Jonny Greenwood
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Jonathan Richard Guy Greenwood (born 5 November 1971) is an English musician and composer. He is the
lead guitar Lead guitar, also known as solo guitar, is a musical part for a guitar in which the guitarist plays melody lines, fill (music), instrumental fill passages, guitar solos, and occasionally, some riffs within a song structure. The lead is the feature ...
ist and
keyboardist A keyboardist or keyboard player is a musician who plays keyboard instrument A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played using a musical keyboard, keyboard, a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers. The most common of these ar ...
of the alternative rock band
Radiohead Radiohead are an English Rock music, rock band formed in Abingdon-on-Thames, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, in 1985. The band consists of Thom Yorke (vocals, guitar, piano, keyboards), brothers Jonny Greenwood (lead guitar, keyboards, other instruments) ...

Radiohead
, and has written a number of
film score A film score is original music written specifically to accompany a film. The score comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental, or choral pieces called cue (theatrical), cues, which are timed to begin and end at specific points during the fi ...
s. Along with his elder brother, Radiohead bassist Colin, Greenwood attended
Abingdon School Abingdon School is a day and boarding independent school for boys in Abingdon, Oxfordshire, England. The twentieth oldest Independent School (UK), independent British school, it celebrated its 750th anniversary in 2006. The school was describ ...

Abingdon School
in Abingdon near
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Ki ...

Oxford
, England, where he met the future band members. The youngest of the group, Greenwood was the last to join, first playing keyboards and harmonica but soon becoming lead guitarist. He abandoned a degree in music when the band signed to
Parlophone Parlophone Records Limited (also known as Parlophone Records and Parlophone) is a German–British record label founded in Germany in 1896 by the Carl Lindström Company as Parlophon. The British branch of the label was founded on 8 August 19 ...
; their debut single " Creep" was distinguished by Greenwood's aggressive guitar work. Radiohead have since achieved critical acclaim and sold over 30 million albums. Along with the other members of Radiohead, Greenwood was inducted into the
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (RRHOF), sometimes simply referred to as the Rock Hall, is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for (conserves) a ...

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
in 2019. Greenwood was named the 48th greatest guitarist of all time by ''
Rolling Stone ''Rolling Stone'' is an American monthly magazine that focuses on music, politics, and popular culture. It was founded in San Francisco, California, in 1967 by Jann Wenner, and the music critic Ralph J. Gleason. It was first known for its c ...
.'' A
multi-instrumentalist A multi-instrumentalist is a musician who plays two or more musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrumen ...
, he uses instruments including bass guitar, piano, viola, and drums, and is a prominent player of the
ondes Martenot The ondes Martenot ( ; , "Martenot waves") or ondes musicales ("musical waves") is an early electronic musical instrument An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronics, electronic circuitry. Such ...
, an early electronic instrument. He uses electronic techniques such as programming,
sampling Sampling may refer to: *Sampling (signal processing), converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal *Sample (graphics), Sampling (graphics), converting continuous colors into discrete color components *Sampling (music), the reuse of a sound ...
and looping, and writes music software used by Radiohead. He described his role in the band as an
arranger In music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the s ...

arranger
, helping to transform
Thom Yorke's
Thom Yorke's
demos into finished songs. Radiohead albums feature Greenwood's string and brass arrangements, and he has composed for orchestras including the
London Contemporary Orchestra The London Contemporary Orchestra (LCO), founded in 2008 by Hugh Brunt and Robert Ames, is an ensemble of young musicians whose stated aim is "to explore and promote new music to an increasingly wide audience". LCO staged its inaugural season at ...
and the
BBC Concert OrchestraThe BBC Concert Orchestra is a British orchestra based in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south ...
. His first solo work, the soundtrack for the film ''
Bodysong ''Bodysong'' is a 2003 BAFTA The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA, ) is an independent charity that supports, develops, and promotes the art forms of the moving image (film, television and games) in the United Kingdom. ...
,'' was released in 2003. In 2007, he scored ''
There Will Be Blood ''There Will Be Blood'' is a 2007 American epic period drama film written and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson, loosely based on the 1927 novel '' Oil!'' by Upton Sinclair. It stars Daniel Day-Lewis as Daniel Plainview, a silver miner-turned- ...
'', the first of several collaborations with director
Paul Thomas Anderson Paul Thomas Anderson (born June 26, 1970) is an American film director, producer and screenwriter. He developed an interest in filmmaking from a young age. He made his feature-film debut with '' Hard Eight'' (1996). He found critical and commerci ...
; in 2018, he was nominated for an
Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., f ...
for his score for Anderson's ''
Phantom Thread ''Phantom Thread'' is a 2017 American historical drama film written and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson, and starring Daniel Day-Lewis Sir Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis (born 29 April 1957) is a retired English actor with dual British an ...
''. Greenwood's other scores include two collaborations with director Lynne Ramsay. He has collaborated several times with the Israeli composer Shye Ben Tzur, including on the 2015 album ''Junun (album), Junun''. In 2021, Greenwood debuted a new band, the The Smile (band), Smile, with Yorke and drummer Sons of Kemet, Tom Skinner.


Early life

Jonny Greenwood was born on 5 November 1971 in
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Ki ...

Oxford
, England. His brother, Radiohead bassist Colin Greenwood, is two years older. His father served in the army as a Bomb disposal, bomb-disposal expert. When he was a child, Greenwood's family would listen to a small number of cassettes in their car, including Horn Concertos (Mozart), Mozart's horn concertos, the musicals ''Flower Drum Song'' and ''My Fair Lady'', and cover versions of Simon and Garfunkel songs. When the cassettes were not playing, Greenwood would listen to the noise of the engine and try to recall every detail of the music. He credited his older siblings with exposing him to rock bands such as the The Beat (British band), Beat and New Order (band), New Order. The first gig Greenwood attended was the The Fall (band), Fall on their 1988 The Frenz Experiment, ''Frenz Experiment'' tour, which he found "overwhelming". Greenwood's first instrument was a Recorder (musical instrument), recorder given to him at age four or five. He took the instrument seriously, playing it into adulthood, and played baroque music in recorder groups as a teenager. He also learnt the viola and joined the Thames Vale youth orchestra, which he described as a formative experience: "I'd been in school orchestras and never seen the point. But in Thames Vale I was suddenly with all these 18-year-olds who could actually play in tune. I remember thinking: 'Ah, that's what an orchestra is supposed to sound like!'" Greenwood spent time as a child computer programming, programming computers, experimenting with BASIC and simple machine code to build "rubbishy computer games". According to Greenwood, "the closer I got to the bare bones of the computer, the more exciting I found it". The Greenwood brothers attended the independent boys' school Abingdon School, Abingdon, where they formed a band, On a Friday, with singer Thom Yorke, guitarist Ed O'Brien, and drummer Philip Selway. Jonny had previously been in a band called Illiterate Hands with Matt Hawksworth, Simon Newton, Ben Kendrick, Nigel Powell and Yorke's brother Andy Yorke. The youngest member of On a Friday, Greenwood was two school years below Yorke and Colin and the last to join. He first played harmonica and then keyboards, but soon became
lead guitar Lead guitar, also known as solo guitar, is a musical part for a guitar in which the guitarist plays melody lines, fill (music), instrumental fill passages, guitar solos, and occasionally, some riffs within a song structure. The lead is the feature ...
ist. Greenwood studied music at GCE Advanced Level, A Level, when he studied chorale harmonisation.


Career


Radiohead

In 1991, Greenwood was three weeks into a degree in music and psychology at Oxford Brookes University, Oxford Polytechnic when On a Friday signed a recording contract with EMI. He dropped out of university and On a Friday changed their name to Radiohead. The band found early success with their 1992 single " Creep". According to ''Rolling Stone'', "It was Greenwood's gnashing noise blasts that marked Radiohead as more than just another mopey band ... an early indicator of his crucial role in pushing his band forward." Greenwood wrote his first Radiohead string part for the Thirty-two-bar form, middle eight of "My Iron Lung", which appeared on their second album, ''The Bends (album), The Bends'' (1995). Radiohead's third album, ''OK Computer'' (1997), achieved acclaim, showcasing Greenwood's lead guitar work on songs such as "Paranoid Android". For the track "Climbing up the Walls", Greenwood wrote a part for 16 stringed instruments playing quarter tones apart, inspired by the Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki. Radiohead's fourth and fifth albums, ''Kid A'' (2000) and ''Amnesiac (album), Amnesiac'' (2001)'','' recorded simultaneously, marked a dramatic change in sound, incorporating influences from Electronic music, electronica, classical music, jazz and krautrock. Greenwood employed a Modular synthesizer, modular synthesiser to build the drum machine rhythm of "Idioteque", and played
ondes Martenot The ondes Martenot ( ; , "Martenot waves") or ondes musicales ("musical waves") is an early electronic musical instrument An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronics, electronic circuitry. Such ...
, an early electronic instrument similar to a theremin, on several tracks. He composed a string arrangement for the track "How to Disappear Completely" by Multitrack recording, multitracking his ondes Martenot playing. According to longtime Radiohead producer Nigel Godrich, when the string players saw Greenwood's score "they all just sort of burst into giggles, because they couldn't do what he'd written, because it was impossible—or impossible for them, anyway". The orchestra leader John Lubbock (conductor), John Lubbock encouraged the musicians to experiment and work with Greenwood's "naive" ideas. At the 2005 Ether Festival, Greenwood and Yorke performed "Arpeggi" with the London Sinfonietta orchestra and the Arab Orchestra of Nazareth. The song was released in a different arrangement on Radiohead's seventh album, ''In Rainbows'' (2007), retitled "Weird Fishes/Arpeggi". Radiohead's eighth album, ''The King of Limbs'' (2011), was recorded using sampler software written by Greenwood. ''A Moon Shaped Pool'', released in May 2016, features strings and Choir, choral vocals arranged by Greenwood and performed by the
London Contemporary Orchestra The London Contemporary Orchestra (LCO), founded in 2008 by Hugh Brunt and Robert Ames, is an ensemble of young musicians whose stated aim is "to explore and promote new music to an increasingly wide audience". LCO staged its inaugural season at ...
. Radiohead had sold more than 30 million albums worldwide by 2011.Jonathan, Emma
"BBC Worldwide takes exclusive Radiohead performance to the world"
. BBC. 3 May 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
They were inducted into the
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (RRHOF), sometimes simply referred to as the Rock Hall, is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for (conserves) a ...

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
in March 2019.


Soundtracks and solo work

In 2003, Greenwood released his first solo work, Bodysong (album), the soundtrack for the documentary film ''
Bodysong ''Bodysong'' is a 2003 BAFTA The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA, ) is an independent charity that supports, develops, and promotes the art forms of the moving image (film, television and games) in the United Kingdom. ...
''. It incorporates guitar, jazz, and classical music. Greenwood's first work for orchestra, ''Smear'', was premiered by the London Sinfonietta in March 2004. In May, Greenwood was appointed composer-in-residence to the
BBC Concert OrchestraThe BBC Concert Orchestra is a British orchestra based in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south ...
, for whom he wrote "Popcorn Superhet Receiver" (2005), which won the BBC Radio 3, Radio 3 Listeners' Award at the 2006 BBC British Composer Awards. The piece was inspired by radio static and the elaborate, dissonant tone clusters of Penderecki's ''Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima ''(1960). Greenwood wrote the piece by recording individual tones on viola, then manipulating and overdubbing them in Pro Tools. As part of his prize Greenwood received £10,000 from the PRS Foundation towards a commission for a new orchestral work. Greenwood composed There Will Be Blood (soundtrack), the score for the 2007 film ''
There Will Be Blood ''There Will Be Blood'' is a 2007 American epic period drama film written and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson, loosely based on the 1927 novel '' Oil!'' by Upton Sinclair. It stars Daniel Day-Lewis as Daniel Plainview, a silver miner-turned- ...
'' by director
Paul Thomas Anderson Paul Thomas Anderson (born June 26, 1970) is an American film director, producer and screenwriter. He developed an interest in filmmaking from a young age. He made his feature-film debut with '' Hard Eight'' (1996). He found critical and commerci ...
. The soundtrack won an award at the Critics' Choice Awards and the Best Film Score trophy in the Evening Standard British Film Awards for 2007. As it contains excerpts from "Popcorn Superhet Receiver", an earlier piece, it was ineligible for an Academy Award. ''
Rolling Stone ''Rolling Stone'' is an American monthly magazine that focuses on music, politics, and popular culture. It was founded in San Francisco, California, in 1967 by Jann Wenner, and the music critic Ralph J. Gleason. It was first known for its c ...
'' named ''There Will Be Blood'' the best film of the decade and described the score as "a sonic explosion that reinvented what film music could be". In 2016, film composer Hans Zimmer said the score was the one that had most "stood out to him" in the past decade, describing it as "recklessly, crazily beautiful".Greenwood curated a compilation album of reggae tracks, ''Jonny Greenwood Is the Controller,'' released by Trojan Records in March 2007. The album features mostly 70s Roots reggae, roots and dub tracks from artists including Lee "Scratch" Perry, Joe Gibbs (producer), Joe Gibbs, and Linval Thompson; the title references Thompson's track "Dread Are the Controller". In 2008, Greenwood wrote the title music for Adam Buxton's sketch show pilot ''Meebox''. In February 2010, he debuted a new composition, "Doghouse", at the BBC's Maida Vale Studios. Greenwood wrote the piece in hotels and dressing rooms while on tour with Radiohead. He expanded "Doghouse" into the score for the Japanese film ''Norwegian Wood (film), Norwegian Wood'', released later that year. In 2011, Greenwood scored ''We Need to Talk About Kevin (film), We Need to Talk About Kevin,'' directed by Lynne Ramsay, using instruments including a wire-strung harp. In 2012, he worked with Anderson again, composing the score for ''The Master (2012 film), The Master''. On 13 March 2012, Greenwood and Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki, one of Greenwood's greatest influences, released an album comprising Penderecki's 1960s compositions ''Polymorphia'' ''and Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima, Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima,'' Greenwood's "Popcorn Superhet Receiver", and a new work by Greenwood, "48 Responses to ''Polymorphia''". In 2012, Greenwood accepted a three-month residency with the Australian Chamber Orchestra in Sydney and composed a new piece, "Water". Greenwood, Yorke, and other artists contributed music to ''The UK Gold'', a 2013 documentary about tax avoidance in the UK. The soundtrack was released free in February 2015 through the online audio platform SoundCloud. Greenwood collaborated with Anderson again on the soundtrack for the film ''Inherent Vice (film), Inherent Vice'' (2014); it features a new version of an unreleased Radiohead song, "Spooks", performed by Greenwood and two members of Supergrass. In 2014, Greenwood performed with the
London Contemporary Orchestra The London Contemporary Orchestra (LCO), founded in 2008 by Hugh Brunt and Robert Ames, is an ensemble of young musicians whose stated aim is "to explore and promote new music to an increasingly wide audience". LCO staged its inaugural season at ...
, performing selections from his soundtracks alongside new compositions. Greenwood wrote Phantom Thread (soundtrack), the score for another of Anderson's films, ''
Phantom Thread ''Phantom Thread'' is a 2017 American historical drama film written and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson, and starring Daniel Day-Lewis Sir Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis (born 29 April 1957) is a retired English actor with dual British an ...
'', in 2017; it was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Score and earned Greenwood his sixth Ivor Novello Awards, Ivor Novello award. In the same year, he reunited with Ramsay to score her film ''You Were Never Really Here.'' At the 2019 The Proms, Proms, Greenwood debuted his composition "Horror vacui" for solo violin and 68 string instruments. For the soundtrack for ''The Power of the Dog (film), The Power of the Dog'' (2021), Greenwood played the cello in the style of a banjo and recorded a piece for player piano piece controlled with the software Max (software), Max. For'' Spencer (film), Spencer'' (2021), he combined Baroque music, Baroque and jazz music, creating a conflict between the "rigid" and "colorful" styles. Greenwood also contributed cues to Anderson's 2021 film ''Licorice Pizza''.


Collaborations

Greenwood played harmonica on Blind Mr. Jones's 1992 single "Crazy Jazz". For the 1998 film ''Velvet Goldmine'', he formed Venus in Furs with Yorke, Suede (band), Suede's Bernard Butler, and Roxy Music's Andy Mackay and recorded covers of the Roxy Music songs "2HB", "Ladytron (song), Ladytron" and "Bitter-Sweet". Greenwood played harmonica on the tracks "Platform Blues" and "Billie" on Pavement (band), Pavement's final album, ''Terror Twilight'' (1999), produced by Radiohead producer Nigel Godrich. He played guitar on Bryan Ferry, Bryan Ferry's albums ''Frantic (album), Frantic'' (2002) and ''Olympia (Bryan Ferry album), Olympia'' (2010)''.'' In 2004, he and Yorke contributed to the Band Aid 20 single "Do They Know It's Christmas?", produced by Godrich. For the 2005 film Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (film), ''Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire'', Greenwood appeared as part of the wizard rock band The Weird Sisters (Harry Potter), Weird Sisters with Radiohead drummer Philip Selway, former Pulp (band), Pulp members Jarvis Cocker and Steve Mackey, electronica artist Jason Buckle and Add N to (X) member Steven Claydon. In 2008, Greenwood collaborated with Israeli rock musician Dudu Tasa on the Hebrew-language single "What a Day". In 2011, he and Yorke collaborated with rapper MF Doom on the track "Retarded Fren".


Shye Ben Tzur and Junun

In 2014, Greenwood performed with Israeli composer Shye Ben Tzur and his band. Greenwood described Tzur's music as "quite celebratory, more like gospel music than anything—except that it's all done to a backing of Indian Pump organ, harmoniums and percussion". He said he would be playing a "supportive role", rather than "soloistic". In 2015, Greenwood, Tzur and Godrich recorded an album, ''Junun (album), Junun'', with Indian musicians at Mehrangarh Fort in Rajasthan, India. The sessions were filmed by Paul Thomas Anderson for his Junun (film), ''Junun'' documentary, which premièred at the 2015 New York Film Festival. The group supported Radiohead's 2018 ''A Moon Shaped Pool, Moon Shaped Pool'' tour, performing under the name Junun. In 2016, Greenwood contributed string orchestration to Frank Ocean, Frank Ocean's albums ''Endless (Frank Ocean album), Endless'' and ''Blonde (Frank Ocean album), Blonde''.


The Smile

In 2021, Greenwood debuted a new band, the Smile, with Yorke and jazz drummer Tom Skinner (drummer), Tom Skinner. Godrich is also involved. They made their surprise debut in a performance streamed by Glastonbury Festival on May 22, with Greenwood playing guitar and bass. ''The Guardian, Guardian'' critic Alexis Petridis said the Smile "sound like a simultaneously more skeletal and knottier version of Radiohead", exploring more progressive rock influences with unusual time signatures, complex riffs and "hard-driving" motorik psychedelia. In September 2021, Greenwood said the Smile were in the process of finishing an album.


Octatonic Records

In September 2019, Greenwood launched a record label, Octatonic Records, to release contemporary classical music by soloists and small groups. He started the label to record the musicians he had met as a film composer. In 2021, he expressed uncertainty about releasing further records through Octatonic, as the two they had released "seemed to not really connect with anybody".


Musicianship

Greenwood is a
multi-instrumentalist A multi-instrumentalist is a musician who plays two or more musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrumen ...
and plays instruments including guitar, piano, synthesiser, viola, glockenspiel, harmonica, recorder, organ, and banjo. He said in 2014: "I'm always happiest trying new instruments – and honestly enjoy playing, say, the glockenspiel with Radiohead as much as I do the guitar ... I enjoy struggling with instruments I can't really play."


Guitar

Greenwood is Radiohead's Lead guitar, lead guitarist. He is known for his aggressive playing style; in the 1990s, he developed Repetitive strain injury, repetitive stress injury, necessitating a brace on his right arm, which he likened to "taping up your fingers before a boxing match". He often uses Effects unit, effect pedals, such as the Marshall ShredMaster distortion pedal used on many 90s Radiohead songs. For the "My Iron Lung" riff, he uses a DigiTech Whammy pedal to Pitch shift, pitch-shift his guitar by two octaves, creating a "glitchy, lo-fi" sound. He sometimes Bowed guitar, plays with a violin bow. Greenwood has long used a rewired Fender Telecaster Plus with Lace Sensor pickups. His other guitars include a mid-seventies Fender Starcaster and a Gibson Les Paul. He said he dislikes the reputation of guitars as something to be "admired or worshipped", and sees them as a tool like a typewriter or a vacuum cleaner. In 2010, ''NME'' named Greenwood one of the greatest living guitarists. He was voted the seventh greatest guitarist of all time in a poll of more than 30,000 BBC Radio 6 Music listeners. In 2011, ''
Rolling Stone ''Rolling Stone'' is an American monthly magazine that focuses on music, politics, and popular culture. It was founded in San Francisco, California, in 1967 by Jann Wenner, and the music critic Ralph J. Gleason. It was first known for its c ...
'' ranked him the 48th greatest guitarist of all time, and in 2012 ''Spin (magazine), Spin'' ranked him the 29th. In 2008, Greenwood's guitar solo in "Paranoid Android" was named the 34th best guitar solo by ''Guitar World.'' His solos in "Paranoid Android", "Just (song), Just" and "The Bends (song), The Bends" appeared in ''NME'''s 2012 list of the best guitar solos.


Ondes Martenot

Greenwood is a prominent player of the
ondes Martenot The ondes Martenot ( ; , "Martenot waves") or ondes musicales ("musical waves") is an early electronic musical instrument An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronics, electronic circuitry. Such ...
, an early electronic instrument played by moving a ring along a wire, creating sounds similar to a theremin. He is credited with bringing the ondes to a larger audience. He first used it on Radiohead's 2000 album ''Kid A,'' and it appears in Radiohead songs including "The National Anthem (Radiohead song), The National Anthem", "How to Disappear Completely" and "Where I End and You Begin". Greenwood became interested in the ondes Martenot at the age of 15 after hearing Olivier Messiaen, Olivier Messiaen's Turangalîla-Symphonie, ''Turangalîla Symphony''. He said he was partly attracted to the instrument as he cannot sing: "I've always wanted to be able to play an instrument that was like singing, and there's nothing closer." As production of the ondes Martenot ceased in 1988, Greenwood had a replica created to take on tour with Radiohead in 2001 for fear of damaging his original model.


Other instruments

Greenwood created the rhythm for "Idioteque" (from ''Kid A'') with a Modular synthesizer, modular synthesiser and Sampling (music), sampled the song's four-chord synthesiser phrase from a computer music piece by Paul Lansky. He uses a Kaoss Pad to manipulate Yorke's vocals during performances of "Everything in Its Right Place, Everything in its Right Place". In 2014, Greenwood wrote of his fascination with Indian instruments, particularly the tanpura: "Supposedly they're just Drone (music), drones to accompany singers but in fact they produce a compellingly complex wall of sound, with layer upon layer of drifting harmonics. I've started using some of these instruments in my music because I can't think of any other way, electronics included, of making such sounds." Greenwood has also used a "home-made sound machine", comprising small hammers striking objects including yoghurt cartons, tubs, bells, and tambourines. He has used Found object, found sounds, using a television and a transistor radio on "Climbing Up the Walls" (from ''OK Computer'') and "The National Anthem (Radiohead song), The National Anthem" (from ''Kid A'').


Software

At the suggestion of Radiohead producer Nigel Godrich, Greenwood began using the music programming language Max (software), Max. He said: "I got to reconnect properly with computers… I didn't have to use someone else's idea of what a delay, or a reverb, or a sequencer should do, or should sound like—I could start from the ground, and think in terms of sound and maths. It was like coming off the rails." Examples of Greenwood's use of Max include the processed piano on the ''Moon Shaped Pool'' track "Glass Eyes" and his signature "stutter" guitar effect used on tracks such as the 2003 single "Go to Sleep". He also used Max to write sampling software used to create Radiohead's eighth album, ''The King of Limbs''.


Songwriting

Greenwood's major writing contributions to Radiohead include "Just" (which Yorke described as "a competition by me and Jonny to get as many chords as possible into a song"); "My Iron Lung", co-written with Yorke, from ''The Bends (album), The Bends'' (1995); "The Tourist" and the "rain down" bridge of "Paranoid Android" from ''OK Computer'' (1997); the vocal melody of "Kid A" from ''Kid A'' (2000); and the guitar melody of "A Wolf At The Door" from ''Hail To The Thief'' (2003), whose "sweet" quality inspired Yorke to sing the song's "angry" lyrics. Promotional interview CD sent to British music press. The ''New York Times'' described Greenwood as "the guy who can take an abstract Thom Yorke notion and master the tools required to execute it in the real world". He described his role as
arranger In music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the s ...

arranger
:
It's not really about can I do my guitar part now, it's more ... what will serve this song best? How do we not mess up this really good song? Part of the problem is Thom will sit at the piano and play a song like "Pyramid Song" and we're going to record it and how do we not make it worse, how do we make it better than him just playing it by himself, which is already usually quite great.
For his film soundtracks, Greenwood attempts to keep the instrumentation contemporary to the period of the story; for example, he recorded the ''Norwegian Wood'' soundtrack using a 1960s Japanese Nylon-string guitar, nylon-strung guitar and recorded it with period home recording equipment, attempting to create a recording that one of the characters might have made. Many of Greenwood's compositions are Microtonal music, microtonal. He often uses modes of limited Transposition (music), transposition, particularly the octatonic scale, saying: "I like to know what I ''can’t'' do and then work inside that."


Influences

Greenwood has cited influences from genres including jazz, classical, rock, reggae, hip-hop, and electronic music. His jazz favourites include Lee Morgan, Alice Coltrane and Miles Davis. Along with the other members of Radiohead, he admires Scott Walker (singer), Scott Walker, Krautrock band Can (band), Can, and Sonic Youth. Greenwood first heard Olivier Messiaen, Olivier Messiaen's Turangalîla-Symphonie, Turangalîla Symphony at the age of 15 and became "round-the-bend-obsessed with it". Messiaen was Greenwood's "first connection" to classical music, and remains an influence; he said: "He was still alive when I was 15, and for whatever reason I felt I could equate him with my other favourite bands – there was no big posthumous reputation to put me off. So I'm still very fond of writing things in the same modes of limited Transposition (music), transposition that he used." He is an admirer of Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki, and cited a concert of Penderecki's music in the early 90s as a "conversion experience". He is also a fan of György Ligeti, Henri Dutilleux, and Steve Reich. Having performed Reich's composition ''Electric Counterpoint'' on guitar, he recorded a version for Reich's 2014 album ''Radio Rewrite.'' Greenwood is a fan of the 80s post-punk band Magazine (band), Magazine. He declined an offer to fill in for guitarist John McGeoch, who died in 2004, during the band's 2009 reunion tour. According to Radiohead collaborator Adam Buxton, "I think Jonny was just overwhelmed, cause he's the biggest Magazine fan in the world. He was just too shy, I think. I'm sure he's got all those licks in his locker."


Personal life

Greenwood is married to Israeli visual artist Sharona Katan, whom he met in 1993 when Radiohead performed in Israel. Her work (credited as Shin Katan) appears on the covers of Greenwood's soundtracks for ''Bodysong,'' ''There Will'' ''Be Blood'', ''Norwegian Wood'', ''The Master'', ''Inherent Vice'', and ''Phantom Thread''. Their first son, Tamir, was born in 2002; Radiohead's 2003 album ''Hail to the Thief'' was dedicated to him. Their daughter, Omri, was born in 2005, and a second son, Zohar, was born in February 2008. Katan said she considers their family Jewish: "Our kids are raised as Jews, we have a mezuzah in our house, we sometimes have Shabbat, Shabbos dinners, we celebrate Jewish holidays. The kids don’t eat pork. It’s important to me to keep this stuff." In February 2021 Greenwood appeared in BBC Radio 4's ''Saturday Live (radio series), Saturday Live'' where his selected "Inheritance Tracks" were "The Correct Use of Soap, Sweetheart Contract" by Magazine (band), Magazine and "Oscar Peterson Trio + One, Brotherhood of Man" by Oscar Peterson and Clark Terry. Greenwood is red-green color blindness, red-green colour blind.


Discography


Studio albums


Soundtrack albums


Compilation albums


Extended plays


Appearances

* 2009 – Dudu Tassa – "Eize Yom" * 2016 – Frank Ocean, Endless (Frank Ocean album), ''Endless'' – string arrangement * 2016 – Frank Ocean, ''Blonde (Frank Ocean album), Blonde'' – string arrangement * 2021 – ''Licorice Pizza, Licorice Pizza (Official Motion Picture Soundtrack)'' – "Licorice Pizza"


Concert works

*2004 – ''smear'' for two ondes Martenots and chamber ensemble of nine players *2004 – ''Piano for Children'' for piano and orchestra (withdrawn) *2005 – ''Popcorn Superhet Receiver'' for string orchestra *2007 – ''
There Will Be Blood ''There Will Be Blood'' is a 2007 American epic period drama film written and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson, loosely based on the 1927 novel '' Oil!'' by Upton Sinclair. It stars Daniel Day-Lewis as Daniel Plainview, a silver miner-turned- ...
'' live film version *2010 – ''Doghouse'' for string trio and orchestra *2011 – ''Suite from 'Noruwei no Mori' (Norwegian Wood (film), Norwegian Wood)'' for orchestra *2011 – ''48 Responses to Polymorphia'' for 48 solo strings, all doubling optional pacay bean shakers *2012 – ''Suite from 'There Will Be Blood for string orchestra *2014 – ''Water'' for two flutes, upright piano, chamber organ, two tanpura & string orchestra *2015 – ''88 (No 1)'' for solo piano *2018 – ''Three Miniatures from 'Water for violin, piano, 2 tampuras, and cello/bass drone *2019 – ''Horror vacui'' for solo violin and 68 strings


Awards and nominations


See also

* List of Old Abingdonians


References


Notes


Citations


External links

* *
StringsReunited.com
a website by Plank, the guitar technician for Radiohead
Greenwood's composer page on the Faber Music website
{{DEFAULTSORT:Greenwood, Jonny 1971 births Alternative rock pianists English composers English rock guitarists English male guitarists English rock keyboardists Alternative rock guitarists English multi-instrumentalists Grammy Award winners Ivor Novello Award winners Lead guitarists Living people Nonesuch Records artists People educated at Abingdon School Ondists People from Oxford Radiohead members British male pianists The Smile (band) members