JUDAEO-SPANISH or JUDEO-SPANISH (judeo-español,
The core vocabulary of
Judaeo-Spanish is Old Spanish and it has
numerous elements from all the old
Rashi script and its cursive form
been the main orthographies for writing Judaeo-Spanish. However today,
it is mainly written with the Latin alphabet, though some other
alphabets such as
Judaeo-Spanish, once the trade language of the
Adriatic Sea , the
* 1 Name * 2 Variants
* 3 Sources
* 4 Phonology
* 4.1 Consonants * 4.2 Vowels * 4.3 Phonological differences from Spanish
* 5 Morphology * 6 Syntax
* 7 Orthography
* 8 History * 9 Literature * 10 Religious use * 11 Modern education and use
* 12 Samples
* 12.1 Comparison with other languages * 12.2 Songs * 12.3 Selected words by origin
* 13 Modern singers * 14 See also
* 15 References
* 15.1 Further reading
* 16 External links
An entry in Ethnologue claims, "The name 'Judesmo' is used by Jewish linguists and Turkish Jews and American Jews; 'Judeo-Spanish' by Romance philologists; 'Ladino' by laymen, especially in Israel; 'Haketia' by Moroccan Jews; 'Spanyol' by some others." This information does not reflect the historical usage. In the Judeo-Spanish press of the 19th and 20th centuries the native authors referred to the language exclusively as Espanyol, which was also the name that its native speakers spontaneously gave to it for as long as it was their primary spoken language: more rarely, the bookish Judeo-Espanyol has also been used since the late nineteenth century. The name Judezmo is unknown and offensive to most native speakers, and it has never been used in print in the native press (although in limited parts of Macedonia its use in the past as a low-register designation in informal speech by unschooled people has been documented).
The derivation of the name Ladino is complicated. In pre-Expulsion
times in the area known today as
Informally, and especially in modern Israel, many speakers use Ladino to mean Judaeo-Spanish as a whole. The language was formerly regulated by a body called the Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino in Israel. More strictly, however, the term is confined to the style used in translation. According to the website of the Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki,
Ladino is not spoken, rather, it is the product of a word-for-word
Judaeo-Spanish ladino should not be confused with the ladino or
In modern Spanish per the Royal Spanish Academy , "Ladino" has nine meanings, including five as an adjective and four as a noun, two of which meanings are obsolete:
1. Adj. Astute, sagacious, cunning
2. Adj. Pertaining or relating to the Ladin language.
3. Adj. In El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama,
describing a mestizo person who speaks only Spanish.
4. Adj. In El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama, a
At the time of the expulsion from Spain, the day-to-day language of
the Jews of different regions of the peninsula was little if at all
different from that of their Christian neighbors, though there may
have been some dialect mixing to form a sort of Jewish lingua franca.
There was however a special style of Spanish used for purposes of
study or translation, featuring a more archaic dialect, a large number
Following the expulsion, the process of dialect mixing continued, though Castilian Spanish remained by far the largest contributor. The daily language was increasingly influenced both by the language of study and by the local non-Jewish vernaculars such as Greek and Turkish, and came to be known as Judesmo: in this respect the development is parallel to that of Yiddish . However, many speakers, especially among the community leaders, also had command of a more formal style nearer to the Spanish of the expulsion, referred to as Castellano .
The grammar, phonology and about 60% of the vocabulary of
Judaeo-Spanish are basically Spanish, but, in some respects, it
resembles the dialects in southern
In many respects, it reproduces the Spanish of the time of the expulsion rather the modern variety, as it retains some archaic features such as these:
* Modern Spanish j, pronounced , corresponds to two different phonemes in Old Spanish: x, pronounced /ʃ/, and j, pronounced /ʒ/. Judaeo-Spanish retains the original sounds. Similarly, g before e or i remains /ʒ/, not .
* Contrast baṣo/baxo ("low" or "down", with /ʃ/, modern Spanish bajo) and mujer ("woman" or "wife", spelled the same, with /ʒ/).
* Modern Spanish z (c before e or i), pronounced or (as the English "th" in "think") according to the dialect, corresponds to two different phonemes in Old Spanish: ç (c before e or i), pronounced ; and z (in all positions), pronounced . In Judaeo-Spanish, they are pronounced and respectively.
* Contrast korasón/coraçón ("heart", with /s/, modern Spanish corazón) and dezir ("to say", with /z/, modern Spanish decir).
* In modern Spanish, the use of the letters b and v is determined partly on the basis of earlier forms of the language and partially on the basis of Latin etymology: both letters represent one phoneme (/b/), realised as or as according to its position. In Judaeo-Spanish, /b/ and /v/ are different phonemes: /bɔs/ voice vs. /vɔs/ you. v is a labiodental "v" (like in English) rather than a bilabial.
PORTUGUESE AND OTHER IBERIAN LANGUAGES
However, the phonology of both the consonants and part of the lexicon
is, in some respects, closer to
Galician-Portuguese or Catalan than to
modern Spanish. That is explained not only by direct influence but
because all three languages retained some of the characteristics of
Contrast Judaeo-Spanish daínda ("still") with Portuguese ainda (Galician aínda, Asturian aína or enaína) and Spanish aún or the initial consonants in Judaeo-Spanish fija, favla ("daughter", "speech"), Portuguese filha, fala (Galician filla, fala, Asturian fía, fala, Aragonese filla, fabla, Catalan filla), Spanish hija, habla. It sometimes varied with dialect, as in Judaeo-Spanish popular songs, both fijo and hijo ("son") are found.
The Judaeo-Spanish pronunciation of s as "" before a "k" sound or at the end of certain words (such as seis, pronounced , for six) is shared with Portuguese (as spoken in Portugal, most of Asia and Africa, and in a plurality of Brazilian registers with either partial or total forms of coda S palatalization) but not with Spanish.
HEBREW AND ARAMAIC
Like other Jewish vernaculars,
Judaeo-Spanish incorporates many
Judaeo-Spanish has absorbed some words from the local languages but sometimes Hispanicised their form: bilbilico (nightingale), from Persian (via Turkish) bülbül. It may be compared to the Slavic elements in Yiddish. It is not always clear whether some of these words antedate the expulsion because of the large number of Arabic words in Spanish generally.
Judaeo-Spanish phonology consists of 27 phonemes : 22 consonants and 5 vowels .
BILABIAL Labio- dental DENTAL ALVEOLAR Post- alveolar PALATAL VELAR
ɲ (ŋ )
STOP p b
FRICATIVE (β ) f v (ð ) s z ʃ ʒ
x (ɣ )
CLOSE i u
CLOSE-MID e o
OPEN-MID (ɛ ) (ɔ )
PHONOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES FROM SPANISH
As exemplified in the Sources section above, much of the phonology of Judaeo-Spanish is similar to that of standard modern Spanish, with certain exceptions. Additional exceptions include:
* It is claimed that, unlike all other non-creole varieties of Spanish, Judaeo-Spanish does not contrast the trill /r/ and the tap/flap /ɾ/ . However, this claim is not universally accepted . * The Spanish /nue-/ is /mue-/ in some dialects of Judaeo-Spanish: nuevo, nuestro → muevo, muestro. * The Judaeo-Spanish phoneme inventory includes separate and : /ʒuɾˈnal/ ('newspaper') vs /d͡ʒuˈgar/ ('to play'). Neither are used in Spanish, and were likely added through Turkish loan words. * There is a tendency to drop , as in southern Iberian Spanish: Dios -> Dio (God), amargasteis -> amargateş (you have embittered).
* With regard to pronouns ,
Judaeo-Spanish maintains the
second-person pronouns as tú (informal singular), vos (formal
singular), and vosotros (plural); the third-person el/eya/eyos/eyas
are also used in the formal register. The Spanish pronouns usted and
ustedes do not exist.
* In verbs, the preterite indicates that an action taken once in the
past was also completed at some point in the past. That is as opposed
to the imperfect , which refers to any continuous, habitual,
unfinished or repetitive past action. Thus, "I ate falafel yesterday"
would use the first-person preterite form of eat, komí/comí whereas
"When I lived in Izmir, I ran five miles every evening" would use the
first-person imperfect form, koría/corría. Though some of the
morphology has changed, usage is just as in normative Spanish.
* In general,
Judaeo-Spanish uses the Spanish plural morpheme
Regular conjugation in the present:
-er verbs (comer: "to eat") -ir verbs (bivir: "to live") -ar verbs (favlar: "to speak")
YO -o : comO/komO, bivO, favlO
Tú -es : comES/komES, bivES -as : favlAS
EL, EYA/ELLA -e : comE/komE, bivE -a : favlA
MOZOTROS/NOSOTROS -emos : comEMOS/komEMOS -imos : bivIMOS -amos : favlAMOS
VOS, VOZOTROS/VOSOTROS -éş/éx : coméş/éX; koméş/éX -íş/íx : bivíş/íX -áş/áx : favláş/áX
EYOS/ELLOS, EYAS/ELLAS -en : comEN/komEN, bivEN -an : favlAN
Regular conjugation in the preterite:
-er verbs (komer) -ir verbs (bivir) -ar verbs (favlar)
YO -í : comí/komí, biví, favlí
TU -ites : comITES/komITES, bivITES -ates : favlATES
EL, EYA/ELLA -yó : comIó/komIó, bivIó -ó : favló
MOZOTROS/NOSOTROS -imos : comIMOS/komIMOS, bivIMOS, favlIMOS
VOS, VOZOTROS/VOSOTROS -iteş/itex : comITEş/ITEX; komITEş/ITEX, bivITES/ITEX -ateş/atex : favlATEş/ATEX
EYOS/ELLOS, EYAS/ELLAS -ieron : comIERON/komIERON, bivIERON -aron : favlARON
Judaeo-Spanish follows Spanish for most of its syntax. (This is not true of the written calque language involving word-for-word translations from Hebrew, which some scholars refer to as Ladino, as described above.) Like Spanish, it generally follows a subject–verb–object word order , has a nominative-accusative alignment , and is considered a fusional or inflected language.
The Rashi script , originally used to print the language
The following systems of writing Judaeo-Spanish have been used or proposed.
* Traditionally, especially in Ladino religious texts,
Judaeo-Spanish was printed in the
Hebrew alphabet (especially in Rashi
script ), a practice that was very common, possibly almost universal,
until the 19th century (and called aljamiado , by analogy with the
equivalent use of the
ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST THE 1492 ORTHOGRAPHY
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The Spanish orthography of 1492 was later standardized and eventually changed by a series of spelling reforms from 1726 to 1815, to become the spelling of modern Spanish. Judaeo-Spanish has retained some of the pronunciations that had become archaic in standard Spanish at the time of the reforms. Adopting 15th-century Spanish orthography (similar to modern Portuguese orthography ) would therefore closely fit the pronunciation of Judaeo-Spanish.
* The old spelling would reflect
* the /s/ (originally /ts/) – c (before e and i) and ç (cedilla ), as in caça, * the /s/ – ss, as in passo, and * the /ʃ/ – x, as in dixo.
* The letter j would be retained, but only in instances, such as mujer, where the pronunciation is /ʒ/ in Judaeo-Spanish. * The spelling of /z/ (originally /dz/) as z would be restored in words like fazer and dezir. * The difference between b and v would be made phonetically, as in Old Spanish, rather than in accordance with the Latin etymology as in modern Spanish. For example, Latin DEBET > post-1800 Spanish debe, would return to its Old Spanish spelling deve.
Some old spellings could be restored for the sake of historical interest, rather than to reflect Judaeo-Spanish phonology:
* The old digraphs ch, ph and th (today c/qu – /k/, f – /f/ and t – /t/ in standard Spanish respectively), formally abolished in 1803, would be used in words like orthographía, theología. * Latin/Old Spanish q before words like quando, quanto and qual (modern Spanish cuando, cuanto and cual) would also be used.
The supporters of this orthography argue that classical and Golden Age Spanish literature might gain renewed interest, better appreciation and understanding should its orthography be used again.
It remains uncertain how to treat sounds that Old Spanish spelling failed to render phonetically.
* The s between vowels, as in casa, was probably pronounced /z/ in
Old Spanish, and is certainly so pronounced in Judaeo-Spanish. The
same is true of s before m, d and other voiced consonants, as in mesmo
or desde. Supporters of Carvajal's proposal are unsure about whether
this should be written s as in Old Spanish or z in accordance with
* The distinctive
Judaeo-Spanish pronunciation of s as /ʃ/ before a
/k/ sound, as in buscar, cosquillas, mascar and pescar, or in is
endings as in séis, favláis and sois, is probably derived from
Portuguese: it is uncertain whether it occurred in Old Spanish. It is
debated whether this should be written s as in Old Spanish or x in
accordance with the sound.
* There is some dispute about the Spanish ll combination, which in
Judaeo-Spanish (as in most areas of Spain) is pronounced like a y.
Following Old Spanish orthography this should be written ll, but it is
frequently written y in Ladino to avoid ambiguity and reflect the
AKI YERUSHALAYIM ORTHOGRAPHY
LETTER A A B B CH CH D D DJ DJ E E F F G G H H I I J J K K L L M M N N NY NY O O P P R R S S SH SH T T U U V V X X Y Y Z Z
* A dot is written between s and h (s·h) to represent , to avoid confusion with . For example: es·huenyo (dream). * Unlike Spanish, stressed diacritics are not represented. * Loanwords and foreign names retain their original spelling. So letters which are not in this orthography like q or w would be used only in these types of words.
SQUARE LETTER א ב ב׳ ג ג׳ ד ה ו ז ז׳ ח ט י יי כ/-ך ל מ/-ם נ/-ן ניי ס ע פ/-ף פ׳/-ף׳ צ/-ץ ק ר ש ת
/- ׳/- ׳ /-
AY EQUIVALENT LETTER a, Ø, e, o b v g dj, ch d a, e u, o, v z j h t i, e, y y k, h l m n ny s Ø, e, a p f (t)s k r sh, s t
In the mediaeval
Iberian peninsula —now
Jews in the Middle Ages were instrumental in the development of
Spanish into a prestige language . Erudite Jews translated
Until recent times, the language was widely spoken throughout the Balkans, Turkey, the Middle East, and North Africa, having been brought there by Jewish refugees fleeing the area today known as Spain following the expulsion of the Jews in 1492 .
The contact among Jews of different regions and languages, including
Catalan, Leonese and Portuguese developed a unified dialect differing
in some aspects from the Spanish norm that was forming simultaneously
in the area known today as Spain, though some of this mixing may have
occurred in exile rather than in the peninsula itself. The language
was known as Yahudice (Jewish language) in the
The closeness and mutual comprehensibility between
Spanish favoured trade among Sephardim (often relatives) ranging from
After the expulsion of the Jews, who were of mostly Portuguese
descent, from Dutch
Over time, a corpus of literature, both liturgical and secular,
developed. Early literature was limited to translations from Hebrew.
At the end of the 17th century,
Given the relative isolation of many communities, a number of
regional dialects of
Judaeo-Spanish appeared, many with only limited
mutual comprehensibility. This is due largely to the adoption of large
numbers of loanwords from the surrounding populations, including,
depending on the location of the community, from Greek, Turkish,
Arabic, and in the
Judaeo-Spanish was the common language of
Judaeo-Spanish was also a language used in Donmeh rites (Dönme in Turkish meaning convert and referring to adepts of Sabbatai Tsevi converted to the Moslem religion in the Ottoman Empire). An example is the recite Sabbatai Tsevi esperamos a ti. Today, the religious practices and ritual use of Judaeo-Spanish seems confined to elderly generations.
The Castilian colonization of Northern Africa favoured the role of polyglot Sephardim who bridged between Spanish colonizers and Arab and Berber speakers.
From the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries,
the predominant Jewish language in the Holy Land, though the dialect
was different in some respects from that spoken in
An often told Sephardic anecdote from Bosnia-Herzegovina has it that,
as a Spanish consulate was opened in
In the twentieth century, the number of speakers declined sharply: entire communities were murdered in the Holocaust, while the remaining speakers, many of whom emigrated to Israel, adopted Hebrew. The governments of the new nation-states encouraged instruction in the official languages. At the same time, Judaeo-Spanish aroused the interest of philologists, since it conserved language and literature that existed prior to the standardisation of Spanish.
Judaeo-Spanish is in serious danger of extinction because many native speakers today are elderly olim (immigrants to Israel), who have not transmitted the language to their children or grandchildren. Nevertheless, it is experiencing a minor revival among Sephardic communities, especially in music. In addition, Sephardic communities in several Latin American countries still use Judaeo-Spanish. In these countries, there is an added danger of extinction by assimilation to modern Spanish.
Kol Yisrael and
Radio Nacional de España hold regular radio
broadcasts in Judaeo-Spanish.
The Jewish community of Bosnia-Herzegovina in
At Congregation Etz Ahaim, a Sephardic congregation founded by Jews
Non Como Muestro Dio is also included alongside Ein Keloheinu in Mishkan T\'filah , the 2007 Reform prayerbook.
MODERN EDUCATION AND USE
Yiddish the Ladino language is seeing a minor resurgence in
educational interest in colleges across the
COMPARISON WITH OTHER LANGUAGES
JUDAEO-SPANISH El djudeo-espanyol, djudio, djudezmo es la lingua favlada de los djudios sefardim arondjados de la Espanya enel 1492. Es una lingua derivada del espanyol i favlada de 150.000 personas en komunitas en Israel, la Turkia, antika Yugoslavia, la Gresia, el Maruekos, Mayorka, las Amerikas, entre munchos otros.
SPANISH El judeo-español, djudio, djudezmo es la lengua hablada por los judíos sefardíes expulsados de España en 1492. Es una lengua derivada del español y hablada por 150.000 personas en comunidades en Israel, Turquía, la antigua Yugoslavia, Grecia, Marruecos, Mallorca, las Américas, entre muchos otros.
CATALAN El judeocastellà, djudiu, djudezmo és la llengua parlada pels jueus sefardites expulsats d'Espanya al 1492. És una llengua derivada de l'espanyol i parlada per 150.000 persones en comunitats a Israel, Turquia, antiga Iugoslàvia, Grècia, el Marroc, Mallorca, les Amèriques, entre moltes altres.
ASTURIAN El xudeoespañol, djudio, djudezmo ye la llingua falada polos xudíos sefardinos expulsados d'España en 1492. Ye una llingua derivada del español y falada por 150.000 persones en comunidaes n'Israel, Turquía, na antigua Yugoslavia, Grecia, Marruecos, Mayorca, nes Amériques, entre munchos otros.
GALICIAN O xudeo-español, djudio, djudezmo é a lingua falada polos xudeos sefardís expulsados de España en 1492. É unha lingua derivada do español e falada por 150.000 persoas en comunidades en Israel, en Turquía, na antiga Iugoslavia, Grecia, Marrocos, Maiorca, nas Américas, entre moitos outros .
PORTUGUESE O judeo-espanhol, djudio, djudezmo é a língua falada pelos judeus sefarditas expulsos de Espanha em 1492. É uma língua derivada do espanhol e falada por 150.000 pessoas em comunidades em Israel, na Turquia, na antiga Jugoslávia, na Grécia, em Marrocos, em Maiorca, nas Américas, entre muitos outros .
Judaeo-Spanish, Djudio, Judezmo, is the language spoken by Sephardi
Jews expelled from
Folklorists have been collecting romances and other folk songs, some dating from before the expulsion. Many religious songs in Judeo-Spanish are translations of the Hebrew, usually with a different tune. For example, Ein Keloheinu looks like this in Judeo-Spanish: Non komo muestro Dio, Non komo muestro Sinyor, Non komo muestro Rey, Non komo muestro Salvador. etc.
Other songs relate to secular themes such as love.
Tu madre kuando te pario
Y te kito al mundo, Korason ella no te dio Para amar segundo. Korason ella no te dió Para amar segundo.
Adio, Adio kerida, No kero la vida, Me l'amargates tu. Adio, Adio kerida, No kero la vida, Me l'amargates tu. Va, bushkate otro amor,
Aharva otras puertas, Aspera otro ardor, Ke para mi sos muerta. Aspera otro ardor, Ke para mi sos muerta.
Adio, Adio kerida, No kero la vida, Me l'amargates tu. Adio, Adio kerida, No kero la vida, Me l'amargates tú.
POR UNA NINYA FOR A GIRL (TRANSLATION)
Por una ninya tan fermoza l'alma yo la vo a dar un kuchilyo de dos kortes en el korason entro. For a girl so beautiful I will give my soul a double-edged knife pierced my heart.
No me mires ke'stó kantando es lyorar ke kero yo los mis males son muy grandes no los puedo somportar. Don't look at me; I am singing, it is crying that I want, my sorrows are so great I can't bear them.
No te lo kontengas tu, fijika,
ke sos blanka komo'l simit,
ay morenas en el mundo
ke kemaron Selanik. Don't hold your sorrows, young girl,
for you are white like bread,
there are dark girls in the world
who set fire to
QUANDO EL REY NIMROD (ADAPTATION) WHEN KING NIMROD (TRANSLATION)
Quando el Rey Nimrod al campo salía
mirava en el cielo y en la estrellería
vido una luz santa en la djudería
que havía de nascer Avraham Avinu. When King
Avraham Avinu, Padre querido,
Padre bendicho, luz de Yisrael.
Luego a las comadres encomendava
que toda mujer que prenyada quedara
si no pariera al punto, la matara
que havía de nascer
Avraham Avinu, Padre querido,
Padre bendicho, luz de Yisrael.
La mujer de Terach quedó prenyada y de día en día le preguntava ¿De qué teneix la cara tan demudada? ella ya sabía el bien que tenía. Terach 's wife was pregnant and each day he would ask her Why do you look so distraught? She already knew very well what she had.
Avraham Avinu, Padre querido,
Padre bendicho, luz de Yisrael.
En fin de nueve meses parir quería iva caminando por campos y vinyas, a su marido tal ni le descubría topó una meara, allí lo pariría After nine months she wanted to give birth She was walking through the fields and vineyards Such would not even reach her husband She found a manger; there, she would give birth.
Avraham Avinu, Padre querido,
Padre bendicho, luz de Yisrael.
En aquella hora el nascido avlava "Andavos mi madre, de la meara yo ya topó quen me alexara mandará del cielo quen me accompanyará porque so criado del Dio bendicho." In that hour the newborn was speaking 'Get away of the manger, my mother I will somebody to take me out He will send from the heaven the one that will go with me Because I am raised by the blessed God.'
Avraham Avinu, Padre querido,
Padre bendicho, luz de Yisrael
Anachronistically, Abraham—who in the Bible is the very first
The song attributes to
SELECTED WORDS BY ORIGIN
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION with: Greek. You can help by adding to it . (January 2017)
Words derived from Arabic:
* ALFORRíA – "liberty", "freedom" * ALHáT – "Sunday" * ATEMAR – to terminate * SARAF – "money changer" * SHARA – "wood" * ZIARA – "cemetery visit"
Words derived from Hebrew:
* ALEFBET – "alphabet" (from the
Words derived from Persian:
* CHAY – "tea" * CHINI – "plate" * PARAS – "money" * SHASHEO – "dizziness"
Words derived from Portuguese:
* ABASTáDO – "almighty", "omnipotent" (referring to God) * AíNDA – "yet" * CHAPEO – "hat" * PRETO – "black" (in color) * TROCAR – to change
Words derived from Turkish:
* BALTA – "axe" * BITEREAR – to terminate * BOYADEAR – to paint, color * INNAT – "whim" * KOLAY – "easy" * KUSHAK – "belt", "girdle" * MAALé – "street", "quarters", "neighborhood"; MAALé YAHUDí – Jewish quarters
Jennifer Charles and
Oren Bloedow from the New York-based band
Elysian Fields released a CD in 2001 called La Mar Enfortuna, which
featured modern versions of traditional Sephardic songs, many sung by
Charles in Judeo-Spanish. The American singer, Tanja Solnik , has
released several award-winning albums that feature songs sung in
Ladino: From Generation to Generation: A Legacy of Lullabies and
Lullabies and Love Songs. There are a number of groups in
The Jewish Bosnian-American musician Flory Jagoda recorded two CDs of music taught to her by her grandmother, a Sephardic folk singer, among a larger discography.
The cantor Dr. Ramón Tasat, who learned Judeo-Spanish at his grandmother's knee in Buenos Aires, has recorded many songs in the language, with three of his CDs focusing primarily on that music.
The Israeli singer Yasmin Levy has also brought a new interpretation to the traditional songs by incorporating more "modern" sounds of Andalusian Flamenco . Her work revitalising Sephardi music has earned Levy the Anna Lindh Euro-Mediterranean Foundation Award for promoting cross-cultural dialogue between musicians from three cultures. In Yasmin Levy's own words:
I am proud to combine the two cultures of Ladino and flamenco, while mixing in Middle Eastern influences. I am embarking on a 500 years old musical journey, taking Ladino to Andalusia and mixing it with flamenco, the style that still bears the musical memories of the old Moorish and Jewish-Spanish world with the sound of the Arab world. In a way it is a ‘musical reconciliation’ of history.
Notable music groups performing in Judeo-Spanish include Voice of the Turtle , Oren Bloedow and Jennifer Charles ' "La Mar Enfortuna" and Vanya Green , who was awarded a Fulbright Fellowship for her research and performance of this music. She was recently selected as one of the top ten world music artists by the We are Listening International World of Music Awards for her interpretations of the music.
Robin Greenstein, a New York-based musician, received a federal CETA grant in the 1980s to collect and perform Sephardic Ladino Music under the guidance of the American Jewish Congress. Her mentor was Joe Elias, noted Sephardic singer from Brooklyn. She recorded residents of the Sephardic Home for the Aged, a nursing home in Coney Island, NY singing songs from their childhood. Amongst the voices recorded was Victoria Hazan, a well known Sephardic singer who recorded many 78's in Ladino and Turkish from the 1930s and 1940s. Two Ladino songs can be found on her "Songs of the Season" holiday CD released in 2010 on Windy Records.
Aki Yerushalayim , an Israeli magazine in
2–3 times a year
* ^ Pronounced in different dialects.
* ^ Speakers use different orthographical conventions depending on their social, educational, national and personal backgrounds, thus there is no uniformity in spelling, although some established conventions exist. The endonym Judeo-Espanyol is thus also spelled as Cudeo-Espanyol, Djudeo-Espanyol, Djudeo-Espagnol, Judeo-Español, Judeo-Espaniol, Džudeo-Espanjol, Dzhudeo-Espanyol, Tzoudeo-Espaniol, Dschudeo-Espanjol, Dżudeo-Espańol, Giudeo-Espagnol, Giudeo-Espaneol, Xhudeo-Espanjol, Dzsudeo-Eszpanyol, Ġudeo-Espanjol, Ǧudéo-Españól, Judeo-Espanýol, Ĵudeo-Español and Jūdeo-Esupanyōru. * ^ The modern Spanish spelling Mallorca is a hypercorrection .
* ^ A B Ladino at
Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
* ^ Peim, Benjamin. "Ladino Lingers on in Brooklyn - Barely". The
Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
* ^ "Ladino". The Endangered Languages Project. Retrieved 12 August
* ^ Quintana Rodríguez, Alidina (2006). Geografía lingüística
del judeoespañol: estudio sincrónico y diacrónico (in Spanish).
ISBN 3-03910-846-8 .
* ^ "Ladino".
MultiTree . Retrieved 2017-07-08.
* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute
for the Science of Human History.
* ^ Koen, Hajim Mordehaj (1927). ЛЕКУТЕ ТЕФИЛОТ
(ОРАСJОНИС ЕСКУЖИДАС) (in Judaeo-Spanish). Belgrade.
CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link )
* ^ A B Sam Jones (1 August 2017). "
* ^ A B Jewish Museum of
* Barton, Thomas Immanuel (Toivi Cook) (2010) Judezmo Expressions.
USA ISBN 978-89-00-35754-7
* Barton, Thomas Immanuel (Toivi Cook) (2008) Judezmo
(Judeo-Castilian) Dictionary. USA ISBN 978-1-890035-73-0
* Bunis, David M. (1999) Judezmo: an introduction to the language of
the Sephardic Jews of the Ottoman Empire. Jerusalem ISBN
* Габинский, Марк А. (1992) Сефардский
(еврейской-испанский) язык (M. A. Gabinsky.
Sephardic (Judeo-Spanish) language, in Russian). Chişinău: Ştiinţa
* Harris, Tracy. 1994. Death of a language: The history of
Judeo-Spanish. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press.
* Hemsi, Alberto (1995) Cancionero Sefardí; edited and with an
introduction by Edwin Seroussi (Yuval Music Series; 4.) Jerusaelem:
The Jewish Music Research Centre, the
* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * Data from Wikidata
* Judaeo-Spanish at DMOZ * Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino (in Judaeo-Spanish) * Ladino * Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki * Ladino Center * Ladinokomunita, an email list in Ladino * La pajina djudeo-espanyola de Aki Yerushalayim * The Ladino Alphabet * Judeo-Spanish (Ladino) at Orbis Latinus * Ladino music by Suzy and Margalit Matitiahu * Socolovsky, Jerome. "Lost Language of Ladino Revived in Spain", Morning Edition, National Public Radio, 19 March 2007. * A randomly selected example of use of ladino on the Worldwide Web: La komponente kulinaria i linguístika turka en la kuzina djudeo-espanyola * Israeli Ladino Language Forum (Hebrew) * LadinoType – A Ladino Transliteration System for Solitreo, Meruba, and Rashi * Habla Ladino? Sephardim meet to preserve language Friday 9 January 1998 * Edición SEFARAD, Radio programme in Ladino from Radio Nacional de España * Etext of Nebrija\'s Gramática de la lengua castellana, showing orthography of Old Spanish. * Sefarad, Revista de Estudios Hebraicos, Sefardíes y de Oriente Próximo, ILC, CSIC * Judæo-Spanish Language (Ladino) and Literature, Jewish Encyclopedia * Dr Yitshak (Itzik) Levy An authentic documentation of Ladino heritage and culture * Sephardic Studies Digital Library ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v
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