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GUERNSEY is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy
Normandy
. With several smaller nearby islands, it forms a jurisdiction within the Bailiwick of Guernsey , a Crown dependency . The jurisdiction is made up of ten parishes on the island of Guernsey, three other inhabited islands ( Herm , Jethou and Lihou
Lihou
), and many small islets and rocks. The jurisdiction is not part of the United Kingdom , although defence and most foreign relations are handled by the British Government.

The entire jurisdiction lies within the Common Travel Area of the British Isles
British Isles
and is not a member of the European Union
European Union
, but has a special relationship with it, being treated as part of the European Community with access to the single market for the purposes of free trade in goods. Taken together with the separate jurisdictions of Alderney and Sark
Sark
it forms the Bailiwick of Guernsey. The two Bailiwicks of Guernsey
Guernsey
and Jersey
Jersey
together form the geographical grouping known as the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Etymology * 1.2 Early history * 1.3 Early modern history * 1.4 20th century * 1.5 21st century

* 2 Politics

* 2.1 States of Guernsey * 2.2 Courts * 2.3 Crown * 2.4 External relations * 2.5 Parishes

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate * 3.2 Geology

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Infrastructure * 4.2 Transport * 4.3 Business * 4.4 Tourism * 4.5 Taxation * 4.6 Funds and debt

* 5 Population

* 5.1 Demographics * 5.2 Border control * 5.3 Housing restrictions * 5.4 People from or associated with Guernsey
Guernsey

* 6 Culture

* 6.1 Sport

* 7 Education * 8 Emergency services * 9 Image gallery * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Guernsey

ETYMOLOGY

The name "Guernsey", as well as that of neighbouring " Jersey
Jersey
", is of Old Norse origin. The second element of each word, "-ey", is the Old Norse for "island", while the original root, "guern(s)", is of uncertain origin and meaning. (It could be from the latinification of the word "Kvern", or "mill", in old and new Icelandic and Norwegian, meaning "mill-island")

EARLY HISTORY

See also: Duchy of Normandy
Normandy

Around 6000 BC, rising seas created the English Channel and separated the Norman promontories that became the bailiwicks of Guernsey
Guernsey
and Jersey
Jersey
from continental Europe . Neolithic
Neolithic
farmers then settled on its coast and built the dolmens and menhirs found in the islands today.

During their migration to Brittany
Brittany
, Britons occupied the _Lenur_ islands (the former name of the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
) including _Sarnia_ or _Lisia_ (Guernsey) and _Angia_ (Jersey). Travelling from the Kingdom of Gwent , Saint Sampson , later the abbot of Dol in Brittany, is credited with the introduction of Christianity to Guernsey.

In 933 AD, the Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
including Avranchin which included the islands, were placed by the French King Ranulf under the control of William I . The island of Guernsey
Guernsey
and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Duchy of Normandy. The island of Guernsey
Guernsey
seen from 33,000 feet (10,000 m), looking north

During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, the island was a haven for pirates that would use the "lamping technique" to ground ships close to her waters. This intensified during the Hundred Years War , when, starting in 1339 , the island was occupied by the Capetians on several occasions. The Guernsey
Guernsey
Militia was operational in 1337 and would help defend the island for a further 600 years.

In 1372, the island was invaded by Aragonese mercenaries under the command of Owain Lawgoch (remembered as _Yvon de Galles_), who was in the pay of the French king. Owain and his dark-haired mercenaries were later absorbed into Guernsey
Guernsey
legend as invading fairies from across the sea.

EARLY MODERN HISTORY

See also: Maritime history of the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
Castle Cornet seen at night over the harbour of St Peter Port
St Peter Port
.

In the mid-16th century, the island was influenced by Calvinist reformers from Normandy. During the Marian persecutions , three women, the Guernsey Martyrs , were burned at the stake for their Protestant beliefs.

During the English Civil War , Guernsey
Guernsey
sided with the Parliamentarians . The allegiance was not total, however; there were a few Royalist uprisings in the southwest of the island, while Castle Cornet was occupied by the Governor, Sir Peter Osborne , and Royalist troops. In December 1651, with full honours of war, Castle Cornet surrendered; it was the last Royalist outpost anywhere in the British Isles to surrender.

Wars against France
France
and Spain during the 17th and 18th centuries gave Guernsey
Guernsey
shipowners and sea captains the opportunity to exploit the island's proximity to mainland Europe by applying for letters of marque and turning their merchantmen into privateers .

By the beginning of the 18th century, Guernsey's residents were starting to settle in North America. The threat of invasion by Napoleon
Napoleon
prompted many defensive structures to be built at the end of that century. The 19th century saw a dramatic increase in the prosperity of the island, due to its success in the global maritime trade , and the rise of the stone industry.

20TH CENTURY

See also: German occupation of the Channel Islands
Channel Islands

During the First World War
First World War
, about 3,000 island men served in the British Expeditionary Force . Of these, about 1,000 served in the Royal Guernsey Light Infantry regiment formed from the Royal Guernsey Militia in 1916.

For most of the Second World War
Second World War
, the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
were occupied by German troops . Before the occupation, 80% of Guernsey
Guernsey
children had been evacuated to England
England
to live with relatives or strangers during the war. Some children were never reunited with their families. The occupying German forces deported over 1,000 Guernsey
Guernsey
residents to camps in southern Germany, notably to the _Lager Lindele_ (Lindele Camp) near Biberach an der Riß and to Laufen . Guernsey
Guernsey
was very heavily fortified during World War II , out of all proportion to the island's strategic value. Life for the civilians on the island was very difficult, especially after June 1944 when the island was under siege. German defences remain a lasting reminder of those times.

During the late 1940s the island repaired the damage caused to its buildings during the occupation. The tomato industry started up again and thrived until the 1970s when it hit a sharp, terminal decline. Tourism has remained important. Finance businesses grew in the 1970s and expanded in the next two decades and are important employers.

21ST CENTURY

The effect on Guernsey
Guernsey
of the UK leaving the European Union
European Union
is uncertain. The UK have confirmed that the Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
position will be argued in the Brexit negotiations .

POLITICS

Main article: Politics of Guernsey

STATES OF GUERNSEY

Main article: States of Guernsey

The deliberative assembly of the States of Guernsey (_États de Guernesey_) is called the States of Deliberation (_États de Délibération_) and consists of 38 People's Deputies, elected from multi- or single-member districts every four years. There are also two representatives from Alderney , a semi-autonomous dependency of the Bailiwick, but Sark
Sark
sends no representative since it has its own legislature. The Bailiff or Deputy Bailiff preside in the assembly. There are also two non-voting members: H.M. Procureur (Attorney General) and H.M. Comptroller (Solicitor General), both appointed by the Crown and collectively known as the Law Officers of the Crown.

A _projet de loi_ is the equivalent of a UK bill or a French _projet de loi_, and a law is the equivalent of a UK act of parliament or a French _loi_. A draft law passed by the states can have no legal effect until formally approved by Her Majesty in Council and promulgated by means of an order in council . Laws are given the Royal Sanction at regular meetings of the Privy Council in London, after which they are returned to the islands for formal registration at the Royal Court .

The states also make delegated legislation known as 'ordinances' (_Ordonnances_) and 'orders' (_ordres_) which do not require the Royal Assent . Commencement orders are usually in the form of ordinances.

The legal jurisdiction of Guernsey
Guernsey
needs Royal Assent
Royal Assent
from the Privy Council for its primary legislation (in a similar fashion to Alderney and Sark). Each jurisdiction raises its own taxation, although in 1949 Alderney (but not Sark) transferred its fiscal rights to Guernsey.

COURTS

The oldest Courts of Guernsey can be traced back to the 9th century. The principal court is the ROYAL COURT and exercises both civil and criminal jurisdiction. Additional courts, such as the Magistrate's Court, which deals with minor criminal matters, and the Court of Appeal, which hears appeals from the Royal Court, have been added to the Island's legal system over the years.

CROWN

The Lieutenant Governor of Guernsey is the "representative of the Crown in right of the _république_ of the Bailiwick of Guernsey". The official residence of the Lieutenant Governor is Government House. Since 2016 the incumbent is Vice Admiral Sir Ian Corder KBE, CB.

EXTERNAL RELATIONS

Main article: External relations of Guernsey

Several European countries have a consular presence within the jurisdiction. The French Consulate is based at Victor Hugo 's former residence at Hauteville House . The German Honorary Consulate is based at a local design and advertising agency.

While the jurisdiction of Guernsey
Guernsey
has complete autonomy over internal affairs and certain external matters, the topic of complete independence from the British Crown has been discussed widely and frequently, with ideas ranging from Guernsey
Guernsey
obtaining independence as a Dominion to the bailiwicks of Guernsey
Guernsey
and Jersey
Jersey
uniting and forming an independent Federal State within the Commonwealth, whereby both islands retain their independence with regards to domestic affairs but internationally, the islands would be regarded as one state.

PARISHES

Main article: Parishes of Guernsey

Each parish is administered by a Douzaine. Douzeniers are elected for a six-year mandate, two Douzeniers being elected by parishioners at a parish meeting in November each year. The senior Douzenier is known as the Doyen (Dean). Two elected Constables (_Connétables_) carry out the decisions of the Douzaine, serving for between one and three years. The longest serving Constable is known as the Senior Constable and his or her colleague as the Junior Constable.

Guernsey
Guernsey
is divided into ten administrative parishes for local government purposes. Guernsey's Church of England
England
parishes fall under the See of Canterbury (from 2015), previously under the Bishopric of Winchester . The biggest parish is Castel, while the most populated is St Peter Port.

PARISH POPULATION (2001) AREA (VERGEES ) AREA (KM²) AREA (SQ MI)

1. Castel 7003897500000000000♠8,975 7003621900000000000♠6,219 10.2 3.9

2. Forest 7003154900000000000♠1,549 7003249800000000000♠2,498 4.1 1.6

3. St Andrew 7003240900000000000♠2,409 7003275200000000000♠2,752 4.5 1.7

4. St Martin 7003626700000000000♠6,267 7003446800000000000♠4,468 7.3 2.8

5. St Peter Port
St Peter Port
7004164880000000000♠16,488 7003391400000000000♠3,914 6.4 2.5

6. St Pierre du Bois 7003218800000000000♠2,188 7003380800000000000♠3,808 6.2 2.4

7. St Sampson 7003859200000000000♠8,592 7003381600000000000♠3,816 6.3 2.4

8. St Saviour 7003269600000000000♠2,696 7003390000000000000♠3,900 6.4 2.5

9. Torteval 7002973000000000000♠973 7003189100000000000♠1,891 3.1 1.2

10. Vale 7003957300000000000♠9,573 7003544600000000000♠5,446 8.9 3.4

The parishes of Guernsey.

GEOGRAPHY

Guernsey
Guernsey
and its sister islands that make up the Bailiwick

Situated around 49°35′N 2°20′W / 49.583°N 2.333°W / 49.583; -2.333 , Guernsey, Herm and some other smaller islands together have a total area of 71 square kilometres (27 sq mi) and coastlines of about 46 kilometres (29 mi). Elevation varies from sea level to 110 m (360 ft) at Hautnez on Guernsey.

There are many smaller islands, islets, rocks and reefs in Guernsey waters. Combined with a tidal range of 10 metres (33 feet) and fast currents of up to 12 knots , this makes sailing in local waters dangerous. The very large tidal variation provides an environmentally rich inter-tidal zone around the islands, and some sites have received Ramsar Convention designation.

The island of Guernsey
Guernsey
has a population of around 63,000 in 24 square miles (62 km2) and forms the legal and administrative centre of the jurisdiction of Guernsey
Guernsey
and the shopping and service centre for all three jurisdictions. The parliament of the whole jurisdiction of Guernsey, including the nearby inhabited islands of Herm , Jethou and Lihou
Lihou
, plus the neighbouring jurisdiction of Alderney is the States of Guernsey
Guernsey
. ‹ The template below (_Geographic location _) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

Weymouth, England
England
Alderney

Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean

Herm ; Sark
Sark
; Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
, France
France

GUERNSEY

Saint-Malo , France
France
Jersey
Jersey

CLIMATE

Guernsey
Guernsey
coastal rocks.

Guernsey's climate is temperate with mild winters and warm, sunny summers. It is classified as an oceanic climate , with a dry-summer trend, although marginally wetter than mediterranean summers. The warmest months are July and August, when temperatures are generally around 20 °C (68 °F) with some days occasionally going above 24 °C (75 °F). On average, the coldest month is February with an average weekly mean air temperature of 6 °C (42.8 °F). Average weekly mean air temperature reaches 16 °C (60.8 °F) in August. Snow rarely falls and is unlikely to settle, but is most likely to fall in February. The temperature rarely drops below freezing, although strong wind-chill from Arctic winds can sometimes make it feel like it. The rainiest months are December (average 112 mm (4.4 in)), November (average 104 mm (4.09 in)) and January (average 92 mm (3.62 in)). July is, on average, the sunniest month with 250 hours recorded sunshine; December the least with 58 hours recorded sunshine. 50% of the days are overcast.

A number of records were set in 2014. It was the highest annual mean temperature of 12.4 °C (54.3 °F). This is 0.3 °C (32.5 °F) higher than for any other year, due to an almost complete absence of cold snaps during the winter months. Three very wet months meant that the winter was the wettest on record. Halloween turned out to be warmer than any other on record, with the temperature peaking at 18.3 °C (64.9 °F).

CLIMATE DATA FOR GUERNSEY (1981-2010 NORMALS)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 15.0 (59) 14.6 (58.3) 18.6 (65.5) 24.3 (75.7) 26.0 (78.8) 31.0 (87.8) 32.6 (90.7) 34.3 (93.7) 27.0 (80.6) 23.6 (74.5) 18.0 (64.4) 17.3 (63.1) 34.3 (93.7)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 8.7 (47.7) 8.4 (47.1) 10.0 (50) 11.8 (53.2) 14.9 (58.8) 17.5 (63.5) 19.5 (67.1) 19.8 (67.6) 18.0 (64.4) 15.1 (59.2) 11.8 (53.2) 9.5 (49.1) 13.8 (56.8)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 6.9 (44.4) 6.5 (43.7) 7.8 (46) 9.2 (48.6) 12.1 (53.8) 14.5 (58.1) 16.6 (61.9) 17.0 (62.6) 15.5 (59.9) 13.0 (55.4) 10.0 (50) 7.8 (46) 11.4 (52.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 5.0 (41) 4.6 (40.3) 5.6 (42.1) 6.6 (43.9) 9.2 (48.6) 11.5 (52.7) 13.6 (56.5) 14.1 (57.4) 12.9 (55.2) 10.8 (51.4) 8.1 (46.6) 6.0 (42.8) 9.0 (48.2)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −7.4 (18.7) −7.3 (18.9) −5.5 (22.1) −1.0 (30.2) 0.0 (32) 5.8 (42.4) 8.8 (47.8) 8.9 (48) 7.0 (44.6) 2.3 (36.1) −0.8 (30.6) −3.3 (26.1) −7.4 (18.7)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 92.5 (3.642) 70.2 (2.764) 67.0 (2.638) 53.1 (2.091) 50.9 (2.004) 45.5 (1.791) 42.1 (1.657) 47.7 (1.878) 57.5 (2.264) 95.0 (3.74) 104.3 (4.106) 112.9 (4.445) 838.7 (33.02)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.2 MM) 19.3 15.7 15.9 13.2 11.9 10.4 11.0 10.6 12.4 17.3 18.8 18.6 175.0

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 2.8 4.0 1.3 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.7 11.0

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 61.0 85.6 127.6 194.7 234.5 246.6 250.7 230.1 180.1 117.1 77.8 58.2 1,864

Source: Guernsey
Guernsey
Met Office 2014 Weather Report

GEOLOGY

Main article: Geology of Guernsey
Geology of Guernsey
Geology of Guernsey
Geology of Guernsey

Guernsey
Guernsey
has a geological history stretching further back into the past than most of Europe. There is a broad geological division between the north and south of the Island. The SOUTHERN METAMORPHIC COMPLEX is elevated above the geologically younger, lower lying NORTHERN IGNEOUS COMPLEX. Guernsey
Guernsey
has experienced a complex geological evolution (especially the rocks of the southern complex) with multiple phases of intrusion and deformation recognisable.

ECONOMY

A Guernsey Post
Guernsey Post
pillar box .

Financial services, such as banking, fund management , and insurance, account for about 37% of GDP. Tourism, manufacturing, and horticulture, mainly tomatoes and cut flowers, especially freesias , have been declining. Light tax and death duties make Guernsey
Guernsey
a popular offshore finance centre for private equity funds .

Guernsey
Guernsey
does not have a Central Bank and it issues its own sterling coinage and banknotes . UK coinage and (English, Scottish and Northern Irish-faced) banknotes also circulate freely and interchangeably.

Guernsey
Guernsey
has the official ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code GG and the official ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 code GGY; market data vendors, such as Reuters
Reuters
, will report products related to Guernsey
Guernsey
using the alpha-3 code.

Guernsey
Guernsey
has been given a credit rating of AA-/A-1+ with a stable outlook from Standard "> Sure telephone boxes on Guernsey
Guernsey

Guernsey Telecoms , which provided telecommunications, was sold by the States to Cable ">_ Children on the Beach of Guernsey_ (1883) by Pierre-Auguste Renoir . Main article: Culture of Guernsey

English is the language in general use by the majority of the population, while Guernésiais , the Norman language of the island, is spoken fluently by only about 2% of the population (according to 2001 census). However, 14% of the population claim some understanding of the language. Until the early 20th-century French was the only official language of the Bailiwick, and all deeds for the sale and purchase of real estate in Guernsey
Guernsey
were written in French until 1971. Family and place names reflect this linguistic heritage. George Métivier , considered by some to be the island's national poet , wrote in Guernesiais. The loss of the island's language and the Anglicisation of its culture, which began in the 19th century and proceeded inexorably for a century, accelerated sharply when the majority of the island's school children were evacuated to the UK for five years during the German occupation of 1940–45. _ George Métivier , considered by some to be the island's national poet.

Victor Hugo wrote some of his best-known works while in exile in Guernsey, including _ Les Misérables _. His home in St. Peter Port , Hauteville House, is now a museum administered by the city of Paris
Paris
. In 1866, he published a novel set on Guernsey, _Travailleurs de la Mer_ (_ Toilers of the Sea _), which he dedicated to the island.

The greatest novel by a Guernseyman is _The Book of Ebenezer Le Page _ by G. B. Edwards . In addition to being a critically acclaimed work of literature, it contains a wealth of insights into Guernsey
Guernsey
life during the 20th century. In September 2008, a blue plaque was affixed to the house on the Braye Road where Edwards was raised. A more recent novel by Guernseyman Peter Lihou, _Rachel\'s Shoe _, describes the period when Guernsey
Guernsey
was under German occupation during the Second World War.

Henry Watson Fowler moved to Guernsey
Guernsey
in 1903. He and his brother Francis George Fowler composed _The King\'s English _, the Concise Oxford Dictionary and much of _ Modern English Usage
Modern English Usage
_ on the island.

The TV comedy series This is Jinsy is based on Guernsey
Guernsey
and its two writers, Chris Bran and Justin Chubb, came from the island. Guernsey cattle
Guernsey cattle
. A Guernsey
Guernsey
cow .

The national animals of the island of Guernsey
Guernsey
are the donkey and the Guernsey
Guernsey
cow . The traditional explanation for the donkey (_âne_ in French and Guernésiais) is the steepness of St Peter Port
St Peter Port
streets that necessitated beasts of burden for transport (in contrast to the flat terrain of the rival capital of St. Helier in Jersey), although it is also used in reference to Guernsey
Guernsey
inhabitants' stubbornness.

The Guernsey
Guernsey
cow is a more internationally famous icon of the island. As well as being prized for its rich creamy milk, which is claimed by some to hold health benefits over milk from other breeds, Guernsey cattle are increasingly being raised for their distinctively flavoured and rich yellowy-fatted beef. Butter made from the milk of Guernsey cows also has a distinctive yellow colour. Although since the 1960s the number of individual islanders raising these cattle for private supply has diminished significantly, Guernsey
Guernsey
steers can still be occasionally seen grazing on L'Ancresse common.

Guernsey
Guernsey
also hosts a breed of goat known as the Golden Guernsey , distinguished by its golden-coloured coat. At the end of the Second World War , the Golden Guernsey had almost been rendered extinct due to interbreeding on the island. The resurrection of this breed is largely credited to the work of a single woman, Miriam Milbourne. Although no longer considered to be critically endangered , the breed remains on the watchlist of the Rare Breeds Survival Trust .

Guernsey
Guernsey
people are traditionally nicknamed _donkeys_ or _ânes_, especially by rival Jersey
Jersey
people – who, in turn, are nicknamed _crapauds _ ("toads "). Inhabitants of each of the parishes of Guernsey
Guernsey
also have traditional nicknames, although these have generally dropped out of use among the English-speaking population. The traditional nicknames are:

PARISH GUERNéSIAIS TRANSLATION

St Peter Port _Cllichards_ "spitters"

St Sampson's _Rôines_ "frogs "

Vale _Hann'taons_ "cockchafers "

Castel _Ânes-pur-sàng_ "pure-blooded donkeys"

St Saviour's _Fouormillaons_ ants

St Pierre du Bois _Etcherbaots_ beetles

Forest _Bourdons_ bumblebees

St Martin's _Dravans_ ray fish

St Andrew's _Les croinchaons_ "the siftings "

Torteval _Ânes à pids d'ch'fa_ "donkeys with horses' hooves "

The so-called Guernsey
Guernsey
Lily , _Nerine sarniensis_, is also used as a symbol of the island, although this species was introduced to the island from South Africa.

A local delicacy is the ormer (_Haliotis tuberculata_), a variety of abalone harvested under strict laws from beaches at low spring tides .

Of the many traditional Guernsey
Guernsey
recipes, the most renowned is a stew called Guernsey Bean Jar . It is a centuries-old stew that is still popular with islanders, particularly at the annual ' Viaer Marchi ' festival, where it served as one of the main events. Chief ingredients include haricot and butter beans, pork and shin beef.

Guernsey Gâche is a special bread made with raisins, sultanas and mixed peel.

In July 2006, smoking in enclosed public places was banned , a law put in place to protect workers' right to a healthy working environment.

SPORT

Main article: Sport in Guernsey

The island's traditional colour – including for sporting events – is green.

Guernsey
Guernsey
participates in the biennial Island Games , which it hosted in 1987 and 2003 at Footes Lane . Guernsey
Guernsey
participates as part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey team in the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
.

In those sporting events where Guernsey
Guernsey
does not have international representation, but the British Home Nations
Home Nations
are competing separately, highly skilled islanders may choose to compete for any of the Home Nations. There are, however, restrictions on subsequent transfers to represent other Home Nations. The football player Matt Le Tissier , for example, could have played for the Scottish or Welsh football teams, but opted to play for England
England
instead.

Football in Guernsey
Guernsey
is run by the Guernsey Football Association . The top tier of Guernsey
Guernsey
football is the FNB Priaulx League where there are seven teams (Belgrave Wanderers, Northerners, Sylvans, St Martin's, Rovers, Rangers and Vale Recreation ). The second tier is the Jackson League .

In the 2011–12 season, Guernsey F.C. was formed and entered the Combined Counties League Division 1, becoming the first Channel Island club ever to compete in the English leagues. Guernsey
Guernsey
became division champions comfortably on 24 March 2012, they won the Combined Counties Premier Challenge Cup on 4 May 2012. Their second season saw them promoted again on the final day in front of 1,754 'Green Lions' fans, this time to Division One South of the Isthmian League, despite their fixtures being heavily affected not only by poor winter weather, but by their notable progression to the semi-finals of the FA Vase cup competition. They play in level 8 of the English football pyramid .

The Corbet Football Field , donated by Jurat Wilfred Corbet OBE
OBE
in 1932, has fostered the sport greatly over the years. Recently, the island upgraded to a larger, better-quality stadium, in Footes Lane .

Guernsey
Guernsey
has the second oldest tennis club in the world, at Kings, with courts built in 1875 and the island has produced a world class player, Heather Watson . Guernsey
Guernsey
also has one of the oldest softball associations in the world. The Guernsey
Guernsey
Softball Association was formally established in 1936, it is now one of the oldest and longest running softball associations to be found. Affiliated to the International Softball Federation (ISF) the GSA has both fast and slow pitch leagues with over 300 members.

Guernsey
Guernsey
was declared an affiliate member by the International Cricket Council (ICC) in 2005 and an associate member in 2008. The Guernsey cricket team plays in the World Cricket League and European Cricket Championship as well as the Sussex Cricket League .

Approximately 200 people play table tennis on a regular basis across four senior and two junior leagues. The Guernsey
Guernsey
Gaels was founded in 1996 and competes in the European Gaelic football leagues. The island hosts its own tournament each year with teams from all over Europe visiting the island.

Guernsey
Guernsey
also has a strong affiliation with motor sports . In season, races take place on the sands on Vazon beach as well as a quarter-mile "sprint" along the vazon coast road. More sand racing at Chouet beach. There is a motorcross track located in torteval and a kart track located in the capital of St. Peter Port, and finally at Le Val des Terres, a steeply winding road rising south from St Peter Port
St Peter Port
to Fort George, is often the focus of both local and international hill-climb races. In addition, the 2005, 2006 and 2007 World Touring Car Champion Andy Priaulx
Andy Priaulx
is a Guernseyman.

The racecourse on L\'Ancresse Common was re-established in 2004, and races are held on most May day bank holidays , with competitors from Guernsey
Guernsey
as well as Jersey, France
France
and the UK participating. Sea angling around Guernsey
Guernsey
and the other islands in the Bailiwick from shore or boat is a popular pastime for both locals and visitors with the Bailiwick boasting 12 UK records.

Guernsey
Guernsey
Motor Cycle "> Guernsey
Guernsey
Grammar School. Elizabeth College , in St Peter Port, Guernsey
Guernsey

The Education Department is part way through a programme of re-building its secondary schools. The Department has completed the building of La Rondin special needs school, the Sixth Form Centre at the Grammar School and the first phase of the new College of Further Education – a performing arts centre. The construction of St. Sampsons High was completed summer 2008 and admitted its first pupils in September 2008.

In 2008, the school leaving age was raised so the earliest date is the last Friday in June in the year a pupil turns 16, in line with England, Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland. This means pupils will be between 15 and 10 months and 16 and 10 months before being able to leave. Prior to this, pupils could leave school at the end of the term in which they turned 14, if they so wished: a letter was required to be sent to the Education department to confirm this. However, this option was undertaken by relatively few pupils, the majority choosing to complete their GCSEs and then either begin employment or continue their education.

Post- GCSE pupils have a choice of transferring to the state run Grammar School ">

Guernsey
Guernsey
coastal rocks. *

Guernsey
Guernsey
coastal rocks. *

Guernsey
Guernsey
landscape. *

Guernsey
Guernsey
landscape. *

A road in Guernsey. *

Towers in Guernsey. *

The Little Chapel , Les Vauxbelets . *

Little Chapel interior. *

Fountain Bordage signs, St Peter Port. *

Guernésiais BBC sticker. *

Festival of the Sea (Guernésiais). *

Victoria Tower . *

The QE2 Marina, St. Peter Port. *

Relief map of Guernsey
Guernsey
( SRTM data).

SEE ALSO

* Outline of Guernsey * Index of Guernsey-related articles * Bibliography of Guernsey * * Crown Dependencies
Crown Dependencies

REFERENCES

* ^ "Largest population increase since 2011". Guernsey
Guernsey
Press. 29 April 2017. * ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
Gross Domestic Product 2015 Estimates". 25 August 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2017. * ^ F. Le Maistre, _The Language of Auregny_, Jersey/ Alderney 1982. * ^ Darryl Mark Ogier (2005). _The government and law of Guernsey_. States of Guernsey. ISBN 978-0-9549775-0-4 . * ^ " Old Norse Words in the Norman Dialect". Viking Network. * ^ "La Cotte Cave, St Brelade". Société Jersiaise. Retrieved 10 October 2007. * ^ "Guernsey, Channel Islands, UK". _BBC_. Retrieved 10 October 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Marr, J., _The History of Guernsey – the Bailiwick's story_, Guernsey
Guernsey
Press (2001). * ^ de Garis, Marie (1986). _Folklore of Guernsey_. OCLC
OCLC
19840362 .

* ^ Darryl Mark Ogier, _Reformation And Society In Guernsey_, Boydell Press, 1997, p.62. * ^ _The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 65_. p. 621. * ^ Guernsey\'s emigrant children. BBC – Legacies. * ^ Parks, Edwin (1992). _Diex Aix: God Help
Help
Us – The Guernseymen who marched away 1914–1918_. Guernsey: States of Guernsey. ISBN 1-871560-85-3 . * ^ "Evacuees from Guernsey
Guernsey
recall life in Scotland". _BBC News_. 12 November 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Background briefing on the Crown Dependencies: Jersey, Guernsey
Guernsey
and the Isle of Man" (PDF). Ministry of Justice. * ^ "Review of the Roles of the Jersey
Jersey
Crown officers" (PDF). 30 March 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2011. * ^ "Nature Reserves". _www.gov.gg_. Retrieved 2 June 2017. * ^ "About the Bailiwick of Guernsey". Channel Islands
Channel Islands
Brussels Office. * ^ "Met Observatory Weather and Climate Info". Guernsey
Guernsey
Airport. Retrieved 16 September 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ "2014 Weather Report" (PDF). Guernsey
Guernsey
Met Office. Retrieved 8 January 2016. * ^ "Météo climat stats Records for Guernsey". Météo Climat. Retrieved 27 March 2017. * ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
Gross Domestic Product First Release 2010". States of Guernsey. Retrieved 11 September 2012. * ^ "About Guernsey". Visitguernsey.com. Retrieved 31 May 2011. * ^ "Island Credit Rating Remains The Same". Island fm. 30 January 2017. * ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
Quarterly Population, Employment and Earnings Bulletin" (PDF). Island FM. Retrieved 29 October 2016. * ^ " Channel Island Box, c.1853". postalheritage.org.uk. * ^ " Aurigny
Aurigny
sale to Blue Islands \'no longer on table\'". _BBC News_. 14 September 2010. * ^ Notes on the Railway taken from _The Railway Magazine_, September 1934 edition. * ^ buses .gg
.gg
home – buses .gg
.gg
– the home of Guernsey\'s bus service. Hctgroup.org. Retrieved on 2013-09-19. * ^ "About Healthspan". Healthspan.co.uk. Retrieved 31 May 2011. * ^ "Guernsey-based Healthspan to challenge VAT decision". _BBC Guernsey_. 9 November 2011. Retrieved 2012-01-06. * ^ "GUERNSEY’S DIRECTOR OF CIVIL AVIATION ISSUES ITS SECOND AIR OPERATOR CERTIFICATE". 2-Reg. Retrieved 27 April 2017. * ^ "Where is the greenest, cleanest, prettiest place in Britain?". RHS. * ^ "St Peter’s wins class in national Britain in Bloom". Guernsey
Guernsey
press. * ^ " Herm aims for fourth gold medal in Britain in Bloom". BBC. 27 January 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013. * ^ " Herm Garden Tour". Herm Island. Retrieved 1 January 2014. * ^ "Record year for cruise ship passengers in Guernsey". BBc. 10 October 2015. * ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
Facts and Figures". States of Guernsey. Retrieved 28 February 2016. * ^ "Total States Funds = £2.7 Billion". Island FM. 28 September 2016. * ^ "Guernsey’s Debt Draws Strong Demand". Wall Street Journal. * ^ "Guernsey’s Population Nudges". Island FM. * ^ "LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH". CIA. * ^ "Guernsey\'s Two Tier Housing Market". States of Guernsey. * ^ "Where can licence holders live". States of Guernsey. * ^ "What is a Qualified Resident?". States of Guernsey. * ^ "What is Islander status?". States of Guernsey. * ^ Chaney, Edward, GB Edwards and Ebenezer Le Page, Review of the Guernsey Society , Parts 1–3, 1994–95. * ^ "Peterlihou.com". Peterlihou.com. Retrieved 31 May 2011. * ^ "Rachel\'s Shoe". Rachelsshoe.com. 10 December 2008. Retrieved 31 May 2011. * ^ "HEALTH Milk protein blamed for heart disease". BBC News. 9 April 2001. Retrieved 31 May 2011. * ^ "Golden Guernsey", Rare Breeds Survival Trust. Retrieved 10 October 2007. * ^ _Dictiounnaire Angllais-Guernésiais_ * ^ Good Food Guernsey
Guernsey
– The Ormer, May 2011. * ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
FC secure Combined Counties Division One title,". BBC Sport. 24 March 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2012. * ^ Guernsey
Guernsey
Press (7 May 2012). "‘Dom’-inating Green Lions finally get just rewards". www.thisisguernsey. Retrieved 7 May 2012. * ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
FC: Fourth Win in Four Days Earns Promotion,". BBC Sport. 6 May 2013. * ^ "Ryman here we come". Guernsey
Guernsey
Press. 8 May 2013. * ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
FC lose FA Vase semi-final first leg to Spennymoor". BBC Sport. 23 March 2013. * ^ "BBC photo of Guernsey
Guernsey
Stadium". Retrieved 31 May 2011. * ^ Guernsey
Guernsey
Softball Association * ^ ICC.cricket.org Archived 14 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Welcome to the Guernsey
Guernsey
Ambulance & Rescue Service website". Ambulance.org. Retrieved 31 May 2011. * ^ "Fire & Rescue Service". Gov.gg. Retrieved 31 May 2011. * ^ "Sea Safety". Guernsey
Guernsey
Harbour Authority. Retrieved 31 May 2011.

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