Hudson Valley comprises the valley of the
Hudson River and its
adjacent communities in the
U.S. state of New York, from the cities of
Albany and Troy southward to
Yonkers in Westchester County.
Depending upon the definition delineating its boundaries, the Hudson
Valley encompasses a growing metropolis which is home to between 3 and
3.5 million residents centered along the north-south axis of the
1 Geology and physiography
2.1 Pre-Columbian era
2.2 Exploration, colonization, and revolution: 1497 to 1800
2.2.1 Exploration of the Hudson River
2.2.2 Dutch colonization
2.2.3 British colonization
2.2.4 Revolutionary War
2.3 Industrial Revolution and 20th century
Hudson River School
3 Major industries
3.1 Tech Valley
8 Further reading
9 External links
Geology and physiography
River valley runs primarily north to south down the eastern
edge of New York State, cutting through a series of rock types
Triassic sandstones and redbeds in the south and much more
Precambrian gneiss in the north (and east). In the Hudson
Highlands, the river enters a fjord cut during previous ice ages. To
the west lie the extensive Appalachian highlands. In the Tappan Zee
region, the west side of the river has high cliffs produced by an
erosion-resistant diabase; these cliffs range from 400–800 feet in
Hudson Valley is one physiographic section of the larger
Ridge-and-Valley province, which in turn is part of the larger
Appalachian physiographic division. The northern portions of the
Hudson Valley fall within the Eastern
Great Lakes and Hudson Lowlands
During the last ice age, the valley was filled by a large glacier that
pushed south as far as Long Island. Near the end of the last ice age,
Great Lakes drained south down the Hudson River, from a large
glacial lake called Lake Iroquois.
Lake Ontario is the remnant of
that Lake. Large sand deposits remain from where Lake
into the Hudson; these are now part of the Rome Sand Plains.
Morning, Looking East over the
Hudson Valley from Catskill Mountains
Frederic Edwin Church
Frederic Edwin Church (1848), of the
Hudson River School
The Lower Hudson Valley, New York City, and the west end of Long
Hudson Valley was inhabited by indigenous peoples ages before
Europeans arrived. The Algonquins lived along the Hudson River, with
the three subdivisions of that group being the
Lenape (also known as
the Delaware Indians), the Wappingers, and the Mahicans. The lower
Hudson River was inhabited by the
Lenape Indians. In fact, the
Lenape Indians were the people that waited for the explorer Giovanni
da Verrazzano onshore, traded with Henry Hudson, and sold the island
of Manhattan. Further north, the Wappingers lived from Manhattan
Island up to Poughkeepsie. They lived a similar lifestyle to the
Lenape, residing in various villages along the river. They traded with
Lenape to the south and the Mahicans to the north. The
Mahicans lived in the northern valley from present-day Kingston to
Lake Champlain, with their capital located near present-day
The Lenape, the Wappingers, and the Mahicans were speakers of
languages that were part of Algonquin language family. As such, the
three subdivisions were able to communicate with each other. Their
relations with each other were mostly peaceful. However, the
Mahicans were often in direct conflict with the Mohawk Indians to the
west, which were a part of the
Iroquois nation. The Mohawks would
Mahican villages from the west.
The Algonquins in the region lived mainly in small clans and villages
throughout the area. One major fortress was called Navish, which was
located at Croton Point, overlooking the Hudson River. Other
fortresses were located in various locations throughout the Hudson
Highlands. Villagers lived in various types of houses, which the
Algonquins called Wigwams. The houses could be circular or
rectangular. Large families often lived in longhouses that could be a
hundred feet long. At the associated villages, the indigenous
peoples grew corn, beans, and squash. They also scavenged for other
types of plant foods, such as various types of nuts and berries. In
addition to agriculture, they also fished for food in the river,
focusing on various species of freshwater fish, as well as several
variations of striped bass, sturgeon, herring, and shad. Oyster beds
were also common on the river floor, which provided an extra source of
nutrition. Land hunting consisted of turkey, deer, rabbits, and other
Exploration, colonization, and revolution: 1497 to 1800
Exploration of the Hudson River
John Cabot traveled along the coast and claimed the entire
country for England; he is credited with the Old World's discovery of
continental North America. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da
Verrazzano visited the bay of New York, in service of Francis I of
France. On his voyage, Verrazano sailed north along the Atlantic
seaboard, starting in the Carolinas. Verrazano sailed all the way to
New York Harbor, which he thought was the mouth of a major river.
Verrazano sailed his boat into the harbor, and possibly sailed over
what is now Battery Park (Battery Park was created with landfill).
However, Verrazano never sailed up the Hudson River, and left the
harbor shortly thereafter. A year later, Estevan Gomez, a
Portuguese explorer sailing for Spain in search of the Northwest
Passage visited New York Bay. The extent of his explorations in the
bay is unknown. Yet as Charles H. Winfield has noted, as late as 1679,
there was a tradition among the First Nations that the Spanish arrived
before the Dutch, and that from them it was that the natives obtained
the maize or Spanish wheat. Maps of that era based on Gomez's map
labeled the coast from New Jersey to Rhode Island, as the "land of
In 1598 some Dutch employed by the Greenland Company wintered in the
Bay. Eleven years later, the
Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company financed
Henry Hudson in his attempt to search for the
Northwest Passage. During this attempt,
Henry Hudson decided to sail
his ship up the river that would later be named after him. As he
continued up the river, its width expanded, into Haverstraw Bay,
leading him to believe he had successfully reached the Northwest
Passage. He docked his ship on the western shore of Haverstraw Bay and
claimed the territory as the first Dutch settlement in North America.
He also proceeded upstream as far as present-day Troy before
concluding that no such strait existed there.
Henry Hudson realized that the
Hudson River was not the
Northwest Passage, the Dutch began examine the region for potential
trading opportunities. Dutch explorer and merchant Adriaen Block
led a voyage up the lower Hudson River, the East River, and out into
Long Island Sound. This voyage determined that the fur trade would be
profitable in the region. As such, the Dutch established the colony of
The Dutch settled three major outposts: New Amsterdam, Wiltwyck, and
New Amsterdam was founded at the mouth of the Hudson
River, and would later become known as New York City.
founded roughly halfway up the
Hudson River between
New Amsterdam and
Fort Orange. That outpost would later become Kingston.
Fort Orange was
the outpost that was the furthest up the Hudson River. That outpost
would later become known as Albany.
New Netherland and its associated outposts were set up as fur-trading
outposts. The Dutch attempted to form a trade alliance with the
Mahicans, angering the Mohawk nation and provoking hostilities between
the two tribes. The Natives began to trap furs at a quicker pace and
then sold them to the Dutch for luxuries. This trade would eventually
deplete the supply of those animals in their territory, decreasing the
food supply in the process. The focus on furs also made the Natives
economically dependent on the Dutch for trade.
Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company operated a monopoly on the region for
roughly twenty years before other businessmen were allowed to set up
their own ventures in the colony.
New Amsterdam quickly became the
colony's most important city, operating as its capital and its
merchant hub. The other outposts functioned as settlements in the
wilderness. At first, the colony was made up of mostly single
adventures looking to make money, but over time the region
transitioned into maintaining family households. New economic activity
in the form of food, tobacco, timber, and slaves was eventually
incorporated into the colonial economy.
In 1647, Director-General
Peter Stuyvesant took over management of the
colony. He found the colony in chaos due to a border war with the
English along the Connecticut River, and Indian battles throughout the
region. Stuyvesant quickly cracked down on smuggling and associated
activity before expanding the outposts along the Hudson River,
Wiltwyck at the mouth of Esopus Creek. Stuyvesant attempted
to establish a fort midway up the Hudson River. However, before that
could be done, the British invaded
New Netherland via the port of New
Amsterdam. Given that the city of
New Amsterdam was largely
defenseless, Stuyvesant was forced to surrender the city and the
colony to the British.
New Amsterdam and the overall colony of New
Netherland was renamed New York, after the Duke of York. The Dutch
regained New York temporarily, only to relinquish it again a few years
later, thus ending Dutch control over New York and the Hudson
Under British colonial rule, the
Hudson Valley became an agricultural
hub, with manors being developed on the east side of the river. At
these manors, landlords rented out land to their tenants, letting them
take a share of the crops grown while keeping and selling the rest of
the crops. Tenants were often kept at a subsistence level so that
the landlord could minimize his costs. They also held immense
political power in the colony due to driving such a large proportion
of the agricultural output. Meanwhile, land west of Hudson River
contained smaller landholdings with many small farmers living off the
land. A large crop grown in the region was grain, which was largely
shipped downriver to New York City, the colony's main seaport, for
export back to Great Britain. In order to export the grain, colonial
merchants were given monopolies to grind the grain into flour and
export it. Grain production was also at high levels in the Mohawk
French and Indian War
French and Indian War in the 1750s, the northern end of the
valley became the bulwark of the British defense against French
invasion from Canada via Lake Champlain.
Map of Washington's retreat through New York and New Jersey
Hudson River was a key river during the Revolution. The Hudson
River was important for a few reasons. Firstly, the Hudson's
connection to the
Mohawk River allowed travelers to eventually get to
Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. In addition, the river's
close proximity to Lake George and
Lake Champlain would allow the
British navy to control the water route from
Montreal to New York
City. In doing so, the British, under general John Burgoyne's
strategy, would be able to cut off the patriot hub of New England
(which is on the eastern side of the Hudson River) and focus on
rallying the support of loyalists in the South and Mid-Atlantic
regions. The British knew that total occupation of the colonies would
be unfeasible, which is why this strategy was chosen.
As a result of the strategy, numerous battles were fought along the
river, including several in the Hudson Valley. George Washington's
Continental Army had retreated north to
White Plains, New York
White Plains, New York in
1776, as the British pursued him and his army. While the British
advanced towards him, Washington decided to take a stand in White
Plains. In October 1776, Howe's army advanced from New Rochelle, and
Scarsdale. Washington set up defensive positions in the hills around
the village. When the British attacked, the British managed to break
the Continental's defenses at Chatterton Hill, now known as Battle
Hill. Once the British managed to reach the top of the hill,
Washington was forced to retreat. The main positive for Washington
after this battle was that he managed to avoid being enveloped by the
British Army. Washington ordered his men to retreat across the
Hudson River, eventually reaching New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
Because Washington was able to preserve what was left of his army,
this retreat would eventually lead to the successful surprise attacks
Trenton, New Jersey
Trenton, New Jersey and
Princeton, New Jersey
Princeton, New Jersey in December of the
same year. Fort Washington in Upper
Manhattan later fell after
Once Washington retreated to Pennsylvania,
New England militias had to
fortify the Hudson Highlands, a choke point on the river north of
Haverstraw Bay. As a result, the Continentals started building Fort
Clinton on the other side of the river from Fort Montgomery. In the
year 1777, Washington expected General Howe to sail his army north to
Saratoga in order to meet up with General Burgoyne. This would result
Hudson River being sealed off. However, Howe surprised
Washington by sailing his army south to Philadelphia, conquering the
Patriot capital. Washington was out of position and sought to defend
Philadelphia, but to no avail. Meanwhile, Howe left Sir Henry Clinton
in charge of a smaller force to be docked in New York City, with the
permission to strike the
Hudson Valley at any time. On October 5,
1777, Clinton's army did so. At the Battle of the Hudson Highlands,
Clinton's force sailed up the
Hudson River and attacked the twin
forts. Along the way, the army looted and pillaged the village of
Peeksill. The Continentals fought hard at the battle, but they were
badly outnumbered and were fighting in unfinished forts. Washington's
men were caught between defending Philadelphia and defending the
Hudson Valley. In the end, the British took the fort, as well as
taking Philadelphia around the same time. However, Clinton and his men
New York City
New York City soon afterward.
The Continentals later decided to build the Great West Point Chain in
order to prevent another British fleet from sailing up the Hudson
River in a similar manner as during the previous battle. The chain
that was by the forts was simply circumvented by the British army via
attacking on the shores. The new chain, designed by engineer Captain
Thomas Machin, could have theoretically been lowered in order to let
friendly ships sail down the river, but the chain was never tested,
and was later discarded after the war.
During Benedict Arnold's control over West Point, he began weakening
its defenses, including neglecting repairs on the West Point
Chain. At the time, Arnold was secretly loyal to the British, and
planned to hand off West Point's plans to British major
John André at
Snedeker's Landing (or Waldberg Landing) on the wooded west shore of
Haverstraw Bay. On September 21, 1780, André sailed up the river
on the HMS Vulture to meet Arnold. The next morning, an outpost at
Verplanck's Point fired on the ship, which sailed back down river.
André was forced to return to
New York City
New York City by land;(pp151–6)
however, he was captured near Tarrytown on September 23 by three
Westchester militiamen, and later was hanged. Arnold later fled to New
York City using the HMS Vulture.(p159)
Industrial Revolution and 20th century
Following the building of the Erie Canal, the area became an important
industrial center. The canal opened the
Hudson Valley and New York
City to commerce with the Midwest and
Great Lakes regions.
However, in the mid 20th century, many of the industrial towns went
The first railroad in New York, the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad, opened
in 1831 between Albany and
Schenectady on the Mohawk River, enabling
passengers to bypass the slowest part of the Erie Canal.
Hudson Valley proved attractive for railroads, once technology
progressed to the point where it was feasible to construct the
required bridges over tributaries. The Troy and Greenbush Railroad was
chartered in 1845 and opened that same year, running a short distance
on the east side between Troy and Greenbush, now known as East
Greenbush (east of Albany). The
Hudson River Railroad was chartered
the next year as a continuation of the Troy and Greenbush south to New
York City, and was completed in 1851. In 1866 the
Hudson River Bridge
opened over the river between Greenbush and Albany, enabling through
traffic between the
Hudson River Railroad and the New York Central
Railroad west to Buffalo. When the
Poughkeepsie Bridge opened in 1889,
it became the longest single-span bridge in the world.
The New York, West Shore and Buffalo Railway began at Weehawken
Terminal and ran up the west shore of the Hudson as a competitor to
the merged New York Central and
Hudson River Railroad. Construction
was slow, and was finally completed in 1884; the New York Central
purchased the line the next year.
During the Industrial Revolution, the
Hudson River became a major
location for production. The river allowed for fast and easy transport
of goods from the interior of the Northeast to the coast. Hundreds of
factories were built around the Hudson, in towns including
Poughkeepise, Newburgh, Kingston, and Hudson. The North Tarrytown
Assembly (later owned by General Motors), on the river in Sleepy
Hollow, was a large and notable example. The river links to the Erie
Canal and Great Lakes, allowing manufacturing in the Midwest,
including automobiles in Detroit, to use the river for
transport.(pp71–2) With industrialization came new technologies
for transport, including steamboats for faster transport. In 1807, the
North River Steamboat
North River Steamboat (later known as Clermont), became the first
commercially successful steamboat. It carried passengers between
New York City
New York City and Albany along the Hudson River.
Tourism became a major industry as early as 1810. With convenient
steamboat connections in New York City, and numerous attractive hotels
in romantic settings, tourism became an important industry. Early
guidebooks providing suggestions on their itinerary. Middle-class
people who read James Fenimore Cooper's novels, or saw the paintings
Hudson River School, were especially attracted.
In 1965, governor
Nelson Rockefeller proposed the Hudson River
Expressway, a limited-access highway from the Bronx to Beacon. An
8-mile section was built from Ossining to Peekskill, now part of U.S.
Route 9; the rest of the highway was never built due to local
Hudson River School
Hudson River School
Robert Havell, Jr., View of the
Hudson River from Tarrytown
In the early 19th century, popularized by the stories of Washington
Hudson Valley gained a reputation as a somewhat gothic
region inhabited by the remnants of the early days of the Dutch
colonization of New York (see, e.g., The Legend of Sleepy Hollow). The
area is associated with the
Hudson River School, a group of American
Romantic painters who worked from about 1830 to 1870.
Hudson River School paintings reflect three themes of America in the
19th century: discovery, exploration, and settlement. The
paintings also depict the American landscape as a pastoral setting,
where human beings and nature coexist peacefully.
Hudson River School
landscapes are characterized by their realistic, detailed, and
sometimes idealized portrayal of nature, often juxtaposing peaceful
agriculture and the remaining wilderness, which was fast disappearing
Hudson Valley just as it was coming to be appreciated for its
qualities of ruggedness and sublimity. In general, Hudson River
School artists believed that nature in the form of the American
landscape was an ineffable manifestation of God, though the
artists varied in the depth of their religious conviction. They took
as their inspiration such European masters as Claude Lorrain, John
Constable and J. M. W. Turner. Their reverence for America's
natural beauty was shared with contemporary American writers such as
Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson. The Düsseldorf
school of painting had a direct influence on the Hudson River
The school characterizes the artistic body, its New York location, its
landscape subject matter, and often its subject, the Hudson River.
While the elements of the paintings were rendered realistically, many
of the scenes were composed as a synthesis of multiple scenes or
natural images observed by the artists. In gathering the visual data
for their paintings, the artists would travel to extraordinary and
extreme environments, which generally had conditions that would not
permit extended painting at the site. During these expeditions, the
artists recorded sketches and memories, returning to their studios to
paint the finished works later.
Thomas Cole is generally acknowledged as the founder of the
Hudson River School. Cole took a steamship up the Hudson in the
autumn of 1825, the same year the
Erie Canal opened, stopping first at
West Point, then at Catskill landing. He hiked west high up into the
Catskill Mountains of New York State to paint the first
landscapes of the area. The first review of his work appeared in the
New York Evening Post on November 22, 1825. At that time, only the
English native Cole, born in a landscape where autumnal tints were of
browns and yellows, found the brilliant autumn hues of the area to be
inspirational. Cole's close friend, Asher Durand, became a
prominent figure in the school as well. Painters Frederic Edwin
Albert Bierstadt were the most successful painters of the
On October 3, 2009 the Poughkeepsie-Highland Railroad Bridge reopened
as the Walkway over the Hudson. It is a pedestrian walkway over the
Hudson River that opened as part of the
Hudson River Quadricentennial
Celebrations, and it connects over 25 miles of existing pedestrian
Main article: Tech Valley
The main laboratory building of the
IBM Watson Research Center is
located in Yorktown Heights.
Tech Valley is a marketing name for the eastern part of New York
State, including the
Hudson Valley and the Capital District.
Originated in 1998 to promote the greater Albany area as a high-tech
competitor to regions such as
Silicon Valley and Boston, it has since
grown to represent the counties in New York between IBM's Westchester
County plants in the south and the Canada–US border to the north.
The area's high technology ecosystem is supported by technologically
focused academic institutions including Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute and the State University of New York Polytechnic
Tech Valley encompasses 19 counties straddling both
sides of the
Adirondack Northway and the New York Thruway, and
with heavy state taxpayer subsidy, has experienced significant growth
in the computer hardware side of the high-technology industry, with
great strides in the nanotechnology sector, digital electronics
design, and water- and electricity-dependent integrated microchip
circuit manufacturing, involving companies including
IBM in Armonk
Thomas J. Watson Research Center
Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown, GlobalFoundries
in Malta, and others.
Westchester County has developed a
burgeoning biotechnology sector in the 21st century, with over US$1
billion in planned private investment as of 2016, earning the
county the nickname Biochester.
Hudson Valley is one of the oldest wine making and grape-growing
regions in the United States, with roots established as early as 1677,
and has experienced a resurgence in viticulture in the 21st century.
Many wineries are located in the Hudson Valley, offering wine-tasting
and other tours. Numerous wine festivals are held in the Hudson
Valley, with themes often varying by season. Rhinebeck is home to
Hudson Valley Wine & Food Fest, hosted at the Dutchess County
See also: List of incorporated places in New York's Hudson Valley,
Timeline of town creation in the Hudson Valley, and Timeline of town
creation in New York's Capital District
New York State Capitol
New York State Capitol in Albany
Main Mall Row
Main Mall Row in Poughkeepsie
Main Street, Tarrytown, with its Music Hall
Riverfront Library in Yonkers
Hudson Valley is divided into three regions: Lower, Middle, and
Upper. The following is a list of the counties within the Hudson
Valley sorted by region. The Lower
Hudson Valley is typically
considered part of the
Downstate New York
Downstate New York region due to its
geographical and cultural proximity to New York City.
Upper Hudson/Capital District
See also: List of fixed crossings of the Hudson River
Major interstates in the
Hudson Valley include The New York State
Thruway), a small section of Interstate 95 in Southeastern Westchester
Interstate 287 serving Westchester and Rockland Counties,
Interstate 84 serving Putnam, Dutchess, and Orange Counties, and
Interstate 684 serving Westchester and Putnam Counties. parkways in
the region include the Bronx River Parkway, the Cross County Parkway,
the Hutchinson River Parkway, the Sprain Brook Parkway, and the Saw
Parkway serving solely Westchester County, the Taconic
Parkway serving Westchester, Putnam, Dutchess, and Columbia
Counties, and the Palisades Interstate
Parkway serving Rockland and a
very small portion of southwestern Orange County. New York State Route
17 operates as a freeway in much of Orange County and will be
designated Interstate 86 in the future.
Hudson River crossings in the
Hudson Valley region from north to south
include the Tappan Zee Bridge between South Nyack in Rockland County
and Tarrytown in Westchester County, the
Bear Mountain Bridge
Bear Mountain Bridge between
Westchester County and Stony Point in Rockland County,
Newburgh-Beacon Bridge between Newburgh in Orange County and
Beacon in Dutchess County, the
Mid-Hudson Bridge between Poughkeepsie
in Dutchess County and Highland in Ulster County, the
Kingston-Rhinecliff Bridge between Rhinecliff in Dutchess County and
Kingston in Ulster County, and the
Rip Van Winkle Bridge
Rip Van Winkle Bridge between
Hudson in Columbia County and Catskill in Greene County. The Walkway
Over the Hudson is a pedestrian bridge which parallels the Mid-Hudson
Bridge and was formerly a railroad bridge.
Commuter rail service in the region is provided by Metro-North
Railroad (operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority).
Metro-North operates three rail lines east of the
Hudson River to
Grand Central Terminal
Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan, from east to west they are the
New Haven Line
New Haven Line (serving southeast Westchester County), the Harlem Line
(serving Central and Eastern Westchester, Putnam, and Dutchess
Counties), and the Hudson Line (serving western Westchester, Putnam,
and Dutchess Counties). West of the Hudson, New Jersey Transit
operates two lines rail service under contract with Metro-North
Railroad to Hoboken Terminal: the
Pascack Valley Line
Pascack Valley Line (serving central
Rockland County) and the
Port Jervis Line
Port Jervis Line (serving western Rockland
County and Orange County).
Amtrak serves Yonkers, Croton-Harmon, Poughkeepsie,
Rhinecliff-Kingston, and Hudson along the eastern shores of the Hudson
River, as well as New Rochelle in southeastern Westchester County.
NY Waterway operates the
Haverstraw-Ossining Ferry between Haverstraw
Rockland County and Ossining in Westchester County, as well as
ferry service between Newburgh in Orange County and Beacon in Dutchess
County. Intercity and commuter bus transit are provided by Rockland
Coaches in Rockland County, Short Line in Orange and Rockland
Leprechaun Lines in Orange and Dutchess Counties. There
are also several local bus providers, including the Bee-Line Bus
Westchester County and
Transport of Rockland
Transport of Rockland in Rockland
Hudson Valley is served by two airports with commercial airline
Westchester County Airport (HPN) near White Plains and
Stewart International Airport
Stewart International Airport (SWF) near Newburgh.
The Mid-Hudson Bridge, connecting
Poughkeepsie and Highland
The pedestrian Walkway over the Hudson, also connecting Poughkeepsie
Bear Mountain Bridge, connecting northern Westchester and Rockland
The Tappan Zee Bridge, presently connecting southern Westchester and
Hudson Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Conference and Mid
Hudson Valley Renegades
Hudson Valley Renegades is a minor league baseball team affiliated
with the Tampa Bay Rays. The team is a member of the New York–Penn
League and plays at
Dutchess Stadium in Fishkill. The Rockland
Boulders of the independent Can-Am League play in Rockland County.
Kingston Stockade FC
Kingston Stockade FC is a soccer team representing the Hudson Valley
National Premier Soccer League
National Premier Soccer League (NPSL), a national
semi-professional league at the fourth tier of the American Soccer
Pyramid. They compete in the North Atlantic conference of the NPSL's
Northeast region, and began their first season in May 2016.
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Westchester County, New York
Westchester County, New York and
the Revolutionary War: The Battle of White Plains (1776)". Westchester
Magazine. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
^ a b Ayers, Edward L.; Gould, Lewis L.; Oshinky, David M.; Soderlund,
Jean R. (2009). American Passage: A History of the
United States (4th
ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
^ Mark, Steven Paul (November 20, 2013). "Too Little, Too Late: Battle
Of The Hudson Highlands". Journal of the American Revolution.
Retrieved March 10, 2016.
^ Harrington, Hugh T. (September 25, 2014). "he Great West Point
Chain". Journal of the American Revolution. Retrieved March 10,
^ Randall, Willard Sterne (1990). Benedict Arnold: Patriot and
Traitor. William Morrow and Inc. pp. 522–523.
^ Adams, Arthur, The
Hudson River Guidebook (Fordham University Press,
New York, 1996, pp. 146)
^ a b Lossing, Benson John (1852). The Pictorial Field-book of the
Revolution. Harper & Brothers.
^ Stanne, Stephen P., et al. (1996). The Hudson: An Illustrated Guide
to the Living River, p. 120. Rutgers University Press.
^ Hirschl, Thomas A.; Heaton, Tim B. (1999). New York State in the
21st Century. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 126–128.
Hudson River Guide". www.offshoreblue.com. Blue Seas. Retrieved
March 4, 2016.
^ Harmon, Daniel E. (2004). "The Hudson River". Chelsea House
Publishers. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
^ Hunter, Louis C. (1985). A History of Industrial Power in the United
States, 1730–1930, Vol. 2: Steam Power. Charlottesville, Virginia:
University Press of Virginia.
^ Richard H. Gassan, The Birth of American Tourism: New York, the
Hudson Valley, and American Culture, 1790–1835 (2008)
^ "Governor Signs River Road Bill; Overrides Protests Against Hudson
Expressway". The New York Times. May 30, 1965. Retrieved June 26,
^ Dunwell, Francis F. (2008). The Hudson: America's river. Columbia
University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-231-13641-9.
^ Kornhauser, Elizabeth Mankin; Ellis, Amy; Miesmer, Maureen (2003).
Hudson River School: Masterworks from the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of
Art. Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art. p. vii. Retrieved June 26,
^ "The Panoramic River: the Hudson and the Thames". Hudson River
Museum. 2013. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-943651-43-9. Retrieved June
Hudson River School: Nationalism, Romanticism, and the
Celebration of the American Landscape". Virginia Tech History
Department. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
^ Nicholson, Louise (January 19, 2015). "East meets West: The Hudson
River School at LACMA". Apollo. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
^ Oelschlaeger, Max. "The Roots of Preservation: Emerson, Thoreau, and
Hudson River School". Nature Transformed. National Humanities
Center. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
^ Marter, Joan (2011). The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art. New
York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 112–113.
ISBN 978-0-19-533579-8. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
^ a b Avery, Kevin J. (October 2004). "The
Hudson River School".
Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum
of Art. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
^ a b O'Toole, Judith H. (2005). Different Views in Hudson River
School Painting. Columbia University Press. p. 11.
^ Boyle, Alexander. "
Thomas Cole (1801-1848) The Dawn of the Hudson
River School". Hamilton Auction Galleries. Retrieved 19 December
^ "Asher B. Durand". Smithsonian American Art Museum: Renwick Gallery.
Smithsonian Museum. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
^ a b "About Tech Valley".
Tech Valley Chamber Coalition. Archived
from the original on 2008-11-03. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
^ a b Larry Rulison (July 10, 2015). "Made in Albany:
breakthrough chip made at SUNY Poly". Albany Times-Union. Retrieved
July 12, 2015.
^ Keshia Clukey (June 27, 2014). "Better than advertised: Chip plant
beats expectations". Albany Business Review. Retrieved July 20,
^ "Fab 8 Overview". GLOBALFOUNDRIES Inc. Retrieved July 12,
^ Freeman Klopott; Xu Wang; Niamh Ring (September 27, 2011). "IBM,
Intel Start $4.4 Billion in Chip Venture in New York". 2011 Bloomberg.
Retrieved July 12, 2015.
^ John Jordan (January 2016). "$1.2 Billion Project Could Make
Westchester a Biotech Destination". Hudson Gateway Association of
Realtors. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
^ Steve Ditlea. "Westchester's Unexpected Powerhouse Position In the
Biotech Industry - Four years after our initial look at Westchester's
biotech industry, the sector has gone from fledgling to behemoth".
Today Media. Retrieved April 7, 2016. All around, there are signs of a
^ "The Roots of American Wine since 1677". HUDSON VALLEY WINE
COUNTRY.ORG. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
^ "The Roots of American Wine since 1677 - Calendar of Festivals and
Events". HUDSON VALLEY WINE COUNTRY.ORG. Retrieved October 26,
^ Silverman, B et al; Frommer's New York State Frommer's 2009, p196
Hudson Valley portal
New York portal
Donaldson Eberlein, Harold; Van Dyke Hubbard, Cortlandt (1942).
Historic houses of the Hudson valley. New York: Architectural Book
Pub. Co. OCLC 3444265.
Historic Hudson Valley (1991). Visions of Washington Irving: Selected
Works From the Collections of Historic Hudson Valley. Tarrytown, New
York: Historic Hudson Valley. ISBN 978-0-912882-99-4.
Howat, John K. (1972). The
Hudson River and Its Painters. New York:
Viking Press. ISBN 978-0-670-38558-4.
Jacobs, Jaap and L.H. Roper (eds.) (2014). The Worlds of the
Seventeenth-Century Hudson Valley. Albany, New York: State University
of New York Press.
Marks, Alfred H. (1973). Literature of the Mid Hudson Valley: A
Preliminary Study. New Paltz, New York: Center for Continuing
Education, State University College. OCLC 1171631.
McMurry, James; Jones, Jeff (1974). The Catskill Witch and Other Tales
of the Hudson Valley. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press.
Mylod, John (1969). Biography of a River: The People and Legends of
the Hudson Valley. New York: Hawthorn Books. OCLC 33563.
Scheltema, Gajus and Westerhuijs, Heleen (eds.),Exploring Historic
Dutch New York. New York: Museum of the City of New York/Dover
Talbott, Hudson (2009). River of Dreams: The Story of the Hudson
River. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
Vernon, Benjamin. The History of the
Hudson River Valley (New York:
Overlook, 2016. xiv, 625 pp.
Wallkill Valley Publishing Association (1904). The Historic Wallkill
Hudson River Valleys. Walden, New York: Wallkill Valley Publishing
Association. OCLC 13418978.
Wharton, Edith (1929).
Hudson River Bracketed. New York: D. Appleton
& Company. OCLC 297188.
Wilkinson Reynolds, Helen (1965). Dutch houses in the Hudson Valley
before 1776. New York: Dover Publications. OCLC 513732.
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materials, at hrvh.org
Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area at hudsonrivervalley.com
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