The HUDSON VALLEY comprises the valley of the
Hudson River and its
adjacent communities in the
U.S. state of New York , from the cities
of Albany and Troy southward to
Westchester County .
Depending upon the definition delineating its boundaries, the Hudson
Valley encompasses a growing metropolis which is home to between 3 and
3.5 million residents centered along the north-south axis of the
* 1 Geology and physiography
* 2 History
* 2.1 Colonial era
* 2.2 19th century
* 3 Major industries
* 3.2 Winemaking
* 4 Regions
* 5 Infrastructure
* 6 Sports
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links
GEOLOGY AND PHYSIOGRAPHY
River valley runs primarily north to south down the
eastern edge of New York State, cutting through a series of rock types
Triassic sandstones and redbeds in the south and much more
Precambrian gneiss in the north (and east). In the Hudson
Highlands, the river enters a fjord cut during previous ice ages. To
the west lie the extensive Appalachian highlands. In the Tappan Zee
region, the west side of the river has high cliffs produced by an
erosion-resistant diabase ; these cliffs range from 400–800 feet in
Hudson Valley is one physiographic section of the larger
Ridge-and-Valley province, which in turn is part of the larger
Appalachian physiographic division. The northern portions of the
Hudson Valley fall within the Eastern
Great Lakes and Hudson Lowlands
During the last ice age, the valley was filled by a large glacier
that pushed south as far as
Long Island . Near the end of the last ice
Great Lakes drained south down the Hudson River, from a large
glacial lake called Lake Iroquois .
Lake Ontario is the remnant of
that Lake. Large sand deposits remain from where Lake Iroquois drained
into the Hudson; these are now part of the
Rome Sand Plains .
Morning, Looking East over the
Hudson Valley from Catskill
Mountains by Frederic Edwin Church (1848), of the
Hudson River School
The Lower Hudson Valley, New York City, and the west end of Long
At the time of the arrival of the first Europeans in the 17th
century, the area of
Hudson Valley was inhabited primarily by the
Lenape Native American peoples,
known collectively as River Indians.
The first Dutch settlement was in the 1610s with the establishment of
Fort Nassau , a trading post (factorij ) south of modern-day Albany,
with the purpose of exchanging European goods for beaver pelts. Fort
Nassau was later replaced by Fort Orange . During the rest of the 17th
Hudson Valley formed the heart of the New Netherland
colony operations, with the
New Amsterdam settlement on Manhattan
serving as a post for supplies and defense of the upriver operations.
French and Indian War
French and Indian War in the 1750s, the northern end of
the valley became the bulwark of the British defense against French
invasion from Canada via
Lake Champlain .
The valley became one of the major regions of conflict during the
American Revolution . Part of the early strategy of the British was to
sever the colonies in two by maintaining control of the river.
In 1797, the state capital of New York was established permanently at
Following the building of the
Erie Canal , the area became an
important industrial center. The canal opened the
Hudson Valley and
New York City
New York City to commerce with the Midwest and
Great Lakes regions.
However, in the mid 20th century, many of the industrial towns went
In the early 19th century, popularized by the stories of Washington
Irving , the
Hudson Valley gained a reputation as a somewhat gothic
region inhabited by the remnants of the early days of the Dutch
colonization of New York (see, e.g.,
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow ).
The area is associated with the
Hudson River School , a group of
American Romantic painters who worked from about 1830 to 1870.
The natural appearance of the
Hudson Valley has earned the Hudson
River the nickname "America's Rhineland", a comparison to the famous
40 mile (65 km) stretch of Germany's
River valley between the
cities of Bingen and
Koblenz . A similar 30-mile (48 km) stretch of
the east bank in Dutchess and Columbia counties has been designated a
National Historic Landmark .
Tourism became a major industry as early as 1810, as elite visitors
frequented the mineral water at Ballston Spa and Saratoga Springs for
their health. With convenient steamboat connections in New York City,
and numerous attractive hotels in romantic settings, tourism became an
important industry. Early guidebooks providing suggestions on their
itinerary. Middle-class people who read
James Fenimore Cooper
James Fenimore Cooper 's
novels, or saw the paintings of the
Hudson River School, were
Tech Valley The main laboratory building of the
IBM Watson Research Center is located in Yorktown Heights .
Tech Valley is a marketing name for the eastern part of New York
State, including the
Hudson Valley and the Capital District .
Originated in 1998 to promote the greater Albany area as a high-tech
competitor to regions such as
Silicon Valley and
Boston , it has since
grown to represent the counties in New York between
IBM 's Westchester
County plants in the south and the Canada–US border to the north.
The area's high technology ecosystem is supported by technologically
focused academic institutions including Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute and the
State University of New York Polytechnic Institute .
Tech Valley encompasses 19 counties straddling both sides of the
Adirondack Northway and the
New York Thruway , and with heavy state
taxpayer subsidy , has experienced significant growth in the computer
hardware side of the high-technology industry, with great strides in
the nanotechnology sector, digital electronics design, and water- and
electricity-dependent integrated microchip circuit manufacturing,
involving companies including
IBM in Armonk and its Thomas J. Watson
Research Center in Yorktown ,
GlobalFoundries in Malta , and others.
Westchester County has developed a burgeoning biotechnology sector in
the 21st century, with over US$1 billion in planned private investment
as of 2016, earning the county the nickname Biochester.
Hudson Valley is the oldest wine making and grape-growing region
in the United States, with roots established as early as 1677, and has
experienced a resurgence in viticulture in the 21st century. Many
wineries are located in the Hudson Valley, offering wine-tasting and
other tours. Numerous wine festivals are held in the Hudson Valley,
with themes often varying by season. Rhinebeck, NY is home to the
Hudson Valley Wine "> The
New York State Capitol in Albany
Roofed sidewalks in Kingston
Main Mall Row
Main Mall Row in Poughkeepsie
Downtown Newburgh Main Street, Tarrytown , with its Music
Hall Riverfront Library in
Hudson Valley is divided into three regions: Lower, Middle, and
Upper. The following is a list of the counties within the Hudson
Valley sorted by region. The Lower
Hudson Valley is typically
considered part of the
Downstate New York region due to its
geographical and cultural proximity to
New York City
New York City .
UPPER HUDSON/CAPITAL DISTRICT
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it .
See also: List of fixed crossings of the
Hudson Valley is served by
Interstate 87 (the New York State
Thruway ), Interstate 95 ,
Interstate 287 , and
Interstate 684 .
Parkways in the region include the Bronx River
Parkway , the Cross
Parkway , the Hutchinson River
Parkway , the Saw Mill River
Parkway , the Sprain Brook
Parkway , and the Taconic State
Tappan Zee Bridge
Tappan Zee Bridge connects
Tarrytown, New York in Westchester
County to South Nyack in
Rockland County across the Hudson River. A $4
billion replacement bridge began construction in 2013. The Bear
Mountain Bridge crosses the
Hudson River from Cortlandt in Westchester
Bear Mountain State Park at the northern edge of Rockland
County. The combination of these numerous highways, proximity to New
York City, and the region's large population all lead to substantial
Commuter rail service in the region is provided by Metro-North
Railroad (operated by the
Metropolitan Transportation Authority ).
Metro-North operates three lines in the region; west to east, they are
the Hudson , the Harlem and the New Haven lines. These are former
operations of the
New York Central and the New York, New Haven and
Hartford railroads, each of which stops in the Bronx between
Westchester and Manhattan.
Amtrak serves Croton-Harmon , New Rochelle
Yonkers . There are proposals for a cross-county rail line to
connect all three lines and provide easier access to Stamford,
NY Waterway also operates a ferry service between Haverstraw in
Rockland County and Ossining.
Westchester County Airport is adjacent to White Plains.
Mid-Hudson Bridge , connecting Poughkeepsie and Highland
Walkway over the Hudson , also connecting Poughkeepsie
Bear Mountain Bridge , connecting northern Westchester and Rockland
Tappan Zee Bridge
Tappan Zee Bridge , presently connecting southern Westchester and
Hudson Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Conference and Mid
Hudson Valley Renegades is a minor league baseball team
affiliated with the
Tampa Bay Rays
Tampa Bay Rays . The team is a member of the New
York–Penn League and plays at
Dutchess Stadium in Fishkill . The
Rockland Boulders of the independent Can-Am League play in Rockland
Kingston Stockade FC is a soccer team representing the Hudson Valley
National Premier Soccer League (NPSL), a national
semi-professional league at the fourth tier of the American Soccer
Pyramid . They compete in the North Atlantic conference of the NPSL's
Northeast region, and began their first season in May 2016.
* Alder Lake
* Geography portal
Hudson Valley portal
* New York portal
* ^ "Mountains, Valleys and the Hudson River". Hudson Valley
Tourism. 2009. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
* ^ Van Diver, B.B. 1985. Roadside Geology of New York. Mountain
Press, Missoula. p. 59-63.
* ^ "Physiographic divisions of the conterminous U. S.". U.S.
Geological Survey. Retrieved 2007-12-06.
* ^ Eyles, N. Ontario Rocks: Three Billion Years of Environmental
Change. Fitzhenry & Whiteside, Markham, Ontario. 339 p.
* ^ Ruttenberg, Edward Manning (1872). History of the Indian tribes
of Hudson\'s River: Their Origin, Manners and Customs, Tribal and
Sub-tribal Organizations, Wars, Treaties, etc. Albany, New York: J.
OCLC 85801464 .
* ^ Wermuth, Thomas S.; Johnson, James M.; Pryslopski, Christopher,
eds. (2009). America's first river: the history and culture of the
Hudson River Valley.
State University of New York Press . ISBN
* ^ Dunn, Shirley W. (2009). The River Indians – Mohicans Making
History. Purple Mountain Press. ISBN 978-0-916346-78-2 .
* ^ Gehring, Charles T.; Starna, William A., "Dutch and Indians in
the Hudson Valley: The Early Period". Wermuth et al., pp. 13–29.
* ^ Thomas, A and Smith, P; Upstate down: thinking about New York
and its discontents University Press of America 2009, p78
* ^ Glatthaar, Joseph T., and Martin, James Kirby (2007). Forgotten
Allies: The Oneida Indians and the American Revolution, p. 39.
Macmillan. ISBN 0-8090-4600-8 .
* ^ Stanne, Stephen P., et al. (1996). The Hudson: An Illustrated
Guide to the Living River, p. 120. Rutgers University Press. ISBN
* ^ Hirschl, Thomas A.; Heaton, Tim B. (1999). New York State in
the 21st Century. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 126–128. ISBN
* ^ Dunwell, Francis F. (2008). The Hudson: America's river.
Columbia University Press
Columbia University Press . p. 100. ISBN 978-0-231-13641-9 .
* ^ Collins, Clay (2011-01-01). "Venison juniper berry marinade".
The Christian Science Monitor
The Christian Science Monitor . Retrieved 2011-09-29. Christmas at my
German in-laws’ house in New York's
Hudson Valley – America's
Rhineland – means goose, red cabbage, and klösse (potato
* ^ "Grapes of the Hudson Valley".
Hudson Valley Wine Magazine.
Retrieved 2011-09-29. The Hudson Valley's beautiful river, shorelines
and mountains have led some to call our valley ‘America's
* ^ Richard H. Gassan, The Birth of American Tourism: New York, the
Hudson Valley, and American Culture, 1790–1835 (2008)
* ^ A B "About Tech Valley".
Tech Valley Chamber Coalition.
Archived from the original on 2008-11-03. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
* ^ A B Larry Rulison (July 10, 2015). "Made in Albany:
breakthrough chip made at SUNY Poly". Albany Times-Union. Retrieved
July 12, 2015.
* ^ Keshia Clukey (June 27, 2014). "Better than advertised: Chip
plant beats expectations". Albany Business Review. Retrieved July 20,
* ^ "Fab 8 Overview". GLOBALFOUNDRIES Inc. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
* ^ Freeman Klopott; Xu Wang; Niamh Ring (September 27, 2011).
"IBM, Intel Start $4.4 Billion in Chip Venture in New York". 2011
Bloomberg. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
* ^ John Jordan (January 2016). "$1.2 Billion Project Could Make
Westchester a Biotech Destination". Hudson Gateway Association of
Realtors. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
* ^ Steve Ditlea. "Westchester’s Unexpected Powerhouse Position
In the Biotech Industry - Four years after our initial look at
Westchester’s biotech industry, the sector has gone from fledgling
to behemoth.". Today Media. Retrieved April 7, 2016. All around, there
are signs of a Biochester bloom:
* ^ "The Roots of American Wine since 1677". HUDSON VALLEY WINE
COUNTRY.ORG. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
* ^ "The Roots of American Wine since 1677 - Calendar of Festivals
and Events". HUDSON VALLEY WINE COUNTRY.ORG. Retrieved October 26,
* ^ https://www.hudsonvalleywinefest.com/
* ^ Silverman, B et al; Frommer's New York State Frommer's 2009,
* ^ "New Tappan Zee construction starts". New York Post. The
Associated Press. October 16, 2013. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
* Donaldson Eberlein, Harold; Van Dyke Hubbard, Cortlandt (1942).
Historic houses of the Hudson valley. New York: Architectural Book
OCLC 3444265 .
Historic Hudson Valley (1991). Visions of Washington Irving:
Selected Works From the Collections of Historic Hudson Valley.
Tarrytown, New York:
Historic Hudson Valley . ISBN 978-0-912882-99-4 .
* Howat, John K. (1972). The
Hudson River and Its Painters. New
Viking Press . ISBN 978-0-670-38558-4 .
* Jacobs, Jaap and L.H. Roper (eds.) (2014). The Worlds of the
Seventeenth-Century Hudson Valley. Albany, New York: State University
of New York Press.
* Marks, Alfred H. (1973). Literature of the Mid Hudson Valley: A
Preliminary Study. New Paltz, New York: Center for Continuing
Education, State University College.
OCLC 1171631 .
* McMurry, James; Jones, Jeff (1974). The Catskill Witch and Other
Tales of the Hudson Valley. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University
Press . ISBN 978-0-8156-0105-0 .
* Mylod, John (1969). Biography of a River: The People and Legends
of the Hudson Valley. New York: Hawthorn Books.
OCLC 33563 .
* Scheltema, Gajus and Westerhuijs, Heleen (eds.),Exploring Historic
Dutch New York. New York: Museum of the City of New York/Dover
* Talbott, Hudson (2009). River of Dreams: The Story of the Hudson
River. New York: G. P. Putnam\'s Sons . ISBN 978-0-399-24521-3 .
* Vernon, Benjamin. The History of the
Hudson River Valley (New
York: Overlook, 2016. xiv, 625 pp.
* Wallkill Valley Publishing Association (1904). The Historic
Hudson River Valleys. Walden, New York: Wallkill Valley
OCLC 13418978 .
* Wharton, Edith (1929).
Hudson River Bracketed. New York: D.
Appleton & Company .
OCLC 297188 .
* Wilkinson Reynolds, Helen (1965). Dutch houses in the Hudson
Valley before 1776. New York:
Dover Publications .
OCLC 513732 .