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GYEONGJU (Korean : 경주, pronounced ), historically known as "Seorabeol" (Korean : 서라벌, pronounced ), is a coastal city in the far southeastern corner of North Gyeongsang Province in South Korea . It is the second largest city by area in the province after Andong
Andong
, covering 1,324 km2 (511 sq mi) with a population of 264,091 people (as of December 2012.) Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is 370 km (230 mi) southeast of Seoul
Seoul
, and 55 km (34 mi) east of Daegu
Daegu
. The city borders Cheongdo
Cheongdo
and Yeongcheon
Yeongcheon
to the west, Ulsan to the south and Pohang
Pohang
to the north, while to the east lies the coast of the East Sea . Numerous low mountains—outliers of the Taebaek range —are scattered around the city.

Gyeongju
Gyeongju
was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Silla
Silla
(57 BC – 935 AD) which ruled about two-thirds of the Korean Peninsula between the 7th and 9th centuries. Later Silla
Silla
was a prosperous and wealthy country, and its metropolitan capital of Gyeongju
Gyeongju
was the fourth largest city in the world. A vast number of archaeological sites and cultural properties from this period remain in the city. Gyeongju is often referred to as "the museum without walls". Among such historical treasures, Seokguram grotto, Bulguksa
Bulguksa
temple, Gyeongju Historic Areas and Yangdong Folk Village
Yangdong Folk Village
are designated as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO
UNESCO
. The many major historical sites have helped Gyeongju
Gyeongju
become one of the most popular tourist destinations in South Korea
South Korea
.

The city of Gyeongju
Gyeongju
was united with the nearby rural Gyeongju
Gyeongju
County in 1995 and is now an urban–rural complex. It is similar to 53 other small- and medium-sized cities with a population under 300,000 people in South Korea. As well as its rich historical heritage, Gyeongju
Gyeongju
today is affected by the economic, demographic, and social trends that have shaped modern South Korean culture
South Korean culture
. Tourism remains the major economic driver, but manufacturing activities have developed due to its proximity to major industrial centers such as Ulsan and Pohang. Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is connected to the nationwide rail and highway networks, which facilitate industrial and tourist traffic.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography and climate

* 2.1 Climate

* 3 Government * 4 Subdivisions

* 5 Demographics

* 5.1 Dialect
Dialect

* 6 Culture and people

* 6.1 Cultural properties * 6.2 Notable people * 6.3 Religion * 6.4 Cuisine

* 7 Sports

* 8 Economy

* 8.1 Tourism

* 9 Media * 10 Education

* 11 Infrastructure

* 11.1 Healthcare * 11.2 Utilities * 11.3 Transportation

* 12 Sister cities * 13 See also * 14 Notes * 15 References * 16 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Gyeongju
History of Gyeongju
A portrait of the last king of Silla, King Gyeongsun (r. 927–935). After his surrender to King Taejo , Gyeongju
Gyeongju
lost its status as capital city.

The early history of Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is closely tied to that of the Silla kingdom, of which it was the capital. Gyeongju
Gyeongju
first enters non-Korean records as Saro-guk
Saro-guk
, during the Samhan period in the early Common Era . Korean records, probably based on the dynastic chronicles of Silla, record that Saro-guk
Saro-guk
was established in 57 BCE, when six small villages in the Gyeongju
Gyeongju
area united under Bak Hyeokgeose . As the kingdom expanded, it changed its name to Silla. During the Silla period, the city was called "Seorabeol" (lit. Capital), "Gyerim" (lit. Rooster's forest) or "Geumseong" (lit. City of Gold).

After the unification of the peninsula up to Taedong River in 668 AD, Gyeongju
Gyeongju
became the center of Korean political and cultural life. The city was home to the Silla
Silla
court and the great majority of the kingdom's elite. Its prosperity became legendary, and was reported as far away as Persia
Persia
according to the 9th century book The Book of Roads and Kingdoms . Records of Samguk Yusa
Samguk Yusa
give the city's population in its peak period as 178,936 households, suggesting that the total population was almost one million. Many of Gyeongju's most famous sites date from this Unified Silla
Silla
period, which ended in the late 9th century by Goryeo
Goryeo
(918–1392).

In 940, the founder of Goryeo, King Taejo , changed the city's name to "Gyeongju", which literally means "Congratulatory district". In 987, as Goryeo
Goryeo
introduced a system in which three additional capitals were established in politically important provinces outside Gaegyeong (nowadays Kaesong
Kaesong
), and Gyeongju
Gyeongju
was designated as "Donggyeong" ("East Capital"). However, that title was removed in 1012, the third year of King Hyeongjong 's reign, due to political rivalries at that time, though Gyeongju
Gyeongju
was later made the seat of Yeongnam Province. It had jurisdiction over a wide area, including much of central eastern Yeongnam, although this area was greatly reduced in the 13th century. Under the subsequent Joseon (1392–1910) dynasties, Gyeongju
Gyeongju
was no longer of national importance, but remained a regional center of influence. In 1601, the city ceased to be the provincial capital. Chilbulam (rock-engraving of seven Buddhas) on Namsan , Gyoengju.

Over these centuries, the city suffered numerous assaults. In the 13th century, Mongol forces destroyed a nine-story wooden pagoda at Hwangnyongsa . During the Japanese invasions of Korea , the Gyeongju area became a heated battlefield, and Japanese forces burned the wooden structures at Bulguksa
Bulguksa
. Not all damage was due to invasions, however. In the early Joseon period, a great deal of damage was done to Buddhist sculptures on Namsan by Neo-Confucian
Neo-Confucian
radicals, who hacked arms and heads off statuary .

In the 20th century, the city remained relatively small, no longer ranking among the major cities of Korea. During the early 20th century, many archaeological excavations were conducted, particularly inside the tombs which had remained largely intact over the centuries. A museum, the forerunner of the present-day Gyeongju
Gyeongju
National Museum , was inaugurated in 1915 to exhibit the excavated artifacts.

Gyeongju
Gyeongju
emerged as a railroad junction in the later years of the Japanese Occupation , as the Donghae Nambu Line
Donghae Nambu Line
and Jungang Line
Jungang Line
were established in preparation for the Second Sino-Japanese War and to exploit the rich resources of the eastern part of the Korean peninsula. Following liberation in 1945, Korea was plunged into turmoil, and Gyeongju
Gyeongju
was no exception. Returnees from abroad were numerous; a village for them was constructed in present-day Dongcheon-dong . In a period marked by widespread conflict and unrest, the Gyeongju
Gyeongju
area became particularly notorious for the level of guerrilla activity in the mountains.

Despite the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, most of Gyeongju
Gyeongju
was spared from the fighting, and remained under South Korean control throughout the conflict. However, for a brief time in late 1950 portions of the city stood on the front lines, as North Korean forces pushed the Pusan Perimeter southward from Pohang.

In the 1970s, Korea saw substantial industrial development, much of it centered in the Yeongnam region of which Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is a part. The POSCO
POSCO
steel mill in neighboring Pohang
Pohang
commenced operations in 1973, and the chemical manufacturing complex in Ulsan emerged in the same year. These developments helped to support the emergence of Gyeongju's manufacturing sector.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

Seokguram grotto on the slopes of Toham mountain.

Gyeongju
Gyeongju
lies in the southeastern corner of North Gyeongsang Province, and is bounded by the metropolitan city of Ulsan on the south. Within the province, its neighbors include Pohang
Pohang
on the north, Cheongdo
Cheongdo
County on the southwest, and Yeongcheon
Yeongcheon
on the northwest. Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is located about 50 kilometers (31 mi) north of Busan
Busan
. To the east, it has no neighbor but the sea.

Most of Gyeongju
Gyeongju
lies in the Gyeongsang Basin , but a few areas of the city belong to the Pohang
Pohang
Basin , such as Eoil-ri and Beomgok-ri in Yangbuk-myeon , and part of Cheonbuk-myeon . The Gyeongsang Basin areas consist of Bulguksa
Bulguksa
intrusive rock penetrating layers of sedimentary rocks , mainly granite and porphyry . By contrast, the Pohang
Pohang
Basin areas are made up of stratum that formed in the Tertiary period of the Cenozoic era , which consist of igneous rock , aqueous rock , porphyry, sandstone , and tuff .

Low mountains are widespread throughout Gyeongju. The highest of these are the Taebaek Mountains , which run along the city's western border. Gyeongju's highest point, Munbok Mountain (문복산), is 1,015 meters (3,330 ft) above sea level . This peak lies in Sannae-myeon , on the border with Cheongdo
Cheongdo
. East of the Taebaek range, other western peaks such as Danseok Mountain lie within the Jusa subrange. The city's eastern peaks, including Toham Mountain , belong to the Haean Mountains and Dongdae Mountains . Principal mountains and drainage patterns of Gyeongju. Mountains of 500 to 700 m (1,600 to 2,300 ft) are in green, those taller than 700 m (2,300 ft) in violet. The rest three in gray are under 500 m (1,600 ft).

Gyeongju's drainage patterns are shaped by these lines of mountains. The Dongdae Mountains divide a narrow foothills area on their east, and various internal river systems to the west. Most of the city's interior is drained by the small Hyeongsan River , which flows north from Ulsan and meets the sea at Pohang
Pohang
Harbor. The Hyeongsan's chief tributaries include the Bukcheon and Namcheon, which join it in Gyeongju Basin . The southwestern corner of Gyeongju, on the far side of the Taebaek range, drains into the Geumho River , which then flows into the Nakdong . A small area of the south, just west of the Dongdae range, drains into the Taehwa River , which flows into the Bay of Ulsan.

The Gyeongju
Gyeongju
coastline runs for 36.1 kilometers (22.4 mi) between Pohang
Pohang
in the north and Ulsan in the south. There are no islands or large bays, only the small indentations made by the small streams flowing off the Dongdae ridgeline. Because of this, the city has no significant ports, though there are 12 small harbors. One such harbor in Gyeongju's southeast corner is home to the Ulsan base of the National Maritime Police. This base is responsible for security over a wide area of South Korea's east-central coast.

CLIMATE

Due to its coastal location, Gyeongju
Gyeongju
has a slightly milder and wetter climate than the more inland regions of Korea. In general, however, the city's climate is typical of South Korea. It has hot summers and cool winters, with a monsoon season between late June and early August. As on the rest of Korea's east coast, autumn typhoons are not uncommon. The average annual rainfall is 1,091 millimeters (43.0 in), and the average annual high temperatures range from 8.6–31.1 °C (47–88 °F).

Gyeongju's historic city center lies on the banks of the Hyeongsan in Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Basin. This lowlying area has been subject to repeated flooding throughout recorded history, often as a result of typhoons. On average, chronicles report a major flood every 27.9 years, beginning in the 1st century. Modern flood control mechanisms brought about a dramatic reduction in flooding in the later 20th century. The last major flood occurred in 1991, when the Deokdong Lake reservoir overflowed due to Typhoon
Typhoon
Gladys .

CLIMATE DATA FOR 36.0° N, 129.4° E

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 5.7 (42.3) 7.3 (45.1) 11.9 (53.4) 17.8 (64) 22.8 (73) 25.1 (77.2) 28.7 (83.7) 29.7 (85.5) 25.1 (77.2) 20.9 (69.6) 14.6 (58.3) 8.6 (47.5) 18.18 (64.73)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −3.3 (26.1) −1.8 (28.8) 2.3 (36.1) 7.8 (46) 12.8 (55) 17.0 (62.6) 21.4 (70.5) 22.4 (72.3) 17.4 (63.3) 11.3 (52.3) 5.1 (41.2) −0.9 (30.4) 9.29 (48.72)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 34.4 (1.354) 45.2 (1.78) 63.8 (2.512) 82.9 (3.264) 71.6 (2.819) 128.8 (5.071) 195.4 (7.693) 172.7 (6.799) 154.7 (6.091) 63.3 (2.492) 51.9 (2.043) 26.2 (1.031) 1,090.9 (42.949)

Source: Climatological Information for Pohang, Hong Kong Observatory, 1961–1990

GOVERNMENT

Gyeongju
Gyeongju
City Hall in Dongcheon-dong .

The executive branch of the government is headed by a mayor and vice-mayor. As in other South Korean cities and counties, the mayor is elected directly, while the vice-mayor is appointed. As of 2010, the mayor is Choi Yang-sik, who was appointed to the position on July 1, 2010 after winning the local election held on June 2 of the same year. He is Gyeongju's fifth mayor to be directly elected, the sixth to preside over the city in its present form, and the 31st mayor since 1955. Like most heads of government in the Yeongnam region, he is a member of the conservative Grand National Party
Grand National Party
.

The legislative branch consists of the Gyeongju
Gyeongju
City Council, with 21 members as of 2009. The present City Council was formed from the merger of the old Gyeongju
Gyeongju
City Council with the Wolseong County Council in 1991. Most subdivisions of Gyeongju
Gyeongju
elect a single member to represent them in the Council, but Angang-eup is represented by two members because of its large population, and two of the representatives serve combined districts composed of two dong. Like the mayor, the council members were last elected in 2006, except for a small number elected in more recent by-elections .

The central administration is composed of a City Council committee, five departments, two subsidiary organs, a chamber (the auditor), and six business offices. The five departments are the departments of Planning and Culture, Autonomous Administration, Industry and Environment, Construction and Public Works, and the National Enterprise Committee; these oversee a total of 29 subdivisions. The two subsidiary organs are the Health Care Center and Agro-technology Center; these belong directly to the central administration and have a total of 4 subdivisions. In addition, there are 23 local administrative subdivisions. Each of these subdivisions has a local office with a small administrative staff. As of December 2008, the city government employed 1,462 people.

SUBDIVISIONS

Main article: Subdivisions of Gyeongju

The city is divided into 23 administrative districts: 4 eup , 8 myeon , and 11 dong . These are the standard subdivisions of cities and counties in South Korea
South Korea
. The dong or neighborhood units occupy the area of the city center, which was formerly occupied by Gyeongju-eup. Eup are typically substantial villages, whereas myeon are more rural.

The city's boundaries and designation changed several times in the 20th century. From 1895 to 1955, the area was known as Gyeongju-gun (" Gyeongju
Gyeongju
County"). In the first decades of the century, the city center was known as Gyeongju-myeon, signifying a relatively rural rea. In 1931, the downtown area was designated Gyeongju-eup, in recognition of its increasingly urban nature. In 1955, Gyeongju-eup became Gyeongju-si (" Gyeongju
Gyeongju
City"), the same name as today, but with a much smaller area. The remainder of Gyeongju-gun became "Wolseong County." The county and city were reunited in 1995, creating Gyeongju
Gyeongju
City as it is today.

MAP OF GYEONGJU

# PLACE Population (2007) HOUSEHOLDS Area (km²) # PLACE Population HOUSEHOLDS Area (km²)

1 Sannae-myeon 3,561 1,779 142.6 13 Seondo-dong 13,813 2,831 28.0

2 Seo-myeon 4,773 1,779 52.1 14 Seonggeon-dong
Seonggeon-dong
18,378 7,562 6.4

3 Hyeongok-myeon 16,829 5,726 55.7 15 Hwangseong-dong 29,660 9,415 3.8

4 Angang-eup 33,802 12,641 138.6 16 Yonggang-dong 15,959 5,244 5.1

5 Gangdong-myeon 8,834 3,659 81.4 17 Bodeok-dong 2,296 977 81.0

6 Cheonbuk-myeon 6,185 2,328 58.2 18 Bulguk-dong
Bulguk-dong
9,001 3,722 37.4

7 Yangbuk-myeon 4,535 2,026 120.1 19 Hwangnam-dong
Hwangnam-dong
* 8,885 3,875 20.5

8 Gampo-eup
Gampo-eup
7,099 3,084 44.9 20 Jungbu-dong 7,003 3,022 0.9

9 Yangnam-myeon 7,131 2,941 85.1 21 Hwango-dong
Hwango-dong
* 10,225 4283 1.5

10 Oedong-eup 19,006 6,965 109.8 22 Dongcheon-dong 26,721 9,228 5.3

11 Naenam-myeon 6,142 2,526 122.1 23 Wolseong-dong 6,522 4,842 31.4

12 Geoncheon-eup
Geoncheon-eup
11,217 4,533 92.4

Eup Myeon Dong

*Figures based on resident registration figures made available by local government offices. For more detailed source information, see Subdivisions of Gyeongju .

DEMOGRAPHICS

When the Silla
Silla
kingdom reached the peak of its development, Gyeongju was estimated to have a million residents, four times the city's population in 2008. In recent years, Gyeongju
Gyeongju
has followed the same trends that have affected the rest of South Korea. Like the country as a whole, Gyeongju
Gyeongju
has seen its population age and the size of families shrink. For instance, the mean household size is 2.8 people. Because this has fallen in recent years, there are more households in the city as of 2008 (105,009) than there were in 2003, even though the population has fallen.

Like most of South Korea's smaller cities, Gyeongju
Gyeongju
has seen a steady drop in population in recent years. From 2002 to 2008, the city lost 16,557 people. This is primarily due to the migration of workers seeking employment in the major South Korean cities. In 2007, about 1,975 more people moved away from the city each year than moved in. During the same period, births exceeded deaths by roughly 450 per year, a significant number but not enough to offset the losses due to migration.

Gyeongju
Gyeongju
has a small but growing population of non-Koreans. In 2007, there were 4,671 foreigners living in Gyeongju. This number corresponds to 1.73% of the total population, more than double the figure from 2003. The growth was largely in immigrants from other Asian countries, many of whom are employed in the automotive parts industry. Countries of origin whose numbers have risen include the Philippines
Philippines
, China, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, and Vietnam
Vietnam
. The number of residents from Japan, the United States, and Canada fell significantly in the 2003–2007 period.

DIALECT

The city has a distinctive dialect which it shares with northern portions of Ulsan . This dialect is similar to the general Gyeongsang dialect , but retains distinctive features of its own. Some linguists have treated the distinctive characteristics of the Gyeongju
Gyeongju
dialect as vestiges of the Silla
Silla
language . For instance, the contrast between the local dialect form "소내기" (sonaegi) and the standard "소나기" (sonagi, meaning "rainshower") has been seen as reflecting the ancient phonemic character of the Silla
Silla
language.

CULTURE AND PEOPLE

CULTURAL PROPERTIES

Gyeongju National Museum . A gold crown excavated from Gold Crown Tomb. National Treasures of South Korea
South Korea
No. 87. Divine Bell of King Seongdeok

Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is the main destination in South Korea
South Korea
for visitors interested in the cultural heritage of Silla
Silla
and the architecture of the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910). The city has 31 National Treasures , and Gyeongju National Museum houses 16,333 artifacts. There are four broad categories of relics and historical sites: tumuli and their artifacts; Buddhist sites and objects; fortresses and palace sites; and ancient architecture. Prehistoric
Prehistoric
remains including Mumun pottery have been excavated in central Gyeongju, in the Moa-ri and Oya-ri villages of the Cheonbuk-myeon district, and in the Jukdong-ri village of the Oedong-eup district. Dolmens are found in several places, especially in Gangdong-myeon and Moa-ri. Bronze Age relics found in Angye-ri village of Gangdong-myeon, Jukdong-ri and Ipsil-ri villages of Oedong-eup and graveyards in the Joyang-dong district represent the Samhan confederacy period of around the 1st century BC to the 3rd century AD.

There are 35 royal tombs and 155 tumuli in central Gyeongju, and 421 tumuli in the outskirts of the city. Silla
Silla
burial mounds built after the period of the Three Kingdoms are found in central Gyeongju, including tumuli in the districts of Noseo-dong, Nodong-dong, Hwangnam-dong, Hwango-dong
Hwango-dong
and Inwang-dong. Western Gyeongju
Gyeongju
has the tomb of King Muyeol in Seoak-dong, nearby tumuli in Chunghyo-dong and the tomb of Kim Yu-sin . The tombs of Queen Seondeok
Queen Seondeok
, King Sinmun , King Hyogong and King Sinmu are at the base of Namsan mountain while the tombs of King Heongang
King Heongang
, King Jeonggang , King Gyeongmyeong and King Gyeongae are on the slopes of the mountain. In addition to the tombs, tumuli have been found surrounding Namsan mountain and in the western part of Geumgang mountain. Artifacts excavated from the tombs of Geumgwanchong (gold crown tomb), Seobongchong (western phoenix tomb), Cheonmachong (heavenly horse tomb) and northern and southern parts of Tomb No. 98 are good examples of Silla
Silla
culture.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

For more information on the Korean clan structure, see Korean name . Statue of General Kim Yusin at Hwangseong Park
Hwangseong Park
. Yi Je-hyeon (1287–1367)

Gyeongju
Gyeongju
has produced notable individuals throughout its history. As the capital of Silla, Gyeongju
Gyeongju
was a center of culture in its heyday. Notable Gyeongju
Gyeongju
residents in the Silla
Silla
period included most of the kingdom's leading figures, not only rulers but scholars such as Seol Chong and Choe Chi-won , and generals like Kim Yusin , the leader of the Hwarang warriors. The city continued to contribute to traditional Korean thought in subsequent dynasties. Relatives of Choe Chi-won such as Choe Eon-wui and Choe Hang played an important role in establishing the structures of early Goryeo. In the Joseon period, Gyeongju
Gyeongju
joined the rest of Gyeongsang in becoming a hotbed of the conservative Sarim faction. Notable Gyeongju
Gyeongju
members of this faction included the 15th century intellectual Yi Eon-jeok . He has been enshrined in the Oksan Seowon
Seowon
since 1572. In modern times, the city produced writers such as Kim Dong-ni and Park Mok-wol , both of whom did a great deal to popularize the region's culture, as well as Choe Jun , a wealthy businessman who established the Yeungnam University Foundation.

Some Korean family clans trace their origins to Gyeongju, often to the ruling elites of Silla. For example, the Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Kim clan claims descent from the rulers of later Silla. The Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Park and Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Seok clans trace their ancestry to Silla's earlier ruling families. These three royal clans played a strong role in preserving the historical precincts of Gyeongju
Gyeongju
into modern times. The Gyeongju Choe and Lee clans also trace their ancestry to the Silla
Silla
elites. Prominent members of the Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Lee clan include Goryeo
Goryeo
period scholar Yi Je-hyeon , and Joseon period scholars Yi Hwang
Yi Hwang
and Yi Hang-bok . A contemporary notable figure from the Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Lee clan is Lee Byung-chull , the founder of Samsung Group
Samsung Group
. However, not all Gyeongju
Gyeongju
clans date to the Silla
Silla
period; for instance, the Gyeongju Bing clan was founded in the early Joseon Dynasty .

RELIGION

The city remains an important centre of Korean Buddhism . East of the downtown area lies Bulguksa
Bulguksa
, one of South Korea's largest Buddhist temples; nearby is Seokguram , a famed Buddhist shrine. Traditional prayer locations are found on mountains throughout Gyeongju. Such mountains include Namsan near the city center, Danseok-san and Obong-san in the west, and the low peak of Hyeong-san on the Gyeongju- Pohang
Pohang
border. Namsan in particular is often referred to as "the sacred mountain" due to the Buddhist shrines and statues which cover its slopes. In addition, Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is the birthplace of Cheondoism
Cheondoism
, an indigenous religion to Korea based on Korean shamanism , Taoism and Korean Buddhism, with elements drawn from Christianity . The religion evolved from Donghak (lit. East learning) disciplines established by Choe Je-u . His birthplace of Yongdamjeong , located in Hyeongok-myeon , is regarded as a sacred place to followers of Cheondogyo.

CUISINE

See also: Korean cuisine
Korean cuisine
Gyeongju bread
Gyeongju bread
, a local speciality.

The cuisine of Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is generally typical of the cuisine elsewhere in Gyeongsang province: spicy and salty. However, it has distinctive tastes according to region and several local specialties known nationwide. The most famous of these is " Gyeongju bread
Gyeongju bread
" or "Hwangnam bread", a red-bean pastry first baked in 1939 and now sold throughout the country. Chalboribbang , made with locally produced glutinous barley , is also a pastry with a filling of red bean paste . Local specialties with a somewhat longer pedigree include beopju , a traditional Korean liquor produced by the Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Choe in Gyo-dong . The brewing skill and distill master were designated as Important Intangible Cultural Properties by South Korea
South Korea
government. Ssambap , a rice dish served with vegetable leaves, various small side dishes and condiments.

Other local specialities include ssambap , haejangguk , and muk . Ssambap refers to a rice dish served with vegetable leaves, various banchan (small side dishes) and condiments such as gochujang (chili pepper paste) or ssamjang (a mixture of soybean paste and gochujang) to wrap them together. Most ssambap restaurants in Gyeongju
Gyeongju
are gathered in the area of Daenuengwon or Grand Tumuli
Tumuli
Park. Haejangguk is a kind of soup eaten as a hangover cure, and means "soup to chase a hangover". A street dedicated to haejangguk is located near Gyeongju National Museum , where 20 haejangguk restaurants are gathered to serve the Gyeongju-style haejangguk. The soup is made by boiling soybean sprout , sliced memilmuk (buckwheat starch jelly), sour kimchi (pickled vegetables) and gulfweed in a clear broth of dried anchovy and Alaska pollack .

The east district of Gyeongju, Gampo-eup
Gampo-eup
town, is adjacent to the sea, so fresh seafood and jeotgal (fermented salted seafood) are abundant. There are over 240 seafood restaurants in Gampo Harbor offering various dishes made with seafood caught in the sea, such as hoe (raw fish dishes), jeonboktang (an abalone soup), grilled seafood and others.

SPORTS

2008 Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Citizens' Athletics Festival held at Gyeongju Public Stadium.

As of 2007, Gyeongju
Gyeongju
city had two stadiums, two gymnasiums, two tennis courts, one swimming pool and others as public sport facilities as well as various registered private sports venues. Many of public sport facilities are located in Hwangseong Park
Hwangseong Park
with an area of 1,022,350 m2 (11,004,500 sq ft) including a luxuriant pine trees forest. The site was originally the location of the artificial forest of Doksan which was established for feng shui purposes during the Silla
Silla
period. It was also used as a training ground for hwarang warriors and hunting spot for Silla
Silla
kings, and was reported to be King Jinpyeong 's favorite location. In 1975, Hwangseong Park
Hwangseong Park
was designated a "city neighborhood park" and it currently consists of the multi-purpose Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Public Stadium, Football Park (with seven football fields and one futsal field), and one gymnasium , as well as Horimjang field for gukgung or Korean traditional archery and a ssireum wrestling ring. In addition, it contains a gateball field, an inline skating rink, jogging courses, and cycling roads. The Gyeongju Public Stadium was completed in 1982 and can accommodate 20,000 people at capacity.

Angang Field Hockey Stadium, located in the district of Angang-eup , is home to Gyeongju
Gyeongju
City Hockey, which is one of four professional women's field hockey teams in South Korea. The team was formed in 1994, and is governed by the Sport and Youth Division of Gyeongju City. Although not an initial successful team, Gyeongju
Gyeongju
City Hockey won the first trophies both at National Division Hockey Championships and National Sports Festival in 2000. In 2002, Gyeongju
Gyeongju
City Hockey took a first prize and three second prizes, and in 2008, the team won the first prize at the 51st National Division Hockey Championships.

The city plays host to two annual marathon events. The Gyeongju International Marathon
Marathon
, held in October, garners elite level competition while the larger Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Cherry Blossom Marathon
Marathon
caters more for amateur fun runners . The Cherry Blossom Marathon
Marathon
has been held each year in Gyeongju
Gyeongju
since 1992, usually in April, to improve relations with Japan
Japan
(a country with a long history of marathon running). The race, mainly sponsored by Gyeongju
Gyeongju
city and the district, attracted 13,600 participants in 2009 including about 1,600 foreigners.

ECONOMY

See also: Economy of South Korea
South Korea
Gampo Port

The economy of Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is more diverse than the city's image as a tourist haven would suggest. Although tourism is important to the economy, most residents work in other fields. Over 27,000 are employed in manufacturing compared to roughly 13,500 in the hospitality industry. The number involved in tourism has remained constant over recent years, while the manufacturing sector added about 6,000 jobs from 1999 to 2003. The manufacturing sector is closely tied to nearby cities, utilizing Gyeongju's transit links with Ulsan , Pohang
Pohang
, and Daegu
Daegu
. As in Ulsan and Daegu
Daegu
the automotive parts industry plays an important role. Of the 1,221 businesses incorporated in Gyeongju almost a third are involved in auto-parts manufacture.

Fishing takes place in coastal towns, especially in Gampo-eup
Gampo-eup
in the city's northeast, with 436 registered fishing craft in the city. Fishing industry in Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is generally in a declined status due to relatively inconvenient transport conditions and lacks of subordinate facilities. Much of the catch from these boats goes direct from the harbor to Gyeongju's many seafood restaurants. Mainly, sauries , anchovies, rays are harvested and a small number of abalone and wakame farming takes place. Local specialties include myeolchijeot (fermented anchovy), abalone, wakame, and squid. Paddy fields in Gyeongju
Gyeongju

Agriculture is still important, particularly in the outlying regions of Gyeongju. According to the 2006 statistical yearbook of Gyeongju, rice fields occupy an area of 169.57 km2 (65.47 sq mi), which is 70% of the total cultivated acreage of 24,359 km2 (9,405 sq mi). The remaining 74.02 km2 (28.58 sq mi) consists of fields under other crops and farmsteads. Crop production is centered in the fertile river basins near the Hyeongsan River . The main crops are rice, barley, beans and corn. Vegetables such as radish and napa cabbage and fruits are also important crops. Apples are mainly produced in the districts of Geoncheon-eup
Geoncheon-eup
, Gangdong-myeon and Cheonbuk-myeon and Korean pear are cultivated in Geoncheon-eup
Geoncheon-eup
and Angang-eup . The city plays a leading role in the domestic production of beef and mushrooms . Button mushrooms harvested in Geoncheon-eup
Geoncheon-eup
are canned and exported. The cultivated acreage and the number of households engaging in agriculture is however declining.

A small amount of quarrying activity takes place in the city, with 46 active mines and quarries in Gyeongju. Most are engaged in the extraction of kaolin , fluorspar and Agalmatolite and Kaolin
Kaolin
is exported. A fruit shop at Seongdong Market
Seongdong Market

As the capital of Silla, commerce and trading in Gyeongju
Gyeongju
developed early on. Samguk Sagi
Samguk Sagi
has records on the establishment of Gyeongdosi (capital area market) in March, 490 during King Soji 's reign, and Dongsi (East Market) in 509, during King Jijeung 's reign. In the 1830s, Gyeongju
Gyeongju
had five five-day markets which remained very active until the late 1920s. Due to its size Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Bunaejang (Gyeongju village market) was referred to as one of the two leading markets in the Yeongnam area, along with Daegu
Daegu
Bunaejang. Transportation developed in the late period of the Japanese occupation , as the Jungang Line
Jungang Line
and the Daegu
Daegu
Line and the connecting route between Pohang
Pohang
and the northwestern part of Japan
Japan
were set up, leading to increasing population and developing commerce. After the 1960s, traditional periodic markets gradually transformed into regular markets as the city was flourishing. In periodic markets, agricultural and marine products, industrial products, living necessaries, wild edible greens, herbs, and cattle are mainly traded. As of 2006, Gyeongju
Gyeongju
had eight regular markets, nine periodic markets and the Gyeongju
Gyeongju
department store. Traditional periodic markets declined and have become token affairs these days.

TOURISM

Main article: Tourism in Gyeongju
Tourism in Gyeongju
Dabotap
Dabotap
pagoda at Bulguksa temple

Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is a major tourist destination for South Koreans as well as foreign visitors. It boasts the 1000 years of Silla
Silla
heritage with vast number of ancient ruins and archaeological sites found throughout the city, which help to attract 6 million visiting tourists including 750,000 foreigners per year. The city government has parlayed its historic status into a basis for other tourism-related developments such as conferences, festivals, and resorts.

Many Silla
Silla
sites are located in Gyeongju National Park such as the Royal Tomb Complex, the Cheomseongdae
Cheomseongdae
observatory that is one of the oldest surviving astronomical observatories in East Asia , the Anapji royal pond garden, and the Gyerim
Gyerim
forest. Gyeongju
Gyeongju
National Museum hosts many important artifacts and national treasures that have been excavated from sites within the city and surrounding areas. Bunhwangsa
Bunhwangsa
pagoda, National Treasure of Korea No. 30

Much of Gyeongju's heritage are related to the Silla
Silla
kingdom's patronage of Buddhism
Buddhism
. The grotto of Seokguram and the temple of Bulguksa
Bulguksa
were the first Korean sites to be included on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1995. In addition, the ruins of the old Hwangnyongsa temple, said to have been Korean's largest, are preserved on the slopes of Toham Mountain . Various Silla-era stone carvings of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are found on mountainsides throughout the city, particularly on Namsan .

A significant portion of Gyeongju's tourist traffic is due to the city's promotion of itself as a site for various festivals, conferences, and competitions. Every year since 1962, the Silla cultural festival has been held in October to celebrate and honour the dynasty's history and culture. It is one of the major festivals of Korea. It features athletic events, folk games, music, dance, literary contests and Buddhist religious ceremonies. Other festivals include the Cherry Blossom Marathon
Marathon
in April, the Korean Traditional Liquor and Cake festival in March, and memorial ceremonies for the founders of the Silla
Silla
Dynasty and General Kim Yu-sin .

There were 15 hotels including Hilton Hotel
Hilton Hotel
, Gyeognju Chosun Hotel, and 276 lodging facilities, and 2,817 restaurants in Gyeongju
Gyeongju
in 2006.

MEDIA

Gyeongju Sinmun , a local newspaper company is housed in this building.

Gyeongju
Gyeongju
has two main local newspapers; the Gyeongju Sinmun and the Seorabeol Sinmun. Both are weekly newspapers providing news via online as well and their headquarters are located in the neighborhood of Dongcheon-dong . The Gyeongju Sinmun was founded in 1989 and provides various news and critics on anything concerning Gyeongju. Its online newspaper, Digital Gyeongju Sinmun opened in December, 2000 to provide live local news out of the limit as a weekly newspaper and to establish mutual information exchanges from Gyeongju
Gyeongju
locals. In 2001, Gyeongju Sinmun started to present Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Citizen Awards to people who try to develop the local industry and economy, culture and education, and welfare service. Since 2003, the Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant headquarter co-hosts the awards with Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Sinmun.

The Seorabeol Sinmun was established in 1993, however, from November 15, 2000 to November 10, 2005, its publication was stopped for financial difficulties after the 1997 Asian economic crisis had left a strong impact on the nationwide economy. Since 2006, Seorabeol Sinmun presents Serabeol Awards to people having devouring to develop Gyeongju.

Several major feature films have been filmed in the city, including Kick the Moon , On the Occasion of Remembering the Turning Gate , Taegukgi , Chwihwaseon and others. In 2009, the filming of the Queen Seondeok
Queen Seondeok
, a popular MBC TV series took place in a studio at Silla
Silla
Millennium Park located in Bomun Lake Resort .

EDUCATION

See also: Education in South Korea
South Korea

Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is strongly associated with the education tradition of Hwarangdo ("Way of the Flower of Young Men") which was established and flourished during the Silla
Silla
period. It is a military and philosophical code that offered the basis of training to Hwarang , a military cadet of youths from the aristocratic class. The training equally emphasized practicing academic and martial arts based on Buddhism
Buddhism
and patriotism. A number of Silla's greatest generals and military leaders such as Kim Yu-sin were Hwarang who played a central role in Silla
Silla
unification of the Korean peninsula. As Silla
Silla
was integrated into the next ruling dynasty, Goryeo
Goryeo
, the system declined and was officially disbanded in the Joseon dynasty . However, the spirit and discipline were revived in the second half of the 20th century as a form of Korean martial arts with the same name. A building of the Gyeongju Hyanggyo

Formal education has a longer history in Gyeongju
Gyeongju
than anywhere else in South Korea. The Gukhak , or national academy, was established here in 682, at the beginning of the Unified Silla
Silla
period. Its curriculum focused on the Confucian classics for local officials. After the fall of Silla
Silla
in the 10th century, the Gukhak closed. However, due to Gyeongju's role as a provincial center under the Goryeo
Goryeo
and early Joseon dynasties, the city was home to state-sponsored provincial schools (hyanggyo ) under both dynasties such as Gyeongju Hyanggyo . During the later Joseon dynasty there were several seowon , or private Confucian academies, were set up in the city such as Oksan Seowon
Seowon
and Seoak Seowon
Seowon
.

The education system of Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is the same as elsewhere in the country. Schooling begins with preschools ; there are 65 in the city. This is followed by six years in elementary schools ; Gyeongju
Gyeongju
has 46. Subsequently, students pass through three years of middle school . There are 19 middle schools in Gyeongju. High school education, which lasts for three years, is not compulsory , but most students attend and graduate from high school. Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is home to 21 high schools, of which 11 provide specialized technical training. At each of these levels, there is a mix of public and private institutions. All are overseen by the Gyeongju
Gyeongju
bureau of North Gyeongsang's Provincial Office of Education. Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is home to a school for the mentally disabled , which provides education to students from preschool to adult age. Campus of Dongguk University
Dongguk University
in Gyeongju
Gyeongju
at night

Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is home to four institutions of tertiary education . Sorabol College is a technical college in the district of Chunghyo-dong that offers majors specializing in tourism, leisure, health care and cosmetic treatments.

Each of Gyeongju's three universities reflects the city's unique role. Dongguk and Uiduk universities are Buddhist institutions, reflecting that religion's link to the city. Gyeongju University , formerly Korea Tourism University, is strongly focused on tourism, reflecting its importance in the region.

INFRASTRUCTURE

HEALTHCARE

Dongguk University
Dongguk University
Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Hospital

According to the 2008 yearbook of Gyeongju, the total number of medical institutions was 224 with 3,345 beds, including two general hospitals, thirteen hospitals, 109 clinics, five nursing homes, forty two dental hospitals, two Korean traditional medicine
Korean traditional medicine
hospitals and 50 Korean traditional medicine
Korean traditional medicine
clinics. There are also twenty eight medical institutions related to Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Health Center affiliated to the Gyeongju
Gyeongju
City government.

The two general hospitals are associated with two major universities in Gyeongju
Gyeongju
and nearby Daegu
Daegu
. One is the Dongguk University
Dongguk University
Gyeongju Hospital, located in the district of Seokjang-dong, which is affiliated with Dongguk University
Dongguk University
Medical School and Center. The Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Hospital was opened in a seven-story building in 1991 to provide Gyeongju
Gyeongju
locals with a quality medical service and train medical specialists in the region. After various renovations the hospital currently has 24 departments including a radiation oncology center and 438 beds. It is also assigned as a teaching and learning hospital and in partnership with Dongguk University
Dongguk University
Oriental Hospital. The other general hospital is a branch of Keimyung University
Keimyung University
, Dongsan Medical Hospital in Daegu. It is the successor of Gyeongju Christianity Hospital founded in 1962, and was reborn as the current general hospital in 1991. The Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Dongsan Hospital is located in the district of Seobu-dong and has 12 departments in a three-story building.

UTILITIES

A view of Hyeongsan River from Dong Bridge. The river is one of water sources of Gyeongju.

Water supply and sewage disposal are municipal services which are respectively handled by the Water Supply Office and Water Quality and Environment Office. Water comes from the Hyeongsan River , the multi-purpose Deokdong Dam and several streams. The city is divided into seven water districts, with eight filtration plants and seven sewage treatment plants. One of the sewage treatment plants, Angang Sewage Disposal Plant began operating in April 2005 by the co-investment of the Government of North Gyeongsang and Gyeongju
Gyeongju
City with a fund of 44,300,000,000 won to install facilities to prevent the pollution of the Hyeongsan River , which is a main water source for Gyeongju
Gyeongju
and Pohang
Pohang
residents. The plant is located on a spacious site with 39,000 m2 (420,000 sq ft) in Homyeong-ri, Gangdong-myeon in Gyeongju
Gyeongju
where nature friendly facilities provide recreational venues for the locals. Through 56.1 km (34.9 mi) of sewer pipes and 14 pumping stations , the plant has a capacity of 18,000 tonnes of domestic sewage per day that comes from Angang-eup , and Gangdong-myeon . The facilities have high-powered disposal equipment developed by related industrial companies to maintain the discharged water at the first or second degree in quality, so that it is used as river maintenance flow and agricultural water in case a drought occurs.

The city had managed its own recycling service, but privatized it since July 1, 2009.

Other utilities are provided by private entities or South Korean government-owned companies. Seorabeol City Gas, an affiliate of GS Group , provides gas to the Gyeongju
Gyeongju
residents, while, electrical power is supplied by the public enterprises, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power via the Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant . The plant is known for the only nuclear power plant operating PHWRs (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) in South Korea
South Korea
and supplies about 5% of South Korea's electricity. The owner, Korea Hydro "> Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Station

The city lies at the junction of two minor lines operated by the Korean National Railroad . The Jungang Line
Jungang Line
runs from Seoul
Seoul
to Gyeongju
Gyeongju
and carries trains from the Daegu
Daegu
Line , which originates in Dongdaegu . In Gyeongju, the Jungang line connects to the Donghae Nambu Line which runs between Pohang
Pohang
and Busan
Busan
. The Gyeongbu Expressway , which runs from Seoul
Seoul
to Busan, passes through Gyeongju, and Provincial highway 68, aided by the South Korean government, connects Seocheon in the South Chungcheong
South Chungcheong
province to Gyeongju. Additionally national highways such as Route 4, 7, 14, 20, 28, 31, and 35 crisscross the city. Since the city is a popular tourist destination, nonstop bus services are available from most major cities in South Korea.

High-speed rail does not serve central Gyeongju, but the KTX Gyeongbu Line stops at the nearby Singyeongju Station , in Geoncheon-eup
Geoncheon-eup
, west of Gyeongju's city center.

SISTER CITIES

* Iksan
Iksan
, North Jeolla , South Korea
South Korea
(1998) * Nara , Nara , Japan
Japan
(1970) * Obama , Fukui , Japan
Japan
(1977) * Pompeii
Pompeii
, Campania , Italy
Italy
(1985) * Versailles , Île-de- France
France
, France
France
(1987) * Xi\'an , Shaanxi
Shaanxi
, China
China
(1994) * Huế
Huế
, Thừa Thiên– Huế
Huế
, Vietnam
Vietnam
(2007) * Isfahan
Isfahan
, Isfahan
Isfahan
, Iran
Iran
(2017)

SEE ALSO

* Geography of South Korea
South Korea
* List of cities in South Korea
South Korea
* Southeastern Maritime Industrial Region
Southeastern Maritime Industrial Region
* World Heritage Site

NOTES

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City. pp. 343–344. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 12, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-06. * ^ Kim Gyeong-yeop (김경엽) (2008-05-22). (경북) 동국대 의대 일산 이전 \\'먹튀\\' 논란 (IN KOREAN). HANKOOK ILBO . ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON 2011-06-13. RETRIEVED 2009-08-06. * ^ Im, Na-jeong (임나정) (2006-08-09). 개원 15주년 동국대 경주병원, 제2도약 준비 (IN KOREAN) (2251). BULGYO SINMUN. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON 2011-07-23. RETRIEVED 2009-08-06. * ^ 동국대학교 경주병원 東國大學校慶州病院 (IN KOREAN). NATE / ENCYCLOPEDIA OF KOREAN CULTURE. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON 2011-06-10. RETRIEVED 2009-08-06. * ^ 경주동산병원장 김재룡 (IN KOREAN). DAEGU ILBO. 2008-10-02. RETRIEVED 2009-08-06. * ^ 상하수도 (IN KOREAN). GYEONGJU CITY. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON JUNE 13, 2011. RETRIEVED 2009-08-06. * ^ Yonhap
Yonhap
News (2005-04-28). 경주 안강하수처리장 준공 (IN KOREAN). MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT OF SOUTH KOREA. RETRIEVED 2009-08-06. * ^ Lee, Seung-hyeong (이승형). 경주 재활용 선별장 갈등 해법 못찾나 (IN KOREAN). YONHAP. RETRIEVED 2009-08-06. * ^ "서라벌도시가스주식회사 -都市-株式會社, SEORABEOL CITY GAS Co., Ltd" (in Korean). Nate / Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Archived from the original on 2011-06-10. Retrieved 2009-08-06. * ^ "KHNP Fact Sheet". CANDU Owners Group website. Archived from the original on May 15, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-31. See also site. * ^ A B "ATS wins South Korea
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nuclear deal". TheStar.com. Canadian Press . 2007-09-10. Retrieved 2009-08-06. * ^ "Wolseong Nuclear Power plant". Korea Neclear Energy Foundation. Retrieved 2009-08-06. * ^ Wald, Matthew L. (1991-01-10). "TALKING DEALS; Help for Canada\'s Nuclear Industry". The New York Times . Retrieved 2009-08-06. * ^ Lee Jeong-hun (이정훈) (2006-10-11). 직도지원책, 고군산연결도로사업 청신 (IN KOREAN). KMR NEWS. RETRIEVED 2009-08-10. * ^ "Route 4" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-08-10. * ^ "Route 7" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-08-10. * ^ "Route 14" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-08-10. * ^ "Route 20" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-08-10. * ^ "Route 28" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-08-10. * ^ "Route 31" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-08-10. * ^ "Route 35" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-08-10. * ^ 교통정보: 고속/시외버스 (IN KOREAN). GYEONGJU CULTURE TOURISM INFO. RETRIEVED 2009-08-06. * ^ Gang, Byeong-seo; Lee, Chae-su; Hwang, I-ju (2009-07-08). "포항·경주·영덕·울진, 21C 중심도시 나래 펴다" (in Korean). Maeil Sinmun hosted by Pohang
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REFERENCES

* Breen, Michael (1999) The Koreans: who they are, what they want, where their future lies Macmillan, ISBN 0-312-24211-5 * Cherry, Judith (2001), Korean multinationals in Europe, Routledge Advances in Korean Studies, Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-1480-4 * Cumings, Bruce (1997). Korea's place in the sun: A modern history. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-31681-5 * Kang, Bong W. (2002). A study of success and failure in the water management of the Buk Chun in Kyongju, Korea. Paper delivered at the Eighteenth Congress of the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage. (Electronic Version). * Kang, Jae-eun; Lee, Suzanne. (2006) The land of scholars: two thousand years of Korean Confucianism Homa Fulton, Bruce, (1998) A ready-made life: early masters of modern Korean fiction, University of Hawaii Press, pp. 107–120, ISBN 0-8248-2071-1 * Kim, Deok-muk, (2003) 전국의 기도터와 굿당 (Jeon-gukui gidoteo wa gutdang. Tr. "Sites of Buddhist prayer and shamanic practice nationwide"), (in Korean), 한국민속기록보존소 ISBN 89-953630-3-7 * Kim, Won-yong . (1982). Kyŏngju: The homeland of Korean culture. Korea Journal 22(9), pp. 25–32. * Kookmin University
Kookmin University
, Department of Korean History (2004) "경주문화권 ( Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Munhwagwon. The Gyeongju
Gyeongju
cultural area)", Seoul:역사공간 ISBN 89-90848-02-4 * Korean Overseas Information Service, (2003), Handbook of Korea (11th ed.), Seoul, Hollym, ISBN 1-56591-212-8 * Lee, Ki-baek; Tr. by E.W. Wagner Robert M. Salkin, Paul E Schellinger, Sharon La Boda (1996) International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania Taylor Ray Bartlett, Rob Whyte (2007), Korea Lonely Planet, pp. 197–209, ISBN 1-74104-558-4 * Rutt, Richard; Hoare, James. (1999) Korea: a historical and cultural dictionary, Durham East-Asia series. Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-0464-7 * Sundaram, Jomo Kwame. (2003) Manufacturing competitiveness in Asia: how internationally competitive national firms and industries developed in East Asia, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-29922-5 * Tamásy, Christine; Taylor, Mike. (2008) Globalising Worlds and New Economic Configurations, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., ISBN 0-7546-7377-4 * Yi, Sŭng-hwan; Song, Jaeyoon (translation) (2005) A topography of Confucian discourse: politico-philosophical reflections on Confucian discourse since modernity, Homa (translation) Mueller, Charles M., (1999) Smiles of the baby Buddha: appreciating the cultural heritage of Kyǒngju, Changbi (창비), ISBN 89-364-7056-6

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