yokohama Burning: The Deadly 1923 Earthquake and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II''. New York: Simon & Schuster.
* Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005)
Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Kanagawa Prefecture Official Website
Kanagawa Prefecture Tourism Website
Category:Prefectures of Japan