Indiana Jones (franchise)
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''Indiana Jones'' is an American
media franchise A media franchise, also known as a multimedia franchise, is a collection of related media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various me ...
based on the adventures of Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr., a fictional professor of
archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological ...
, that began in 1981 with the film ''
Raiders of the Lost Ark ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is a 1981 American Action film#Action-adventure, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Lawrence Kasdan, based on a story by George Lucas and Philip Kaufman. It stars Harrison Ford, Karen ...
''. In 1984, a prequel, '' The Temple of Doom'', was released, and in 1989, a sequel, '' The Last Crusade''. A fourth film followed in 2008, titled ''
The Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
The Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
''. A fifth film is in production and is provisionally scheduled to be released in 2023. The series was created by
George Lucas George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and entrepreneur. Lucas is best known for creating the '' Star Wars'' and '' Indiana Jones'' franchises and founding Lucasfilm, LucasArts, and ...

George Lucas
and stars
Harrison Ford Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American actor, pilot, and environmental activist. , the U.S. domestic box office grosses of his films total over $5.1billion, with worldwide grosses surpassing $9.3billion, placing him at No. 4 on th ...

Harrison Ford
as Indiana Jones. In 1992, the franchise expanded to a television series with ''
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles'' is an American television series that aired on ABC from March 4, 1992, to July 24, 1993. Filming took place in various locations around the world, with "Old Indy" bookend segments filmed in Wilmington, North ...
'', portraying the character in his childhood and youth, and including adventures with his father.
Marvel Comics Marvel Comics is the brand name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc., formerly Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, a publisher of American comic books and related media. In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Ent ...
began publishing ''The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones'' in 1983, and
Dark Horse Comics Dark Horse Comics is an American comic book and manga publisher. It was founded in 1986 by Mike Richardson (publisher), Mike Richardson in Milwaukie, Oregon. Richardson started out by opening his first comic book store, Pegasus Books, in Bend, Ore ...

Dark Horse Comics
gained the comic book rights to the character in 1991. Novelizations of the films have been published, as well as many novels with original adventures, including a series of German novels by
Wolfgang Hohlbein Wolfgang Hohlbein (born 15 August 1953 in Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east, approximately sout ...
, twelve novels set before the films published by
Bantam Books Bantam Books is an American publishing house Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of ...
, and a series set during the character's childhood inspired by the television show. Numerous ''Indiana Jones'' video games have been released since 1982.


Background

During 1973,
George Lucas George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and entrepreneur. Lucas is best known for creating the '' Star Wars'' and '' Indiana Jones'' franchises and founding Lucasfilm, LucasArts, and ...

George Lucas
wrote ''The Adventures of Indiana Smith''. Like ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of St ...

Star Wars
'', it was an opportunity to create a modern version of the
movie serial A serial film, film serial (or just serial), movie serial, or chapter play, is a film, motion picture form popular during the first half of the 20th century, consisting of a series of short subjects exhibited in consecutive order at one theater, ...
s of the 1930s and 1940s. Lucas discussed the concept with
Philip Kaufman Philip Kaufman (born October 23, 1936) is an American film director and screenwriter who has directed fifteen films over a career spanning more than six decades. He has been described as a "maverick" and an "iconoclast," notable for his versatil ...
, who worked with him for several weeks and decided upon the
Ark of the Covenant The Ark of the Covenant (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judea ...

Ark of the Covenant
as the MacGuffin. The project was stalled when Clint Eastwood hired Kaufman to write ''The Outlaw Josey Wales''. In May 1977, Lucas was in Maui, trying to escape the enormous success of ''Star Wars (film), Star Wars''. His friend and colleague Steven Spielberg was also there, on vacation from work on ''Close Encounters of the Third Kind''. Spielberg told Lucas he was interested in making a List of James Bond films, James Bond film, but Lucas told him of an idea "better than James Bond", outlining the plot of ''
Raiders of the Lost Ark ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is a 1981 American Action film#Action-adventure, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Lawrence Kasdan, based on a story by George Lucas and Philip Kaufman. It stars Harrison Ford, Karen ...
''. Spielberg loved it, calling it "a James Bond film without the List of James Bond gadgets, hardware",McBride, pp. 309–322 and had the character's surname changed to Jones. Spielberg and Lucas made a deal with Paramount Pictures for five Indiana Jones films. Spielberg and Lucas aimed to make ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' much darker, because of their personal moods following their respective breakups and divorces. Lucas made the film a prequel as he did not want the Nazis to be the villains again. He had ideas regarding the Monkey King and a haunted castle, but eventually created the Sankara Stones. He hired Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz to write the script as he knew of their interest in Culture of India, Indian culture. The major scenes that were dropped from ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' were included in this film: an escape using a giant rolling gong as a shield, a fall out of a plane in a raft, and a mine cart chase. For the third film, Spielberg revisited the Monkey King and haunted castle concepts, before Lucas suggested the Holy Grail. Spielberg had previously rejected this as too ethereal, but then devised a father-son story and decided that "The Grail that everybody seeks could be a metaphor for a son seeking reconciliation with a father and a father seeking reconciliation with a son." Following the 1989 release of ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'', Lucas let the series end as he felt he could not think of a good plot device to drive the next installment, and chose instead to produce ''
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles'' is an American television series that aired on ABC from March 4, 1992, to July 24, 1993. Filming took place in various locations around the world, with "Old Indy" bookend segments filmed in Wilmington, North ...
'', which explored the character in his early years. Ford played Indiana in one episode, narrating his adventures in 1920 Chicago. When Lucas shot Ford's role in December 1992, he realized that the scene opened up the possibility of a film with an older Indiana set in the 1950s. The film could reflect a science fiction B movies (Transition in the 1950s), 1950s B-movie, with aliens as the plot device.Rinzler, Bouzereau, Chapter 11: "Atomic Ants from Space: May 1989 to June 2007" p. 231–247 Ford disliked the new angle, telling Lucas: "No way am I being in a Steven Spielberg movie like that." Spielberg himself, who depicted aliens in ''Close Encounters of the Third Kind'' and ''E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial'', resisted it. Lucas devised a story, which Jeb Stuart turned into a script from October 1993 to May 1994. Lucas wanted Indiana to get married, which would allow Henry Jones Sr. to return, expressing concern over whether his son is happy with what he has accomplished. After learning that Joseph Stalin was interested in psychic warfare, Lucas decided to have Russians as the villains and the aliens to have psychic powers.Rinzler, Bouzereau, "Script draft by David Koepp summary and commentary: April 23, 2007", p. 248–255 Following Stuart's next draft, Lucas hired ''Last Crusade'' writer Jeffrey Boam to write the next three versions, the last of which was completed in March 1996. Three months later, ''Independence Day (1996 film), Independence Day'' was released, and Spielberg told Lucas he would not make another alien invasion film (or at least not until ''War of the Worlds (2005 film), War of the Worlds'' in 2005). Lucas decided to focus on the Star Wars prequels, ''Star Wars'' prequels instead. In 2000, Spielberg's son asked when the next ''Indiana Jones'' film would be released, which made him interested in reviving the project. The same year, Ford, Lucas, Spielberg, Frank Marshall (producer), Frank Marshall, and Kathleen Kennedy (producer), Kathleen Kennedy met during the American Film Institute's tribute to Ford, and decided they wanted to enjoy the experience of making an Indiana Jones film again. Spielberg also found returning to the series a respite from his many dark films during this period. Spielberg and Lucas discussed the central idea of a B-movie involving aliens, and Lucas suggested using crystal skulls to ground the idea. Lucas found these artifacts as fascinating as the Ark, and had intended to feature them for a ''Young Indiana Jones'' episode before the show's cancellation. M. Night Shyamalan was hired to write for an intended 2002 shoot, but he was overwhelmed by the task, and claimed it was difficult to get Ford, Spielberg, and Lucas to focus. Stephen Gaghan and Tom Stoppard were also approached. Frank Darabont, who wrote various ''Young Indiana Jones'' episodes, was hired to write in May 2002. His script, titled ''Indiana Jones and the City of Gods'', was set in the 1950s, with ex-Nazis pursuing Jones. Spielberg conceived the idea because of real-life figures such as Juan Perón in Argentina, who allegedly protected Nazi war criminals. Darabont claimed Spielberg loved the script, but Lucas had issues with it, and decided to take over writing himself. Lucas and Spielberg acknowledged that the 1950s setting could not ignore the Cold War, and the Russians were more plausible villains. Spielberg decided he could not satirize the Nazis after directing ''Schindler's List'', while Ford felt "We plum[b] wore the Nazis out." Darabont's main contribution was reintroducing Marion Ravenwood as Indiana's love interest, but he gave them a 13-year-old daughter, which Spielberg decided was too similar to ''The Lost World: Jurassic Park''. Jeff Nathanson met with Spielberg and Lucas in August 2004, and turned in the next drafts in October and November 2005, titled ''The Atomic Ants''. David Koepp continued on from there, giving his script the subtitle ''Destroyer of Worlds'', based on the Robert Oppenheimer quote. It was changed to ''Kingdom of the Crystal Skull'', as Spielberg found this a more inviting title which actually named the plot device.Rinzler, Bouzereau, Chapter 12: "Mr. Jones's Wild Ride: June to December 2007", p. 254–295 Koepp wanted to depict the character of Mutt as a nerd, but Lucas refused, explaining he had to resemble Marlon Brando in ''The Wild One''; "he needs to be what Indiana Jones's father thought of [him] – the curse returns in the form of his own son – he's everything a father can't stand". Koepp collaborated with Lawrence Kasdan on the film's "love dialogue". The Walt Disney Company has owned the ''Indiana Jones'' intellectual property since its acquisition of Lucasfilm, the series' production company, in 2012, when Lucas sold it for $4 billion. Walt Disney Studios (division), Walt Disney Studios owns the distribution and marketing rights to future ''Indiana Jones'' films since 2013, with Paramount retaining the distribution rights to the first four films and receiving "financial participation" from any additional films.


Films


''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' (1981)

The first film is set in 1936. Indiana Jones (character), Indiana Jones (
Harrison Ford Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American actor, pilot, and environmental activist. , the U.S. domestic box office grosses of his films total over $5.1billion, with worldwide grosses surpassing $9.3billion, placing him at No. 4 on th ...

Harrison Ford
) is hired by government agents to locate the
Ark of the Covenant The Ark of the Covenant (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judea ...

Ark of the Covenant
, the gold plated chest containing the stone tablets Moses used to inscribe the Ten Commandments before the Nazi Germany, Nazi Germans steal it for themselves. The Nazis have Ahnenerbe, teams searching for religious artefacts, including the Ark, which is rumored to make an army that carries the Ark before it invincible. The Nazis are being helped by Indiana's arch-rival and French archaeologist René Belloq (Paul Freeman (actor), Paul Freeman). With the help of his former lover and tough bar owner Marion Ravenwood (Karen Allen) and his excavator friend Sallah (John Rhys-Davies), Indiana manages to recover the Ark in Egypt. The Nazis steal the Ark and capture Indiana and Marion. Belloq and the Nazis perform a ceremony to open the Ark, but when they do so, all they find inside is sand. Suddenly, spirits come out of the Ark and the Nazis are all killed by the Ark's wrath. Indiana and Marion, who survived by closing their eyes, manage to get the Ark to the United States, where it is stored in a secret government warehouse.


''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' (1984)

The second film is a prequel set in 1935, a year before ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. Indiana escapes Chinese gangsters led by Lao Che with the help of singer/actress Willie Scott (Kate Capshaw) and his twelve-year-old sidekick Short Round (Jonathan Ke Quan). The trio crash-land in India, where they come across a Punjabi village whose children have been kidnapped. The Thuggee cult led by Mola Ram (Amrish Puri) has also taken the holy Sankara Stones, which they will use to take over the world. Indiana manages to overcome Mola Ram's evil power, rescues the children and returns the stones to their rightful place, overcoming his own mercenary nature. The film has been noted as an outlier in the franchise, as it does not feature Indy's university or any antagonistic political entity, and is less focused on archaeology, being presented as a dark movie with gross-out elements, human sacrifice and torture.


''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'' (1989)

The third film is set in 1938. Indiana and his friend Marcus Brody (Denholm Elliott) are assigned by American businessman Walter Donovan (Julian Glover) to find the Holy Grail. They are teamed up with Dr. Elsa Schneider (Alison Doody), following on from where Indiana's estranged father Henry (Sean Connery) left off before he disappeared. It transpires that Donovan and Elsa are in league with the Nazis, who captured Henry Jones in order to get Indiana to help them find the Grail. However, Indiana recovers his father's diary filled with his research, and manages to rescue him before finding the location of the Grail. Both Donovan and Elsa fall to the temptation of the Grail, while Indiana and Henry realize that their relationship with each other is more important than finding the relic.


''Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull'' (2008)

The fourth film is set in 1957, nineteen years after ''The Last Crusade''. Indiana is having a quiet life teaching before being thrust into a new adventure. He races against agents of the Soviet Union, led by Irina Spalko (Cate Blanchett) for a crystal skull. His journey takes him across Nevada, Connecticut, Peru, and the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. Indiana is faced with betrayal by one of his best friends, Mac (Ray Winstone), is introduced to a greaser (subculture), greaser named Mutt Williams (Shia LaBeouf), who turns out to be his son (his real name revealed to be Henry Jones III), and is reunited with, and eventually marries, Marion Ravenwood, who was the lead female character introduced in the first movie.


Untitled fifth ''Indiana Jones'' film (2023)

A fifth film is scheduled for release on June 30, 2023. The film is being directed by James Mangold, who wrote the script with Jez Butterworth, Jez and John-Henry Butterworth. Spielberg was initially set to direct the film, before passing it to Mangold. Spielberg instead serves as a producer, along with Kennedy and Marshall. Ford reprises the title role, and new cast members include Phoebe Waller-Bridge, Mads Mikkelsen, Thomas Kretschmann, Boyd Holbrook, Shaunette Renée Wilson, Toby Jones and Antonio Banderas. Development of the film began in 2008, but the project stalled for years. Filming eventually began in the United Kingdom in June 2021.


Television

A television series titled ''
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles'' is an American television series that aired on ABC from March 4, 1992, to July 24, 1993. Filming took place in various locations around the world, with "Old Indy" bookend segments filmed in Wilmington, North ...
'' (1992–1996) featured three incarnations of the character: Sean Patrick Flanery played Indiana aged 16–21; Corey Carrier played an 8- to 10-year-old version in several episodes; and George Hall (actor), George Hall narrated the show as the 93-year-old Jones, who bookended each episode. Lucas began developing the series in 1990 as "Educational entertainment, edutainment" that would be more cerebral than the films. The show was his first collaboration with producer Rick McCallum, and he wrote the stories for each episode. Writers and directors on the show included Carrie Fisher, Frank Darabont, Vic Armstrong, Ben Burtt, Terry Jones, Nicolas Roeg, Mike Newell (director), Mike Newell and Joe Johnston. In the ''Chronicles'', Jones crosses paths with many historical figures, played by stars such as Daniel Craig, Christopher Lee, Bob Peck, Jeffrey Wright (actor), Jeffrey Wright, Marc Warren, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Elizabeth Hurley, Anne Heche, Vanessa Redgrave, Julian Fellowes, Timothy Spall and Harrison Ford as a 50-year-old Indiana in one episode (taking the usual place of Hall).Hearn, pp. 170–179 The show was filmed in over 25 countries for over 150 weeks. Season one was shot from March 1991 to March 1992; the second season began two months later and wrapped in April 1993.Hearn, p.186 The American Broadcasting Company, ABC network was unsure of Lucas's cerebral approach, and attempted to advertise the series as an action-adventure like the films. Ratings were good if unspectacular, and ABC was nervous enough to put the show on hiatus after six episodes until September 1992. With only four episodes left of the second season to air, ABC eventually sold the show to the History of Freeform (TV channel)#The Family Channel, Family Channel, who changed the format from 50-minute episodes to 90-minute TV movies. Filming for the final four episodes took place from January 1994 to May 1996. ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles'' received a mixed reception from fans, although it won 10 Emmy Awards out of 23 nominations, as well as a 1994 Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series – Drama, Golden Globe nomination for Best Drama series. It was also an experimentation ground in digital effects for Lucasfilm. The original broadcast versions of some episodes were briefly released in Japan on laserdisc in 1993 and on VHS in 1994. However, Lucas drastically reedited and restructured the show for its worldwide home video release. Major structural changes were made, including the complete removal of the 'bookend' sections narrated by the 93-year-old Jones, and the editing of all the one-hour episodes together into two-hour episodes. Approximately half of the series was released on VHS in various markets around the world in 1999, but the entire series was not released until its DVD debut, in a series of three boxsets released from 2007 to 2008, to tie in with the theatrical debut of ''Kingdom of the Crystal Skull''. Among other extras, the DVDs include approximately 100 new historical featurettes.


Cast and crew


Cast

This is a list of characters who have appeared in the ''Indiana Jones'' film franchise.


Additional crew and production details


Reception


Box office performance


Critical and public response


Academy Awards

The series has been nominated for 13 Academy Awards, of which they have won 6. ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' was also given a Special Achievement Academy Award, Special Achievement Award for Academy Award for Best Sound Editing, Best Sound Effects Editing.


Other media


Novels

A novelization of ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' was written by Campbell Armstrong, Campbell Black and published by Ballantine Books in April 1981. It was followed by ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'', written by James Kahn and published by Ballantine in May 1984. Finally, ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'' was published in May 1989, and was the first Indiana Jones book by Rob MacGregor. A fan of the first two films, MacGregor admitted that writing the novelization made him "somewhat disappointed" with the third film, as he had expanded the script whereas Steven Spielberg had cut scenes to tighten the story. George Lucas asked MacGregor to continue writing original novels for
Bantam Books Bantam Books is an American publishing house Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of ...
. These were geared toward an adult or young adult audience, and were prequels set in the 1920s or early 1930s after Jones graduates from college. Of the film characters, Lucas only permitted Marcus Brody to appear. He asked MacGregor to base the books on real myths, but except for the deletion of a sex scene, the writer was given total creative freedom. His six books – ''Indiana Jones and the Peril at Delphi'', ''Indiana Jones and the Dance of the Giants'', ''Indiana Jones and the Seven Veils'', ''Indiana Jones and the Genesis Deluge'', ''Indiana Jones and the Unicorn's Legacy'', and ''Indiana Jones and the Interior World'' – were published from February 1991 to November 1992. ''The Genesis Deluge'', published in February 1992 and featuring Noah's Ark, was the best-selling novel; MacGregor felt this was because it "had a strong following among religious-oriented people [...] because they tend to take the Noah's Ark story to heart and think of it as history and archaeological fact, rather than myth." MacGregor's favorite book was ''The Seven Veils'', which featured real-life explorer Percy Fawcett and the death of Indiana's wife, Deirdre Campbell. Martin Caidin wrote the next two novels in Bantam's series, ''Indiana Jones and the Sky Pirates'' and ''Indiana Jones and the White Witch''. These feature Gale Parker as Indiana's sidekick; they introduced afterwords to the series, regarding each novel's historical context. Caidin became ill, so Max McCoy took over in 1995 and wrote the final four novels: ''Indiana Jones and the Philosopher's Stone'', ''Indiana Jones and the Dinosaur Eggs'', ''Indiana Jones and the Hollow Earth'', and ''Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Sphinx''. McCoy set his books closer in time to the events of ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'', which led to his characterizing Indiana as "a bit darker". The prolog of his first book featured a crystal skull, and this became a recurring story, concluding when Jones gives it up in the final novel. Lucas's involvement with McCoy's novels was limited, although LucasFilm censored sexual or outlandish elements in order to make the books appeal to younger readers; they also rejected the theme of time travel in the final book. Sallah, Lao Che (Indiana Jones), Lao Che, Rene Belloq and the Nazis made appearances, and McCoy also pitted Jones against Benito Mussolini's fascists and the Japanese. Jones also has a doomed romance with Alecia Dunstin, a librarian at the British Museum. A novel involving the Spear of Destiny was dropped, because
Dark Horse Comics Dark Horse Comics is an American comic book and manga publisher. It was founded in 1986 by Mike Richardson (publisher), Mike Richardson in Milwaukie, Oregon. Richardson started out by opening his first comic book store, Pegasus Books, in Bend, Ore ...

Dark Horse Comics
was developing the idea and later DC Comics developed the idea. The books were only published in paperback, as the series editor felt readers would not be prepared to pay the hardback price for an adventure novel. In February 2008, the novelizations of the first three films were published in one edition; James Rollins' ''Kingdom of the Crystal Skull'' novelization arrived the following May. Children's novelizations of all four films were published by Scholastic Corporation, Scholastic in 2008. MacGregor was said to be writing new books for Ballantine for early 2009, but none have been published. A new adult adventure, ''Indiana Jones and the Army of the Dead'' by Steve Perry (author), Steve Perry, was released in September 2009. A novel based on the video game ''Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings'', written by MacGregor to coincide with the release of the game, was canceled due to problems around the game's production. Additionally, German author
Wolfgang Hohlbein Wolfgang Hohlbein (born 15 August 1953 in Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east, approximately sout ...
wrote eight Indiana Jones novels in the early 1990s, which were never translated to English.


List of novels

All of the following were published by Bantam Books, with the exception of ''Army of the Dead'', which was published by Del Rey. * ''Indiana Jones and the Peril at Delphi'' (Feb 1991) – by Rob Macgregor * ''Indiana Jones and the Dance of the Giants'' (June 1991) – by Rob Macgregor * ''Indiana Jones and the Seven Veils'' (Dec 1991) – by Rob Macgregor * ''Indiana Jones and the Genesis Deluge'' (Feb 1992) – by Rob Macgregor * ''Indiana Jones and the Unicorn's Legacy'' (Sept 1992) – by Rob Macgregor * ''Indiana Jones and the Interior World'' (1992) – by Rob Macgregor * ''Indiana Jones and the Sky Pirates'' (Dec 1993) – by Martin Caidin * ''Indiana Jones and the White Witch'' (1994) – by Martin Caidin * ''Indiana Jones and the Philosopher's Stone'' (1995) – by Max McCoy * ''Indiana Jones and the Dinosaur Eggs'' (1996) – by Max McCoy * ''Indiana Jones and the Hollow Earth'' (1997) – by Max McCoy * ''Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Sphinx'' (1999) – by Max McCoy * ''Indiana Jones and the Army of the Dead'' (2009) – by Steve Perry Indiana Jones novels by Wolfgang Hohlbein: * ''Indiana Jones und das Schiff der Götter'' (1990) – (''Indiana Jones and the Longship of the Gods'') * ''Indiana Jones und die Gefiederte Schlange'' (1990) – (''Indiana Jones and the Feathered Snake'') * ''Indiana Jones und das Gold von El Dorado'' (1991) – (''Indiana Jones and the Gold of El Dorado'') * ''Indiana Jones und das verschwundene Volk'' (1991) – (''Indiana Jones and the Lost People'') * ''Indiana Jones und das Schwert des Dschingis Khan'' (1991) – (''Indiana Jones and the Sword of Genghis Khan'') * ''Indiana Jones und das Geheimnis der Osterinseln'' (1992) – (''Indiana Jones and the Secret of Easter Island'') * ''Indiana Jones und das Labyrinth des Horus'' (1993) – (''Indiana Jones and the Labyrinth of Horus'') * ''Indiana Jones und das Erbe von Avalon'' (1994) – (''Indiana Jones and the Legacy of Avalon'')


Children's novels


''Find Your Fate''

Ballantine Books published a number of Indiana Jones books in the ''Find Your Fate'' line, written by various authors. These books were similar to the ''Choose Your Own Adventure'' series, allowing the reader to select from options that change the outcome of the story. Indiana Jones books comprised 11 of the 17 releases in the line, which was initially titled ''Find Your Fate Adventure''. * ''Indiana Jones and the Curse of Horror Island'' (June 1984) – R. L. Stine * ''Indiana Jones and the Lost Treasure of Sheba'' (June 1984) – Rose Estes * ''Indiana Jones and the Giants of the Silver Tower'' (Aug 1984) – R. L. Stine * ''Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Fates'' (Aug 1984) – Richard Wenk * ''Indiana Jones and the Cup of the Vampire'' (Oct 1984) – Andrew Helfer, Andy Helfer * ''Indiana Jones and the Legion of Death'' (Dec 1984) – Richard Wenk * ''Indiana Jones and the Cult of the Mummy's Crypt'' (Feb 1985) – R. L. Stine * ''Indiana Jones and the Dragon of Vengeance'' (Apr 1985) – Megan Stine and H. William Stine * ''Indiana Jones and the Gold of Genghis Khan'' (May 1985) – Ellen Weiss * ''Indiana Jones and the Ape Slaves of Howling Island'' (1986) – R. L. Stine * ''Indiana Jones and the Mask of the Elephant'' (Feb 1987) – Megan Stine and H. William Stine


Scholastic

In 2008, Scholastic released a series of middle-grade novels based on the stories and screenplays. Each book of this edition included several pages of color stills from filming. * ''Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark'' – Ryder Windham * ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' – Suzanne Weyn * ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'' – Ryder Windham In May 2009, two new middle-grade books were to begin a new series of ''Untold Adventures'', though no further books appeared. * ''Indiana Jones and the Pyramid of the Sorcerer'' – Ryder Windham * ''Indiana Jones and the Mystery of Mount Sinai'' – J.W. Rinzler


''Young Indiana Jones''

In the early 1990s, different book series featured childhood and young adult adventures of Indiana Jones in the early decades of the century. Not all were directly tied to the ''Young Indiana Jones Chronicles'' TV series. ;Random House The following books are set in Indy's mid- to late-teen years. * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Plantation Treasure'' (1990) – by William McCay * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Tomb of Terror'' (1990) – by Les Martin * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Circle of Death'' (1990) – by William McCay * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Secret City'' (1990) – by Les Martin * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Princess of Peril'' (1991) – by Les Martin * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Gypsy Revenge'' (1991) – by Les Martin * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Ghostly Riders'' (1991) – by William McCay * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Curse of Ruby Cross'' – by William McCay * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Titanic Adventure'' (1993) – by Les Martin * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Lost Gold of Durango'' (1993) – by Megan Stine and H. William Stine * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Face of the Dragon'' – by William McCay * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Journey to the Underworld'' (1994) – by Megan Stine and H. William Stine * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Mountain of Fire'' (1994) – by William McCay * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Pirates' Loot'' (1994) – by J.N. Fox * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Tiger'' (1995) – by William McCay * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Mask of the Madman'' (unpublished) – by Megan Stine and H. William Stine * ''Young Indiana Jones and the Ring of Power'' (unpublished) – Megan Stine ;Random House These books were novelizations of episodes of the TV series. Some feature Indy around age 8; others have him age 16–18. * ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: The Mummy's Curse'' – by Megan Stine and H. William Stine * ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Field of Death'' – by Les Martin * ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Safari Sleuth'' – by A.L. Singer * ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: The Secret Peace'' – by William McCay * ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: The Trek of Doom'' – by Les Martin * ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Revolution!'' – by Gavin Scott (Screenwriter), Gavin Scott * ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Race to Danger'' – by Stephanie Calmenson * ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Prisoner of War'' – by Sam Mclean ;Bantam Books These are labeled ''Choose Your Own Adventure'' books. Like the TV series, some feature Indy around age 8, others age 16–18. ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles'': * ''The Valley of the Kings'' – by Richard Brightfield * ''South of the Border'' – by Richard Brightfield * ''Revolution in Russia'' – by Richard Brightfield * ''Masters of the Louvre'' – by Richard Brightfield * ''African Safari'' – by Richard Brightfield * ''Behind the Great Wall'' – by Richard Brightfield * ''The Roaring Twenties'' – by Richard Brightfield * ''The Irish Rebellion'' – by Richard Brightfield ;Ballantine Books ''Young Indiana Jones'': * ''The Mata Hari Affair'' – by James Luceno * ''The Mummy's Curse'' – by Parker Smith ;Graphic novels * ''The Curse of the Jackal'' – by Dan Barry * ''The Search for the Oryx'' – by Dan Barry * ''The Peril of the Fort'' – by Dan Barry ;Non-fiction books * ''Lost Diaries of Young Indiana Jones'' – by Eric D. Weiner * ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: On the Set and Behind the Scenes'' – by Dan Madsen * ''Indiana Jones Explores Ancient Egypt'' – by John Malam * ''Indiana Jones Explores Ancient Rome'' – by John Malam * ''Indiana Jones Explores Ancient Greece'' – by John Malam * ''Indiana Jones Explores The Vikings'' – by John Malam * ''Indiana Jones Explores The Incas'' – by John Malam * ''Indiana Jones Explores The Aztecs'' – by John Malam


Comic books


Video games

Since the release of the original film, there have been a number of video games based on the Indiana Jones series. These include both games based on (or derived from) the films, as well as those featuring the characters in new storylines.


Games adapted or derived from the films

* ''Raiders of the Lost Ark (video game), Raiders of the Lost Ark'' (1982, Atari Inc) – The first Indiana Jones video game. Released on the Atari 2600. * Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1985 video game), ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' (1985, Atari Games) – Arcade game, later converted to many home computer and console formats, including an Nintendo Entertainment System, NES version in 1988. * ''Indiana Jones a Chrám zkázy'' (1985, František Fuka) – A Czech text adventure game based on ''Temple of Doom''. * ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Action Game'' (1989, LucasArts) – One of two ''Last Crusade''-based games released by LucasArts in 1989. * ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure'' (1989, LucasArts) * ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1991 video game), Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'' (1991, Taito) – Released for the NES console. * ''Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures'' (1994, JVC/LucasArts) – The final film adaptation until 2008, based upon all three original films. Released on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. * ''Lego Indiana Jones: The Original Adventures'' (2008, LucasArts) – Based on the original three movies and the Lego toy franchise. * ''Lego Indiana Jones 2: The Adventure Continues'' (2009, LucasArts) – A sequel to the original ''Lego Indiana Jones'' game.


Original games

* ''Indiana Jones in the Lost Kingdom'' (1985, Mindscape (company), Mindscape) * ''Indiana Jones in Revenge of the Ancients'' (1987, Mindscape) – Released for the Apple II and IBM PC DOS, PC DOS computer platforms. * ''Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis'' (1992, LucasArts) – Released for DOS (IBM PC) compatibles in 1992. * ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (video game), The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles'' (1993, Jaleco) – Released for the NES console. * ''Instruments of Chaos starring Young Indiana Jones'' (1994, Sega) – Released for the Sega Genesis * ''Indiana Jones and His Desktop Adventures'' (1996, LucasArts) * ''Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine'' (1999, LucasArts) – Released in 1999 on the PC, as well as for the Nintendo 64 * ''Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine'' (2D version) (2001, LucasArts) – A 2D version of ''Infernal Machine'' released for the Game Boy Color * ''Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb'' (2003, LucasArts) – a prequel to ''Temple of Doom''. Released on the PlayStation 2, Xbox (console), Xbox and Microsoft Windows in 2003. * ''Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings'' (2009, LucasArts) – Released in June 2009 for the Nintendo DS, Wii, PlayStation Portable, PSP and PS2. * ''Indiana Jones and the Lost Puzzles'' (2009, THQ) – Developed by Universomo and published by THQ Wireless for BlackBerry, iOS, and Windows Mobile. * ''Indiana Jones Adventure World'' (2011, Zynga) – The social gaming company Zynga partnered with Lucasfilm to produce this game late 2011. * Untitled ''Indiana Jones'' game (TBA, Bethesda Softworks, MachineGames, Lucasfilm Games) – a new game announced to be in development on January 12, 2021, with Todd Howard executive producing.


Cancelled games

* ''Indiana Jones and the Iron Phoenix'' – An intended sequel to ''The Fate of Atlantis'', intended for a 1995 release, but was cancelled. * Core Design developed a game around 2006 as a reskin of a Tomb Raider: Anniversary#Cancelled Core Design version, cancelled ''Tomb Raider'' game, but this incarnation was not successful either.


Theme park attractions

Prior to Disney's acquisition, George Lucas collaborated with Walt Disney Imagineering on several occasions to create ''Indiana Jones'' attractions for Walt Disney Parks and Resorts worldwide. ''Indiana Jones''-themed attractions and appearances at Disney theme parks include: * The ''Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular!'' show opened at Disney's Hollywood Studios in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, in 1989. * The Indiana Jones et le Temple du Péril roller-coaster opened at Disneyland Paris in Marne-la-Vallée, France, in 1993. * The Indiana Jones Adventure, which opened at Disneyland in Anaheim, California, in 1995 and at Tokyo DisneySea in Chiba Prefecture, Chiba, Japan, in 2001. * An ''Indiana Jones''-themed Bar (establishment), bar lounge, "List of Indiana Jones characters#Jock Lindsey, Jock Lindsey's Hangar Bar", opened in 2015 at Disney Springs at the Walt Disney World Resort. * The Great Movie Ride at Disney's Hollywood Studios featured a scene based on ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''.


Toy lines

For the holiday season following the June 1981 debut of ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'', Kenner Products, Kenner produced a 12-inch-tall "Authentically styled Action Figure" of Indiana Jones. The next spring they delivered nine smaller-scale (3") action figures, three playsets, replicas of the German desert convoy truck and Jones's horse, all derived from the ''Raiders'' movie. They also offered a ''Raiders'' board game.CTR In conjunction with the theatrical release of ''The Temple of Doom'' in 1984, TSR, Inc. released miniature metal versions of twelve characters from both films for a role playing game. LJN, LJN Toys Ltd. also released action figures of Jones, Mola Ram, and the Giant Thugee. No toys were produced to tie in with ''The Last Crusade'' in 1989 Hasbro released toys based on ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' and ''Kingdom of the Crystal Skull'' in 2008. Further figures, including characters from ''The Temple of Doom'' and ''The Last Crusade'', followed later in the year, but were distributed on a very limited basis. This line of toys included 3-inch and 12-inch figures, vehicles, a playset, and a series of "Adventure Heroes" aimed at young children. Hasbro announced the cancellation of the line in the fall of 2008, due to decreasing sales, although some figures continued to be released up until the 2011 San Diego Comic Convention. Sideshow Collectibles, Gentle Giant, Diamond Comic Distributors, Diamond Select Toys and Kotobukiya also earned Indiana Jones licensing rights in 2008. Lego released eight play sets to coincide with the fourth film, based on ''Raiders'' and ''The Last Crusade'' as well as on ''Kingdom of the Crystal Skull'' Merchandise featuring franchise cross-overs include a Mr. Potato Head "Taters Of The Lost Ark" set by Hasbro, Mickey Mouse as Indiana Jones, and a Muppets-branded Adventure Kermit action figure, produced by Palisades Toys and based on the frog's appearance in the Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular!, Disney World stunt show as seen in ''The Muppets at Walt Disney World''. Vinylmation, Disney Vinylmation introduced a series based on ''Indiana Jones'' characters in 2014.


Role-playing games

There have been two publications of role-playing games based on the Indiana Jones franchise. ''The Adventures of Indiana Jones Role-Playing Game'' was designed and published by TSR, Inc. under license in 1984. Ten years later, West End Games acquired the rights to publish their own version, ''The World of Indiana Jones''.


Pinball

A pinball machine based on the first three films was released in 1993. Stern (game company), Stern Pinball released a new edition in 2008, which featured all four movies.


List of accolades received by ''Indiana Jones'' film series


''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' (1981)


''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom'' (1984)


''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'' (1989)


''Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull'' (2008)


See also

*''Tomb Raider'' *''Uncharted'' *''The Librarian (franchise), The Librarian''


References

Footnotes Citations


Sources

* *


Further reading

*


External links


''Indiana Jones'' series
at Box Office Mojo
''Indiana Jones'' franchise
at The Numbers (website), The Numbers {{Authority control Indiana Jones, Film series introduced in 1981 Action film franchises Adventure film series Lucasfilm franchises Paramount Pictures franchises American film series Nazism in fiction