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Jewish
Jewish
Christians, also Hebrew Christians
Christians
or Judeo-Christians, were the original members of the Jewish
Jewish
movement that later became Christianity.[1] In the earliest stage the community was made up of all those Jews
Jews
who accepted Jesus
Jesus
as a venerable person or the Messiah (Christ). As Christianity
Christianity
grew and developed, Jewish
Jewish
Christians
Christians
became only one strand of the early Christian
Christian
community, characterised by combining the confession of Jesus
Jesus
as Christ with continued adherence to Jewish
Jewish
traditions such as Sabbath observance, observance of the Jewish
Jewish
calendar, observance of Jewish
Jewish
laws and customs, circumcision, and synagogue attendance, and by a direct genetic relationship to the earliest Jewish
Jewish
Christians.[1] The term " Jewish
Jewish
Christian" appears in historical texts contrasting Christians
Christians
of Jewish
Jewish
origin with Gentile Christians, both in discussion of the New Testament
New Testament
church[2][3] and the second and following centuries.[4] It is also a term used for Jews
Jews
who converted to Christianity
Christianity
but kept their Jewish
Jewish
heritage and traditions. 1st century " Jewish
Jewish
Christians" were faithful religious Jews. They differed from other contemporary Jews
Jews
only in their acceptance of Jesus
Jesus
as the Messiah.[5] Those that taught that Gentile converts to Christianity
Christianity
ought to adopt more Jewish
Jewish
practices than the Church had already included, however, were called "Judaizers".[6] Though the Apostle Peter
Apostle Peter
was initially sympathetic, the Apostle Paul
Apostle Paul
opposed the teaching at the Incident at Antioch
Incident at Antioch
(Gal. 2:11-21) and at the Council of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
( Acts
Acts
15:6-35), where Paul's teaching was accepted by the whole Church.[6] Nevertheless, Judaizing continued to be encouraged for several centuries, particularly by Jewish
Jewish
Christians.[6] As Christianity
Christianity
grew throughout the Gentile world, Christians
Christians
diverged from their Jewish
Jewish
and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
roots.[7][8] Jewish
Jewish
Christianity, initially strengthened despite persecution by Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Temple officials,[citation needed] fell into decline during the Jewish-Roman wars (66-135) and the growing anti-Judaism perhaps best personified by Marcion
Marcion
(c. 150). With persecution by the orthodox Christians
Christians
from the time of the Roman Emperor Constantine in the 4th century, Jewish Christians
Christians
sought refuge outside the boundaries of the Empire, in Arabia and further afield.[9] Within the Empire and later elsewhere it was dominated by the Gentile based Christianity
Christianity
which became the State church of the Roman Empire and which took control of sites in the Holy Land such as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
and the Cenacle
Cenacle
and appointed subsequent Bishops of Jerusalem.

Contents

1 Related terms 2 Split of early Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism 3 The Council of Jerusalem
Council of Jerusalem
and other developments

3.1 Circumcision controversy

4 Communities whose origins reflect both Judaism and early Christianity

4.1 Role of Hellenistic Judaism 4.2 Surviving Byzantine
Byzantine
and 'Syriac' communities in the Middle East

5 Contemporary movements 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Related terms[edit]

Hebrew Christians
Christians
— a 19th-century movement of Jewish
Jewish
converts to Christianity
Christianity
acting semi-autonomously within the Anglican and other established churches.[10] though it is also used in some texts concerning the early church,[11] and Arnold Fruchtenbaum applied the term to Jewish
Jewish
Christians
Christians
standing aside from the Messianic Judaism movement.[12] Hebrew Roots — A religious movement that embraces both Old and New Testaments but without the observance of the Jewish
Jewish
Talmud and many Jewish
Jewish
traditions not supported by Scripture. Christian
Christian
Jews
Jews
— a modern term which is frequently encountered in texts dealing with sociology and demographics.[13] Judaizers
Judaizers
— Early Christians
Christians
who maintained or adopted Jewish religious practices, from the period of the inception of Christianity until approximately the fifth century.[14] Judean Christians
Christians
Christians
Christians
from Judea
Judea
who were predominantly Jewish.[15][16]

Split of early Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism[edit] See also: Split of early Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism Jesus
Jesus
was a Jew, and his renewal movement was Jewish. He preached in the Jewish
Jewish
countryside, not the Hellenistic cities. After his execution, his followers claimed to have seen him alive, and formed a community to wait for his return, although the interpretation of these events is disputed by historians. Later, this community split from Judaism and became the Christian
Christian
church. The Gospels represent a time when Christian
Christian
theology was not fully formed and the separation from Judaism was not yet complete.[17] The Council of Jerusalem
Council of Jerusalem
and other developments[edit] See also: Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
and Judaism and Council of Jerusalem It has been argued that this Jewish
Jewish
Christian
Christian
sect (3,000 +) was in danger of being wiped out[18] as they were being persecuted. The Acts of the Apostles
Apostles
depicts instances of early Christian
Christian
persecution by the Sanhedrin, the Jewish
Jewish
religious court at the time,[19] however the historical reliability of the Acts
Acts
of the Apostles
Apostles
is disputed. Peter and John were imprisoned by a " Jewish
Jewish
leadership" ("the priests, the captain of the temple, and the Sadducees") who were "much annoyed because they were teaching the people and proclaiming that in Jesus there is the resurrection of the dead".[20] The Sadducees
Sadducees
in particular rejected the Pharisaic doctrine of the resurrection of the dead. Saint Stephen
Saint Stephen
was tried by a Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
( Jewish
Jewish
Supreme Court) for blasphemy against Moses
Moses
and God[21] and was stoned to death, under the watch of Paul of Tarsus, before his conversion. A further blow to this Jewish
Jewish
sect was the death of their second leader (their first leader Jesus
Jesus
having been crucified c.30). According to Josephus, "the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James" met his death after the death of the procurator Porcius Festus, yet before Lucceius Albinus took office[22] — which has thus been dated to 62. The High Priest
Priest
Ananus ben Ananus
Ananus ben Ananus
took advantage of this lack of imperial oversight to assemble a Sanhedrin who condemned James "on the charge of breaking the law," then had him executed by stoning. Josephus
Josephus
reports that Ananus' act was widely viewed as little more than judicial murder, and offended a number of "those who were considered the most fair-minded people in the City".[23] Three events would greatly affect the fortunes of early Jewish Christianity. The first was the Conversion of Paul
Conversion of Paul
in the early 30's (and the possible conversion of his teacher Gamaliel), the second was the Council of Jerusalem
Council of Jerusalem
c.50, and the third was the Destruction of the Second Temple
Second Temple
in 70 AD, which according to Josephus
Josephus
was one of the most significant events of the First Jewish–Roman War. Nonetheless, according to the Church History of Eusebius,[24] the line of Jewish Christian
Christian
bishops of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
continued until the Bar Kokhba revolt (132-136) when Hadrian
Hadrian
renamed the city "Aelia Capitolina" and barred all Jews
Jews
except for the day of Tisha B'Av. After that, the Jerusalem bishops were uncircumcised Greeks. The Cenacle
Cenacle
as it exists today is a Gothic reconstruction, but it may be the location of the original Jewish
Jewish
Christian
Christian
church. Heinrich Graetz
Heinrich Graetz
postulated a Council of Jamnia
Council of Jamnia
in 90 that excluded Christians
Christians
from the synagogues, but this is disputed. Jewish Christians
Christians
continued to worship in synagogues for centuries.[25][26][27] According to Acts
Acts
15,[28] the Council of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
c.50, customarily believed to have been led by James the brother of Jesus, determined that religious male circumcision (associated but also debated with conversion to Judaism) should not be required of Gentile followers of Jesus, only basic abstentions: avoidance of "pollution of idols, fornication, things strangled, and blood" (KJV, Acts
Acts
15:20, also Genesis 11:1-8 (idolatry), 9:20 (sexual depravity), 9:5 (cruelty to animals), 9:3-4 (abstention from blood)). The basis for these prohibitions is not detailed in Acts
Acts
15:21, which states only: "For Moses
Moses
of old time hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every sabbath day", stressing that they are Mosaic Commandments which Gentiles must pay attention to. Many, beginning with Augustine of Hippo[29] consider the consensus emphasised the four stipulations based on the Noahide Laws
Noahide Laws
stated in Genesis, and applicable to all people (Noah's descendants after the Flood). On the other hand, some modern scholars[30] reject the connection to Noahide Law (Genesis 9) and instead see Lev 17-18 (see also Leviticus 18) as the basis. Some modern Christians[who?] are also unclear as to whether this meant that this Apostolic Decree in some way still applies to them or merely that the requirements were imposed to facilitate common participation by Gentiles in the community of Jesus' followers (which at that time included Jewish
Jewish
Christians), so as to remind the Jewish
Jewish
followers of Jesus
Jesus
to uphold those Laws applicable to them (i.e. the full Mosaic Laws). According to Karl Josef von Hefele, this Apostolic Decree is still observed today by the Eastern Orthodox.[31] See also Biblical law in Christianity, Expounding of the Law, and Noahidism. Some early Jewish
Jewish
Christians
Christians
believed non- Jews
Jews
must become Jews
Jews
and adopt Jewish
Jewish
customs. Paul criticized Peter for himself abandoning these customs, and therefore presenting a poor example to non-Jews joining the Christians.[32] Paul's close coworker Barnabas
Barnabas
sided with Peter in this dispute.[33][34] Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia: Judaizers: The Incident at Antioch[35] claims: "St. Paul's account of the incident leaves no doubt that St. Peter saw the justice of the rebuke." however, L. Michael White's From Jesus
Jesus
to Christianity[36] claims: "The blowup with Peter was a total failure of political bravado, and Paul soon left Antioch
Antioch
as persona non grata, never again to return." See also Incident at Antioch
Incident at Antioch
and Pauline Christianity. Scholar James D. G. Dunn, who coined the phrase "New Perspective on Paul", has proposed that Peter was the "bridge-man" (i.e., the pontifex maximus) between the two other "prominent leading figures" of early Christianity: Paul and James the brother of Jesus.[37] Marcion
Marcion
in the 2nd century, called the "most dangerous" heretic, rejected the Twelve Apostles, and interpreted a Jesus
Jesus
who rejected the Law of Moses
Moses
using 10 Pauline Epistles
Pauline Epistles
and the Gospel of Luke. For example, his version of Luke 23:2:[38] "We found this fellow [Jesus] perverting the nation and destroying the law and the prophets". Irenaeus
Irenaeus
in turn rejected Marcion
Marcion
and praised the Twelve Apostles
Apostles
in his Against Heresies 3.12.12:[39]

"...being brought over to the doctrine of Simon Magus, they have apostatized in their opinions from Him who is God, and imagined that they have themselves discovered more than the apostles, by finding out another god; and [maintained] that the apostles preached the Gospel still somewhat under the influence of Jewish
Jewish
opinions, but that they themselves are purer [in doctrine], and more intelligent, than the apostles."

The Cenacle
Cenacle
on Mount Zion, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost. Bargil Pixner[40] claims the original Church of the Apostles
Apostles
is located under the current structure.

According to Eusebius' History of the Church 4.5.3–4: the first 15 Bishops of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
were "of the circumcision". The Romans destroyed the Jewish
Jewish
leadership in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in year 135 during the Bar Kokhba Revolt.[41] However, that does not necessarily mean an end to Jewish Christianity, any more than Valerian's Massacre of 258, (when he killed all Christian
Christian
bishops, presbyters, and deacons, including Pope Sixtus II and Antipope Novatian
Antipope Novatian
and Cyprian of Carthage), meant an end to Roman Christianity. Traditionally it is believed the Jerusalem Christians
Christians
waited out the Jewish–Roman wars
Jewish–Roman wars
in Pella in the Decapolis
Decapolis
(see flight to Pella)[42]. After the Jewish–Roman wars (66–135), which Epiphanius believed the Cenacle
Cenacle
survived,[43] the significance of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to Christians
Christians
entered a period of decline, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
having been temporarily converted to the pagan Aelia Capitolina, but interest resumed again with the pilgrimage of Helena (the mother of Constantine the Great) to the Holy Land
Holy Land
c. 326–28. According to the church historian Socrates of Constantinople,[44] Helena claimed to have found the cross of Christ, after removing a Temple to Venus (attributed to Hadrian) that had been built over the site. For that reason she is seen as the Patron Saint
Patron Saint
of Archaeologists. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
received special recognition in Canon VII of the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
in 325. Later, under Justinian I (527-565), it was designated one of the Pentarchy, though the Pentarchy
Pentarchy
has never been recognized by Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
which instead claims Papal supremacy. Circumcision controversy[edit] Main article: Circumcision controversy in early Christianity A common interpretation[who?] of the circumcision controversy of the New Testament
New Testament
was that it was over the issue of whether Gentiles could enter the Church directly or ought to first convert to Judaism. This controversy was fought largely between opposing groups of Christians who were themselves ethnically Jewish. According to this interpretation, those who felt that conversion to Judaism was a prerequisite for Church membership were eventually condemned by Paul as "Judaizing teachers". The source of this interpretation is unknown; however, it appears related to Supersessionism
Supersessionism
or Hyperdispensationalism (see also New Perspective on Paul). In addition, modern Christians, such as Ethiopian Orthodox
Ethiopian Orthodox
and Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
still practice circumcision (for both males and females, the latter of which the Jews
Jews
never practised) while not considering it a part of conversion to Judaism, nor do they consider themselves to be Jews
Jews
or Jewish
Jewish
Christians. Roman Catholicism condemned circumcision for its members in 1442, at the Council of Florence.[45] Communities whose origins reflect both Judaism and early Christianity[edit] Role of Hellenistic Judaism[edit] Both Early Christianity
Christianity
and Early Rabbinical Judaism were far less 'orthodox' and less theologically homogeneous than they are today; and both were significantly influenced by Hellenistic religion
Hellenistic religion
and borrowed allegories and concepts from Classical Hellenistic philosophy and the works of Greek-speaking Jewish
Jewish
authors of the end of the Second Temple
Second Temple
period... before the two schools of thought eventually firmed-up their respective 'norms' and doctrines, notably by diverging increasingly on key issues such as the status of 'purity laws', the validity of Judeo- Christian
Christian
messianic beliefs, and, more importantly, the use of Koine Greek
Koine Greek
and Latin
Latin
as sacerdotal languages replacing Biblical Hebrew[46]...etc. Certain Christian
Christian
communities of India, Syria, Lebanon, and Israel/ Palestinian Territories
Palestinian Territories
have traditionally been associated with some 1st-century Jewish
Jewish
Christian
Christian
heritage. The Syriac Orthodox Church, the Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
Church of Antioch, and the Melkite
Melkite
Greek Catholic
Catholic
Church of Antioch
Antioch
are churches with known Jewish
Jewish
Christian membership that dates as far back as the 1st century. All three churches had common origins in terms of membership, where the majority of adherents was a mix of Greeks
Greeks
and Hellenized
Hellenized
Jews
Jews
and Syrians
Syrians
from Antioch
Antioch
and the rest of Syria
Syria
who adopted the new faith. The Syriac Orthodox Church follows the Antiochene rite that celebrates liturgy in Syriac and still carries some particular customs that are considered today as purely Judaic in nature. Beyond Antioch, Alexandretta
Alexandretta
and Northwestern Syria, the main centers of Hellenistic Judaism
Hellenistic Judaism
in the Levant before the destruction of the Second Temple, the opening verse of Acts
Acts
6 points to cultural divisions between Hellenized
Hellenized
Jews
Jews
and Aramaic-speaking Israelites in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
itself: "it speaks of "Hellenists" and "Hebrews." The existence of these two distinct groups characterizes the earliest Christian
Christian
community in Jerusalem. The Hebrews were Jewish
Jewish
Christians who spoke almost exclusively Aramaic, and the Hellenists were also Jewish
Jewish
Christians
Christians
whose mother tongue was Greek. They were Greek-speaking Jews
Jews
of the Diaspora, who returned to settle in Jerusalem. To identify them, Luke uses the term Hellenistai. When he had in mind Greeks, gentiles, non- Jews
Jews
who spoke Greek and lived according to the Greek fashion, then he used the word Hellenes (Acts 21.28). As the very context of Acts
Acts
6 makes clear, the Hellenistai are not Hellenes."[47] Some historians believe that a sizeable proportion of the Hellenized Jewish
Jewish
communities of Southern Turkey
Turkey
(Antioch, Alexandretta
Alexandretta
and neighboring cities) and Syria/ Lebanon
Lebanon
eventually converted to the Greco-Roman branch of Christianity
Christianity
that eventually constituted the Melkite
Melkite
Churches of the MENA area: "As Jewish
Jewish
Christianity
Christianity
originated at Jerusalem, so Gentile Christianity
Christianity
started at Antioch, then the leading center of the Hellenistic East, with Peter and Paul as its apostles. From Antioch
Antioch
it spread to the various cities and provinces of Syria, among the Hellenistic Syrians
Syrians
as well as among the Hellenistic Jews
Jews
who, as a result of the great rebellions against the Romans in A.D. 70 and 130, were driven out from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Palestine into Syria."[48] Surviving Byzantine
Byzantine
and 'Syriac' communities in the Middle East[edit] Some typically Grecian "Ancient Synagogal" priestly rites have survived partially to the present, notably in the distinct church service of the Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
Church of Antioch, Syriac Orthodox Church and the Melkite
Melkite
Greek Catholic
Greek Catholic
communities of the Hatay Province of Southern Turkey, Syria
Syria
and Lebanon. The unique combination of ethnocultural traits inhered from the fusion of a Greek-Macedonian cultural base, Hellenistic Judaism
Hellenistic Judaism
and Roman civilization gave birth to the distinctly Antiochian "Middle Eastern-Roman" Christian
Christian
traditions of Cilicia
Cilicia
(Southeastern Turkey) and Syria/Lebanon:

" The mixture of Roman, Greek, and Jewish
Jewish
elements admirably adapted Antioch
Antioch
for the great part it played in the early history of Christianity. The city was the cradle of the church."[49]

Members of these communities still call themselves Rûm which literally means "Eastern Roman", "Byzantine" or "Asian Greek" in Turkish, Persian and Arabic. The term "Rûm" is used in preference to "Ionani" or "Yāvāni" which means "European Greek" or "Ionian" in Classical Arabic
Arabic
and Ancient Hebrew. Most Middle-Eastern "Melkites" or "Rûms", can trace their ethnocultural heritage to the Southern Anatolian ('Cilician') and Syrian Hellenized
Hellenized
Greek-speaking Jewish
Jewish
communities of the past and Greek and Macedonian settlers ('Greco-Syrians'), founders of the original "Antiochian Greek" communities of Cilicia, Northwestern Syria and Lebanon. Counting members of the surviving minorities in the Hatay Province of Turkey, in Syria, Lebanon, Northern Israel
Israel
and their relatives in the diaspora, there are more than 1.8 million Greco- Melkite
Melkite
Christians
Christians
residing in the Northern-MENA, the US, Canada and Latin
Latin
America today i.e. Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
and Greek Catholic Christians
Christians
under the ancient jurisdictional authority of the patriarchates of Antioch
Antioch
and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
("Orthodox" in the narrow sense) and/or their Uniat
Uniat
offshoots ("Catholic" or "united" with Rome). Today, certain families are associated with descent from the early Jewish
Jewish
Christians
Christians
of Antioch, Damascus, Judea, and Galilee. Some of those families carry surnames such as Youhanna (John), Hanania (Ananias), Sahyoun (Zion), Eliyya/Elias (Elijah), Chamoun/Shamoun (Simeon/Simon), Semaan/Simaan (Simeon/Simon), Menassa (Manasseh), Salamoun/ Suleiman (Solomon), Youwakim (Joachim), Zakariya (Zacharias) and others.[50] Contemporary movements[edit] In modern days, the term " Jewish
Jewish
Christian" generally refers to ethnic Jews
Jews
who have converted to or have been raised in Christianity. They are mostly members of Catholic
Catholic
and Protestant
Protestant
congregations, and are generally assimilated culturally into the Christian
Christian
mainstream, although they retain a strong sense of their Jewish
Jewish
identity. Some such Jewish
Jewish
Christians
Christians
also refer to themselves as "Hebrew Christians". Examples include the Nasrani (Saint Thomas Christians) and Tamil-Portuguese Jews
Jews
(Parava) of India, who historically have strong Jewish
Jewish
ties and still retain certain Jewish
Jewish
traditions. There is also a distinct movement of Hebrew Catholics
Hebrew Catholics
in full communion with the Holy See. The 19th century saw at least 250,000 Jews
Jews
convert to Christianity according to existing records of various societies.[51] Data from the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
has it that, as of 2013, about 1.6 million adult American Jews
Jews
identify themselves as Christians, most as Protestants.[52][53][54] According to the same data, most of the Jews who identify themselves as some sort of Christian
Christian
(1.6 million) were raised as Jews
Jews
or are Jews
Jews
by ancestry.[53] According to a 2012 study, 17% of Jews
Jews
in Russia identify themselves as Christians.[55][56] The Hebrew Christian movement
Hebrew Christian movement
of the 19th century was a largely Anglican-led and largely integrated initiative, led by figures such as Michael Solomon
Solomon
Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1842-1845; some figures, such as Joseph Frey, founder of the London Society for Promoting Christianity
Christianity
amongst the Jews, were more assertive of Jewish identity and independence. Messianic Judaism
Messianic Judaism
is a religious movement that incorporates elements of Judaism with the tenets of Christianity. Adherents, many of whom are ethnically Jewish, worship in congregations that include Hebrew prayers. They baptize messianic believers who are of the age of accountability (able to accept Jesus
Jesus
as the Messiah), often observe kosher dietary laws and Saturday as the Sabbath. Although they do recognize the Christian
Christian
New Testament
New Testament
as holy scripture, most do not use the label "Christian" to describe themselves. Despite this, most Christian
Christian
groups believe they are both Christian
Christian
and Jewish
Jewish
due to their following of general basic beliefs from both.[citation needed] The two groups are not completely distinct; some adherents, for example, favor Messianic congregations but freely live in both worlds, such as theologian Arnold Fruchtenbaum, the founder of Ariel Ministries.[57] See also[edit]

Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism Christian– Jewish
Jewish
reconciliation Christian
Christian
Torah-submission Church's Ministry Among Jewish
Jewish
People Conversion of the Jews Dispensationalism Hebrew Catholics Jesus
Jesus
in the Talmud Jesuism Jews
Jews
For Jesus Judeo-Christian Messianic Judaism Olive Tree Theology Relations between early Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism

References[edit]

^ a b David Noel Freedman, Allen C. Myers (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press. p. 709. Retrieved 15 February 2014. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Theological dictionary of the New Testament
New Testament
1972 p568 Gerhard Kittel, Geoffrey William Bromiley, Gerhard Friedrich "When the Jewish Christians
Christians
whom James sent from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
arrived at Antioch, Cephas withdrew from table-fellowship with the Gentile Christians:" ^ Cynthia White The emergence of Christianity
Christianity
2007 p36 "In these early days of the church in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
there was a growing antagonism between the Greek-speaking Hellenized
Hellenized
Jewish
Jewish
Christians
Christians
and the Aramaic-speaking Jewish
Jewish
Christians" ^ Michele Murray Playing a Jewish
Jewish
game: Gentile Christian
Christian
Judaizing in the first and Second Centuries CE, Canadian Corporation for Studies in Religion - 2004 p97 "Justin is obviously frustrated by continued law observance by Gentile Christians; to impede the spread of the phenomenon, he declares that he does not approve of Jewish
Jewish
Christians who attempt to influence Gentile Christians
Christians
"to be.. " ^ McGrath, Alister E., Christianity: An Introduction. Blackwell Publishing (2006). ISBN 1-4051-0899-1. Page 174: "In effect, they [ Jewish
Jewish
Christians] seemed to regard Christianity
Christianity
as an affirmation of every aspect of contemporary Judaism, with the addition of one extra belief — that Jesus
Jesus
was the Messiah. Unless males were circumcised, they could not be saved ( Acts
Acts
15:1)." ^ a b c Damick, Fr. Andrew Stephen (2011), Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy, Chesterton, IN: Ancient Faith Publishing, p. 20, ISBN 978-1-936270-13-2  ^ Keith Akers, The lost religion of Jesus: simple living and nonviolence in early Christianity, Lantern Books, 2000 p. 21 ^ Wylen, Stephen M., The Jews
Jews
in the Time of Jesus: An Introduction, Paulist Press (1995), ISBN 0-8091-3610-4, Pp 190-192.; Dunn, James D.G., Jews
Jews
and Christians: The Parting of the Ways, A.D. 70 to 135, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (1999), ISBN 0-8028-4498-7, Pp 33–34.; Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro & Gargola, Daniel J & Talbert, Richard John Alexander, The Romans: From Village to Empire, Oxford University Press (2004), ISBN 0-19-511875-8, p. 426.; ^ Küng, Hans (2008), "Islam: Past, Present and Future" (One World Publications) ^ Kessler, Edward and Neil Wenborn, ed. A Dictionary of Jewish- Christian
Christian
Relations, 2005, p. 180. "Hebrew Christians
Christians
- Hebrew Christians
Christians
emerged as a group of Jewish
Jewish
converts to Christianity
Christianity
in the early nineteenth... Edward Kessler" ^ Hurtado, Larry W. Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ: Devotion to Jesus
Jesus
in Earliest Christianity, 2005, p.211. "Also, if we itemize the instances of Jewish
Jewish
opposition/ persecution in the Acts
Acts
narratives of the Jerusalem church, the leaders of the Hebrew Christians
Christians
are more frequently on the receiving end (eg, Peter and John in 4:1-22;" ^ Gallagher, Eugene V. and W. Michael Ashcraft, ed. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, 2006, p213. "In the 1970s, Fruchtenbaum defined himself as a Hebrew Christian
Christian
and was skeptical about the more assertive forms of Messianic Judaism." ^ Kaplan, Dana Evan. The Cambridge Companion to American Judaism 2005, p. 412. "In contrast, four out of five secular and Christian
Christian
Jews indicated that being Jewish
Jewish
was not "very important" to them. ... As compared with born Jews
Jews
and Jews
Jews
by choice, secular and Christian
Christian
Jews generally feel positive about being Jewish, but it has few if any consequences for them and is not particularly important to them." ^ Joan Taylor, Christians
Christians
and the Holy Places: the Myth of Jewish- Christian
Christian
Origins, Oxford University Press, 1993, p. 18 ^ James Carleton Paget, Jews, Christians
Christians
and Jewish
Jewish
Christians
Christians
in Antiquity (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen Zum Neuen Testament) (9783161503122) August 2010 Mohr, J. C. B. ^ Vallée, Gérard. The Shaping of Christianity
Christianity
The History and Literature of Its Formative Centuries (100-800) 1999 ^ Sanders, E. P. The historical figure of Jesus. Penguin, 1993. p. 10–14 ^ Barrie Wilson, How Jesus
Jesus
Became Christian
Christian
Random House of Canada, 2009 pp. 2 - 48 ^ Acts
Acts
4:1-22,5:17-42, 6:8-7:60, 22:30-23:22 ^ 4:1-21 ^ Acts
Acts
6:11-14, see also Antinomianism ^ Josephus, Antiquities 20:9 ^ Josephus's Jewish
Jewish
Antiquities, (xx.9) ^ Book IV Chapter 5: "The Bishops of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
from the Age of our Saviour to the Period under Consideration" ^ Wylen (1995). Pg 190. ^ Berard (2006). Pp 112–113. ^ Wright (1992). Pp 164–165. ^ Acts
Acts
15 ^ Contra Faust, 32.13 ^ For example: Joseph Fitzmyer, The Acts
Acts
of the Apostles
Apostles
(The Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries), Yale University Press
Yale University Press
(December 2, 1998), ISBN 0-300-13982-9, chapter V ^ Karl Josef von Hefele's commentary on canon II of Gangra notes: "We further see that, at the time of the Synod of Gangra, [340] the rule of the Apostolic Synod with regard to blood and things strangled was still in force. With the Greeks, indeed, it continued always in force as their Euchologies still show. Balsamon also, the well-known commentator on the canons of the Middle Ages, in his commentary on the sixty-third Apostolic Canon, expressly blames the Latins because they had ceased to observe this command. What the Latin
Latin
Church, however, thought on this subject about the year 400, is shown by St. Augustine in his work Contra Faustum, where he states that the Apostles
Apostles
had given this command in order to unite the heathens and Jews
Jews
in the one ark of Noah; but that then, when the barrier between Jewish
Jewish
and heathen converts had fallen, this command concerning things strangled and blood had lost its meaning, and was only observed by few. But still, as late as the eighth century, Pope Gregory the Third (731) forbade the eating of blood or things strangled under threat of a penance of forty days. No one will pretend that the disciplinary enactments of any council, even though it be one of the undisputed Ecumenical Synods, can be of greater and more unchanging force than the decree of that first council, held by the Holy Apostles
Apostles
at Jerusalem, and the fact that its decree has been obsolete for centuries in the West is proof that even Ecumenical canons may be of only temporary utility and may be repealed by disuse, like other laws." ^ Gal 2:14 ^ Gal 2:13 ^ Acts
Acts
15:39-40 ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Judaizers". www.newadvent.org.  ^ L. Michael White (2004). From Jesus
Jesus
to Christianity. Harper San Francisco. p. 170. ISBN 0-06-052655-6.  ^ The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, chapter 32, page 577, by James D. G. Dunn: "For Peter was probably in fact and effect the bridge-man (pontifex maximus!) who did more than any other to hold together the diversity of first-century Christianity. James the brother of Jesus
Jesus
and Paul, the two other most prominent leading figures in first-century Christianity, were too much identified with their respective "brands" of Christianity, at least in the eyes of Christians
Christians
at the opposite ends of this particular spectrum. But Peter, as shown particularly by the Antioch
Antioch
episode in Gal 2, had both a care to hold firm to his Jewish
Jewish
heritage, which Paul lacked, and an openness to the demands of developing Christianity, which James lacked. John might have served as such a figure of the center holding together the extremes, but if the writings linked with his name are at all indicative of his own stance he was too much of an individualist to provide such a rallying point. Others could link the developing new religion more firmly to its founding events and to Jesus
Jesus
himself. But none of them, including the rest of the twelve, seem to have played any role of continuing significance for the whole sweep of Christianity—though James the brother of John might have proved an exception had he been spared." [Italics original] ^ "Epiphanius: Panarion". Geocities.com. Archived from the original on 2009-10-23. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  ^ "ANF01. The Apostolic Fathers with Justin Martyr and Irenaeus
Irenaeus
Christian
Christian
Classics Ethereal Library". Ccel.org. 2005-07-13. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  ^ Bargil Pixner, The Church of the Apostles
Apostles
found on Mount Zion, Biblical Archaeology
Archaeology
Review 16.3 May/June 1990 [1] ^ On the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Church between the Jewish
Jewish
revolts see: Jonathan Bourgel, From One Identity to Another: The Mother Church of Jerusalem Between the Two Jewish
Jewish
Revolts Against Rome (66-135/6 EC). Paris: Éditions du Cerf, collection Judaïsme ancien et Christianisme primitive, 2015 (in French). ^ Eusebius, Church History 3, 5, 3; Epiphanius, Panarion 29,7,7-8; 30, 2, 7; On Weights and Measures 15. On the flight to Pella see: Bourgel, Jonathan, "The Jewish
Jewish
Christians' Move from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as a pragmatic choice", in: Dan Jaffe (ed), Studies in Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity, (Leyden: Brill, 2010), p. 107-138 ([2]); P. H. R. van Houwelingen, "Fleeing forward: The departure of Christians
Christians
from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to Pella," Westminster Theological Journal 65 (2003), 181-200 ^ Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(A.D. 71-1099): "Epiphanius (d. 403) says..." ^ Socrates' Church History at CCEL.org: Book I, Chapter XVII: The Emperor’s Mother Helena having come to Jerusalem, searches for and finds the Cross of Christ, and builds a Church. ^ "ECUMENICAL COUNCIL OF FLORENCE (1438-1445)".  ^ Daniel Boyarin. "Dying for God: Martyrdom and the Making of Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism" Stanford University Press, 1999, p. 15. ^ " Conflict and Diversity in the Earliest Christian
Christian
Community" Archived 2013-05-10 at the Wayback Machine., Fr. V. Kesich, O.C.A. ^ "History of Christianity
Christianity
in Syria", Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia ^ "Antioch," Encyclopaedia Biblica, Vol. I, p. 186 (p. 125 of 612 in online .pdf file. Warning: Takes several minutes to download). ^ Bar Ilan, Y. Judaic Christianity: Extinct or Evolved? pp. 297–315.  ^ Gundry, Stanley N; Goldberg, Louis, How Jewish
Jewish
is Christianity?: 2 views on the Messianic movement (Books), Google, p. 24 . ^ "How many Jews
Jews
are there in the United States?". Pew Research Center.  ^ a b "A PORTRAIT OF JEWISH AMERICANS: Chapter 1: Population Estimates". Pew Research Center.  ^ "American- Jewish
Jewish
Population Rises to 6.8 Million". haaretz.  ^ Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012. ^ "About us — Brief history". Ariel Ministries. 

Bibliography[edit]

Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C, eds. (2000). "Jewish Christians". Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.  Bromiley, Geoffrey W (1979). International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A-D. Eerdmans.  Cameron, Ron (1982). The Other Gospels: Non-Canonical Gospel Texts. Westminster John Knox.  Duling, Dennis C (2010). "The Gospel of Matthew". In Aune, David E. Blackwell companion to the New Testament. Wiley-Blackwell.  Ehrman, Bart D. (2003). Lost Scriptures. OUP.  Hastings, James (2004). A Dictionary Of The Bible: Supplement -- Articles. Minerva Group.  Howard, George (2000). "Hebrews, Gospel According to the". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.  Lapham, Fred (2003). An Introduction to the New Testament
New Testament
Apocrypha. Continuum.  Schneemelcher, Wilhelm (1991). New Testament
New Testament
Apocrypha: Gospels and Related Writings. Translated by Robert McLachlan Wilson. Westminster John Knox. 

External links[edit]

Netzari Faith Simchat Torah
Torah
Beit Midrash:- Jewish
Jewish
Christians Jewish
Jewish
Studies for Christians Frontline: From Jesus
Jesus
to Christ: The First Christians: Wrestling with their Jewish
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Heritage at PBS Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom (c.347-407) : Eight Homilies Against the Jews
Jews
at Fordham University Jewish
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Encyclopedia: Christianity
Christianity
in its relation to Judaism: Early Christianity
Christianity
a Jewish
Jewish
Sect The Ascendance of Messianic Judaism
Messianic Judaism
in the Context of Hebrew Christianity
Christianity
by William Greene, Ph.D. F. Stanley Jones, The Rediscovery Of Jewish
Jewish
Christianity, Society of Biblical Literature, 2012

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