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Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
(Russian: Калининград, IPA: [kəlʲɪnʲɪnˈɡrat]; former German name: Königsberg; Russian: Кёнигсберг, tr. Kyonigsberg; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg) is the administrative center of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
on the Baltic Sea. In the Middle Ages, it was the site of Old Prussian
Old Prussian
settlement Twangste. In 1255, during the Northern Crusades, a new fortress was built by the Teutonic Knights. The city became the capital of the Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
and East Prussia
East Prussia
(part of Germany). It was heavily damaged during World War II
World War II
and its population fled or was removed by force when it became a Russian city. According to the 2010 Census, its population was 431,902.[8]

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Climate

2 History

2.1 Sambians 2.2 Königsberg 2.3 Soviet Union 2.4 Russia

3 Administrative and municipal status

3.1 City districts

4 Cityscape

4.1 Museums 4.2 Theatre 4.3 Architecture 4.4 Monuments 4.5 Parks 4.6 Ponds 4.7 Bridges

5 Culture

5.1 Education 5.2 Music 5.3 Cuisine

6 Transportation 7 Economy 8 Military

8.1 Soviet era

9 Demographics

9.1 Poles
Poles
in Kaliningrad

10 Sports 11 Notable people 12 International relations

12.1 Diplomatic missions 12.2 Small border traffic law 12.3 Twin towns and sister cities 12.4 Partner cities

13 See also 14 References

14.1 Notes 14.2 Sources

15 Further reading 16 External links

Geography[edit] Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
is at the mouth of the navigable Pregolya
Pregolya
River, which empties into the Vistula Lagoon, an inlet of the Baltic Sea. Sea vessels can access Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Bay/ Bay of Danzig
Bay of Danzig
and the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
by way of the Vistula Lagoon
Vistula Lagoon
and the Strait of Baltiysk. Until around 1900, ships drawing more than 2 meters (6 ft 7 in) of water could not pass the bar and come into town;[citation needed] larger vessels had to anchor at Pillau (now Baltiysk), where cargo was transferred to smaller vessels. In 1901, a ship canal between Königsberg
Königsberg
and Pillau, completed at a cost of 13 million German marks,[citation needed] enabled vessels of a 6.5 meters (21 ft) draught to moor alongside the town (see also Ports of the Baltic Sea).

The Pregolya River
Pregolya River
in Kaliningrad

The pseudo-historic "Fishermen's village"

13th-century Juditten Church

Climate[edit]

This photograph from the ISS captures two great lagoons to the north and south of Kaliningrad. From an astronaut's perspective in low-Earth orbit, land surfaces usually appear brighter than water. But in this image, reflected sunlight, or sunglint, inverts this pattern

Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
has a humid continental climate (Dfb), with cold, cloudy, (though moderate compared to most of Russia) winters and mild summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms. Average temperatures range from −1.5 to +18.1 °C (29.3 to 64.6 °F) and rainfall varies from 36.0 millimeters (1.42 in)/month to 97.0 millimeters (3.82 in)/month. In general, it has maritime climate influences and therefore damp, variable and mild, with vast temperature differences between July and January. The seasons are clearly differentiated. Spring starts in March and is initially cold and windy, later becoming pleasantly warm and often very sunny. Summer, which begins in June, is predominantly warm but hot at times (with temperature reaching as high as +30–+35 °C (86–95 °F) at least once per year) with plenty of sunshine interspersed with heavy rain. The average annual hours of sunshine for Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
are 1700,[citation needed] similar to other northern cities. Autumn comes in September and is at first warm and usually sunny, turning cold, damp and foggy in November.[citation needed] Winter includes periods of snow. January and February are the coldest months with the temperature sometimes dropping as low as −15 °C (5 °F).

Climate data for Kaliningrad

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 12.7 (54.9) 15.6 (60.1) 23.0 (73.4) 28.5 (83.3) 30.6 (87.1) 33.5 (92.3) 36.3 (97.3) 36.5 (97.7) 33.8 (92.8) 26.4 (79.5) 19.4 (66.9) 13.3 (55.9) 36.5 (97.7)

Average high °C (°F) 0.7 (33.3) 1.5 (34.7) 5.6 (42.1) 12.3 (54.1) 18.0 (64.4) 20.5 (68.9) 23.0 (73.4) 22.6 (72.7) 17.6 (63.7) 12.1 (53.8) 5.6 (42.1) 1.9 (35.4) 11.8 (53.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) −1.5 (29.3) −1.1 (30) 2.0 (35.6) 7.3 (45.1) 12.5 (54.5) 15.5 (59.9) 18.1 (64.6) 17.6 (63.7) 13.1 (55.6) 8.4 (47.1) 3.3 (37.9) −0.3 (31.5) 7.9 (46.2)

Average low °C (°F) −3.9 (25) −3.6 (25.5) −1.1 (30) 2.9 (37.2) 7.4 (45.3) 10.9 (51.6) 13.6 (56.5) 13.1 (55.6) 9.2 (48.6) 5.2 (41.4) 1.1 (34) −2.5 (27.5) 4.4 (39.9)

Record low °C (°F) −32.5 (−26.5) −33.3 (−27.9) −21.7 (−7.1) −5.8 (21.6) −3.1 (26.4) 0.7 (33.3) 4.5 (40.1) 1.6 (34.9) −2.0 (28.4) −11.2 (11.8) −18.7 (−1.7) −25.6 (−14.1) −33.3 (−27.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 68 (2.68) 49 (1.93) 52 (2.05) 36 (1.42) 54 (2.13) 79 (3.11) 77 (3.03) 97 (3.82) 74 (2.91) 82 (3.23) 83 (3.27) 73 (2.87) 824 (32.44)

Average rainy days 14 13 14 14 14 16 15 16 17 18 18 16 185

Average snowy days 15 15 10 3 0.1 0 0 0 0 1 7 13 64

Average relative humidity (%) 85 83 78 72 71 74 75 77 81 83 86 87 79

Mean monthly sunshine hours 35 61 120 171 253 264 257 228 158 96 38 26 1,707

Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[13]

Source #2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)[14]

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Kaliningrad Sambians[edit]

Old Prussian
Old Prussian
clans in the 13th century (Sambia - orange)

Königsberg
Königsberg
was preceded by a Sambian (Old Prussian) fort called Twangste (Tuwangste or Tvankste), meaning Oak Forest.[15] During the conquest of the Sambians
Sambians
by the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
in 1255, Twangste was destroyed and replaced with a new fortress named Königsberg. The declining Old Prussian
Old Prussian
culture finally became extinct around the 17th century, after the surviving Old Prussians
Old Prussians
were integrated through assimilation and Germanization. Königsberg[edit]

Historical affiliations

Old Prussians
Old Prussians
(until 1255) Teutonic Order 1255–1466 Kingdom of Poland
Poland
1454-1455 Teutonic Order 1466–1525 (fief of Poland) Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
1525–1657 (fief of Poland) Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
1657–1701 Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
1701–1758 Russian Empire
Russian Empire
1758–1764 Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
1764–1871 German Empire
German Empire
1871–1918 Weimar Germany
Germany
1918–1933  Nazi Germany
Germany
1933–1945   Soviet Union
Soviet Union
1945–1991 Russia
Russia
1991-present

Main article: Königsberg

Kneiphof
Kneiphof
island with cathedral

Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
was the East Prussian provincial capital Königsberg. Founded in 1255 by the Teutonic Knights, the city was named in honor of the Bohemian King Ottokar II. Through immigration and development over the following seven centuries, the area became predominantly German, though having Polish and Lithuanian minorities. During World War II the city of Königsberg
Königsberg
was heavily damaged by a British bombing attack in 1944 and the massive Soviet siege in spring 1945. Soviet Union[edit]

Ruins of Königsberg
Königsberg
Castle in the 1950s

At the end of World War II
World War II
in 1945, the city became part of the Soviet Union pending the final determination of territorial questions at the peace settlement (as part of the Russian SFSR) as agreed upon by the Allies at the Potsdam Conference: The Conference agreed in principle to the proposal of the Soviet Government concerning the ultimate transfer to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
of the city of Koenigsberg and the area adjacent to it as described above, subject to expert examination of the actual frontier.[citation needed] The President of the United States
United States
and the British Prime Minister declared that they would support the proposal of the Conference at the forthcoming peace settlement.[16] Königsberg
Königsberg
was renamed Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
in 1946[11] after the death of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
of the USSR, Mikhail Kalinin, one of the original Bolsheviks. The survivors of the German population were forcibly expelled in 1946–1949, and the city was repopulated with Soviet citizens. The German language
German language
was replaced by the Russian language. The city was rebuilt, and as the westernmost territory of the USSR, the Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
became a strategically important area during the Cold War. The Soviet Baltic Fleet
Baltic Fleet
was headquartered in the city in the 1950s. Because of its strategic importance, Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
was closed to foreign visitors. In 1957 an agreement was signed and later came into force which delimited the border between Poland
Poland
and the Soviet Union.[17][18] Russia[edit]

Baltic Fleet
Baltic Fleet
HQ (ex-postal admn. bldg.)

Former Königsberg
Königsberg
Stock Exchange

Rossgarten Gate, now a restaurant

The town of Baltiysk, just outside Kaliningrad, is the only Russian Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
port said to be "ice-free" all year round, and the region hence plays an important role in maintenance of the Baltic Fleet. While in the 1990s many Soviet-era city names commemorating Communist leaders were changed (e.g. Leningrad
Leningrad
reverting to Saint Petersburg), Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
remains named for a Soviet leader. Due to the collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991, the Kaliningrad Oblast became an exclave, geographically separated from the rest of Russia. This isolation from the rest of Russia
Russia
became even more pronounced politically when Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
became members of NATO
NATO
and subsequently the European Union
European Union
in 2004. All military and civilian land links between the region and the rest of Russia
Russia
have to pass through members of NATO
NATO
and the EU. Special
Special
travel arrangements for the territory's inhabitants have been made through the Facilitated Transit Document (FTD) and Facilitated Rail Transit Document (FRTD). Since the early 1990s, the Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
oblast has been a Free Economic Zone (FEZ Yantar). In 2005 the city marked 750 years of existence as Königsberg/Kaliningrad.[19] In July 2007, Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov
Sergei Ivanov
declared that if US-controlled missile defense systems were deployed in Poland, then nuclear weapons might be deployed in Kaliningrad. On November 5, 2008, Russian leader Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
said that installing missiles in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
was almost a certainty.[20] These plans were suspended, however, in January 2009.[21] But during late 2011, a long range Voronezh radar
Voronezh radar
was commissioned to monitor missile launches within about 6,000 kilometres (3,728 miles). It is situated in the settlement of Pionersky (formerly German Neukuhren) in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast.[22] Even though the current German government
German government
has stated it has no claim over Kaliningrad, the former Königsberg, the possibility of such a return to German rule at some future time continues to come up in discussion, creating what is known as "The Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
question". Administrative and municipal status[edit] Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
is the administrative center of the oblast.[3] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Kaliningrad—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
is incorporated as Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Urban Okrug.[4] City districts[edit] As of 2014[update], the city was divided into three administrative districts:

City district Russian name Inhabitants 2010 Census[8] Notes

Moskovsky Московский 152,165 Named after the Russian capital, Moscow

Leningradsky Ленинградский 159,771 named after Leningrad, now Saint Petersburg

Tsentralny Центральный 119,966 lit. central, as it lies to the northwest of the historical city center

Two administrative districts were abolished in June 2009:

City district Russian name Inhabitants 2002 Census[23] Notes

Baltiysky Балтийский 68,664 named after the Baltic Sea

Oktyabrsky Октябрьский 43,252 named after the October Revolution

Cityscape[edit] Museums[edit]

Museum of History and Arts, formerly Königsberg's Stadthalle

Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
has many museums. A few examples are the Immanuel Kant museum on the Kneiphof
Kneiphof
island, the Regional Museum of History and Arts, which has parts of Königsberg
Königsberg
Castle's Prussia Museum of local archaeological findings, and the Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Amber Museum, which is situated in the Dohna Tower near the Rossgarten Gate. The city is also home to the Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
State Art Gallery, established in 1988, that is developing as a contemporary art museum.[24] The Museum of the World's Oceans is located on the former research vessel Wityaz on the shore of the Pregel river. The museum displays the newest technologies on sea research and also shows the diversity of the flora and fauna of the world's oceans. An anchored Foxtrot-class submarine next to the museum, the B-413, hosts an exhibit about the Russian submarine fleet.[citation needed] Theatre[edit]

Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Regional Drama Theater

The Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Philharmonic Orchestra
Orchestra
is accommodated in the former Catholic Church of the Holy Family of Königsberg, built in 1907. The church escaped major damage in World War II
World War II
and was refurbished afterwards. The building, which has noted acoustics, functions as an organ hall since re-opening in 1980. The Kaliningrad Regional Drama Theater
Kaliningrad Regional Drama Theater
is located in the former Königsberg
Königsberg
Neues Schauspielhaus, which was opened in 1910. The building was rebuilt after the war using earlier plans for the theater and opened in 1960. The colonnade in front of the entrance was modeled after the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow. The regionally notable Kaliningrad Puppet Theater
Kaliningrad Puppet Theater
has had its seat since 1975 in the Queen Louise Remembrance Church. This neo-romantic church, designed by architect Fritz Heitmann, was built in 1901. Architecture[edit]

King's Gate

Friedrichsburg Gate

The pre-war city center (Altstadt and Kneiphof) currently consists of parks, broad avenues, a square on the site of the former Königsberg Castle, and two buildings: the House of Soviets ("Dom Sovyetov"), roughly on the site of the former castle, and the restored Königsberg Cathedral on the Kneiphof
Kneiphof
island (now "Kant island"). Immanuel Kant's grave is situated next to the cathedral. Many German-era buildings in the historic city center have been preserved and even rebuilt, including the reconstruction of the Königsberg
Königsberg
Synagogue. The new city center is concentrated around Victory Square. The Cathedral of Christ the Savior, consecrated in 2005, is located on that square. The oldest building in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
is the Juditten Church
Juditten Church
(built before 1288). Also worth seeing are the former Stock Exchange, the surviving churches, and the remaining city gates. In counter-clockwise order these gates are: the Sackheim Gate, King's Gate, Rossgarten Gate, Attack Gate (German: Ausfallstor, or Sally Port), Railway Gate (Eisenbahntor), Brandenburg Gate, and Friedland Gate (Friedländer Tor (Kaliningrad) (de)). Apart from the already mentioned Dohna Tower, which houses the Amber Museum, the Wrangel Tower also remains as a reminder of the former Königsberg
Königsberg
city walls. Only the gate of the former Fort Friedrichsburg
Fort Friedrichsburg
remains. Monuments[edit]

Recast Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
statue

Notable monuments include the statue of Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
in front of the Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
State University of Russia. The statue was made by notable sculptor Christian Daniel Rauch
Christian Daniel Rauch
and unveiled in 1864. The statue was destroyed in 1945, but was remoulded in 1992 on the initiative of Marion Dönhoff, a native East Prussian who became prominent in the West. Also worth seeing is the Cosmonaut monument, which honours the Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
cosmonauts Alexei Leonov, Yuri Romanenko and Aleksandr Viktorenko. Other statues and monuments include the statue for Duke Albert, the statue for Friedrich Schiller, the statue for Tsar Peter the Great, Vladimir Vysotsky, the "Mother Russia" monument, and the Monument for the 1200 Guardsmen, remembering the Battle of Königsberg. Parks[edit] Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
is a very "green" city[citation needed] with a large number of parks and areas with lots of trees and lawns. Parks range from tiny city squares to massive parks. Youth Recreation Park is one of the well known and popular parks in the city. The park was established in the '20s-'30s in the English style. It reopened its doors post war and was popular among citizens in the '80s-'90s with its beautiful boat house and tennis courts, as well as merry-go-rounds.[25] The park had a massive reconstruction in 2004 adding to the park a cafe, carting, and various modern entertainments. It is located in the quiet area of the city, in Leningradsky area, and is connected to the Lower Pond. Youth Recreation Park provides entertainment for all age groups. There is also Interpersonal Communications Development Central located in the park. Its beautiful building became a popular backdrop for wedding pictures. The Kaliningrad Zoo
Kaliningrad Zoo
was opened as the Königsberg
Königsberg
Zoo in 1896. The collection, which extends over 16.5 ha, comprises 315 species with a total of 2,264 individual animals (as of 2005[update]). The Kaliningrad Zoo
Kaliningrad Zoo
is also an arboretum. Ponds[edit] Centrally located in the city is Lower Pond, an artificial lake. Lower Pond is surrounded by a promenade and is an area for recreation especially in summer. North of the Lower Pond is the larger Upper Pond in northern Kaliningrad. Bridges[edit] Leonhard Euler's 1736 paper on the puzzle of the Seven Bridges of Königsberg
Königsberg
was a seminal work in the fields of graph theory and topology. Only two of the structures from his era survive. Culture[edit] Education[edit] An important education centre in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
is the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University. It is the successor to the Albertina, which was the old university of Königsberg
Königsberg
founded in 1544, and whose faculty included noted scholars as Abraomas Kulvietis, Stanislovas Rapalionis, Immanuel Kant, and Jan Mikulicz-Radecki. Music[edit] The modern city of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
is home to the Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Regional Philharmonic and Symphony Orchestra, the Lik male chamber choir and the Garmonika Russian music ensemble,[26] as well as the Kaliningrad Chamber Orchestra.[27] Cuisine[edit]

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Königsberger Klopse
Königsberger Klopse
are a Prussian specialty of meatballs in a white sauce with capers that can be found in many restaurants in Kaliningrad.

Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
has its own vodka and beer brands, Stari Königsberg
Königsberg
and Ostmark respectively. Since the early 1990s many new restaurants have opened in the city. These restaurants offer culinary specialities of former East Prussia, like Königsberger Klopse, but also many fish and salad dishes, Italian pizza and sushi, which is as popular in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
as in the rest of Russia. Königsberger Fleck, a bovine tripe soup and yet another culinary specialty from former Königsberg, no longer belongs to the culinary culture of Kaliningrad. The people of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
generally imported their respective culinary traditions to the region when they settled in the area after 1945. Borshch
Borshch
and okroshka may be served as in the rest of Russia. Many Italian and Asian restaurants (or fusions of both traditions) are in operation all over the city. Pizza and sushi are among the most popular dishes today. Fast food is widely available from various chains, including those of foreign origin. Shawarma
Shawarma
is also gaining considerable prominence. Transportation[edit]

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Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Railway station

A Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
tram

Khrabrovo Airport, 24 kilometers (15 mi) north of Kaliningrad, has scheduled and charter services to several destinations throughout Europe. There is the smaller Kaliningrad Devau Airport
Kaliningrad Devau Airport
for general aviation. Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
is also home to Kaliningrad Chkalovsk
Kaliningrad Chkalovsk
naval air base. In Baltiysk, one can take a ferry to St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Copenhagen, Riga, and Kiel. Kaliningrad's international railway station is Kaliningrad Passazhirsky, which in German times was known as Königsberg Hauptbahnhof. Trains depart in the directions of Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Adler and Chelyabinsk. A unique feature of the Kaliningrad railway is that some tracks in the direction of Poland
Poland
and Berlin have a standard gauge of 1,435-millimeter (56.5 in) track parallel to the commonly Russian broad gauge of 1,520 millimeters (60 in) mostly for strategic reasons during the Cold War
Cold War
and nowadays for goods traffic. Platform number 6 at the Passazhirsky station can be reached on standard gauge over the former Ostbahn main line from Elbing (Elbląg) making passenger through traffic from Berlin possible. Regional trains also depart from Kaliningrad-North, the former Königsberg
Königsberg
Nordbahnhof, which is situated on Victory Square, the current city center. Trains depart to Zelenogradsk
Zelenogradsk
and Svetlogorsk, and also once a day to Sovetsk. The lines to the Zelenogradsk
Zelenogradsk
and Svetlogorsk have been electrified. Many local pre-war lines have been broken up or are no longer in use, because the new border with Poland disrupted the former traffic flows. In 1881, the Königsberg
Königsberg
tramway system was opened, and it still functions to this day. In 1975, a trolleybus system was also introduced.

Mercedes-Benz bus. Pobedy Square (Victory Square)

VMZ trolley

Port of Kaliningrad

Economy[edit] In 1996, Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
was designated a Special
Special
Economic Zone, referred to as FEZ Yantar. Manufacturers based there get tax and customs duty breaks on the goods they send to other parts of Russia. Although corruption was an early deterrent, that policy means the region is now a manufacturing hub. One in three televisions in Russia
Russia
is made in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
(including Ericsson brand by Telebalt Ltd. and Polar by an eponymous firm located in the city of Chernyakhovsk) and it is home to Cadillac, Hummer
Hummer
and BMW
BMW
related car plants (produced by Avtotor). Currently, Kaliningrad's major industries are manufacturing, shipping, fishing and amber products. In 2006, Moscow
Moscow
declared it would turn the region into "the Russian Hong Kong".[28] The European Commission
European Commission
provides funds for business projects under its special programme for Kaliningrad. With an average GDP growth of more than 10% per year for three years to 2007, Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
grew faster than any other region in Russia, even outstripping the success of its EU neighbours.[citation needed] By early 2015, the BBC reported the region's trade with the countries of the EU was increasing, with improved economic growth and industrial output.[29] Military[edit]

Königsberg
Königsberg
Cathedral on Kneiphof
Kneiphof
island

Brandenburg Gate

Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
used to be the most heavily militarized area of what is now the Russian Federation, and the density of military infrastructure was the highest in Europe. It was the headquarters of the former Soviet Baltic Military District. Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
also functions as the headquarters of Russia's Baltic Fleet, ringed by Chernyakhovsk (air base), Donskoye (air base)
Donskoye (air base)
and Kaliningrad Chkalovsk
Kaliningrad Chkalovsk
(naval air base). Soviet era[edit] Access and control to the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
was imperative because of Soviet perceptions that this meant that the hegemonic power had "influence on European and global affairs". Russia
Russia
had replaced Sweden
Sweden
as the hegemon since the 18th century, but during the late 19th and early 20th century it was increasingly ousted by Germany's growing naval power.[30] At any point in time during the Soviet era, there would be at least 100,000 troops stationed in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
(though there are some estimates that run up to 300,000). Therefore, the population of the city was fluid and almost always temporary. Many military officers and their families would refer to the Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
as "the West". The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
also kept nuclear weapons for use in case a war occurred.[31] Demographics[edit]

Local residents in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
at «Immortal regiment», carrying portraits of their ancestors who fought in World War II

The blessing of the Easter baskets in Kaliningrad

The overwhelming majority Kaliningrad's residents are of Russian ethnicity. As the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
which preceded it were both multi-ethnic states, the area's annexation into the USSR resulted in the city being settled by a slew of other peoples, mostly Slavs. Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
today is home to communities of Ukrainian, Belarusian, Tatar, German, Armenian, Polish, and Lithuanian descent. Although there is a lack of continuity between the inhabitants of Koenigsberg and contemporary Kaliningrad, these ethnic groups were all present when the city was part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Ethnic composition, Russian 2010 census:

Ethnicity total population % of the population

Russians 351,186 87,4 %

Ukrainians 16,053 4,0 %

Belarusian 15,077 3,7 %

Armenians 3,062 0,8 %

Tatars 2,075 0,5 %

Lithuanians 1,789 0,4 %

Germans 1,676 0,4 %

Polish 1,114 0,3 %

Other ethnicities 10,041 2,5 %

All 401,649 100,0 %

Poles
Poles
in Kaliningrad[edit] See also: History of Poles
Poles
in Königsberg
Königsberg
and Poles
Poles
in Russia In the 1940s and 1950s the Soviets resettled Poles
Poles
from Belarus, the Baltic states, Ukraine, and Russia
Russia
to Kaliningrad.[32] According to Wacław Podbereski after the Second World War
Second World War
and the takeover of the administration in these areas by the Soviets, the development of the Polish element in this region effectively ceased.[33] The oldest church in Königsberg
Königsberg
was the Polish church of St. Nicholas, which had been founded with the city in 1255 in the historic district of Steindamm and was dismantled in 1950.[33] Change came with the disintegration of the Soviet Union, due mainly to pastoral activities that began the repolonization of the Poles
Poles
in Russia. The first steps were made by a Polish priest from Grodno
Grodno
(Hrodna), Fr. Jerzy Steckiewicz.[34] The "Polish Cultural Community in Kaliningrad" operates as the main Polish organization among Kaliningrad's Polonia, one of six such Polish organizations within Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast.[34][35] Wspolnota Polska estimates that it is likely there are between 15,000 and 20,000 Poles
Poles
living in the entire oblast. The "Polish Cultural Community in Kaliningrad" organizes poetry contests and is the publisher of the local Polish language
Polish language
newspaper "The Voice from the Pregel".[35] The whole Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
has witnessed an increase in Polish cultural activity since the fall of the Soviet Union, partly due to the immigration of Polish families from Kazakhstan, who had been deported by Stalin during the Soviet invasion of Poland
Poland
in 1939.[32] Sports[edit] Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
is home to the football club FC Baltika Kaliningrad, which plays in the Football Championship of the National League (formerly Russian First Division). It played in the Russian Premier League
Russian Premier League
for 3 seasons between 1996 and 1998. Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
will be the host of some games in the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Notable people[edit] See also: Königsberg
Königsberg
§ Culture and people from Königsberg, and List of people from Königsberg

Sergey Snegov (1910–1994), science fiction writer Viktor Patsayev (1933–1971) Alexey Leonov
Alexey Leonov
(born 1934), first person to walk in space Yury Romanenko
Yury Romanenko
(born 1944) Alexander Viktorenko (born 1947) Oleg Gazmanov
Oleg Gazmanov
(born 1951), singer Sergei Beloglazov (born 1956) Olympic wrestler Lyudmila Putina
Lyudmila Putina
(born 1958), ex-wife of Vladimir Putin, First Lady
First Lady
of Russia Alexander Volkov (born 1967), tennis player Dmitry Lapikov (born 1982), Olympic weightlifter Tvangeste, symphonic black metal band

International relations[edit] Diplomatic missions[edit] In 2004, Germany
Germany
opened a consulate general in Kaliningrad. This consulate allows Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
residents to get Schengen visas without having to travel to Moscow. An agreement between Gerhard Schröder, Chancellor of Germany, and President of Russia
Russia
Vladimir Putin established the consulate in light of Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland, which surround Kaliningrad, joining the EU. Russian concerns with Germany wanting the former Königsberg
Königsberg
back had stifled earlier plans for a German consulate.[36] As of 2004[update] the German consulate was still in the process of getting a new building.[37] Small border traffic law[edit] Poland
Poland
and the Russian Federation have an arrangement whereby residents of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
and the Polish cities of Olsztyn, Elbląg
Elbląg
and Gdańsk
Gdańsk
may obtain special cards permitting repeated travel between the two countries, crossing the Polish–Russian border. As of July 2013, Poland
Poland
had issued 100,000 of the cards. That year, Russians visiting Poland
Poland
to shop at the Biedronka
Biedronka
and Lidl
Lidl
supermarkets featured in songs by musical group Parovoz.[38] Twin towns and sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
is twinned with[39][40]

Aalborg, Denmark
Denmark
[41][42] Białystok, Poland[43] Elbląg, Poland[44][45] Gdańsk, Poland
Poland
(since 1993)[46] Gdynia, Poland[47] Groningen, Netherlands[39][48]

Kalmar, Sweden Kiel, Germany Klaipėda, Lithuania Łódź, Poland
Poland
(since 1992)[49] Malmö, Sweden[50] Mexico
Mexico
City, Mexico Murmansk, Russia

Norfolk, Virginia, United States Olsztyn, Poland Omsk, Russia Šiauliai, Lithuania Toruń, Poland[51] Zabrze, Poland Zwolle, Netherlands Patras, Greece Catania, Italy

[52][53]

Partner cities[edit] Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
is also partnered with:

Yerevan, Armenia
Armenia
(2009)[54]

See also[edit]

Radio Königsberg Seven Bridges of Königsberg Heart of the City (Kaliningrad) Battle of Königsberg Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
(Königsberg) dispute

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e Resolution #640 ^ Article 6 of the Charter of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
states that the city may have an anthem, providing one is officially adopted. As of 2015[update], an anthem is not listed among the symbols of the city shown on the official website of Kaliningrad. ^ a b Law #463 ^ a b c Law #397 ^ Official website of Kaliningrad. Head of the City, Alexander Georgiyevich Yaroshuk. (in Russian) ^ a b Charter of Kaliningrad, Article 25 ^ a b c Official website of Kaliningrad. Passport of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Urban Okrug. (in Russian) ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All- Russia
Russia
Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Оценка численности населения Калининградской области по состоянию на 1 января 2014 года (in Russian) ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.). ^ a b Decree of July 4, 1946 ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian) ^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Kaliningrad" (in Russian). Погода и климат. Retrieved April 5, 2016.  ^ " Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 5, 2016.  ^ The Monthly Review. R. Griffiths. 1836. p. 609. Retrieved December 29, 2014.  ^ "THE POTSDAM DECLARATION". ibiblio.org. Retrieved 2014-12-29.  ^ " Russia
Russia
(USSR) / Poland
Poland
Treaty (with annexed maps) concerning the Demarcation of the Existing Soviet-Polish State Frontier in the Sector Adjoining the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
5 March 1957" (PDF). un.org. Retrieved 2014-12-29.  ^ For other issues of the frontier delimitation see "Maritime boundary delimitation agreements and other material". un.org. Retrieved 2014-12-29.  ^ "The New York Times". nytimes.com. Retrieved 2014-12-29.  ^ "Medvedev Says Russia
Russia
to Deploy Missiles Near Poland" Associated Press via Yahoo News Template:Dead link fixed ^ Luke Harding in Moscow
Moscow
(2009-01-28). "" Russia
Russia
scraps plans to deploy nuclear-capable missiles in Kaliningrad" The". Guardian. Retrieved 2013-12-21.  ^ 28.11.2011 (2011-11-28). ""Russia's new radar to monitor all Europe including Britain" Pravda 28.11.2011". English.pravda.ru. Retrieved 2013-12-21.  ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ " Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
State Art Gallery". www.russianmuseums.info. 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-21.  ^ "Новости! Анонсы! Акции! Парк "Юность", г.Калининград". www.park-unost.ru. Retrieved 2017-08-18.  ^ "Russia's Daily Online". Kommersant. Archived from the original on August 31, 2009. Retrieved June 27, 2009.  ^ "Shostakovich & Schnittke Concertos". Classicstoday.com. Retrieved 2014-01-31.  ^ Sheeter, Laura (2006-10-16). "' Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
erases stains of past' 16 October 2006". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-12-21.  ^ "'Regions and territories: Kaliningrad' 18 December 2007". BBC News. 2013-10-05. Retrieved 2013-12-21.  ^ Knudsen, Olav F. (1999). Stability and Security in the Baltic Sea Region. Portland, OR: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 0-7146-4932-5.  ^ Krickus, Richard (2002). The Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Question. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 42.  ^ a b Wspólnota Polska (2012-12-17). "Stowarzyszenie Wspólnota Polska". Archiwum.wspolnotapolska.org.pl. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ a b Wacław Podbereski, Sąsiedzi: Królewiec – Koenigsberg – Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
[w:] "Znad Wilii" nr 4(44) 2010, s. 113-117 ^ a b "Placówki Dyplomatyczne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej". Kaliningradkg.polemb.net. Retrieved 2013-12-21.  ^ a b "Consulate General in Kaliningrad". Kaliningradkg.polemb.net. Retrieved 2013-12-21.  ^ "Fischer Establishes German Outpost in Kaliningrad." Deutsche Welle. 12 February 2004. Retrieved on 16 May 2016. ^ Kovalev, Vladimir. "No Building for German Consulate." The Moscow Times. August 30, 2004. Retrieved on May 16, 2016. ^ A.C. (2013-10-08). " Poland
Poland
and Kaliningrad: Small Border Traffic". Economist blog. Archived from the original on 2013-10-08. Retrieved 2014-12-29.  ^ a b "Города-партнёры" (in Russian). Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
City Hall. Archived from the original on April 22, 2009. Retrieved 2008-12-08.  ^ Luhn, Alec (20 November 2011). "Kaliningrad". The Moscow
Moscow
Times. Retrieved 26 February 2016.  ^ " Aalborg
Aalborg
Twin Towns". Europeprize.net. Archived from the original on September 7, 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-19.  ^ " Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
information". E-gorod.ru. Retrieved December 21, 2013.  ^ Korolczuk, Dariusz (January 12, 2010). "Foreign cooperation - Partner Cities". Białystok
Białystok
City Council. City Office in Białystok. Retrieved March 22, 2013.  ^ " Elbląg
Elbląg
- Podstrony / Miasta partnerskie". Elbląski Dziennik Internetowy (in Polish). Archived from the original on March 15, 2011. Retrieved 2014-12-29.  ^ " Elbląg
Elbląg
- Miasta partnerskie". Elbląg.net (in Polish). Retrieved 2013-08-01.  ^ " Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'". gdansk.pl (in Polish and English). Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. 2009. Archived from the original on July 23, 2013. Retrieved July 11, 2009.  ^ P.C., Net. " Gdynia
Gdynia
- International Gdynia
Gdynia
- International co-operation of Gdynia". www.gdynia.pl. Archived from the original on October 19, 2016.  ^ " Groningen
Groningen
- Partner Cities". © 2008 Gemeente Groningen, Kreupelstraat 1,9712 HW Groningen. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved December 8, 2008.  ^ "Miasta partnerskie - Urząd Miasta Łodzi". City of Łódź
Łódź
(in Polish). Archived from the original on June 24, 2013. Retrieved December 29, 2014.  ^ "Vänorter" (in Swedish). Malmö
Malmö
stad. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2013.  ^ "Miasta bliźniacze Torunia" [Toruń's twin towns]. Urząd Miasta Torunia [City of Toruń
Toruń
Council] (in Polish). Retrieved August 22, 2013.  ^ Kalingrad and Patras
Patras
to become twin cities ^ Russian Sailing Ship Docks in Patras
Patras
for Twinning with Kaliningrad ^ " Yerevan
Yerevan
- Partner Cities". Yerevan
Yerevan
Municipality Official Website. ©2005–2013 www.yerevan.am. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2013. 

Sources[edit]

Городской Совет депутатов Калининграда. Решение №257 от 12 июля 2007 г. «О принятии Устава городского округа "Город Калининград"», в ред. Решения №20 от 17 февраля 2017 г. «О внесении изменений и дополнений в Устав городского округа "Город Калининград", утверждённый Решением городского Совета депутатов Калининграда от 12 июля 2007 г. №257». Вступил в силу 22 июля 2007 г. (за исключением отдельных положений). Опубликован: "Гражданин" (специальный выпуск), №12, 21 июля 2007 г. (City Council of Deputies of Kaliningrad. Decision #257 of July 12, 2007 On Adopting the Charter of the Urban Okrug of the "City of Kaliningrad", as amended by the Decision #20 of February 17, 2017 On Amending and Supplementing the Charter of the Urban Okrug of the "City of Kaliningrad", Adopted by Decision #257 by the City Council of Deputies of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Decision on July 12, 2007. Effective as of July 22, 2007 (with the exception of certain clauses).). Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №463 от 27 мая 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Калининградской области», в ред. Закона №450 от 3 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Калининградской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Калининградской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда" (вкладыш "Ведомости Правительства Калининградской области"), №112, 26 июня 2010 г. ( Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast Duma. Law #463 of May 27, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast, as amended by the Law #450 of July 3, 2015 On Amending the Law of Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
"On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.). Правительство Калининградской области. Постановление №640 от 30 августа 2011 г. «Об утверждении реестра объектов административно-территориального деления Калининградской области», в ред. Постановления №877 от 21 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменения в Постановление Правительства Калининградской области от 30 августа 2011 г. №640». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда" (вкладыш "Официально"), №170, 15 сентября 2011 г. (Government of Kaliningrad Oblast. Resolution #640 of August 30, 2011 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Objects of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #877 of November 21, 2011 On Amending the Resolution of the Government of Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
#640 of August 30, 2011. Effective as of the day of the official publication.). Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №397 от 15 мая 2004 г. «О наделении муниципального образования "Город Калининград" статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №370 от 1 июля 2009 г «О составе территорий муниципальных образований Калининградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская газета" ("Запад России"), №115, 3 июня 2004 г. (Kaliningrad Oblast Duma. Law #397 of May 15, 2004 On Granting the Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the "City of Kaliningrad", as amended by the Law #370 of July 1, 2009 On the Composition of the Territories of the Municipal Formations of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast. Effective as of the day of the official publication.). Vesilind, Priit J. "Kaliningrad: Coping with a German Past and a Russian Future", National Geographic, March 1997. Berger, Stefan "A City and Its Past. Popular Histories in Kaliningrad between Regionalization and Nationalization", in: Popularizing National Past. 1800 to Present, Edited by Stefan Berger, Chirs Lorenz, and Billie Melman, Routledge 2012, pp. 288–307. Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Region, General Information Kommersant, Russia's daily On-line Президиум Верховного Совета СССР. Указ от 4 июля 1946 г. «О переименовании города Кёнигсберга в город Калининград и Кёнигсбергской области в Калининградскую область». ( Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
of the USSR. Decree of July 4, 1946 On Changing the Name of the City of Kyonigsberg to the City of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
and the Name of Kyonigsberg Oblast to Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast. ).

Further reading[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Kaliningrad

Liuhto, Kari (editor). "Its future competitiveness and role in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
economic region." University of Turku. Rogoża, Jadwiga, Agata Wierzbowska-Miazga, and Iwona Wiśniewska. "A captive island. Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
between Moscow
Moscow
and the EU." OSW Studies, No. 41, July 2012.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to Kaliningrad.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kaliningrad.

Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
travel guide

v t e

Administrative divisions of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast (former German names are given in parentheses and italicized)

Administrative center: Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
(Königsberg)

Cities and towns

Bagrationovsk
Bagrationovsk
(Preußisch Eylau) Baltiysk
Baltiysk
(Pillau) Chernyakhovsk
Chernyakhovsk
(Insterburg) Guryevsk (Neuhausen) Gusev (Gumbinnen) Gvardeysk
Gvardeysk
(Tapiau) Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
(Königsberg) Krasnoznamensk (Lasdehnen) Ladushkin
Ladushkin
(Ludwigsort) Mamonovo
Mamonovo
(Heiligenbeil) Neman (Ragnit) Nesterov
Nesterov
(Stallupönen) Ozyorsk (Darkehmen) Pionersky (Neukuhren) Polessk
Polessk
(Labiau) Pravdinsk
Pravdinsk
(Friedland in Ostpreußen) Primorsk (Fischhausen) Slavsk
Slavsk
(Heinrichswalde) Sovetsk (Tilsit) Svetlogorsk (Rauschen) Svetly (Zimmerbude) Zelenogradsk
Zelenogradsk
(Cranz)

Urban-type settlements of oblast significance

Yantarny (Palmnicken)

Districts

Bagrationovsky Baltiysky Chernyakhovsky Guryevsky Gusevsky Gvardeysky Krasnoznamensky Nemansky Nesterovsky Ozyorsky Polessky Pravdinsky Slavsky Svetlogorsky Zelenogradsky

v t e

Baltic Fleet
Baltic Fleet
of Russian navy

Commander
Commander
of fleet

Vice Admiral
Vice Admiral
V. P. Kravchuk

Divisions

Leningrad
Leningrad
Naval Base Baltiysk
Baltiysk
Naval base Separate Guards brigade of marines of the Baltic fleet 127 separate sea engineering battalion Strazh Balticy (newspaper)

Navy bases in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast

Fleet command: Kaliningrad Marine base: Baltiysk Air bases: Chernyakhovsk Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Chkalovsk Donskoye Khrabrovo

Navy base in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
and Oblast

Saint Petersburg Kronstadt Vysotsk

Former naval bases

Finland: Hanko Porkkala Suomenlinna Estonia: Paldiski Latvia: Liepāja

Baltic Fleet
Baltic Fleet
page at the official Ministry of Defence website

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 145427148 GND: 1085174697 SELIBR: 23

.