HOKKAIDO (北海道, Hokkaidō, literally "Northern Sea Circuit ")
(Japanese: ( listen )), formerly known as EZO, YEZO, YESO, or YESSO,
is the second largest island of
Japan , and the largest and
northernmost prefecture . The
Tsugaru Strait separates
Honshu . The two islands are connected by the undersea railway Seikan
Tunnel . The largest city on
Hokkaido is its capital,
Sapporo , which
is also its only ordinance-designated city . About 43 km north of
Russia , whereas to its east and
north-east are the disputed
Kuril Islands .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Naming of
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Seismic activity
* 2.2 National parks and quasi-national parks
* 2.3 Wildlife
* 3 Subprefectures
* 4 Climate
* 5 Major cities and towns
* 6 Economy
* 7 Transportation
* 8 Education
* 9 Sports
* 9.1 American football
* 9.2 Association football
* 9.3 Baseball
* 9.4 Basketball
* 9.5 Ice hockey
* 10 Winter festivals
* 11 International relations
* 12 Politics
* 12.1 Governor
* 12.2 Assembly
* 12.3 National representation
* 13 See also
* 14 Notes
* 15 Bibliography
* 16 External links
See also: List of Historic Sites of
Hokkaido (北海道) was settled by the Ainu , Nivkh , and Orok
before recorded history. The
Nihon Shoki , finished in 720 AD, is
often said to be the first mention of
Hokkaido in recorded history .
According to the text,
Abe no Hirafu led a large navy and army to
northern areas from 658 to 660 and came into contact with the
Emishi . One of the places Hirafu went to was called
Watarishima (渡島), which is often believed to be present-day
Hokkaido. However, many theories exist in relation to the details of
this event, including the location of Watarishima and the common
belief that the
Emishi in Watarishima were the ancestors of the
Ainu people .
During the Nara and Heian periods (710–1185), people in Hokkaido
conducted trade with
Dewa Province , an outpost of the Japanese
central government. From the Middle Ages , the people in Hokkaido
began to be called
Ezo . Hokkaido, formerly known as Ezochi Ezochi
(蝦夷地, lit. "Ezo-land") or Ezogashima (蝦夷ヶ島, lit. "Island
of the Ezo"). The
Ezo mainly relied upon hunting and fishing and
obtained rice and iron through trade with the Japanese.
Muromachi period (1336–1573), the Japanese created a
settlement at the south of the
Oshima Peninsula . As more people moved
to the settlement to avoid battles, disputes arose between the
Japanese and the Ainu. The disputes eventually developed into a war.
Takeda Nobuhiro killed the Ainu leader, Koshamain, and defeated the
opposition in 1457. Nobuhiro's descendants became the rulers of the
Matsumae-han , which was granted exclusive trading rights with the
Ainu in the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods (1568–1868). The
Matsumae family 's economy relied upon trade with the Ainu. They held
authority over the south of Ezochi until the end of the
Edo period in
Matsumae clan rule over the Ainu must be understood in the
context of the expansion of the Japanese feudal state. Medieval
military leaders in northern Honshū (ex.
Northern Fujiwara , Akita
clan ) maintained only tenuous political and cultural ties to the
imperial court and its proxies, the
Kamakura Shogunate and Ashikaga
Shogunate . Feudal strongmen sometimes located themselves within
medieval institutional order, taking shogunal titles, while in other
times they assumed titles that seemed to give them a non-Japanese
identity. In fact many of the feudal strongmen were descended from
Emishi military leaders who had been assimilated into Japanese
Matsumae clan were of Yamato descent like other ethnic
Japanese people , whereas the
Emishi of northern
Honshu where a
distinctive group related to the Ainu. The
Emishi were conquered and
integrated into the Japanese state dating back as far as the 8th
century, and as result began to lose their distinctive culture and
ethnicity as they became minorities. By the time the Matsumae clan
ruled over the Ainu most of the
Emishi were ethnically mixed and
physically closer to Japanese than they were to Ainu. This dovetails
nicely with the "transformation" theory that native
changed gradually with the infusion of Yayoi immigrants into the
Tōhoku rather than the "replacement" theory which posits that one
population (Jōmon) was replaced by another (Yayoi). Matsumae
Takahiro, a Matsumae lord of the late
Edo period . December 10, 1829
– June 9, 1866
There were numerous revolts by the Ainu against feudal rule. The last
large-scale resistance was Shakushain\'s Revolt in 1669–1672. In
1789, a smaller movement, the
Menashi-Kunashir Rebellion , was also
crushed. After that rebellion the terms "Japanese" and "Ainu" referred
to clearly distinguished groups, and the Matsumae were unequivocally
Japanese. In 1799–1821 and 1855–1858 the Edo Shogunate took direct
Hokkaido in response to a perceived threat from Russia.
Leading up to the
Meiji Restoration , the
Tokugawa Shogunate realized
there was a need to prepare northern defenses against a possible
Russian invasion and took over control of most of Ezochi. The
Shogunate made the plight of the Ainu slightly easier, but did not
change the overall form of rule.
Hokkaido was known as Ezochi until the Meiji Restoration. Shortly
Boshin War in 1868, a group of Tokugawa loyalists led by
Enomoto Takeaki temporarily occupied the island (the polity is
commonly but mistakenly known as the Republic of
Ezo ), but the
rebellion was crushed in May 1869. Ezochi was subsequently put under
control of Hakodate-fu (箱館府), Hakodate Prefectural Government.
When establishing the Development Commission (開拓使, Kaitakushi),
the Meiji Government introduced a new name. After 1869, the northern
Japanese island was known as Hokkaido; and regional subdivisions were
established, including the provinces of Oshima , Shiribeshi , Iburi ,
Ishikari , Teshio , Kitami , Hidaka , Tokachi , Kushiro , Nemuro and
Chishima . Ainu are Hokkaido's indigenous people
The primary purpose of the development commission was to secure
Hokkaido before the Russians extended their control of the Far East
Kuroda Kiyotaka was put in charge of the venture.
His first step was to journey to the
United States and recruit Horace
Capron , President Grant\'s Commissioner of Agriculture. From 1871 to
1873 Capron bent his efforts to expounding Western agriculture and
mining with mixed results. Capron, frustrated with obstacles to his
efforts returned home in 1875. In 1876,
William S. Clark arrived to
found an agricultural college in
Sapporo . Although he only remained a
year, Clark left lasting impression on Hokkaido, inspiring the
Japanese with his teachings on agriculture as well as Christianity.
His parting words, "Boys, be ambitious!" can be found on public
Hokkaido to this day. The population of
from 58,000 to 240,000 during that decade.
In 1882, the Development Commission was abolished. Transportation on
the island was still underdeveloped, so the prefecture was split into
several "sub-prefectures" (支庁 shichō), namely Hakodate Prefecture
Sapporo Prefecture (札幌県,
Sapporo-ken), and Nemuro Prefecture (根室県, Nemuro-ken), that
could fulfill administrative duties of the prefectural government and
keep tight control over the developing island. In 1886, the three
prefectures were demoted, and
Hokkaido was put under the Hokkaido
Agency (北海道庁, Hokkaidō-chō). These sub-prefectures still
exist today, although they have much less power than they possessed
before and during World War II: they now exist primarily to handle
paperwork and other bureaucratic functions.
In mid-July 1945 shipping, cities and military facilities in Hokkaido
were attacked by the
United States Navy
United States Navy 's Task Force 38 . On 14 and
15 July aircraft operating from the task force's aircraft carriers
sank and damaged a large number of ships in ports along Hokkaido's
southern coastline as well as in northern Honshu. In addition, on 15
July a force of three battleships and two light cruisers bombarded the
city of Muroran .
Hokkaido became equal with other prefectures in 1947, when the
revised Local Autonomy Law became effective. The Japanese central
government established the
Hokkaido Development Agency
(北海道開発庁, Hokkaidō Kaihatsuchō) as an agency of the Prime
Minister 's Office in 1949 to maintain its executive power in
Hokkaido. The Agency was absorbed by the Ministry of Land,
Infrastructure and Transport in 2001. The
(北海道局, Hokkaidō-kyoku) and the
Hokkaido Regional Development
Bureau (北海道開発局, Hokkaidō Kaihatsukyoku) of the Ministry
still have a strong influence on public construction projects in
NAMING OF HOKKAIDO
Former Hokkaidō Government Office
Former Hokkaidō Government Office in Chūō-ku,
When establishing the Development Commission (開拓使, Kaitakushi),
the Meiji Government decided to change the name of Ezochi. Matsuura
Takeshirō submitted six proposals, including names such as Kaihokudō
(海北道) and Hokkaidō (北加伊道), to the government. The
government eventually decided to use the name Hokkaidō, but decided
to write it as 北海道, as a compromise between 海北道 and
because of the similarity with names such as Tōkaidō (東海道).
According to Matsuura, the name was thought up because the Ainu called
the region Kai. Historically, many peoples who had interactions with
the ancestors of the Ainu called them and their islands Kuyi, Kuye,
Qoy, or some similar name, which may have some connection to the early
modern form Kai. The Kai element also strongly resembles the
Sino-Japanese reading of the characters 蝦夷 (Sino-Japanese Japanese
pronunciation: , Japanese kun\'yomi ), which have been used for over
a thousand years in
Japan as the standard orthographic form
to be used when referring to Ainu and related peoples; it is possible
that Matsuura's Kai was actually an alteration, influenced by the
Sino-Japanese reading of 蝦夷 Ka-i, of the Nivkh exonym for the
Ainu, namely Qoy or IPA: .
There is no known established
Ainu language word for the island of
Hokkaido. However, the
Ainu people did have a name for all of their
domain, which included
Hokkaido along with the
Kuril Islands ,
Sakhalin , and parts of northern
Honshu , which was Aynu Mosir
(アィヌ・モシリ), a name taken by the modern Ainu to refer to
their traditional homeland. "Ainu Mosir" literally translates as
"The Land Where People (the Ainu) Live", and it was traditionally used
to be contrasted with
Kamuy Mosir, "The Land of the
Hokkaido became a full-fledged prefecture, but the -ken
suffix was never added to its name, so the -dō suffix came to be
understood to mean "prefecture." "Hokkai-do-ken" (literally "North Sea
Province Prefecture") is therefore, technically speaking, a redundant
term, although it is occasionally used to differentiate the government
from the island itself. The prefecture's government calls itself the
Hokkaido Government" rather than the "
NATIVE NAME : 北海道
43°N 142°E / 43°N 142°E / 43; 142
77,981.87 km2 (30,108.97 sq mi)
2,290 m (7,510 ft)
Sapporo (pop. 1,890,561)
5,377,435 (September 30, 2016)
64.5 /km2 (167.1 /sq mi)
Sōunkyō , a gorge in the Daisetsu-zan Volcanic Area.
Satellite image of
Oyashio Current colliding with
Kuroshio Current off the coast of Hokkaido. When two currents
collide, they create eddies .
Phytoplankton growing in the surface
waters become concentrated along the boundaries of these eddies,
tracing out the motions of the water.
The island of
Hokkaido is located at the north end of Japan, near
Russia , and has coastlines on the Sea of
Japan , the
Sea of Okhotsk ,
Pacific Ocean . The center of the island has a number of
mountains and volcanic plateau , and there are coastal plains in all
directions. Major cities include
Sapporo and Asahikawa in the central
region and the port of Hakodate facing
The governmental jurisdiction of
Hokkaido incorporates several
smaller islands, including Rishiri ,
Okushiri Island , and Rebun . (By
Hokkaido also incorporates several of the Kuril
Islands ). Because the prefectural status of
Hokkaido is denoted by
the dō in its name, it is rarely referred to as "Hokkaido
Prefecture", except when necessary to distinguish the governmental
entity from the island.
The island ranks 21st in the world by area . It is 3.6% smaller than
the island of
Hispaniola is 6.1% smaller than Hokkaido.
By population it ranks 20th, between
Sicily . Hokkaido's
population is 4.7% less than that of the island of Ireland, and
Sicily's is 12% lower than Hokkaido's.
In the east, there are two areas (surrounding, for example, Shari and
Nakashibetsu Airport ) where a grid with spacing of nearly 3 km is
formed by narrow bands of forest. It was designed to buffer wind,
especially during blizzards, to protect cattle. It also serves as
habitat and transportation corridors for animals and hikers.
Like many areas of Japan,
Hokkaido is seismically active. Aside from
numerous earthquakes , the following volcanoes are still considered
active (at least one eruption since 1850):
Mount Usu and
* Mount Tokachi
See also: Category:Volcanoes of
In 1993, an earthquake of magnitude 7.7 generated a tsunami which
devastated Okushiri , killing 202. An earthquake of magnitude 8.3
struck near the island on 26 September 2003.
NATIONAL PARKS AND QUASI-NATIONAL PARKS
National parks in Hokkaido Overview of Kushiro
Lake Akan and
Mount Meakan Overview of Lake
Mashu Lake Shikotsu
There are still many undisturbed forests in Hokkaido, including:
Shiretoko National Park *
Akan National Park
Kushiro-shitsugen National Park
Daisetsuzan National Park
Shikotsu-Tōya National Park
Rishiri-Rebun-Sarobetsu National Park
* designated a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site by
UNESCO on 2005-07-14.
Quasi-national parks (国定公園)
Abashiri Quasi-National Park
Hidaka-sanmyaku Erimo Quasi-National Park
Niseko-Shakotan-Otaru Kaigan Quasi-National Park
Ōnuma Quasi-National Park
Shokanbetsu-Teuri-Yagishiri Quasi-National Park
* Twelve prefectural natural parks (道立自然公園). The
prefectural natural parks cover 146,802 ha, the largest area of any
Akkeshi Prefectural Natural Park
Esan Prefectural Natural Park
Furano-Ashibetsu Prefectural Natural Park
Hiyama Prefectural Natural Park
Kariba-Motta Prefectural Natural Park
* Matsumae-Yagoshi Prefectural Natural Park
North Okhotsk Prefectural Natural Park
Nopporo Shinrin Kōen Prefectural Natural Park
Notsuke-Fūren Prefectural Natural Park
Sharidake Prefectural Natural Park
Shumarinai Prefectural Natural Park
Teshiodake Prefectural Natural Park
Ramsar wetland sites
Lake Akkeshi , Bekkanbeushi Wetland
Notsuke Peninsula , Notsuke Bay
Lake Fūren, Shunkunitai
There are three populations of the
Hokkaido brown bear subspecies
(Ursus arctos yesoensis). There are more brown bears than anywhere
else in Asia besides Russia. The
Hokkaido brown bear is separated into
three distinct lineages. There are only eight lineages in the world.
Honshu died out long ago.
Hokkaido showing the subprefectures and the primary
cities Main articles:
Subprefectures of Hokkaido
Subprefectures of Hokkaido and List of mergers
1 A 2 3 B 4 C 5 D 6 7 8 9 E (DISPUTED) (DISPUTED)
Japan claims the southern part of
Kuril Islands (Northern
Territories ), currently administered by Russia,
Nemuro Subprefecture divided into six villages. However,
the table above excludes these islands' data.
From April 2010,
Hokkaido has 9 General Subprefectural Bureaus
(総合振興局) and 5 Subprefectural Bureaus (振興局). Prior to
Hokkaido is one of eight prefectures in
Japan that have
subprefectures (支庁 shichō). However, it is the only one of the
eight to have such offices covering the whole of its territory outside
the main cities (rather than having them just for outlying islands or
remote areas). This is mostly due to its great size: many parts of the
prefecture are simply too far away to be effectively administered by
Sapporo . Subprefectural offices in
Hokkaido carry out many of the
duties that prefectural offices fulfill elsewhere in Japan.
Before the current political divisions and after 1869,
divided into provinces. See
Former provinces of Hokkaido .
Satellite image of
Hokkaido in winter
Japan's coldest region,
Hokkaido has relatively cool summers and
icy/snowy winters. Most of the island falls in the humid continental
climate zone with
Köppen climate classification Dfb (hemiboreal ) in
most areas but Dfa (hot summer humid continental) in some inland
lowlands. The average August temperature ranges from 17 to 22 °C
(62.6 to 71.6 °F), while the average January temperature ranges from
−12 to −4 °C (10.4 to 24.8 °F), in both cases depending on
elevation and distance from the ocean, though temperatures on the
western side of the island tend to be a little warmer than on the
The northern portion of
Hokkaido falls into the taiga biome with
significant snowfall. Snowfall varies widely from as much as 11 metres
(400 in) on the mountains adjacent to the Sea of
Japan down to around
1.8 metres (71 in) on the Pacific coast. The island tends to see
isolated snowstorms that develop long-lasting snowbanks, in contrast
to the constant flurries seen in the
Hokuriku region . Total
precipitation varies from 1,600 millimetres (63 in) on the mountains
of the Sea of
Japan coast to around 800 millimetres (31 in) (the
lowest in Japan) on the
Sea of Okhotsk coast and interior lowlands and
up to around 1,100 millimetres (43 in) on the Pacific side.
Unlike the other major islands of Japan,
Hokkaido is normally not
affected by the June–July rainy season and the relative lack of
humidity and typically warm, rather than hot, summer weather makes its
climate an attraction for tourists from other parts of Japan.
In winter, the generally high quality of powder snow and numerous
Hokkaido make it a popular region for snow sports. The
snowfall usually commences in earnest in November and ski resorts
(such as those at Niseko, Furano, Teine and Rusutsu) usually operate
between December and April.
Hokkaido celebrates its winter weather at
Sapporo Snow Festival .
During the winter, passage through the
Sea of Okhotsk is often
complicated by large floes of drift ice . Combined with high winds
that occur during winter, this frequently brings air travel and
maritime activity to a halt beyond the northern coast of Hokkaido.
Ports on the open
Pacific Ocean and Sea of
Japan are generally
ice-free year round, though most rivers freeze during the winter.
MAJOR CITIES AND TOWNS
List of cities in Hokkaido Hokkaido's largest city,
Hokkaido's largest city is the capital,
Sapporo , which is a
designated city. The island has two core cities: Hakodate in the south
and Asahikawa in the central region. Other important population
centers include Rumoi , Iwamizawa , Kushiro , Obihiro , Kitami ,
Abashiri , Wakkanai , and Nemuro .
Hokkaido has the highest rate of depopulation in Japan. In 2000, 152
(71.7%) of Hokkaido's 212 municipalities were shrinking. Altogether,
shrinking municipalities in
Japan in the same year numbered 1,171.
Large farm of Tokachi plain
Although there is some light industry (most notably paper milling and
beer brewing) most of the population is employed by the service
sector. In 2001, the service sector and other tertiary industries
generated more than three-quarters of the gross domestic product.
However, agriculture and other primary industries play a large role
in Hokkaido's economy.
Hokkaido has nearly one fourth of Japan's total
arable land. It ranks first in the nation in the production of a host
of agricultural products, including wheat, soybeans, potatoes, sugar
beet, onions, pumpkins, corn, raw milk, and beef.
accounts for 22% of Japan's forests with a sizable timber industry.
The prefecture is also first in the nation in production of marine
products and aquaculture.
Tourism is an important industry, especially during the cool
summertime when visitors are attracted to Hokkaido's open spaces from
hotter and more humid parts of
Japan and other Asian countries. During
the winter, skiing and other winter sports bring other tourists, and
increasingly international ones, to the island.
Hokkaido's only land link to the rest of
Japan is the
Seikan Tunnel .
Most travellers travel to the island by air: the main airport is New
Chitose Airport at Chitose , just south of Sapporo. Tokyo-Chitose is
in the top 10 of the world\'s busiest air routes , handling more than
40 widebody round trips on several airlines each day. One of the
Air Do was named after Hokkaido.
Hokkaido can also be
reached by ferry from
Sendai , Niigata and some other cities, with the
Tokyo dealing only in cargo.
Within Hokkaido, there is a fairly well-developed railway network
Hokkaido Railway Company
Hokkaido Railway Company ), but many cities can only be accessed
Hokkaido is home to one of Japan's three Melody Roads , which is made
from grooves cut into the ground, which when driven over causes a
tactile vibration and audible rumbling transmitted through the wheels
into the car body.
Hokkaido Prefectural Board of Education oversees public schools
(except colleges and universities) in Hokkaido. Public elementary and
junior high schools (except
Hokkaido Noboribetsu Akebi Secondary
School and schools attached to
Hokkaido University of Education) are
operated by municipalities, and public high schools are operated by
either the prefectural board or municipalities.
Hokkaido has 37 universities (7 national, 5 local public, and 25
private universities), 34 junior colleges, and 5 colleges of
technology (4 national and 1 local public colleges). National
universities located in
Hokkaido University (former
Sapporo Agricultural College )
Hokkaido University of Education
Muroran Institute of Technology
Otaru University of Commerce
Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine
Asahikawa Medical University
Kitami Institute of Technology
Hokkaido government runs
Sapporo Medical University , a medical
school in Sapporo.
1972 Winter Olympics
1972 Winter Olympics were held in
The sports teams listed below are based in Hokkaido.
Hokkaido American Football Association
Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters
Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters (
Levanga Hokkaido (
Japan Basketball League (JBL)
Nippon Paper Cranes (Kushiro )
Oji Eagles (Tomakomai )
Sapporo Snow Festival
* Asahikawa Snow Festival
Sōunkyō Ice Festival
* Big Air – snowboarding freestyle competition
Hokkaido has relationships with several provinces, states, and other
Alberta , Canada, since 1980
Heilongjiang , China, since 1980
Massachusetts , USA, since 1988
Sakhalin Oblast , Russia, since 1998
Busan , South Korea, since 2005
* Gyeongsangnam-do , South Korea, since 2006
Seoul , South Korea, since 2010
As of January 2014, 74 individual municipalities in
sister city agreements with 114 cities in 21 different countries
The current governor of
Harumi Takahashi . She won a
fourth term in the gubernatorial election in 2015 with centre-right
support. Her first election in 2003 in a close race against
Yoshio Hachiro and seven other candidates ended
a 20-year streak of victories by Socialist Party heavyweight Takahiro
Yokomichi and then his former vice governor
Tatsuya Hori who beat
Hideko Itō twice by large margins. Itō, a former Socialist Diet
member was supported by the Liberal Democratic Party against Hori in
1995 (at the time, Socialists and Liberal Democrats formed the ruling
"grand" coalition on the national level); In 1999, Hori was supported
by all major non-Communist parties and Itō ran without party support.
Before 1983, the governorship had been held by Liberal Democrats
Naohiro Dōgakinai and Kingo Machimura for 24 years. In the 1971
election when Machimura retired, the Socialist candidate Shōhei
Tsukada lost to Dōgakinai by only 13,000 votes; Tsukada was also
supported by the Communist Party – the leftist cooperation in
opposition to the US-Japanese security treaty had brought joint
Socialist-Communist candidates to victory in many other prefectural
and local elections in the 1960s and 1970s. In 1959, Machimura had
defeated Yokomichi's father Setsuo in the race to succeed Hokkaido's
first elected governor, Socialist Toshibumi Tanaka who retired after
three terms. Tanaka had only won the governorship in 1947 in a run-off
election against Democrat Eiji Arima because no candidate had received
the necessary vote share to win in the first round as required by law
at the time.
Hokkaido Prefectural Assembly has 101 members from 47 electoral
districts. As of April 30, 2015, the LDP caucus holds a majority with
51 seats, the DPJ -led group has 26 members. Other groups are the
Hokkaidō Yūshikai of
New Party Daichi and independents with twelve
Kōmeitō with eight, and the
Japanese Communist Party
Japanese Communist Party with
four members. General elections for the
Hokkaido assembly are
currently held together with gubernatorial elections in the unified
local elections (last round: April 2015 ).
For the lower house of the National Diet,
Hokkaido is divided into
twelve single-member electoral districts. In the 2014 election,
candidates from the governing coalition of Liberal Democrats and New
Komeito won nine districts, Democrats three. For the proportional
Tokyo are the only two prefectures that
form a regional "block" district of their own. The Hokkaido
proportional representation block elects eight Representatives. In
2014, the Liberal Democratic Party received 29.8% of the proportional
vote and won three seats, the Democratic Party won two (27.6% of the
vote), one seat each went to
Japan Innovation Party
(9.9%) and – for the first time since the 2000 lower house election
Japanese Communist Party
Japanese Communist Party (12.1%). More than four percent of
Hokkaidō proportional votes in 2014 went to a minor protest group
named shiji seitō nashi ("no party supported"/" support no party").
In the upper house of the National Diet, a major reapportionment in
the 1990s halved the number of Councillors from
Hokkaido per election
from four to two. After the elections of 2010 and 2013, the Hokkaido
electoral district – like most two-member districts for the upper
house – is represented by two Liberal Democrats and two Democrats.
In the 2016 upper house election , the district magnitude will be
raised to three, Hokkaidō will then temporarily be represented by
five members and six after the 2019 election.
Red-crowned cranes in
Kuril Islands earthquake
Asia League Ice Hockey
Former Hokkaidō Government Office
Former Hokkaidō Government Office
Kuril Islands dispute
* People from
Sankebetsu brown bear incident
* ^ A B Nussbaum,
Louis-Frédéric . (2005). "Hokkaido" in Japan
Encyclopedia, p. 343, p. 343, at
* ^ "Recognition at last for Japan\'s Ainu ". BBC News. July 6,
* ^ A B C
Japan Handbook, p. 760
* ^ McClain, James L. (2002). Japan, A Modern History (First ed.).
New York, N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Company. p. 285. ISBN 0-393-04156-5 .
* ^ Howell, David. "Ainu Ethnicity and the Boundaries of the Early
Modern Japanese State", Past and Present 142 (February 1994), p. 142
* ^ Ossenberg, Nancy (see reference) has the best evidence of this
relationship with the Jōmon. Also, a newer study, Ossenberg, et al.,
"Ethnogenesis and craniofacial change in
Japan from the perspective of
nonmetric traits" (Anthropological Science v.114:99–115) is an
updated analysis published in 2006 which confirms this finding.
* ^ Nakamura, Akemi, "Japan\'s last frontier took time to tame,
cultivate image", The
Japan Times , 8 July 2008, p. 3.
* ^ Satow, Ernest . (1882). "The Geography of Japan" in
Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Vols. 1–2, p. 88., p.
* ^ McDougall, Walter A. (1993). Let the Sea Make a Noise, pp.
* ^ McDougall, p. 357.
* ^ "Chapter VII: 1945". The Official Chronology of the US Navy in
World War II. Hyperwar. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
* ^ "Chapter 3: Nivkh as an Aspiration Language," p. 53 RUG.nl
* ^ "Ainu Mosir. The land of human beings – Nanni Fontana –
photographer". Nanni Fontana. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
* ^ July.04.2008 (2008-07-04). "ICU Students Support Indigenous
Peoples Summit in Ainu Mosir 2008 « ICU BackNumbersite".
Web.icu.ac.jp. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
* ^ "Indigenous Peoples Summit in Ainu Mosir 2008 * News".
Win-ainu.com. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
* ^ Lewallen, Ann-Elise (November 30, 2008). "Indigenous at last!
Ainu Grassroots Organizing and the Indigenous Peoples Summit in Ainu
Mosir". The Asia-Pacific Journal:
Japan Focus . 48-6-08. Retrieved
September 14, 2012.
* ^ Okada, Mitsuharu Vincent (2012). "The Plight of Ainu,
Indigenous People of Japan" (PDF). Journal of Indigenous Social
University of Hawaii
University of Hawaii . 1 (1): 1–14. Retrieved September
* ^ "National Museum of Ethnology, Japan: Permanent Exhibitions".
* ^ "General overview of area figures for Natural Parks by
prefecture" (PDF). Ministry of the Environment Japan. 31 March 2008.
* ^ Hirata, Daisuke; et al. (2013). "Molecular Phylogeography of
the Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) in Northeastern Asia Based on Analyses
of Complete Mitochondrial DNA Sequences". Mol Biol Evol. 30 (7):
1644–1652. PMID 23619144 . doi :10.1093/molbev/mst077 . Retrieved 18
* ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Taiga. eds. M.McGinley & C.Cleveland.
Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the
Environment. Washington DC
* ^ A B "Hokkaido\'s Business Environment". Trade and Economic
Exchange Group, Commerce and Economic Exchange Division, Department of
Hokkaido Government. Archived from the original on
2010-07-21. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
* ^ Takahara, Kanako (July 8, 2008). "Boom time for
resort area". The
Japan Times. The
Japan Times Ltd. Retrieved
* ^ Johnson, Bobbie (13 November 2007). "Japan\'s melody roads play
music as you drive".
The Guardian .
Farringdon Road ,
England: GMG . p. 19 (International section). Retrieved 2008-10-20.
* ^ "Your car as a musical instrument – Melody Roads". Noise
Addicts. 29 September 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
* ^ Nussbaum, "
Hokkaido Daigaku" in p. 343, p. 343, at Google Books
* ^ "Exchange Affiliates". Retrieved on 5 December 2008.
* ^ A B C D "
Alberta Relations" (PDF). Retrieved
* ^ "
Alberta Sport, Recreation, Parks & Wildlife Foundation".
* ^ "
Hokkaido Association". Retrieved 2010-05-30.
* ^ "ソウル特別市との交流". Retrieved 2013-11-03.
* ^ 市町村の姉妹友好提携 (Sister city partnerships).
Retrieved on 3 November 2013. (in Japanese)
Hokkaido prefectural government: Gubernatorial election results
since 1947 (in Japanese)
Hokkaido Prefectural Assembly: Members by electoral district
and parliamentary group (in Japanese)
^ Source: English edition of Sightseeing in Hokkaido, Winter
Festival and Events
* Bisignani, J. D. (1993).
Japan Handbook. Chico, California: Moon
Publications. ISBN 9780960332229 ; ISBN 9780908054145 ; OCLC 8954556
* McDougall, Walter A. (1993). Let the Sea Make a Noise: A History
of the North Pacific from Magellan to MacArthur. New York: Basic
Books. ISBN 9780465051526 ; OCLC 28017793
Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan
Harvard University Press
Harvard University Press . ISBN
978-0-674-01753-5 ; OCLC 58053128
* John Batchelor; Japanese Central Association (1893). An itinerary
of Hokkaido, Japan, Volume 1. Tokyo: Hakodate Chamber of Commerce.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to HOKKAIDO .
Look up HOKKAIDO in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for HOKKAIDO .
Hokkaido Official Website (in Japanese)
Hokkaido Official Website (in English)
Sapporo (capital )
WARDS OF SAPPORO