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The JAPAN MARITIME SELF-DEFENSE FORCE (海上自衛隊, _Kaijō Jieitai_), or JMSDF, is the naval branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces , tasked with the naval defense of Japan. It is the de facto navy of Japan and was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) after World War II. The JMSDF has a fleet of 154 ships and 346 aircraft. Its main tasks are to maintain control of the nation's sea lanes and to patrol territorial waters. It also participates in UN-led peacekeeping operations (PKOs) and Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIOs).

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Origin * 1.2 Imperial Japanese Navy * 1.3 Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force * 1.4 Post Cold War

* 2 Today

* 2.1 Capabilities and recent developments

* 2.2 International activities

* 2.2.1 Mission in the Indian Ocean * 2.2.2 Mission in Somalia * 2.2.3 Military exercises and exchanges

* 3 Equipment

* 3.1 Ships and submarines * 3.2 Aircraft

* 4 Organization, formations and structure

* 4.1 District Forces * 4.2 Fleet Air Force * 4.3 Special Forces * 4.4 Ranks

* 5 Culture and naming conventions * 6 Recruitment and training * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

HISTORY

JAPAN MARITIME SELF-DEFENSE FORCE _日本国 海上自衛隊 (Kaijō Jieitai)_

COMPONENTS

Self Defense Fleet

Fleet Escort Force

Fleet Air Force

Fleet Submarine Force

District Force

JMSDF Reserve

COMMAND

Maritime Staff Office

HISTORY

Naval history of Japan

Imperial Japanese Navy

History of Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force

PERSONNEL

Rank insignia of the JMSDF

SHIPS

List of combat ships of JMSDF

Ships of the JMSDF

ORIGIN

Main article: Naval history of Japan Naval battle of Dan-no-Ura in 1185

Japan has a long history of naval interaction with the Asian continent, involving the transportation of troops, starting at least with the beginning of the Kofun period in the 3rd century. Following the attempts at Mongol invasions of Japan by Kublai Khan in 1274 and 1281, Japanese _wakō_ became very active in plundering the coast of the Chinese Empire . _ A 16th-century Japanese atakebune_ coastal warship.

Japan undertook major naval building efforts in the 16th century, during the Warring States period , when feudal rulers vying for supremacy built vast coastal navies of several hundred ships. Around that time, Japan may have developed one of the world's first ironclad warships, when Oda Nobunaga (a Japanese daimyo ) had six iron-covered Oatakebune made in 1576.

In 1588, Toyotomi Hideyoshi issued a ban on Wakō piracy; the pirates then became vassals of Hideyoshi and comprised the naval force used in the Japanese invasion of Korea .

Japan built her first large ocean-going warships in the beginning of the 17th century, following contact with European countries during the Nanban trade period . In 1613, the Daimyo of Sendai , in agreement with the Tokugawa shogunate , built the _Date Maru_ . This 500 ton galleon -type ship transported the Japanese embassy of Hasekura Tsunenaga to the Americas and Europe. From 1604 onwards, about 350 Red seal ships , usually armed and incorporating European technology, were also commissioned by the Shogunate, mainly for Southeast Asian trade.

IMPERIAL JAPANESE NAVY

Main article: Imperial Japanese Navy _ The British-built Ryūjō_ was the flagship of the Imperial Japanese Navy until 1881.

From 1868, the restored Meiji Emperor continued with reforms to industrialize and militarize Japan to prevent the United States and European powers from overwhelming it. On 17 January 1868, the Ministry of Military Affairs was established, with Iwakura Tomomi , Shimazu Tadayoshi and Prince Komatsu-no-miya Akihito as the First Secretaries.

On 26 March 1868, the first Naval Review was held in Japan (in Osaka Bay ), with 6 ships from the private domainal navies of Saga , Chōshū , Satsuma , Kurume , Kumamoto and Hiroshima participating. The total tonnage of these ships was 2252 tons, far smaller than the tonnage of the single foreign vessel (from the French Navy) that also participated. In July 1869, the Imperial Japanese Navy was formally established, two months after the last military engagement of the Boshin War – the private navies of the Japanese nobles were abolished and their 11 ships were added to the 7 surviving vessels of the defunct Tokugawa _bakufu_ navy, including the Kankō Maru , Japan's first steam warship. This formed the core of the new Imperial Japanese Navy.

An 1872 edict officially separated the Japanese Navy from the Japanese Army. Politicians like Enomoto Takeaki set out to use the Navy to expand to the islands south of Japan in similar fashion to the Army's northern and western expansion. The Navy sought to upgrade its fleet to a blue water navy and used cruises to expand the Japanese consciousness on the southern islands. Enomoto's policies helped the Navy expand and incorporate many different islands into the Japanese Empire, including Iwo Jima in 1889. The navy continued to expand and incorporate political influence throughout the early twentieth century.

JAPANESE MARITIME SELF-DEFENSE FORCE

_ Yamato_ was a potent symbol of the Imperial Japanese Navy

Following Japan's defeat in World War II, the Imperial Japanese Navy was dissolved by the Potsdam Declaration acceptance. Ships were disarmed, and some of them, such as the battleship _Nagato_ , were taken by the Allied Powers as reparation. The remaining ships were used for repatriation of the Japanese soldiers from abroad and also for minesweeping in the area around Japan, initially under the control of the _Second Bureau of the Demobilization Ministry_. The minesweeping fleet was eventually transferred to the newly formed Maritime Safety Agency, which helped maintain the resources and expertise of the navy.

Japan's 1947 Constitution was drawn up after the conclusion of the war, Article 9 specifying that "The Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes." The prevalent view in Japan is that this article allows for military forces to be kept for the purposes of self-defense. Due to Cold War pressures, the United States was also happy for Japan to provide part of its own defense, rather than have it fully rely on American forces.

In 1952, the Coastal Safety Force was formed within the Maritime Safety Agency, incorporating the minesweeping fleet and other military vessels, mainly destroyers, given by the United States. In 1954, the Coastal Safety Force was separated, and the JMSDF was formally created as the naval branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Force (JSDF), following the passage of the 1954 Self-Defense Forces Law.

The first ships in the JMSDF were former U.S. Navy destroyers, transferred to Japanese control in 1954. In 1956, the JMSDF received its first domestically produced destroyer since World War II, _Harukaze_ . Due to the Cold War threat posed by the Soviet Navy 's sizable and powerful submarine fleet, the JMSDF was primarily tasked with an anti-submarine role.

POST COLD WAR

Following the end of the Cold War, the role of the JMSDF has vastly changed. In 1991, after much international pressure, the JMSDF dispatched 4 minesweepers, a fleet oiler (JDS Tokiwa ) and a minesweeping tender (JDS Hayasse) to the Persian Gulf in the aftermath of the Gulf War , under the name of Operation Gulf Dawn, to clear mines sown by Saddam Hussein 's defending forces; and starting with a mission to Cambodia in 1993 when JSDF personnel were supported by JDS _Towada_ , it has been active in a number of UN-led peace keeping operations throughout Asia. In 1993, it commissioned its first Aegis -equipped destroyer, _Kongō_ . It has also been active in joint naval exercises with other countries, such as the United States. The JMSDF has dispatched a number of its destroyers on a rotating schedule to the Indian Ocean in an escort role for allied vessels as part of the UN-led Operation Enduring Freedom .

With an increase in tensions with North Korea following the 1993 test of the Nodong-1 missile and the 1998 test of the Taepodong-1 missile over northern Japan, the JMSDF has stepped up its role in air defense . A ship-based anti-ballistic missile system was successfully test-fired on 18 December 2007 and has been installed on Japan's Aegis-equipped destroyers. The JMSDF, along with the Japan Coast Guard , has also been active in preventing North Korean infiltrators from reaching Japan and in December 2001, engaged and sank a North Korean spy ship .

TODAY

CAPABILITIES AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

_ October 20, 2016, a meeting between Adm Tomohisa Takei , Adm John M. Richardson , Adm Sir Philip Jones ,in United States Department of Defense . A RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 launched from JDS Kongō_ , an Aegis destroyer .

The JMSDF has an official strength of 50,000 personnel, but presently numbers around 50,800 active personnel. As a result of continuing effective defense investment due to Japan's economic development and an end to the Cold War, The JMSDF is currently the world's fifth largest naval power. Japan has the seventh largest Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the world, and the JMSDF is responsible for protecting this large area. As an island nation, dependent on maritime trade for the majority of its resources, including food and raw materials, maritime operations are a very important aspect of Japanese defense policy.

The JMSDF is known in particular for its anti-submarine warfare and minesweeping capabilities. Defense planners believe the most effective approach to combating hostile submarines entails mobilizing all available weapons, including surface combatants, submarines, patrol planes , and helicopters . Historically the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) has been relied on to provide air cover at sea, a role that is subordinate to the JASDF's primary mission of air defense of the home islands. Extended patrols over sea lanes are beyond the JASDF's current capabilities.

The Japanese fleet's capacity to provide ship-based antiaircraft warfare protection is limited by the absence of aircraft carriers , though its destroyers and frigates equipped with the Aegis combat system provide a formidable capability in antiaircraft and antimissile warfare . These capabilities are force multipliers, allowing force projection of Japan's sizable destroyer and frigate force far from home waters, and acquiring them is contentious considering Japan's "passive" defense policy. _ JS Izumo_, an _Izumo_-class helicopter destroyer

In August 2003, a new "helicopter carrier" class was ordered, the _Hyūga_-class helicopter destroyer . The size and features of the ship, including a full-length flight deck , will result in it being classified as either an amphibious assault ship or a helicopter carrier by Lloyd\'s Register — similar to the United Kingdom 's HMS _Ocean_ . It has been widely argued about whether an aircraft carrier of any kind would be technically prohibited by Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution , since aircraft carriers are generally considered offensive weapons. In a Japanese Diet budget session in April 1988, the chief of the Japanese Defense Agency , Tsutomu Kawara , said, "The Self-Defense Forces are not allowed to possess ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles ), strategic bombers , or attack aircraft carriers."

Historically, up through about 1975 in the U.S. Navy , the large-scale carriers had been classified as "attack aircraft carriers" and the smaller carriers as "anti-submarine aircraft carriers ." Since helicopter carriers have very little built-in attack capability and they primarily fulfill roles such as defensive anti-submarine warfare, the Japanese government continues to argue that the prohibition does not extend to the new helicopter carriers.

In November 2009, the JMSDF announced plans for an even larger "helicopter carrier", the _Izumo_-class helicopter destroyer . The first one of these ships was laid down in 2012 and was launched on 6 August 2013.

The submarine fleet of the JMSDF consists of some of the most technologically advanced diesel-electric submarines in the world. This is due to careful defense planning in which the submarines are routinely retired from service ahead of schedule and replaced by more advanced models. In 2010 it was announced that the Japanese submarine fleet would be increased in size for the first time in 36 years.

After a meeting between the Japanese Foreign Minister and U.S. Ambassador to Japan on 4 March 2014, the Japanese Defense Ministry and U.S. Department of Defense announced they would hold studies for the joint development of the littoral vessel under the bilateral Mutual Defense Assistance agreement. The vessel is planned to be a high-speed trimaran designed for operations in shallow coastal waters capable of carrying helicopters, possibly a lighter variant of the American 3,000 tonne (3,300 short ton) Littoral Combat Ship . The study is in response to the growth of the Chinese People\'s Liberation Army Navy and budgetary issues with the U.S. military that may affect their ability to operate in the Pacific. The J-LCS would be used to intervene during Chinese ship incursions near the Senkaku Islands and other contested areas in the East China Sea , and possibly counter similar Chinese vessels like the Type 056 corvette and Type 022 missile boat . A 1,000 tonnes (980 long tons; 1,100 short tons) J-LCS with an enlarged hull could operate the SH-60K anti-submarine helicopter or the MCH-101 airborne mine countermeasures (AMCM) helicopter.

INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES

Arabian Sea (Nov. 22, 2006) - The Japanese fast combat support ship JDS Mashu (AOE 425)(left) conducts a replenishment at sea (RAS) with the guided-missile cruiser USS Anzio (CG-68) .

Mission In The Indian Ocean

Destroyers and combat support ships of Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force were dispatched to the Indian Ocean from 2001 to 2008 to participate in OEF-MIO (Operation Enduring Freedom-Maritime Interdiction Operation). Their mission is to prevent the marine transportation of illegal weapons and ammunition, and the drugs which fund terrorist activity. Since 2004, the JMSDF has provided ships of foreign forces with fuel for their ships and ship-based helicopters, as well as fresh water.

This was the third time Japanese military vessels had been dispatched overseas since World War II, following the deployments of mine-sweeping units during the Korean War and the Persian Gulf War. The law enabling the mission expired on 2 November 2007, and the operation was temporarily canceled due to a veto of a new bill authorizing the mission by the opposition-controlled upper chamber of the Japanese Diet.

In January 2010, the defense minister ordered the JMSDF to return from the Indian Ocean, fulfilling a government pledge to end the eight-year refueling mission. Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama refused to renew the law authorizing the mission, ignoring requests from the American government for continuation. Both the Western alliance country typified by the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Danish Navy, doing friendship activities in the Indian Ocean .

Mission In Somalia

Further information: Piracy in Somalia

In May 2010, Japan announced its intention to build a permanent naval base in Djibouti , from which it will conduct operations to protect merchant shipping from Somali pirates.

Military Exercises And Exchanges

The JMSDF and the U.S. Navy frequently carry out joint exercises and "U.S. Navy officials have claimed that they have a closer daily relationship with the JMSDF than any other navy in the world". The JMSDF participates in RIMPAC , the annual multi-national military exercise near Hawaii that has been hosted by the U.S. Navy since 1980. The JMSDF dispatched a ship to the Russian Vladivostok harbor in July 1996 to participate in the Russian Navy 's 300th anniversary naval review. Vladimir Vinogradov came by ship to the Tokyo harbor in June 1997. The JMSDF has also conducted joint naval exercises with the Indian Navy .

* RIMPAC : Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force participated in RIMPAC after 1980. * Pacific Shield (PSI ): The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force has participated in Pacific Shield after 2004; and in 2007, the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force hosted the exercise. * Pacific Reach: The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force has participated in the bi-annual submarine rescue exercise since 2000. In 2002, the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force hosted the exercise. * Navy to Navy Talks: The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force holds regular naval conferences with its counterparts of Indonesia, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. * AEGIS Ballistic Missile Defense FTM: The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force has participated in the FTM after FTM-10 . The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force carried out JFTM-1 in December 2007.

EQUIPMENT

SHIPS AND SUBMARINES

See also: List of active Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force ships

The ship prefix JDS (Japanese Defense Ship) was used until 2008, at which time JMSDF ships started using the prefix JS (Japanese Ship) to reflect the upgrade of the Japanese Defense Agency to the Ministry of Defense . As of 2014, the JMSDF operates a total of 124 ships (excluding minor auxiliary vessels), including; four helicopter carriers (_called_ _helicopter destroyers _), 26 destroyers , 10 small destroyers (_or frigates _), six destroyer escorts (_or corvettes _), 18 attack submarines , 29 mine countermeasure vessels , six patrol vessels , three landing ship tanks , eight training vessels and a fleet of various auxiliary ships . The fleet has a total displacement of approximately 450,000 tonnes (including auxiliary vessels).

AIRCRAFT

See also: Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force aviation

The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force aviation maintains a large naval air force, including 201 fixed-wing aircraft and 145 helicopters. Most of these aircraft are used in anti-submarine warfare operations.

AIRCRAFT ROLE VERSIONS QUANTITY NOTE

FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT

Lockheed P-3 Orion Maritime patrol ------------------------- ELINT ------------------------- Optical reconnaissance ------------------------- Equipment test ------------------------- Electronic warfare trainer P-3C ------------------------- E P-3C ------------------------- O P-3C ------------------------- U P-3C ------------------------- UP-3D 68 ------------------------- 4 ------------------------- 5 ------------------------- 1 ------------------------- 3

Kawasaki P-1 Maritime patrol P-1 12 Planned to replace the Lockheed P-3C Orion. 80 more on order.

KC-130 Hercules Utility transport C-130R 6 Re entered into service since 2013.

Learjet 35 Utility aircraft U-36A 4

Beechcraft King Air Utility aircraft/Liaison ------------------------- Trainer aircraft LC-90 ------------------------- TC-90 5 ------------------------- 28

Fuji T-5 Trainer aircraft T-5 36

ShinMaywa US-1 Search and rescue US-1A 1

ShinMaywa US-2 Search and rescue US-2 5 Replacing the older US-1A.

HELICOPTERS

Mitsubishi SH-60 Maritime helicopter UH-60J ------------------------- SH-60J ------------------------- SH-60K 15 ------------------------- 42 ------------------------- 53 Search and rescue. ------------------------- Anti-submarine warfare. ------------------------- Anti-submarine warfare.

AgustaWestland AW101 Minesweeping helicopter ------------------------- Utility helicopter MCH-101 ------------------------- CH-101 10 ------------------------- 2 ------------------------- For icebreaker _Shirase_ .

Eurocopter EC 135 Trainer helicopter TH-135 15

*

Kawasaki P-1 with its US equivalent, the Boeing P-8 Poseidon *

Fuji T-5 trainer aircraft *

Mitsubishi SH-60 from JDS _Haruna_ lands onboard USS _Russell_ . *

US MV-22B with land aboard the JDS Shimokita

ORGANIZATION, FORMATIONS AND STRUCTURE

_ JMSDF Fleet Headquarters. Yokosuka. Tokiwa_ (left) and _Onami_ (right) at the Port of Shimizu _ Kirishima_ returning from RIMPAC '98 _ Hyūga,_ DDH-181 SH-60J in Okadama Air Base Kure District Headquarters Educational reference pavilion at the Officer Candidate School

The JMSDF is commanded by the Chief of the Maritime Staff (currently Katsutoshi Kawano ). Its structure consists of the Maritime Staff Office, the Self Defense Fleet, five regional district commands, the air-training squadron and various support units, such as hospitals and schools. The Maritime Staff Office, located in Tokyo, serves the Chief of Staff in commanding and supervising the force.

The Self-Defense Fleet, headquartered at Yokosuka , consists of the JMSDF's military shipping. It is composed of four Escort Flotillas (based in Yokosuka , Sasebo , Maizuru and Kure ), the Fleet Air Force headquartered at Atsugi , two Submarine Flotillas based at Kure and Yokosuka, two Mine-sweeping Flotillas based at Kure and Yokosuka and the Fleet Training Command at Yokosuka.

Each Escort Flotilla is formed as an 8–8 fleet of 8 destroyers and 8 on-board helicopters, a modification of the old Japanese Navy fleet layout of 8 battleships and 8 cruisers. Each force is composed of one helicopter destroyer (DDH) acting as a command ship, two guided-missile destroyers (DDG) and 5 standard or ASW destroyers (DD). The JMSDF is planning to reorganize the respective Escort Flotillas into a DDH group and DDG group, enabling faster overseas deployments.

* PRIME MINISTER OF JAPAN

* MINISTER OF DEFENSE

* JMSDF CHIEF OF STAFF / MARITIME STAFF OFFICE

* SELF DEFENSE FLEET (MOBILE FLOTILLA)

* Fleet Escort Force

* Escort Flotilla 1 (Yokosuka)

* Escort Squadron 1 (DDG,DDH,DDx2) * Escort Squadron 5 (DDG,DDx3)

* Escort Flotilla 2 (Sasebo)

* Escort Squadron 2 (DDG,DDH,DDx2) * Escort Squadron 6 (DDG,DDx3)

* Escort Flotilla 3 (Maizuru)

* Escort Squadron 3 (DDG,DDH,DDx2) * Escort Squadron 7 (DDG,DDx3)

* Escort Flotilla 4 (Kure)

* Escort Squadron 4 (DDG,DDH,DDx2) * Escort Squadron 8 (DDG,DDx3)

* Fleet Training Command * 1st Replenishment Squadron * 1st Transportation Squadron

* Fleet Air Force

* Fleet Air Wing 1 ( P-3C UH-60J ) * Fleet Air Wing 2 ( P-3C UH-60J) * Fleet Air Wing 4 ( P-3C UH-60J) * Fleet Air Wing 5 ( P-3C UH-60J) * Fleet Air Wing 21 (SH-60J/K ) * Fleet Air Wing 22 (SH-60J) * Fleet Air Wing 31 (US-1A US-2 EP-3 O P-3C UP-3D LC-90 U-36A ) * Fleet Squadron 51 (P-1, P-3C UP-3C/D OP-3 SH-60J/K OH-6DA) * Fleet Squadron 61 (C-130R LC-90) * Fleet Squadron 111 (MH-53E MCH-101 CH-101)

* Fleet Submarine Force

* Submarine Flotilla 1

* Submarine Squadron 1 * Submarine Squadron 3 * Submarine Squadron 5

* Submarine Flotilla 2

* Submarine Squadron 2 * Submarine Squadron 4

* Submarine Training Command

* Mine Warfare Force * Fleet Research "> JMSDF District Forces

DISTRICT FORCES

Five district units act in concert with the fleet to guard the waters of their jurisdictions and provide shore-based support. Each district is home to a major JMSDF base and its supporting troops and staff. Furthermore, each district is home to one or two regional escort squadrons, composed of two to three destroyers or destroyer escorts (DE). The destroyers tend to be of older classes, mainly former escort force ships. The destroyer escorts, on the other hand, tend to be purpose built vessels. Each district also has a number of minesweeping ships.

FLEET AIR FORCE

The Fleet Air Force is tasked with patrol, ASW and rescue tasks. It is composed primarily of 7 aviation groups. Prominent bases are maintained at Kanoya , Hachinohe , Atsugi , Naha , Tateyama , Oomura and Iwakuni . The Fleet Air Force is built up mainly with patrol aircraft such as the Lockheed P-3 Orion , rescue aircraft such as the US-1A and helicopters such as the SH-60J . In the JMSDF, helicopters deployed to each escort force are actually members of Fleet Air Force squadrons based on land.

SPECIAL FORCES

Special Forces units consist of the following:

* SBU ( Special Boarding Unit ) * MIT (Maritime Interception Team )

RANKS

The following details the officer ranks of the JMSDF, showing the Japanese rank, the English translation and the NATO equivalent. Commissioned Officers Admiral Captain

JAPANESE RANK (IN JAPANESE) JAPANESE RANK (TRANSLATED) JAPANESE RANK (IN ENGLISH) NATO CODE

統合幕僚長および海上幕僚長たる海将 (Tōgō-bakuryōchō(Tōbakuchō) oyobi Kaijō-bakuryōchō(Kaibakuchō) taru Kaishō) Admiral serve as Chief of Staff of Joint Staff Office and Admiral serve as Chief of Staff JMSDF Full Admiral OF-9

海将 (_Kaishō_) Admiral Vice Admiral OF-8

海将補 (_Kaishō-ho_) Lesser Admiral Rear Admiral OF-7

1等海佐 (_Ittō Kaisa_) Captain 1st Rank Captain OF-5

2等海佐 (_Nitō Kaisa_) Captain 2nd Rank Commander OF-4

3等海佐 (_Santō Kaisa_) Captain 3rd Rank Lieutenant Commander OF-3

1等海尉 (_Ittō Kaii_) Lieutenant 1st Rank Lieutenant OF-2

2等海尉 (_Nitō Kaii_)] Lieutenant 2nd Rank Lieutenant Junior Grade OF-1

3等海尉 (_Santō Kaii_) Lieutenant 3rd Rank Ensign OF-1

Warrant officers

准海尉 (_Jun Kaii_) Associate Lieutenant Warrant Officer OR-9

Non-Commissioned Officers

海曹長 (_Kaisō-chō_) Chief Petty Officer Chief Petty Officer OR-8

1等海曹 (_Ittō Kaisō_) Petty Officer 1st Class Petty Officer 1st Class OR-7

2等海曹 (_Nitō Kaisō_) Petty Officer 2nd Class Petty Officer 2nd Class OR-6

3等海曹 (_Santō Kaisō_) Petty Officer 3rd Class Petty Officer 3rd Class OR-5

Enlisted

海士長 (_Kaishi-chō_) Chief Seaman Leading Seaman OR-3

1等海士 (_Ittō Kaishi_) Seaman 1st Class Seaman OR-2

2等海士 (_Nitō Kaishi_) Seaman 2nd Class Seaman Apprentice OR-1

自衛官候補生(_Jieikan Kōhosei_) Cadet Seaman Self Defence Official Cadet OR-D

Ranks are listed with the lower rank at right.

Officer (幹部) INSIGNIA Full Admiral 統合幕僚長 および 海上幕僚長 たる海将 Vice Admiral 海将 Rear Admiral 海将補 Captain 1等海佐 Commander 2等海佐 Lieutenant Commander 3等海佐 Lieutenant 1等海尉 Lieutenant Junior Grade 2等海尉 Ensign 3等海尉

Type A (甲階級章)

Type B (乙階級章)

Type C (丙階級章)

Miniature (略章)

Enlisted (准尉および曹士) INSIGNIA Warrant Officer 准海尉 Chief Petty Officer 海曹長 Petty Officer 1st Class 1等海曹 Petty Officer 2nd Class 2等海曹 Petty Officer 3rd Class 3等海曹 Leading Seaman 海士長 Seaman 1等海士 Seaman Apprentice 2等海士 Self Defence official cadet 自衛官候補生

Type A (甲階級章)

Type B (乙階級章)

Type C (丙階級章)

No insignia

Miniature (略章)

No insignia

CULTURE AND NAMING CONVENTIONS

Main article: Gosei (meditation)

Although Japan's Ground Self-Defense Force has almost dropped traditions associated with the Imperial Japanese Army save for the march music tradition (Review March is the official march of the IJA and today's JGSDF), the JMSDF has maintained these historic links with the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN). Today's JMSDF continues to use the same martial songs, naval flags, signs, and technical terms as the IJN. For example, the official flag of the JMSDF is the same as that used by the IJN. Also, the JMSDF tradition of eating Japanese curry every Friday lunch originated with the IJN. The JMSDF still uses the Warship March, the old service march of the IJN, as its official service march. It also maintains the IJN bugle calls tradition, as every ship and shore establishment command maintain a platoon or squad of bugle players.

The ship prefix JDS (Japanese Defense Ship) was used until 2008, at which time JMSDF ships started using the prefix JS (Japanese Ship) to reflect the upgrade of the Japanese Defense Agency to the Ministry of Defense.

Ships of the JMSDF, known as JAPAN SHIPS (自衛艦; Ji'ei-Kan), are classified according to the following criteria:

THE CLASSIFICATION AND THE NAMING CONVENTION OF JAPANESE SHIPS CLASS TYPE SYMBOL BUILDING # # NAMING

MAJOR CLASS MINOR CLASS

COMBATANT SHIP COMBATANT SHIP Destroyer DD 1601- 101- Names of natural phenomena in the heavens or the atmosphere, mountains, rivers or regions

Destroyer escort DE 1201- 201-

Submarine SS 8001- 501- Names of natural phenomena in the ocean or maritime animals

MINE WARFARE SHIP Minesweeper Ocean MSO 201- 301- Names of islands, straits, channels or one that added a number to the type

Minesweeper Coast MSC 301- 601-

Minesweeping Controller MCL - 721-

Minesweeper Tender MST 462- 461-

PATROL COMBATANT CRAFT Patrol Guided Missile Boat PG 821- 821- Names of birds, grass or one that added a number to the type

Patrol Boat PB 921- 901-

AMPHIBIOUS SHIP Landing Ship, Tank LST 4101- 4001- Names of peninsulas, capes or one that added a number to the type

Landing Ship Utility LSU 4171- 4171-

Landing Craft Utility LCU 2001– 2001–

Landing Craft Air Cushioned LCAC - 2001–

AUXILIARY SHIP AUXILIARY SHIP Training Ship TV 3501- 3501- Names of places of natural beauty and historic interest or one that added a number to the type or the model

Training Submarine TSS - -

Training Support Ship ATS 4201- 4201-

Multipurpose Support Ship AMS - -

Oceanographic Research Ship AGS 5101- 5101-

Ocean Surveillance Ship AOS 5201- 5201-

Ice breaker AGB 5001- 5001-

Cable Repairing Ship ARC 1001- 481-

Submarine Rescue Ship ASR 1101- 401-

Submarine Rescue Tender AS 1111- 405-

Experimental Ship ASE 6101- 6101-

Fast Combat Support Ship AOE 4011- 421-

Service Utility Ship ASU - 7001-

Service Utility Craft ASU 81- 61-

Service Yacht ASY 91- 91-

RECRUITMENT AND TRAINING

_ JDS Kongō_ (DDG 173)

JMSDF recruits receive three months of basic training followed by courses in patrol, gunnery, mine sweeping, convoy operations and maritime transportation. Flight students, all upper-secondary school graduates, enter a two-year course. Officer candidate schools offer six-month courses to qualified enlisted personnel and those who have completed flight school. Officer Candidate School

Graduates of four-year universities, the four-year National Defense Academy , and particularly outstanding enlisted personnel undergo a one-year officer course at the Officer Candidate School at Etajima (site of the former Imperial Naval Academy). The JMSDF also operates a staff college in Tokyo for senior officers.

The large volume of coastal commercial fishing and maritime traffic around Japan limits in-service sea training, especially in the relatively shallow waters required for mine laying, mine sweeping and submarine rescue practice. Training days are scheduled around slack fishing seasons in winter and summer—providing about ten days during the year.

The JMSDF maintains two oceangoing training ships and conducted annual long-distance on-the-job training for graduates of the one-year officer candidate school.

SEE ALSO

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to JAPAN MARITIME SELF-DEFENSE FORCE _.

* Imperial Japanese Navy * Japanese ship naming conventions * Military ranks and insignia of the Japan Self-Defense Forces * Ships transferred from the United States Navy to the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force * Shipping Control Authority for the Japanese Merchant Marine – Post-WWII Occupation era organisation * Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station Yokosuka, Japan – US Navy facility key to MSDF/USN operational co-ordination. * Kaiwo Maru (1989)

REFERENCES

* ^ "C㎩qFM Archived June 17, 2010, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Archived June 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ " Japan unveils new carrier-like warship, largest in navy since WWII". _Fox News_. Associated Press. 6 August 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2015. * ^ Yoshihara, Toshi; Holmes, James R. "The Next Arms Race - APAC 2020, the decade ahead". _The Diplomat_. Retrieved 25 December 2014. * ^ " Japan to Beef Up Submarines to Counter Chinese Power". _The Chosun Ilbo (English Edition)_. 26 July 2010. Retrieved 25 December 2014. * ^ "US, Japan to Jointly Develop Littoral Combat Ship". _The Diplomat_. 7 March 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2015. * ^ "About activity based on Antiterrorism Law". Japan Ministry of Defense. Archived from the original on 28 January 2008. Retrieved 11 February 2008. * ^ Fackler, Martin (15 January 2010). "Japan: Navy Ends Mission in Support of Afghan War". _New York Times_. Retrieved 9 May 2015. * ^ " Japan to build navy base in Gulf of Aden". _UPI_. 11 May 2010. Retrieved 25 December 2014. * ^ CRS RL33740 The Changing U.S.- Japan Alliance: Implications for U.S. Interests Archived June 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Pike, John. "Japanese Warships - Equipment Holdings". _Global Security_. Retrieved 25 December 2014. * ^ "Sale Gives New Life to Excess C-130s". _Defense-Aerospace.com_. 7 March 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Dolan, Ronald; Robert Worden (1992). "8". _ Japan : A Country Study_. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0731-3 . See section 2: "The Self Defense Forces"

FURTHER READING

* Auer, James. _The Postwar Rearmament of Japanese Maritime Forces, 1945–1971_. New York: Praeger, 1973. ISBN 0-275-28633-9 * Auer, James. "Japan's Changing Defense Policy," _The New Pacific Security Environment_. Ralph A. Cossa, ed. Wash. D.C.: National Defense University , 1993. * _Jane\'s Intelligence Review _, February 1992. * _Jane\'s Defence Weekly _ 17 August 1991 * Midford, Paul. "Japan’s Response to Terror: Dispatching the SDF to the Arabian Sea," _ Asian Survey _, 43:2 (March/April 2003). * Rubinstein, G.A. and J. O'Connell. "Japan's Maritime Self-Defense Forces," _Naval Forces_. 11: 2 (1990). * Sekino, Hideo. " Japan and Her Maritime Defense," _U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings_ , (May 1971). * Sekino, Hideo. "A Diagnosis of our Maritime Self-Defense Force," _Sekai no Kansen_ (Ships of the World), November 1970. * Takei, Tomohisa," Japan Maritime Self Defense Force in the New Maritime Era," _Hatou_, 34: 4(November 2008). * Tsukigi, Shinji, "External and Internal Factors Shaping The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF)." Monterey, Cal.: Naval Postgraduate School , June 1993. Master’s thesis. * Wile, Ted Shannon. Sealane Defense: An Emerging Role for the JMSDF?. Master's Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School (1981). * Woolley, Peter J (1996). "Japan's 1991 Minesweeping Decision: An Organizational Response". _ Asian Survey _. 36 (8): 804–817. doi :10.1525/as.1996.36.8.01p0159v . * Woolley, Peter J. _Japan’s Navy: Politics and Paradox 1971–2000_. London: Lynne-Reinner: 2000. ISBN 1-55587-819-9 * Yamaguchi, Jiro. "The Gulf War and the Transformation of Japanese Constitutional Politics," _ Journal of Japanese Studies _, Vol. 18 (Winter 1992). * Young, P. Lewis. "The Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Forces: Major Surface Combatants Destroyers and Frigates," _Asian Defense Journal_ (1985).

EXTERNAL LINKS

* JMSDF\'s channel on YouTube * Yokosuka Naval Base Community Website JMSDF News * Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force News * Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (English) * JMSDF overview at GlobalSecurity * Introduction of a paper "JMSDF in the New Maritime Era"

* v * t * e

Japan Self-Defense Forces

Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army)

Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (Navy)

Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force)

COMBATANT SHIP

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