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JUDAEO-SPANISH (also JUDEO-SPANISH and Judæo-Spanish: _Judeo-Español_, Hebrew script : גֿודיאו-איספאנייול, with many variant spellings in all scripts, as in the box at right), commonly referred to as LADINO, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish . In Iberia Jews spoke a variety of Romance dialects. Following the expulsion of Jews from Spain during the Inquisition , as the majority of the Iberian Jews resettled in the Ottoman Empire , Jews in that region (the Balkans , Turkey , the Middle East , and North Africa ) evolved their own Romance dialect, with some influence from Hebrew and other languages, which became what is now known as Judaeo-Spanish. Some of these Jews also settled in France , Italy , the Netherlands , Morocco , and the United Kingdom establishing small groups in those nations as well. Today Judaeo-Spanish is spoken mainly by Sephardic minorities in more than 30 countries. As a result of the establishment of modern Israel , most of the current speakers reside there. Although it has no official status in any country, it has been acknowledged as a minority language in Bosnia and Herzegovina , Israel, France and Turkey.

The core vocabulary of Judaeo-Spanish is Old Spanish and it has numerous elements from all the old Romance languages of the Iberian Peninsula : Old Aragonese , Astur-Leonese , Old Catalan , Galician-Portuguese and Mozarabic . The language has been further enriched by Ottoman Turkish and Semitic vocabulary, such as Hebrew , Aramaic , and Arabic , especially in the domains of religion , law and spirituality and most of the vocabulary for new and modern concepts has been adopted through French and Italian . Furthermore, the language is influenced to a lesser degree by other local languages of the Balkans, such as Greek , Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian .

Historically, the Rashi script and its cursive form Solitreo have been the main orthographies for writing Judaeo-Spanish. However today, it is mainly written with the Latin alphabet, though some other alphabets such as Hebrew and Cyrillic are still in use. Judaeo-Spanish is known by many different names, mostly: _Español/Espanyol_, _Judió/Djudyo_ (or _Jidió/Djidyo_), _Judesmo/Djudezmo_, _Sefaradhí/Sefaradi_ and _Ḥaketilla/Haketia_. In Turkey and formerly in the Ottoman Empire, it has been traditionally called _Yahudice_ in Turkish , meaning the Jewish language . In Israel, Hebrew speakers usually call the language _(E)spanyolit_ or _Ladino_.

Judaeo-Spanish, once the trade language of the Adriatic Sea , the Balkans and the Middle-East and renowned for its rich literature especially in Salonika , today is under serious threat of extinction . Most native speakers are elderly and the language is not transmitted to their children or grandchildren for various reasons. In some expatriate communities in Latin America and elsewhere, there is a threat of dialect levelling resulting in extinction by assimilation into modern Spanish. It is experiencing, however, a minor revival among Sephardic communities, especially in music .

CONTENTS

* 1 Name * 2 Variants

* 3 Sources

* 3.1 Spanish * 3.2 Portuguese and other Iberian languages * 3.3 Hebrew and Aramaic * 3.4 Other languages

* 4 Phonology

* 4.1 Consonants * 4.2 Vowels * 4.3 Phonological differences from Spanish

* 5 Morphology * 6 Syntax

* 7 Orthography

* 7.1 Arguments for and against the 1492 orthography * 7.2 _Aki Yerushalayim_ orthography * 7.3 Hebrew orthography

* 8 History * 9 Literature * 10 Religious use * 11 Modern education

* 12 Samples

* 12.1 Comparison with other languages * 12.2 Songs * 12.3 Selected words by origin

* 13 Modern singers * 14 See also

* 15 References

* 15.1 Further reading

* 16 External links

NAME

In Israel particularly, and in America and Spain, in recent decades the language came to be referred to as _Ladino_ (לאדינו) (literally meaning "Latin"), though some people who actually speak the language consider this use incorrect. The language is also called _judeo-espagnol_, _judeo-español_, _Sefardí_, _Judío_, and _Espanyol_ or _Español sefardita_; _Haquetía _ (from the Arabic _ħaka_ حكى, "tell") refers to the dialect of North Africa, especially Morocco . The dialect of the Oran area of Algeria was called _ Tetuani _, after the Moroccan town Tétouan , since many Orani Jews came from this city. In Hebrew, the language is called _Spanyolit_.

An entry in _ Ethnologue _ claims, "The name 'Judesmo' is used by Jewish linguists and Turkish Jews and American Jews; 'Judeo-Spanish' by Romance philologists; 'Ladino' by laymen, especially in Israel; 'Haketia' by Moroccan Jews; 'Spanyol' by some others." This information does not reflect the historical usage. In the Judeo-Spanish press of the 19th and 20th centuries the native authors referred to the language exclusively as _Espanyol_, which was also the name that its native speakers spontaneously gave to it for as long as it was their primary spoken language: more rarely, the bookish _Judeo-Espanyol_ has also been used since the late nineteenth century. The name _Judezmo_ is unknown and offensive to most native speakers, and it has never been used in print in the native press (although in limited parts of Macedonia its use in the past as a low-register designation in informal speech by unschooled people has been documented).

The derivation of the name _Ladino_ is complicated. In pre-Expulsion times in the area known today as Spain the word meant literary Spanish as opposed to other dialects, or Romance in general as distinct from Arabic. (The first European language grammar and dictionary, of Spanish, refers to it as _ladino_ or _ladina_. In the Middle Ages, the word _Latin_ was frequently used to mean simply "language", and in particular the language one understands: a _latiner_ or _latimer_ meant a translator.) Following the expulsion, Jews spoke of "the Ladino" to mean the traditional oral translation of the Bible into archaic Spanish. By extension it came to mean that style of Spanish generally, in the same way that (among Kurdish Jews) _Targum _ has come to mean Judeo- Aramaic and (among Jews of Arabic-speaking background) _sharħ_ has come to mean Judeo- Arabic .

Informally, and especially in modern Israel, many speakers use _Ladino_ to mean Judaeo-Spanish as a whole. The language was formerly regulated by a body called the Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino in Israel. More strictly, however, the term is confined to the style used in translation. According to the website of the Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki,

Ladino is not spoken, rather, it is the product of a word-for-word translation of Hebrew or Aramaic biblical or liturgical texts made by rabbis in the Jewish schools of Spain. In these, translations, a specific Hebrew or Aramaic word always corresponded to the same Spanish word, as long as no exegetical considerations prevented this. In short, Ladino is only Hebrew clothed in Spanish, or Spanish with Hebrew syntax. The famous Ladino translation of the Bible, the Biblia de Ferrara (1553), provided inspiration for the translation of numerous Spanish Christian Bibles."

This Judaeo-Spanish _ladino_ should not be confused with the _ladino or Ladin language _ spoken in part of North-Eastern Italy, which is closely related with the _rumantsch-ladin _ of Swiss Grisons (it is disputed whether or not they form a common Rhaeto-Romance language ) and has nothing to do with either Jews or Spanish beyond being, like Spanish, a Romance language , a property they share with French, Italian, Portuguese and Romanian.

In modern Spanish per the Royal Spanish Academy , "Ladino" has nine meanings, including five as an adjective and four as a noun, two of which meanings are obsolete:

1. Adj. Astute, sagacious, cunning 2. Adj. Pertaining or relating to the Ladin language. 3. Adj. In El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama, describing a mestizo person who speaks only Spanish. 4. Adj. In El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama, a Mestizo person. 5. Adj. Obsolete: A person with facility in languages other than his/her own. 6. Noun. The Ladin language spoken in South Tyrol. 7. Noun. The religious language of Sephardic Jews. 8. Noun. Judeo-Spanish. 9. Noun. Obsolete: The archaic literary form of Spanish called "romance" or "romantic Spanish."

VARIANTS

At the time of the expulsion from Spain, the day-to-day language of the Jews of different regions of the peninsula was little if at all different from that of their Christian neighbors, though there may have been some dialect mixing to form a sort of Jewish lingua franca. There was however a special style of Spanish used for purposes of study or translation, featuring a more archaic dialect, a large number of Hebrew and Aramaic loan-words and a tendency to render Hebrew word order literally (e.g.: _ha-laylah ha-zeh_, meaning "this night", was rendered _la noche la esta_ instead of the normal Spanish _esta noche_ ). As mentioned above, some authorities would confine the term "Ladino" to this style.

Following the expulsion, the process of dialect mixing continued, though Castilian Spanish remained by far the largest contributor. The daily language was increasingly influenced both by the language of study and by the local non-Jewish vernaculars such as Greek and Turkish, and came to be known as _Judesmo_: in this respect the development is parallel to that of Yiddish . However, many speakers, especially among the community leaders, also had command of a more formal style nearer to the Spanish of the expulsion, referred to as _Castellano _.

SOURCES

SPANISH

The grammar, phonology and about 60% of the vocabulary of Judaeo-Spanish are basically Spanish, but, in some respects, it resembles the dialects in southern Spain and South America rather than the dialects of Central Spain. For example, it exhibits both yeísmo ("she" is _eya_/_ella_ (Judaeo-Spanish), instead of _ella_, and seseo .

In many respects, it reproduces the Spanish of the time of the expulsion rather the modern variety, as it retains some archaic features such as these:

* Modern Spanish _j_, pronounced , corresponds to two different phonemes in Old Spanish: _x_, pronounced /ʃ/, and _j_, pronounced /ʒ/. Judaeo-Spanish retains the original sounds. Similarly, _g_ before _e_ or _i_ remains /ʒ/, not .

* Contrast _baṣo_/_baxo_ ("low" or "down", with /ʃ/, modern Spanish _bajo_) and _mujer_ ("woman" or "wife", spelled the same, with /ʒ/).

* Modern Spanish _z_ (_c_ before _e_ or _i_), pronounced or (as the English "th" in "think") according to the dialect, corresponds to two different phonemes in Old Spanish: _ç_ (_c_ before _e_ or _i_), pronounced "ts"; and _z_ (in all positions), pronounced "dz". In Judaeo-Spanish, they are pronounced and respectively.

* Contrast _korasón_/_coraçón_ ("heart", with /s/, modern Spanish _corazón_) and _dezir_ ("to say", with /z/, modern Spanish _decir_).

* In modern Spanish, the use of the letters _b_ and _v_ is determined partly on the basis of earlier forms of the language and partially on the basis of Latin etymology: both letters represent one phoneme (/b/), realised as or as according to its position. In Old Spanish and Judeo-Spanish, the choice is made phonetically: _bivir_ , "to live" (modern Spanish _vivir_). In Judaeo-Spanish, _v_ is a labiodental "v" (like in English) rather than a bilabial.

PORTUGUESE AND OTHER IBERIAN LANGUAGES

However, the phonology of both the consonants and part of the lexicon is, in some respects, closer to Galician-Portuguese or Catalan than to modern Spanish. That is explained not only by direct influence but because all three languages retained some of the characteristics of medieval Ibero- Romance languages that Castilian Spanish later lost.

Contrast Judaeo-Spanish _aninda_ ("still") with Portuguese _ainda_ (Galician _aínda_, Asturian _aína_ or _enaína_) and Spanish _aún_ or the initial consonants in Judaeo-Spanish _fija_, _favla_ ("daughter", "speech"), Portuguese _filha_, _fala_ (Galician _filla_, _fala_, Asturian _fía_, _fala_, Aragonese _filla_, _fabla_, Catalan _filla_), Spanish _hija_, _habla_. It sometimes varied with dialect, as in Judaeo-Spanish popular songs, both _fijo_ and _hijo_ ("son") are found.

The Judaeo-Spanish pronunciation of _s_ as "" before a "k" sound or at the end of certain words (such as _seis_, pronounced , for six) is shared with Portuguese (as spoken in Portugal, most of Asia and Africa, and in a plurality of Brazilian registers with either partial or total forms of coda S palatalization) but not with Spanish.

HEBREW AND ARAMAIC

Like other Jewish vernaculars, Judaeo-Spanish incorporates many Hebrew and Aramaic words, mostly for religious concepts and institutions. Examples are _Haham_ (rabbi) and _kal_/_cal_ (synagogue, from Hebrew _qahal_).

OTHER LANGUAGES

Judaeo-Spanish has absorbed some words from the local languages but sometimes Hispanicised their form: _bilbilico_ (nightingale), from Persian (via Turkish) _bülbül_. It may be compared to the Slavic elements in Yiddish. It is not always clear whether some of these words antedate the expulsion because of the large number of Arabic words in Spanish generally.

PHONOLOGY

Judaeo-Spanish phonology consists of 28 phonemes : 23 consonants and 5 vowels .

CONSONANTS

Consonant phonemes

BILABIAL Labio- dental DENTAL ALVEOLAR Post- alveolar PALATAL VELAR

NASAL m

n

ɲ (ŋ )

STOP p b

t d

k g

AFFRICATE

t͡ʃ d͡ʒ

FRICATIVE (β ) f v (ð ) s z ʃ ʒ

x (ɣ )

TRILL

r

TAP

ɾ

APPROXIMANT

l

j w

VOWELS

Vowel phonemes

FRONT BACK

CLOSE i u

CLOSE-MID e o

OPEN-MID (ɛ ) (ɔ )

OPEN a

PHONOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES FROM SPANISH

As exemplified in the Sources section above, much of the phonology of Judaeo-Spanish is similar to that of standard modern Spanish, with certain exceptions. Additional exceptions include:

* Unlike all other non-creole varieties of Spanish, Judaeo-Spanish does not contrast the trill /r/ and the flap /ɾ/. * The Spanish /nue-/ is /mue-/ in some dialects of Judaeo-Spanish: _nuevo, nuestro → muevo, muestro._ * The Judaeo-Spanish phoneme inventory includes separate and : /ʒuɾˈnal/ _('newspaper')_ vs /d͡ʒuˈgar/ _('to play')_. Neither are used in Spanish, and were likely added through Turkish loan words.

* There is a tendency to drop , as in southern Iberian Spanish: _Dios_ -> _Dio_ (God), _amargasteis_ -> _amargateş_ (you have embittered).

MORPHOLOGY

Judaeo-Spanish is distinguished from other Spanish dialects by the presence of the following features:

* With regard to pronouns , Judaeo-Spanish maintains the second-person pronouns as _tú_ (informal singular), _vos_ (formal singular), and _vosotros_ (plural); the third-person _el/eya/eyos/eyas_ are also used in the formal register. The Spanish pronouns _usted_ and _ustedes_ do not exist. * In verbs, the preterite indicates that an action taken once in the past was also completed at some point in the past. That is as opposed to the imperfect , which refers to any continuous, habitual, unfinished or repetitive past action. Thus, "I ate falafel yesterday" would use the first-person preterite form of eat, _komí_/_comí_ whereas "When I lived in Izmir, I ran five miles every evening" would use the first-person imperfect form, _koría_/_corría_. Though some of the morphology has changed, usage is just as in normative Spanish. * In general, Judaeo-Spanish uses the Spanish plural morpheme /-(e)s/. The Hebrew plural endings _/-im/_ and _/-ot/_ are used with Hebrew loan words, as well as with a few words from Spanish: _ladrón_ (thief): _ladrones/ladroním; ermano_ (brother): _ermanos/ermaním._ Similarly, some loaned feminine nouns ending in -á can take either the Spanish or Hebrew plural: _keilá_ (synagogue): _keilás/keilot._ * Judaeo-Spanish contains more gendering cases than standard Spanish, prominently in adjectives, e.g. _grande/-a, inferior/-ra,_ as well as in nouns, e.g. _vozas, fuentas,_ and in the interrogative _kualo/kuala._

Regular conjugation in the present:

-er verbs (comer: "to eat") -ir verbs (bivir: "to live") -ar verbs (favlar: "to speak")

_YO_ -o : comO/komO, bivO, favlO

_Tú_ -es : comES/komES, bivES -as : favlAS

_EL_, _EYA_/_ELLA_ -e : comE/komE, bivE -a : favlA

_MOZOTROS_/_NOSOTROS_ -emos : comEMOS/komEMOS -imos : bivIMOS -amos : favlAMOS

_VOS_, _VOZOTROS_/_VOSOTROS_ -éş/éx : coméş/éX; koméş/éX -íş/íx : bivíş/íX -áş/áx : favláş/áX

_EYOS_/_ELLOS_, _EYAS_/_ELLAS_ -en : comEN/komEN, bivEN -an : favlAN

Regular conjugation in the preterite:

-er verbs (komer) -ir verbs (bivir) -ar verbs (favlar)

_YO_ -í : comí/komí, biví, favlí

_TU_ -ites : comITES/komITES, bivITES -ates : favlATES

_EL_, _EYA_/_ELLA_ -yó : comIó/komIó, bivIó -ó : favló

_MOZOTROS_/_NOSOTROS_ -imos : comIMOS/komIMOS, bivIMOS, favlIMOS

_VOS_, _VOZOTROS_/_VOSOTROS_ -iteş/itex : comITEş/ITEX; komITEş/ITEX, bivITES/ITEX -ateş/atex : favlATEş/ATEX

_EYOS_/_ELLOS_, _EYAS_/_ELLAS_ -ieron : comIERON/komIERON, bivIERON -aron : favlARON

SYNTAX

Judaeo-Spanish follows Spanish for most of its syntax. (This is not true of the written calque language involving word-for-word translations from Hebrew, which some scholars refer to as Ladino, as described above.) Like Spanish, it generally follows a subject-verb-object word order , has a nominative-accusative alignmen t, and is considered a fusional or inflected language.

ORTHOGRAPHY

The Rashi script , originally used to print the language

The following systems of writing Judaeo-Spanish have been used or proposed.

* Traditionally, especially in Ladino religious texts, Judaeo-Spanish was printed in the Hebrew alphabet (especially in Rashi script ), a practice that was very common, possibly almost universal, until the 19th century (and called _aljamiado _, by analogy with the equivalent use of the Arabic abjad ). This occasionally persists today, especially in religious use. Everyday written records of the language used Solitreo , a semi-cursive script similar to Rashi script, shifting to square letter for Hebrew/ Aramaic words. Solitreo is clearly different from the Ashkenazi Cursive Hebrew used today in Israel, though that is also related to Rashi script. (A comparative table is provided in that article .) In this script, there is free use of matres lectionis : final -a is written with ה ‎ (_heh_) and ו ‎ (_waw_) can represent /o/ or /u/. Both s (/s/) and x (/ʃ/) are generally written with ש ‎, as ס ‎ is generally reserved for c before e or i and ç. * The Greek alphabet and Cyrillic have been employed in the past, but this is rare or nonexistent nowadays. * In Turkey, Judaeo-Spanish is most commonly written in the Turkish variant of the Latin alphabet . This may be the most widespread system in use today, as following the decimation of Sephardic communities throughout much of Europe (particularly in Greece and the Balkans ) during the Holocaust the greatest proportion of speakers remaining were Turkish Jews. However, the Judaeo-Spanish page of the Turkish Jewish newspaper Şalom now uses the Israeli system. * The Israeli Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino promotes a phonetic transcription into the Latin alphabet, making no concessions to Spanish orthography, and uses it in its publication Aki Yerushalayim . The songs _Non komo muestro Dio_ and _Por una ninya_, below, and the text in the sample paragraph, below, are written using this system. * Works published in Spain usually adopt the standard orthography of modern Spanish, to make them easier for modern Spaniards to read. These editions often use diacritics to show where the Judaeo-Spanish pronunciation differs from modern Spanish. * Perhaps more conservative and less popular, others including Pablo Carvajal Valdés suggest that Judaeo-Spanish should adopt the orthography used during the time of the Jewish expulsion of 1492 from Spain.

ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST THE 1492 ORTHOGRAPHY

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The Spanish orthography of that time has been standardized and eventually changed by a series of orthographic reforms , the last of which occurred in the 18th century, to become the spelling of modern Spanish. Judaeo-Spanish has retained some of the pronunciation that at the time of reforms had become archaic in standard Spanish. Adopting 15th century Spanish orthography (similar to modern Portuguese orthography ) would therefore closely fit the pronunciation of Judaeo-Spanish.

* The old spelling would reflect

* the /s/ (originally /ts/) – _c_ (before _e_ and _i_) and _ç_ (cedilla ), as in _caça_, * the /s/ – _ss_, as in _passo_, and * the /ʃ/ – _x_, as in _dixo_.

* The letter _j_ would be retained, but only in instances, such as _mujer_, where the pronunciation is /ʒ/ in Judaeo-Spanish. * The spelling of /z/ (originally /dz/) as _z_ would be restored in words like _fazer_ and _dezir_. * The difference between _b_ and _v_ would be made phonetically, as in Old Spanish, rather than in accordance with the Latin etymology as in modern Spanish. For example, Latin _DEBET_ > post-1800 Spanish _debe_, would return to its Old Spanish spelling _deve_.

Some old spellings could be restored for the sake of historical interest, rather than to reflect Judaeo-Spanish phonology:

* The old digraphs _ch_, _ph_ and _th_ (today _c_/_qu_ – /k/, _f_ – /f/ and _t_ – /t/ in standard Spanish respectively), formally abolished in 1803, would be used in words like _orthographía_, _theología_. * Latin/Old Spanish _q_ before words like _quando_, _quanto_ and _qual_ (modern Spanish _cuando_, _cuanto_ and _cual_) would also be used.

The supporters of this orthography argue that classical and Golden Age Spanish literature might gain renewed interest, better appreciation and understanding should its orthography be used again.

It remains uncertain how to treat sounds that Old Spanish spelling failed to render phonetically.

* The _s_ between vowels, as in _casa_, was probably pronounced /z/ in Old Spanish and is certainly so pronounced in Judaeo-Spanish. The same is true of _s_ before _m_, _d_ and other voiced consonants, as in _mesmo_ or _desde_. Supporters of Carvajal's proposal are unsure about whether this should be written _s_ as in Old Spanish or _z_ in accordance with pronunciation. * The distinctive Judaeo-Spanish pronunciation of _s_ as /ʃ/ before a /k/ sound, as in _buscar_, _cosquillas_, _mascar_ and _pescar_, or in _is_ endings as in _séis_, _favláis_ and _sois_, is probably derived from Portuguese: it is uncertain whether it occurred in Old Spanish. It is debated whether this should be written _s_ as in Old Spanish or _x_ in accordance with the sound. * There is some dispute about the Spanish _ll_ combination, which in Judaeo-Spanish (as in most areas of Spain) is pronounced like a _y_. Following Old Spanish orthography this should be written _ll_, but it is frequently written _y_ in Ladino to avoid ambiguity and reflect the Hebrew spelling. The conservative option is to follow the etymology: _caballero_, but _Mayorca_. * On this system, it is uncertain how loanwords from Hebrew and other languages should be rendered.

_AKI YERUSHALAYIM_ ORTHOGRAPHY

_ Aki Yerushalayim _, owned by Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino , promotes this orthography:

LETTER A A B B CH CH D D DJ DJ E E F F G G H H I I J J K K L L M M N N NY NY O O P P R R S S SH SH T T U U V V X X Y Y Z Z

IPA

* A dot is written between _s_ and _h_ (s·h) to represent , to avoid confusion with . For example: _es·huenyo_ (dream). * Unlike Spanish, stressed diacritics are not represented. * Loanwords and foreign names retain their original spelling. So letters which are not in this orthography like _q_ or _w_ would be used only in these types of words.

HEBREW ORTHOGRAPHY

Judeo-Spanish is traditionally written in a Hebrew-based script, specially in Rashi script . The Hebrew orthography is not regulated, but sounds are generally represented by these letters:

SQUARE LETTER א ב ב׳ ג ג׳ ד ה ו ז ז׳ ח ט י יי כ/-ך ל מ/-ם נ/-ן ניי ס ע פ/-ף פ׳/-ף׳ צ/-ץ ק ר ש ת

RASHI LETTER

׳

׳

׳

/-

/- /-

/- ׳/- ׳ /-

AY EQUIVALENT LETTER a, Ø, e, o b v g dj, ch d a, e u, o, v z j h t i, e, y y k, h l m n ny s Ø, e, a p f (t)s k r sh, s t

HISTORY

Jews in the Middle Ages were instrumental in the development of Spanish into a prestige language . Erudite Jews translated Arabic and Hebrew works – often translated earlier from Greek – into Spanish and Christians translated again into Latin for transmission to Europe.

Until recent times, the language was widely spoken throughout the Balkans, Turkey, the Middle East, and North Africa, having been brought there by Jewish refugees fleeing the area today known as Spain following the expulsion of the Jews in 1492 .

The contact among Jews of different regions and languages, including Catalan, Leonese and Portuguese developed a unified dialect differing in some aspects from the Spanish norm that was forming simultaneously in the area known today as Spain, though some of this mixing may have occurred in exile rather than in the peninsula itself. The language was known as _Yahudice_ (Jewish language) in the Ottoman Empire . In the late 18th century, Ottoman poet Enderunlu Fazıl (Fazyl bin Tahir Enderuni ) wrote in his _Zenanname _: "Castilians speak the Jewish language but they are not Jews."

The closeness and mutual comprehensibility between Judaeo-Spanish and Spanish favoured trade among Sephardim (often relatives) ranging from the Ottoman Empire to the Netherlands and the _conversos _ of the Iberian Peninsula.

After the expulsion of the Jews, who were of mostly Portuguese descent, from Dutch Brazil in 1654, Jews were one of the influences on the African-Romance creole Papiamento of the Dutch Caribbean islands Aruba , Bonaire and Curaçao .

Over time, a corpus of literature, both liturgical and secular, developed. Early literature was limited to translations from Hebrew. At the end of the 17th century, Hebrew was disappearing as the vehicle for Rabbinic instruction. Thus a literature in the popular tongue (Ladino) appeared in the 18th century, such as Me\'am Lo\'ez and poetry collections. By the end of the 19th century, Sephardim in the Ottoman Empire studied in schools of the Alliance Israélite Universelle . French became the language for foreign relations (as it did for Maronites ), and Judaeo-Spanish drew from French for neologisms. New secular genres appeared: more than 300 journals, history, theatre, biographies.

Given the relative isolation of many communities, a number of regional dialects of Judaeo-Spanish appeared, many with only limited mutual comprehensibility. This is due largely to the adoption of large numbers of loanwords from the surrounding populations, including, depending on the location of the community, from Greek, Turkish, Arabic, and in the Balkans , Slavic languages , especially Bosnian , Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian. The borrowing in many Judaeo-Spanish dialects is so heavy that up to 30% of these dialects is of non-Spanish origin. Some words also passed from Judaeo-Spanish into neighbouring languages: the word _palavra_ "word" (Vulgar Latin = "parabola"; Greek = "parabole") for example passed into Turkish, Greek, and Romanian with the meaning "bunk, hokum, humbug, bullshit" in Turkish and Romanian and "big talk, boastful talk" in Greek (cf. the English "palaver").

Judaeo-Spanish was the common language of Salonika during the period of Ottoman rule. The city became part of the modern Greek Republic in 1912 and was subsequently renamed Thessaloniki. Despite a major fire , economic oppression by Greek authorities, and mass settlement of Christian refugees, the language remained widely spoken in Salonika until the deportation of 50,000 Salonikan Jews in the Holocaust during the Second World War. According to the 1928 census there were 62,999 native speakers of Ladino in Greece. This figure drops down to 53,094 native speakers in 1940 but 21,094 citizens also cited speaking Ladino "usually".

Judaeo-Spanish was also a language used in _ Donmeh _ rites (_Dönme_ in Turkish meaning convert and referring to adepts of Sabbatai Tsevi converted to the Moslem religion in the Ottoman Empire). An example is the recite _Sabbatai Tsevi esperamos a ti_. Today, the religious practices and ritual use of Judaeo-Spanish seems confined to elderly generations.

The Castilian colonization of Northern Africa favoured the role of polyglot Sephardim who bridged between Spanish colonizers and Arab and Berber speakers.

From the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries, Judaeo-Spanish was the predominant Jewish language in the Holy Land, though the dialect was different in some respects from that spoken in Greece and Turkey. Some Sephardi families have lived in Jerusalem for centuries, and preserve Judaeo-Spanish for cultural and folklore purposes, though they now use Hebrew in everyday life.

An often told Sephardic anecdote from Bosnia-Herzegovina has it that, as a Spanish consulate was opened in Sarajevo between the two world wars, two Sephardic women were passing by and, upon hearing a Catholic priest speaking Spanish, thought that – given his language – he was in fact Jewish!

In the twentieth century, the number of speakers declined sharply: entire communities were murdered in the Holocaust, while the remaining speakers, many of whom emigrated to Israel, adopted Hebrew. The governments of the new nation-states encouraged instruction in the official languages. At the same time, Judaeo-Spanish aroused the interest of philologists, since it conserved language and literature that existed prior to the standardisation of Spanish.

Judaeo-Spanish is in serious danger of extinction because many native speakers today are elderly _olim_ (immigrants to Israel), who have not transmitted the language to their children or grandchildren. Nevertheless, it is experiencing a minor revival among Sephardic communities, especially in music. In addition, Sephardic communities in several Latin American countries still use Judaeo-Spanish. In these countries, there is an added danger of extinction by assimilation to modern Spanish.

Kol Yisrael and Radio Nacional de España hold regular radio broadcasts in Judaeo-Spanish. _ Law the first known text among these is _Dinim de shehitah i bedikah (The Rules of Ritual Slaughter and Inspection of Animals;_ Istanbul, 1510). Texts continued to be focused on philosophical and religious themes, including a large body of rabbinic writings, through the first half of the nineteenth century. The largest output of secular Judeo-Spanish literature occurred during the latter half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the Ottoman Empire. The earliest and most abundant form of secular text was the press: between 1845 and 1939, Ottoman Sephardim published around 300 individual periodical titles. The proliferation of periodicals gave rise to serialized novels, many of which were rewrites of existing foreign novels into Judeo-Spanish. These works, unlike the previous scholarly literature, were intended for a broader audience of educated men and less literate women alike, and thus covered a wider range of less weighty content, at times censored to be appropriate for family readings. The popular literature expanded to include love stories and adventure stories, both of which were previously absent from Judeo-Spanish literary canon. The literary corpus at this time also expanded to include theatrical plays, poems, and other minor genres.

RELIGIOUS USE

The Jewish community of Bosnia-Herzegovina in Sarajevo and the Jewish community of Belgrade still chant part of the Sabbath Prayers (_Mizmor David_) in Ladino. The Sephardic Synagogue Ezra Bessaroth in Seattle, Washington (US) was formed by Jews from Turkey and the Island of Rhodes, and they use Ladino in some portions of their Shabbat services. The Siddur is called Zehut Yosef and was written by Hazzan Isaac Azose.

At Congregation Etz Ahaim, a Sephardic congregation founded by Jews from Salonika in New Brunswick, New Jersey now located in Highland Park, New Jersey , a reader chants the Aramaic prayer _B'rich Shemay_ in Ladino before taking out the Torah on Shabbat ; it is known as _Bendichu su Nombre_ in Ladino. Additionally, at the end of Shabbat services, the entire congregation sings the well-known Hebrew hymn _ Ein Keloheinu ,_ which is called _Non Como Muestro Dio_ in Ladino.

_Non Como Muestro Dio_ is also included alongside _Ein Keloheinu_ in Mishkan T\'filah , the 2007 Reform prayerbook.

The late Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan translated some scholarly religious Ladino texts, including Me\'am Loez , into Hebrew or English, or both.

Izmir's grand rabbis Haim Palachi , Abraham Palacci , and Rahamim Nissim Palacci all wrote in Ladino as well as Hebrew.

MODERN EDUCATION

As with Yiddish the Ladino language is seeing a minor resurgence in educational interest in colleges across the United States and in Israel. Still, given the ethnic demographics among American Jews , it is not surprising that more institutions offer Yiddish language courses than Ladino language courses. Today, the University of Pennsylvania and Tufts University offer Ladino language courses among colleges in the United States. In Israel, Moshe David Gaon Center for Ladino Culture at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev is leading the way in education (Ladino language and literature courses, Community oriented activities) and research (a yearly scientific journal, international congresses and conferences etc.). Hebrew University also offers Ladino language courses. The Complutense University of Madrid also has Ladino courses in the past. Prof. David Bunis taught Ladino at the University of Washington , in Seattle during the 2013–14 academic year.

SAMPLES

COMPARISON WITH OTHER LANGUAGES

_Note: Judaeo-Spanish samples in this section are generally written in the Aki Yerushalayim_ orthography unless otherwise specified.

JUDAEO-SPANISH El djudeo-espanyol, _djudio_, _djudezmo_ es la lingua favlada de los djudios sefardim arondjados de la Espanya enel 1492. Es una lingua derivada del espanyol i favlada de 150.000 personas en komunitas en Israel, la Turkia, antika Yugoslavia, la Gresia, el Maruekos, Mayorka, las Amerikas, entre munchos otros.

SPANISH El judeo-español, _djudio_, _djudezmo_ es la lengua hablada por los judíos sefardíes expulsados de España en 1492. Es una lengua derivada del español y hablada por 150.000 personas en comunidades en Israel, Turquía, la antigua Yugoslavia, Grecia, Marruecos, Mallorca, las Américas, entre muchos otros.

CATALAN El judeocastellà, _djudiu_, _djudezmo_ és la llengua parlada pels jueus sefardites expulsats d'Espanya al 1492. És una llengua derivada de l'espanyol i parlada per 150.000 persones en comunitats a Israel, Turquia, antiga Iugoslàvia, Grècia, el Marroc, Mallorca, les Amèriques, entre moltes altres.

ASTURIAN El xudeoespañol, _djudio_, _djudezmo_ ye la llingua falada polos xudíos sefardinos expulsados d'España en 1492. Ye una llingua derivada del español y falada por 150.000 persones en comunidaes n'Israel, Turquía, na antigua Yugoslavia, Grecia, Marruecos, Mayorca, nes Amériques, entre munchos otros.

GALICIAN O xudeo-español, _djudio_, _djudezmo_ é a lingua falada polos xudeos sefardís expulsados de España en 1492. É unha lingua derivada do español e falada por 150.000 persoas en comunidades en Israel, en Turquía, na antiga Iugoslavia, Grecia, Marrocos, Maiorca, nas Américas, entre moitos outros .

PORTUGUESE O judeo-espanhol, _djudio_, _djudezmo_ é a língua falada pelos judeus sefarditas expulsos de Espanha em 1492. É uma língua derivada do espanhol e falada por 150.000 pessoas em comunidades em Israel, na Turquia, na antiga Jugoslávia, na Grécia, em Marrocos, em Maiorca, nas Américas, entre muitos outros .

ENGLISH Judaeo-Spanish, Djudio, Judezmo, is the language spoken by Sephardi Jews expelled from Spain in 1492. It is a language derived from Spanish and spoken by 150,000 people in communities in Israel, Turkey, the former Yugoslavia, Greece, Morocco, Majorca, the Americas, among many others .

SONGS

Folklorists have been collecting _romances_ and other folk songs, some dating from before the expulsion. Many religious songs in Judeo-Spanish are translations of the Hebrew, usually with a different tune. For example, _ Ein Keloheinu _ looks like this in Judeo-Spanish: Non komo muestro Dio, Non komo muestro Sinyor, Non komo muestro Rey, Non komo muestro Salvador. _etc._

Other songs relate to secular themes such as love.

ADIO, KERIDA

Tu madre kuando te pario

Y te kito al mundo, Korason ella no te dio Para amar segundo. Korason ella no te dió Para amar segundo.

Adio, Adio kerida, No kero la vida, Me l'amargates tu. Adio, Adio kerida, No kero la vida, Me l'amargates tu. Va, bushkate otro amor,

Aharva otras puertas, Aspera otro ardor, Ke para mi sos muerta. Aspera otro ardor, Ke para mi sos muerta.

Adio, Adio kerida, No kero la vida, Me l'amargates tu. Adio, Adio kerida, No kero la vida, Me l'amargates tú.

POR UNA NINYA FOR A GIRL _(TRANSLATION)_

Por una ninya tan fermoza l'alma yo la vo a dar un kuchilyo de dos kortes en el korason entro. For a girl so beautiful I will give my soul a double-edged knife pierced my heart.

No me mires ke'stó kantando es lyorar ke kero yo los mis males son muy grandes no los puedo somportar. Don't look at me; I am singing, it is crying that I want, my sorrows are so great I can't bear them.

No te lo kontengas tu, fijika, ke sos blanka komo'l simit, ay morenas en el mundo ke kemaron Selanik. Don't hold your sorrows, young girl, for you are white like bread, there are dark girls in the world who set fire to Thessaloniki .

QUANDO EL REY NIMROD _(ADAPTATION)_ WHEN KING NIMROD _(TRANSLATION)_

Quando el Rey Nimrod al campo salía mirava en el cielo y en la estrellería vido una luz santa en la djudería que havía de nascer Avraham Avinu. When King Nimrod was going out to the fields He was looking at heaven and at the stars He saw a holy light in the Jewish quarter that Abraham , our father, must have been born.

Avraham Avinu, Padre querido, Padre bendicho, luz de Yisrael. Abraham Avinu , dear father Blessed Father, light of Israel.

Luego a las comadres encomendava que toda mujer que prenyada quedara si no pariera al punto, la matara que havía de nascer Abraham Avinu. Then he was telling all the midwives That every pregnant woman Who did not give birth at once was going to be killed because Abraham our father was going to born.

Avraham Avinu, Padre querido, Padre bendicho, luz de Yisrael. Abraham Avinu, dear father Blessed Father, light of Israel.

La mujer de Terach quedó prenyada y de día en día le preguntava ¿De qué teneix la cara tan demudada? ella ya sabía el bien que tenía. Terach 's wife was pregnant and each day he would ask her Why do you look so distraught? She already knew very well what she had.

Avraham Avinu, Padre querido, Padre bendicho, luz de Yisrael. Abraham Avinu, dear father Blessed Father, light of Israel.

En fin de nueve meses parir quería iva caminando por campos y vinyas, a su marido tal ni le descubría topó una meara, allí lo pariría After nine months she wanted to give birth She was walking through the fields and vineyards Such would not even reach her husband She found a manger; there, she would give birth.

Avraham Avinu, Padre querido, Padre bendicho, luz de Yisrael. Abraham Avinu, dear father Blessed Father, light of Israel.

En aquella hora el nascido avlava "Andavos mi madre, de la meara yo ya topó quen me alexara mandará del cielo quen me accompanyará porque so criado del Dio bendicho." In that hour the newborn was speaking 'Get away of the manger, my mother I will somebody to take me out He will send from the heaven the one that will go with me Because I am a servant of the blessed God.'

Avraham Avinu, Padre querido, Padre bendicho, luz de Yisrael Abraham Avinu, dear father Blessed Father, light of Israel.

Anachronistically, Abraham—who in the Bible is the very first Hebrew and the ancestor of all who followed, hence his appellation "Avinu" (Our Father)—is in the Judeo-Spanish song born already in the "djudería" (modern Spanish: _judería_), the Jewish quarter. This makes Terach and his wife into Hebrews, as are the parents of other babies killed by Nimrod. In essence, unlike its Biblical model, the song is about a Hebrew community persecuted by a cruel king and witnessing the birth of a miraculous saviour—a subject of obvious interest and attraction to the Jewish people who composed and sang it in Medieval Spain .

The song attributes to Abraham elements from the story of Moses 's birth (the cruel king killing innocent babies, with the midwives ordered to kill them, the 'holy light' in the Jewish area) and from the careers of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego who emerged unscathed from the fiery furnace. Nimrod is thus made to conflate the role and attributes of two archetypal cruel and persecuting kings— Nebuchadnezzar and Pharaoh . For more information, see Nimrod .

SELECTED WORDS BY ORIGIN

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION with: Greek. You can help by adding to it . (January 2017)_

_Words derived from Arabic_:

* ALFORRíA – "liberty", "freedom" * ALHáT – "Sunday" * ATEMAR – to terminate * SARAF – "money changer" * SHARA – "wood" * ZIARA – "cemetery visit"

_Words derived from Hebrew_:

* ALEFBET – "alphabet" (from the Hebrew names of the first two letters of the alphabet) * ANAV – "humble", "obedient" * ARóN – "grave" * ATAKANEAR – to arrange * BADKAR – to reconsider * BERAXA – "blessing" * DIN – "religious law" * KAL – "community", "synagogue" * KAMMA – to ask "how much?", "how many?" * MAARáV – "west" * MAASé – "story", "event" * MAABE – "deluge", "downpour", "torrent" * MAZAL – "star", "destiny" * MET – "dead" * NIFTAR – "dead" * PURIMLIK – "Purim present" (Derived from the Hebrew "Purim" + Turkic ending "-lik") * SEDAKA – "charity" * TEFILá – "prayer" * ZAHUT – "blessing"

_Words derived from Persian_:

* CHAY – "tea" * CHINI – "plate" * PARAS – "money" * SHASHEO – "dizziness"

_Words derived from Portuguese_:

* ABASTáDO – "almighty", "omnipotent" (referring to God) * AíNDA – "yet" * CHAPEO – "hat" * PRETO – "black" (in color) * TROCAR – to change

_Words derived from Turkish_:

* BALTA – "axe" * BITEREAR – to terminate * BOYADEAR – to paint, color * INNAT – "whim" * KOLAY – "easy" * KUSHAK – "belt", "girdle" * MAALé – "street", "quarters", "neighborhood"; MAALé YAHUDí – Jewish quarters

MODERN SINGERS

Jennifer Charles and Oren Bloedow from the New York-based band Elysian Fields released a CD in 2001 called La Mar Enfortuna, which featured modern versions of traditional Sephardic songs, many sung by Charles in Judeo-Spanish. The American singer, Tanja Solnik , has released several award-winning albums that feature songs sung in Ladino: _From Generation to Generation: A Legacy of Lullabies_ and _Lullabies and Love Songs_. There are a number of groups in Turkey that sing in Judeo-Spanish, notably _Janet – Jak Esim Ensemble_, _Sefarad_, _Los Pasharos Sefaradis_, and the children's chorus _Las Estreyikas d'Estambol_. There is a Brazilian-born singer of Sephardic origins called Fortuna who researches and plays Judeo-Spanish music.

The Jewish Bosnian-American musician Flory Jagoda recorded two CDs of music taught to her by her grandmother, a Sephardic folk singer, among a larger discography.

The cantor Dr. Ramón Tasat, who learned Judeo-Spanish at his grandmother's knee in Buenos Aires, has recorded many songs in the language, with three of his CDs focusing primarily on that music.

The Israeli singer Yasmin Levy has also brought a new interpretation to the traditional songs by incorporating more "modern" sounds of Andalusian Flamenco . Her work revitalising Sephardi music has earned Levy the Anna Lindh Euro-Mediterranean Foundation Award for promoting cross-cultural dialogue between musicians from three cultures. In Yasmin Levy's own words:

_I am proud to combine the two cultures of Ladino and flamenco, while mixing in Middle Eastern influences. I am embarking on a 500 years old musical journey, taking Ladino to Andalusia and mixing it with flamenco, the style that still bears the musical memories of the old Moorish and Jewish-Spanish world with the sound of the Arab world. In a way it is a ‘musical reconciliation’ of history._

Notable music groups performing in Judeo-Spanish include Voice of the Turtle , Oren Bloedow and Jennifer Charles ' "La Mar Enfortuna" and Vanya Green , who was awarded a Fulbright Fellowship for her research and performance of this music. She was recently selected as one of the top ten world music artists by the We are Listening International World of Music Awards for her interpretations of the music.

Robin Greenstein, a New York-based musician, received a federal CETA grant in the 1980s to collect and perform Sephardic Ladino Music under the guidance of the American Jewish Congress. Her mentor was Joe Elias, noted Sephardic singer from Brooklyn. She recorded residents of the Sephardic Home for the Aged, a nursing home in Coney Island, NY singing songs from their childhood. Amongst the voices recorded was Victoria Hazan, a well known Sephardic singer who recorded many 78's in Ladino and Turkish from the 1930s and 1940s. Two Ladino songs can be found on her "Songs of the Season" holiday CD released in 2010 on Windy Records.

SEE ALSO

* _ Aki Yerushalayim _, an Israeli magazine in Judaeo-Spanish published 2–3 times a year * Haketia * Jewish languages * Judaism * Judaeo-Spanish Wikipedia * Judaeo-Portuguese * Judaeo- Romance languages * Mozarabic language * _ Şalom _, a Turkish newspaper with a Judaeo-Spanish page * Sephardi Jews * Tetuani Ladino * Knaanic language * Yiddish * Los Serenos Sefarad , Judaeo-Spanish hip-Hop * Cicurel family * Pallache family

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ Also pronounced (Western Judaeo-Spanish) and (Moroccan dialects). * ^ Speakers use different orthographical conventions depending on their social, educational, national and personal backgrounds, thus there is no uniformity in spelling, although some established conventions exist. The endonym _Judeo-Espanyol_ is thus also spelled as _Cudeo-Espanyol_, _Djudeo-Espanyol_, _Djudeo-Espagnol_, _Judeo-Español_, _Judeo-Espaniol_, _Džudeo-Espanjol_, _Giudeo-Espagnol_, _Ǧudéo-Españól_ and _Ĵudeo-Español_. * ^ The modern Spanish spelling _Mallorca_ is a hypercorrection .

CITATIONS

* ^ _A_ _B_ Ladino at _ Ethnologue _ (18th ed., 2015) * ^ _A_ _B_ "Ladino". _ MultiTree _. Retrieved 2017-07-08. * ^ _A_ _B_ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Ladino". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Minervini, Laura (2006). "El desarollo histórico del judeoespañol". _Revista Internacional de Lingüística Iberoamericana_. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine .. Jmth.gr. Retrieved on 19 October 2011. * ^ Real Academia Española dictionary, entry: Judeo-Español _in the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (DRAE)._ * ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (2005). "Ladino". _Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition_. SIL International. Retrieved 2008-09-25. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Harris, Tracy (1994). _Death of a language: The history of Judeo-Spanish_. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press. * ^ (in Spanish) DRAE: Ladino, 2nd sense. Buscon.rae.es. Retrieved on 19 October 2011. * ^ Historia 16 , 1978 * ^ Real Academia Española dictionary (2001), entry: Ladino _Dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy of the Spanish tongue, Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española_, Espasa. * ^ "Clearing up Ladino, Judeo-Spanish, Sephardic Music" Judith Cohen, HaLapid, winter 2001; Sephardic Song at the Wayback Machine (archived 16 April 2008), Judith Cohen, Midstream July/August 2003 * ^ The UCLA Phonetics Lab archive * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Penny, Ralph (2000). _Variation and Change in Spanish_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 179–189. ISBN 0 521 60450 8 . * ^ Though this change is traditionally explained as being in order to emphasise the unity of God, or as a borrowing from Italian. * ^ Batzarov, Zdravko. "Judeo-Spanish: Noun". _www.orbilat.com_. Retrieved 2016-11-09. * ^ _Verba Hispanica_ X: Los problemas del estudio de la lengua sefardí Archived 7 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine ., Katja Šmid, Ljubljana, pages 113–124: _Es interesante el hecho que en Bulgaria se imprimieron unas pocas publicaciones en alfabeto cirílico búlgaro y en Grecia en alfabeto griego. Nezirović (1992: 128) anota que también en Bosnia se ha encontrado un documento en que la lengua sefardí está escrita en alfabeto cirilico_. The Nezirović reference is: Nezirović, M., _Jevrejsko-Španjolska književnost_. Institut za književnost, Svjetlost, Sarajevo, Bosnia 1992. * ^ See preface by Iacob M Hassán to Romero, _Coplas Sefardíes_, Cordoba, pp. 23–24. * ^ "Ladinoikonunita: A quick explanation of Ladino (Judaeo-Spanish). Sephardicstudies.org. Retrieved on 19 October 2011. * ^ _palavră_ in the _Dicționarul etimologic român _, Alexandru Ciorănescu , Universidad de la Laguna , Tenerife , 1958–1966: _Cuvînt introdus probabil prin. iud. sp_: "Word introduced probably through Judaeo-Spanish. * ^ Συγκριτικός πίνακας των στοιχείων των απογραφών του 1928, 1940 ΚΑΙ 1951 σχετικά με τις ομιλούμενες γλώσσες στην Ελλάδα. – Μεινοτικές γλώσσες στην Ελλάδα Κωνσταντίνος Τσιτσελίκης (2001), Πύλη για την Ελληνική Γλώσσα * ^ Eliezer Papo: From the Wailing Wall (in Bosnian ) * ^ Reka Network: Kol Israel International Archived 23 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Radio Exterior de España : Emisión en sefardí * ^ Nir Hasson, _ Holocaust survivor revives Jewish dialect by translating Greek epic,_ at Haaretz , 9 March 2012. * ^ Borovaya, Olga (2012). _Modern Ladino Culture: Press, Belles Lettres, and Theater in the Late Ottoman Empire_. Indiana University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978 0 253 35672 7 . * ^ Borovaya, Olga (2012). _Modern Ladino Culture: Press, Belles Lettres, and Theater in the Late Ottoman Empire_. Indiana University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978 0 253 35672 7 . * ^ Borovaya, Olga (2012). _Modern Ladino Culture: Press, Belles Lettres, and Theater in the Late Ottoman Empire_. Indiana University Press. p. 144. ISBN 978 0 253 35672 7 . * ^ Borovaya, Olga (2012). _Modern Ladino Culture: Press, Belles Lettres, and Theater in the Late Ottoman Empire_. Indiana University Press. p. 191. ISBN 978 0 253 35672 7 . * ^ Etz Ahaim home page * ^ Frishman, Elyse D., ed. (2007). _ Mishkan T'filah : a Reform siddur : services for Shabbat_. New York: Central Conference of American Rabbis. p. 327. ISBN 0-88123-104-5 . * ^ > Events > Exhibitions > Rare Book Library Collection Restoration Project – Ladino. American Sephardi Federation (23 April 1918). Retrieved on 19 October 2011. * ^ Yalkut May'Am Loez, Jerusalem 5736 Hebrew translation from Ladino language. * ^ Price, Sarah. (2005-08-25) Schools to Teach Ein Bisel Yiddish Education. Jewish Journal. Retrieved on 19 October 2011. * ^ The Mendele Review: Yiddish Literature and Language, Volume 11, No. 10. Yiddish.haifa.ac.il (30 September 2007). Retrieved on 19 October 2011. * ^ EJP News Western Europe Judaeo- Spanish language revived Archived 29 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine .. Ejpress.org (19 September 2005). Retrieved on 19 October 2011. * ^ Jewish Studies Program. Ccat.sas.upenn.edu. Retrieved on 19 October 2011. * ^ Ladino Class at Penn Tries to Resuscitate Dormant Language. The Jewish Exponent (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 19 October 2011. * ^ Department of German, Russian & Asian Languages and Literature – Tufts University. Ase.tufts.edu. Retrieved on 19 October 2011. * ^ For love of Ladino – The Jewish Standard. Jstandard.com. Retrieved on 19 October 2011. * ^ Courses – Ladino Studies At The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Pluto.huji.ac.il (30 July 2010). Retrieved on 19 October 2011. * ^ " Hebrew Philology courses (in Spanish)". _UCM_. UCM. Retrieved 22 July 2012. * ^ title=Why I'm teaching a new generation to read and write Ladinourl=http://jewishstudies.washington.edu/blog/why-im-teaching-a-new-generation-to-read-and-write-ladino * ^ "2008 Event Media Release – Yasmin Levy". Sydney Opera House. Retrieved 2008-08-19. * ^ "BBC – Awards for World Music 2007 – Yasmin Levy". BBC. Retrieved 2008-08-19. * ^ Åžalom Gazetesi – 12.10.2011 – Judeo-Espanyol İçerikleri Archived 11 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine .. Salom.com.tr. Retrieved on 19 October 2011.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Barton, Thomas Immanuel (Toivi Cook) (2010) _Judezmo Expressions_. USA ISBN 978-89-00-35754-7 * Barton, Thomas Immanuel (Toivi Cook) (2008) _Judezmo (Judeo-Castilian) Dictionary_. USA ISBN 978-1-890035-73-0 * Bunis, David M. (1999) _Judezmo: an introduction to the language of the Sephardic Jews of the Ottoman Empire_. Jerusalem ISBN 978-965-493-024-6 * Габинский, Марк А. (1992) _Сефардский (еврейской-испанский) язык_ (M. A. Gabinsky. _Sephardic (Judeo-Spanish) language_, in Russian). Chişinău: Ştiinţa * Harris, Tracy. 1994. Death of a language: The history of Judeo-Spanish. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press. * Hemsi, Alberto (1995) _Cancionero Sefardí_; edited and with an introduction by Edwin Seroussi (Yuval Music Series; 4.) Jerusaelem: The Jewish Music Research Centre, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem * Hualde, José Ignacio and Mahir Saul (2011) "Istanbul Judeo-Spanish" Journal of the International Phonetic Association 41(1): 89-110. * Hualde, José Ignacio (2013) “Intervocalic lenition and word-boundary effects: Evidence from Judeo-Spanish”. _Diachronica_ 30.2: 232-26. * Kohen, Elli; Kohen-Gordon, Dahlia (2000) _Ladino-English, English-Ladino: concise encyclopedic dictionary_. New York: Hippocrene Books * Markova, Alla (2008) _Beginner's Ladino with 2 Audio CDs_. New York: Hippocrene Books ISBN 0-7818-1225-9 * Markus, Shimon (1965) _Ha-safa ha-sefaradit-yehudit_ (_The Judeo-Spanish language_, in Hebrew). Jerusalem * Minervini, Laura (1999) “The Formation of the Judeo-Spanish koiné: Dialect Convergence in the Sixteenth Century”. In _Proceedings of the Tenth British Conference on Judeo-Spanish Studies_. Edited by Annete Benaim, 41-52. London: Queen Mary and Westfield College. * Minervini, Laura (2006) “El desarollo histórico del judeoespañol,” _Revista Internacional de Lingüística Iberoamericana_ 4.2: 13-34. * Molho, Michael (1950) _Usos y costumbres de los judíos de Salónica_ * Quintana Rodriguez, Aldina. 2001. Concomitancias lingüisticas entre el aragones y el ladino (judeoespañol). Archivo de Filología Aragonesa 57–58, 163–192. * Quintana Rodriguez, Aldina. 2006. Geografía lingüistica del judeoespañol: Estudio sincrónico y diacrónico. Bern: Peter Lang. * Varol, Marie-Christine (2004) _Manuel de Judéo-Espagnol, langue et culture_ (book padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutJUDAEO-SPANISHat's sister projects

* _Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * Data from Wikidata

* Judaeo-Spanish at DMOZ * Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino (in Judaeo-Spanish) * Ladino * Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki * Ladino Center * Ladinokomunita, an email list in Ladino_ * La pajina djudeo-espanyola de Aki Yerushalayim * The Ladino Alphabet * Judeo-Spanish (Ladino) at Orbis Latinus * Ladino music by Suzy and Margalit Matitiahu * Socolovsky, Jerome. "Lost Language of Ladino Revived in Spain", _Morning Edition_, National Public Radio, 19 March 2007. * A randomly selected example of use of ladino on the Worldwide Web: La komponente kulinaria i linguístika turka en la kuzina djudeo-espanyola * Israeli Ladino Language Forum (Hebrew) * LadinoType – A Ladino Transliteration System for Solitreo, Meruba, and Rashi * Habla Ladino? Sephardim meet to preserve language Friday 9 January 1998 * Edición SEFARAD, Radio programme in Ladino from Radio Nacional de España * Etext of Nebrija\'s _Gramática de la lengua castellana_, showing orthography of Old Spanish. * Sefarad, Revista de Estudios Hebraicos, Sefardíes y de Oriente Próximo, ILC, CSIC * Judæo-Spanish Language (Ladino) and Literature, Jewish Encyclopedia * Dr Yitshak (Itzik) Levy An authentic documentation of Ladino heritage and culture * Sephardic Studies Digital Library ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Languages of Spain

OFFICIAL / NATIONAL

* Spanish (aka Castilian )

Regional / minority languages

CO-OFFICIAL

* Basque * Catalan / Valencian * Galician

* Occitan

* Aranese

RECOGNISED

* Aragonese * Asturian / Leonese

Unrecognised languages

* Gomeran whistled language * Hispano- Arabic * Hispano-Berber

* Ibero-Romani

* _Caló _ * _Erromintxela _

* Judaeo-Spanish * Varieties of the Spanish languages

CULTURAL LANGUAGES

* Classical Greek border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Arabic * Bulgarian * Chinese * English * Italian * French * German * Portuguese * Romanian * Russian * Ukrainian , etc.

STANDARD FORMS

ACCENTS

* Andalusian Spanish * Castilian Spanish

DIALECTS

* Asturian * Basque * Catalan / Valencian * Galician

SIGN LANGUAGES

* Spanish Sign Language * Catalan / Valencian Sign Language

* v * t * e

Romance languages (Classification )

WESTERN

IBERO-ROMANCE

GALICIAN-PORTUGUESE

* PORTUGUESE

* dialects * EUROPEAN * BRAZILIAN * Uruguayan * AFRICAN * Asian * Creoles

* Galician

* Eonavian/ Galician-Asturian * Fala

* _ Judaeo-Portuguese _ * Caló

ASTUR-LEONESE

* Asturian * Cantabrian * Extremaduran * Leonese * Mirandese

SPANISH

* SPANISH

* dialects * LATIN AMERICAN * Philippine * Equatoguinean * EUROPEAN * Creoles

* _Old Spanish _ * Judaeo-Spanish * Caló

OTHERS

* _ Navarro-Aragonese _

* Aragonese * _ Judaeo-Aragonese _

* _Mozarabic _

Occitano- Romance

CATALAN

*

* dialects * EASTERN CATALAN * Alguerese * Balearic * CENTRAL * Northern * Western Catalan * North-Western * Valencian

* _ Judaeo-Catalan _ * Caló

OCCITAN

* Auvergnat

* Gascon

* Aranese

* Languedocien * Limousin

* Provençal

* Niçard * Mentonasc

* Vivaro-Alpine * _ Old Provençal _ * _Judaeo-Provençal _ * Caló

GALLO-ROMANCE

LANGUES D\\'OïL

* Burgundian * Champenois * Franc-Comtois

* FRENCH

* dialects * STANDARD * AFRICAN * Aostan * Belgian * Cambodian * CANADIAN * Indian * Laotian * Swiss * Vietnamese * _ Old French _ * _ Middle French _ * _Judaeo-French _ * Creoles

* Gallo * Lorrain

* Norman

* _Anglo-Norman _

* Picard * Poitevin * Saintongeais * Walloon * _ Moselle Romance _ * _ British Latin _

OTHERS

* Arpitan/Franco-Provençal

* Valdôtain * Savoyard

NORTH ITALIAN DIALECTS

GALLO-ITALIC

* Ligurian

* Brigasc * Genoese * Intemelio * Monégasque

* Lombard

* Western * Eastern

* Emilian-Romagnol

* Emilian

* Bolognese * Parmigiano

* Romagnol

* Piedmontese

* _ Judaeo-Piedmontese _

* Gallo-Italic of Sicily * Gallo-Italic of Basilicata

OTHERS

* Venetian

* Fiuman * Talian * Triestine

RHAETO-ROMANCE

RHAETO-ROMANCE

* Friulian * Ladin * Romansh

CENTRAL , SARDINIAN AND EASTERN

ITALO-DALMATIAN

ITALIAN

* ITALIAN

* dialects

* CENTRAL * Tuscan

* Corsican

* Gallurese

* Sassarese * Judaeo-Italian

SOUTHERN ITALIAN

* Neapolitan

* Northern Calabrese

* Sicilian

* Southern Calabrese

OTHERS

* _Dalmatian _ * Istriot

SARDINIAN

SARDINIAN

* SARDINIAN

* Campidanese * Logudorese

EASTERN

ROMANIAN

* ROMANIAN

* Moldovan * Vlach

OTHERS

* Aromanian * Istro-Romanian * Megleno-Romanian

NORTH AFRICAN

NORTH AFRICAN

* _ African Romance _

* _Italics_ indicate extinct languages * BOLD indicates languages with more than 5 million speakers * Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their left.

* v * t * e

Jewish languages

AFRO-ASIATIC

HEBREW

ERAS

* Biblical * Mishnaic * Medieval * Modern

DIALECTS

* Ashkenazi * Sephardi * Mizrahi * Yemenite * Tiberian * Samaritan Hebrew

JUDEO-ARAMAIC

ARAMAIC

* Biblical * Targum * Talmudic * Barzani * Hulaulá * Lishana Deni * Lishán Didán * Lishanid Noshan * Betanure Jewish Neo- Aramaic * Samaritan Aramaic

JUDEO-ARABIC

ARABIC

* Judaeo-Iraqi * Judaeo-Moroccan * Judaeo-Tripolitanian * Judaeo-Tunisian * Judaeo-Yemeni

OTHERS

* Kayla / Qwara (Cushitic ) * Judaeo-Berber (Berber )

INDO-EUROPEAN

GERMANIC

YIDDISH

DIALECTS / _ARGOTS _

* Eastern * Western * Litvish * Poylish * Ukrainish * Galitzish * Yiddish Dutch * Scots Yiddish * Alsatian Yiddish * _ Klezmer-loshn _ * ganovim-loshn * balagole-loshn * katsoves-loshn * Sabesdiker losn * Judendeutsch * Yiddish sign language * Lachoudisch

JEWISH ENGLISH

* Yeshivish * Yinglish * Heblish

ROMANCE

JUDAEO-ROMANCE

* Judaeo-Catalan * Judaeo-Italian * Judaeo-Piedmontese * Judaeo-Spanish * Haketia * Tetuani * Judeo-Latin * Judaeo-Occitan * Judaeo-French * Judaeo-Portuguese * Judaeo-Aragonese

INDO-IRANIAN

JUDAEO-IRANIAN

* Bukhori * Juhuri * Dzhidi * Judaeo-Hamedani * Judaeo-Shirazi * Judaeo-Esfahani * Judaeo-Kurdish * Judaeo-Yazdi * Judaeo-Kermani * Judaeo-Kashani * Judaeo-Borujerdi * Judaeo-Khunsari * Judaeo-Golpaygani * Judaeo-Nehevandi

OTHERS

* Yevanic (Hellenic ) * Knaanic (Slavic ) * Judaeo-Marathi (Indo-Aryan )

OTHER

* Krymchak / Karaim (Turkic ) * Judaeo-Malayalam (Dravidian ) * Judaeo-Georgian (Kartvelian )

* Spain portal * Judaism portal * Languages portal

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND : 4120211-9 * SUDOC : 027429997

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