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Guernsey
Guernsey
(/ˈɡənzi/ ( listen)) is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy. It lies roughly north of St Malo and to the west of the Cotentin Peninsula. With several smaller nearby islands, it forms a jurisdiction within the Bailiwick of Guernsey, a Crown dependency. The jurisdiction is made up of ten parishes on the island of Guernsey, three other inhabited islands (Herm, Jethou
Jethou
and Lihou), and many small islets and rocks. The jurisdiction is not part of the United Kingdom, although defence and most foreign relations are handled by the British Government.[4] The entire jurisdiction lies within the Common Travel Area
Common Travel Area
of the British Isles
British Isles
and is not a member of the European Union, but has a special relationship with it, being treated as part of the European Community with access to the single market for the purposes of free trade in goods. Taken together with the separate jurisdictions of Alderney
Alderney
and Sark
Sark
it forms the Bailiwick of Guernsey. The two Bailiwicks of Guernsey
Guernsey
and Jersey
Jersey
together form the geographical grouping known as the Channel Islands.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 Early modern period 2.4 Contemporary period

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Geology

4 Politics

4.1 States of Guernsey 4.2 Legal system 4.3 External relations 4.4 Parishes

5 Economy

5.1 Infrastructure 5.2 Transport 5.3 Business 5.4 Tourism 5.5 Taxation

6 Society

6.1 Demographics 6.2 Border control 6.3 Housing restrictions 6.4 Education

7 Culture

7.1 Literature 7.2 Sport

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Name[edit] The name "Guernsey", as well as that of neighbouring "Jersey", is of Old Norse
Old Norse
origin. The second element of each word, "-ey", is the Old Norse for "island",[5] while the original root, "guern(s)", is of uncertain origin and meaning, possibly deriving from either a personal name such as Grani or Warinn, or from gron, meaning pine tree.[6] Previous names for the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
vary over history, but include the Lenur islands,[7] and Sarnia, Sarnia is the Latin name for Guernsey, or Lisia (Guernsey) and Angia (Jersey). History[edit] Main article: History of Guernsey See also: Maritime history of the Channel Islands Early history[edit] Around 6000 BC, rising seas created the English Channel
English Channel
and separated the Norman promontories that became the bailiwicks of Guernsey
Guernsey
and Jersey
Jersey
from continental Europe.[8] Neolithic
Neolithic
farmers then settled on its coast and built the dolmens and menhirs found in the islands today, providing evidence of human presence dating back to around 5000 BC.[9] Evidence of Roman settlements on the island, and the discovery of amphorae from the Herculaneum
Herculaneum
area and Spain, show evidence of an intricate trading network with regional and long distance trade.[10] Buildings found in La Plaiderie, St Peter Port
St Peter Port
dating from 100-400 AD appear to be warehouses.[11] The earliest evidence of shipping was the discovery of a wreck in St Peter Port
St Peter Port
harbor of a ship, which has been named "Asterix". It is thought to be a 3rd-century Roman cargo vessel and was probably at anchor or grounded when the fire broke out.[12] Travelling from the Kingdom of Gwent, Saint Sampson, later the abbot of Dol in Brittany, is credited with the introduction of Christianity to Guernsey.[13] Middle Ages[edit] In 933 AD, the Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
including Avranchin
Avranchin
which included the islands, were placed by the French King Ranulf under the control of William I. The island of Guernsey
Guernsey
and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Duchy of Normandy.[13] In 1204, when King John lost the continental portion of the Duchy to Philip II of France, the islands remained part of the kingdom of England.[14] The islands were then recognised by the 1259 Treaty of Paris
Paris
as part of Henry III's territories.[4] During the Middle Ages, the island was a haven for pirates that would use the "lamping technique" to ground ships close to her waters. This intensified during the Hundred Years War, when, starting in 1339, the island was occupied by the Capetians on several occasions.[13] The Guernsey
Guernsey
Militia was first mentioned as operational in 1331 and would help defend the island for a further 600 years.[15] In 1372, the island was invaded by Aragonese mercenaries under the command of Owain Lawgoch
Owain Lawgoch
(remembered as Yvon de Galles), who was in the pay of the French king. Owain and his dark-haired mercenaries were later absorbed into Guernsey
Guernsey
legend as invading fairies from across the sea.[16] Early modern period[edit] As part of the peace between England
England
and France, Pope Sixtus IV
Pope Sixtus IV
issued in 1483 a Papal bull
Papal bull
granting the Privilege of Neutrality, by which the Islands, their harbours and seas, as far as the eye can see, were considered neutral territory.[17] Anyone molesting Islanders would be excommunicated. A Royal Charter in 1548 confirmed the neutrality. Not that the French behaved, as they attempted to invade Jersey
Jersey
a year later in 1549 but were defeated by the militia. The neutrality lasted another century, until William III of England
William III of England
abolished the privilege due to privateering activity against Dutch ships.[18] In the mid-16th century, the island was influenced by Calvinist reformers from Normandy. During the Marian persecutions, three women, the Guernsey
Guernsey
Martyrs, were burned at the stake for their Protestant beliefs.[19]

Castle Cornet
Castle Cornet
seen at night over the harbour of St Peter Port.

During the English Civil War, Guernsey
Guernsey
sided with the Parliamentarians. The allegiance was not total, however; there were a few Royalist uprisings in the southwest of the island, while Castle Cornet was occupied by the Governor, Sir Peter Osborne, and Royalist troops. In December 1651, with full honours of war, Castle Cornet surrendered - the last Royalist outpost anywhere in the British Isles to surrender.[20][21] Wars against France and Spain during the 17th and 18th centuries gave Guernsey
Guernsey
shipowners and sea captains the opportunity to exploit the island's proximity to mainland Europe by applying for letters of marque and turning their merchantmen into privateers. By the beginning of the 18th century, Guernsey's residents were starting to settle in North America,[22] in particular founding Guernsey
Guernsey
County in Ohio in 1810.[23] The threat of invasion by Napoleon
Napoleon
prompted many defensive structures to be built at the end of that century.[24] The early 19th century saw a dramatic increase in the prosperity of the island, due to its success in the global maritime trade, and the rise of the stone industry. Maritime trade suffered a major decline with the move away from sailing craft as materials such as iron and steel were not available on the island.[25] Le Braye du Valle was a tidal channel that made the northern extremity of Guernsey, Le Clos du Valle, a tidal island. Le Braye du Valle was drained and reclaimed in 1806 by the British Government as a defence measure. The eastern end of the former channel became the town and harbour (from 1820) of St Sampson's, now the second biggest port in Guernsey. The western end of La Braye is now Le Grand Havre. The roadway called "The Bridge" across the end of the harbour at St Sampson's recalls the bridge that formerly linked the two parts of Guernsey
Guernsey
at high tide. New roads were built and main roads metalled for ease of use by the military.[26] Contemporary period[edit]

The island of Guernsey
Guernsey
seen from 33,000 feet (10,000 m), looking north

During the First World War, about 3,000 island men served in the British Expeditionary Force. Of these, about 1,000 served in the Royal Guernsey
Guernsey
Light Infantry regiment formed from the Royal Guernsey Militia in 1916.[27] From 30 June 1940, during the Second World War, the Channel Islands were occupied by German troops. Before the occupation, 80% of Guernsey children had been evacuated to England
England
to live with relatives or strangers during the war. Some children were never reunited with their families.[28] The occupying German forces deported over 1,000 Guernsey residents to camps in southern Germany, notably to the Lager Lindele (Lindele Camp) near Biberach an der Riß
Biberach an der Riß
and to Laufen. Guernsey
Guernsey
was very heavily fortified during World War II, out of all proportion to the island's strategic value. German defences and alterations remain visible, particularly to Castle Cornet
Castle Cornet
and around the northern coast of the island. The island was liberated on 9 May 1945, now celebrated as Liberation Day
Liberation Day
across both Guernsey
Guernsey
and Jersey.[29] During the late 1940s the island repaired the damage caused to its buildings during the occupation. The tomato industry started up again and thrived until the 1970s when it hit a sharp, terminal decline.[30] Tourism has remained important.[31] Finance businesses grew in the 1970s and expanded in the next two decades and are important employers.[32] Guernsey's constitutional and trading relationships with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the European Union
European Union
will be unaffected by Brexit.[33] Geography[edit]

Guernsey
Guernsey
and its sister islands that make up the Bailiwick

Situated around 49°35′N 2°20′W / 49.583°N 2.333°W / 49.583; -2.333, Guernsey, Herm
Herm
and some other smaller islands together have a total area of 71 square kilometres (27 sq mi) and coastlines of about 46 kilometres (29 mi). Elevation varies from sea level to 110 m (360 ft) at Hautnez on Guernsey. There are many smaller islands, islets, rocks and reefs in Guernsey waters. Combined with a tidal range of 10 metres (33 feet) and fast currents of up to 12 knots, this makes sailing in local waters dangerous. The very large tidal variation provides an environmentally rich inter-tidal zone around the islands, and some sites have received Ramsar Convention
Ramsar Convention
designation.[34] Climate[edit] Guernsey's climate is temperate with mild winters and warm, sunny summers. It is classified as an oceanic climate, with a dry-summer trend, although marginally wetter than mediterranean summers. The warmest months are July and August, when temperatures are generally around 20 °C (68 °F) with some days occasionally going above 24 °C (75 °F). On average, the coldest month is February with an average weekly mean air temperature of 6 °C (42.8 °F). Average weekly mean air temperature reaches 16 °C (60.8 °F) in August. Snow rarely falls and is unlikely to settle, but is most likely to fall in February. The temperature rarely drops below freezing, although strong wind-chill from Arctic winds can sometimes make it feel like it. The rainiest months are December (average 112 mm (4.4 in)), November (average 104 mm (4.09 in)) and January (average 92 mm (3.62 in)). July is, on average, the sunniest month with 250 hours recorded sunshine; December the least with 58 hours recorded sunshine.[35] 50% of the days are overcast. A number of records were set in 2014. It was the highest annual mean temperature of 12.4 °C (54.3 °F). This is 0.3 °C (0.54 °F) higher than for any other year, due to an almost complete absence of cold snaps during the winter months. Three very wet months meant that the winter was the wettest on record. Halloween turned out to be warmer than any other on record, with the temperature peaking at 18.3 °C (64.9 °F).[36]

Climate data for Guernsey
Guernsey
(1981-2010 normals)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 15.0 (59) 14.6 (58.3) 18.6 (65.5) 24.3 (75.7) 26.0 (78.8) 31.0 (87.8) 32.6 (90.7) 34.3 (93.7) 27.0 (80.6) 23.6 (74.5) 18.0 (64.4) 17.3 (63.1) 34.3 (93.7)

Average high °C (°F) 8.7 (47.7) 8.4 (47.1) 10.0 (50) 11.8 (53.2) 14.9 (58.8) 17.5 (63.5) 19.5 (67.1) 19.8 (67.6) 18.0 (64.4) 15.1 (59.2) 11.8 (53.2) 9.5 (49.1) 13.8 (56.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 6.9 (44.4) 6.5 (43.7) 7.8 (46) 9.2 (48.6) 12.1 (53.8) 14.5 (58.1) 16.6 (61.9) 17.0 (62.6) 15.5 (59.9) 13.0 (55.4) 10.0 (50) 7.8 (46) 11.4 (52.5)

Average low °C (°F) 5.0 (41) 4.6 (40.3) 5.6 (42.1) 6.6 (43.9) 9.2 (48.6) 11.5 (52.7) 13.6 (56.5) 14.1 (57.4) 12.9 (55.2) 10.8 (51.4) 8.1 (46.6) 6.0 (42.8) 9.0 (48.2)

Record low °C (°F) −7.4 (18.7) −7.3 (18.9) −5.5 (22.1) −1.0 (30.2) 0.0 (32) 5.8 (42.4) 8.8 (47.8) 8.9 (48) 7.0 (44.6) 2.3 (36.1) −0.8 (30.6) −3.3 (26.1) −7.4 (18.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 92.5 (3.642) 70.2 (2.764) 67.0 (2.638) 53.1 (2.091) 50.9 (2.004) 45.5 (1.791) 42.1 (1.657) 47.7 (1.878) 57.5 (2.264) 95.0 (3.74) 104.3 (4.106) 112.9 (4.445) 838.7 (33.02)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 19.3 15.7 15.9 13.2 11.9 10.4 11.0 10.6 12.4 17.3 18.8 18.6 175.0

Average snowy days 2.8 4.0 1.3 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.7 11.0

Mean monthly sunshine hours 61.0 85.6 127.6 194.7 234.5 246.6 250.7 230.1 180.1 117.1 77.8 58.2 1,864

Source #1: Guernsey
Guernsey
Met Office 2014 Weather Report[36]

Source #2: Météo Climat[37]

Geology[edit] Main article: Geology of Guernsey

Guernsey
Guernsey
coastal rocks

Guernsey
Guernsey
has a geological history stretching further back into the past than most of Europe. It forms part of the geological province of France known as the Armorican Massif.[38] There is a broad geological division between the north and south of the Island. The Southern Metamorphic Complex is elevated above the geologically younger, lower lying Northern Igneous Complex. Guernsey
Guernsey
has experienced a complex geological evolution (especially the rocks of the southern complex) with multiple phases of intrusion and deformation recognisable. Guernsey
Guernsey
is composed of nine main rock types, two of which being granites and the rest gneiss.[39] Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Guernsey Guernsey
Guernsey
is a parliamentary representative democracy and legally a British Crown dependency. The Lieutenant Governor of Guernsey
Lieutenant Governor of Guernsey
is the "representative of the Crown in right of the république of the Bailiwick of Guernsey".[40] The official residence of the Lieutenant Governor is Government House. Since 2016 the incumbent has been Vice Admiral Sir Ian Corder
Ian Corder
KBE, CB, replacing his predecessor, Air Marshal Peter Walker, who had died in post.[41] The post was created in 1835 as a result of the abolition of the office of Governor. Since that point, the Lieutenant Governor has always resided locally.[42] States of Guernsey[edit] Main article: States of Guernsey

Bailiff Richard Collas
Richard Collas
(right) attending the Queen's birthday parade 2016 in his formal robes

The deliberative assembly of the States of Guernsey
States of Guernsey
(États de Guernesey) is called the States of Deliberation (États de Délibération) and consists of 38 People's Deputies, elected from multi- or single-member districts every four years. There are also two representatives from Alderney, a semi-autonomous dependency of the Bailiwick, but Sark
Sark
sends no representative since it has its own legislature. The Bailiff or Deputy Bailiff preside in the assembly. There are also two non-voting members: H.M. Procureur (analogous to the role of Attorney General) and H.M. Comptroller (analogous to Solicitor General), both appointed by the Crown and collectively known as the Law Officers of the Crown. A projet de loi is the equivalent of a UK bill or a French projet de loi, and a law is the equivalent of a UK act of parliament or a French loi. A draft law passed by the States can have no legal effect until formally approved by Her Majesty in Council and promulgated by means of an order in council.[43] Laws are given the Royal Sanction at regular meetings of the Privy Council in London, after which they are returned to the islands for formal registration at the Royal Court. The States also make delegated legislation known as Ordinances (Ordonnances) and Orders (ordres) which do not require the Royal Assent. Commencement orders are usually in the form of ordinances. The Policy and Resources Committee is responsible for Guernsey's constitutional and external affairs, developing strategic and corporate policy and coordinating States business. It also examines proposals and Reports placed before Guernsey's Parliament (the States of Deliberation) by Departments and Non States Bodies. The President of the Committee is the de facto head of government of Guernsey.[44] Legal system[edit] Main article: Law of Guernsey Guernsey's legal system originates in Norman Customary Law, overlaid with principles taken from English common law
English common law
and Equity as well as from statute law enacted by the competent legislature(s) -- usually, but not always, the States of Guernsey. Guernsey
Guernsey
has almost complete autonomy over internal affairs and certain external matters. However, the Crown - that is to say, the UK Government - retains an ill-defined reserved power to intervene in the domestic affairs of any of the five Crown Dependencies within the British Islands
British Islands
"in the interests of good government".[45] The UK Parliament is also a source of Guernsey law for those matters which are reserved to the UK, namely defence and foreign affairs. The head of the judiciary in Guernsey
Guernsey
is the Bailiff, who, as well as performing the judicial functions of a Chief Justice, is also the head of the States of Guernsey
States of Guernsey
and has certain civic, ceremonial and executive functions. The Bailiff's functions may be exercised by the Deputy Bailiff. The posts of Bailiff and Deputy Bailiff are Crown appointments. Sixteen Jurats, who need no specific legal training, are elected by the States of Election
States of Election
from among Islanders. They act as a jury, as judges in civil and criminal cases and fix the sentence in criminal cases. First mentioned in 1179, there is a list of Jurats who have served since 1299.[46] The oldest Courts of Guernsey
Courts of Guernsey
can be traced back to the 9th century. The principal court is the Royal Court and exercises both civil and criminal jurisdiction. Additional courts, such as the Magistrate's Court, which deals with minor criminal matters, and the Court of Appeal, which hears appeals from the Royal Court, have been added to the Island's legal system over the years. External relations[edit] Main article: External relations of Guernsey Several European countries have a consular presence within the jurisdiction. The French Consulate is based at Victor Hugo's former residence at Hauteville House.[47] While the jurisdiction of Guernsey
Guernsey
has complete autonomy over internal affairs and certain external matters, the topic of complete independence from the British Crown has been discussed widely and frequently, with ideas ranging from Guernsey
Guernsey
obtaining independence as a Dominion to the bailiwicks of Guernsey
Guernsey
and Jersey
Jersey
uniting and forming an independent Federal State within the Commonwealth, whereby both islands retain their independence with regards to domestic affairs but internationally, the islands would be regarded as one state.[13] Parishes[edit]

The parishes of Guernsey.

Main article: Parishes of Guernsey Guernsey
Guernsey
has ten parishes, which act as civil administration districts, with limited powers. Each parish is administered by a Douzaine, usually made up of twelve members, known as Douzeniers. Douzeniers are elected for a six-year mandate, two Douzeniers being elected by parishioners at a parish meeting in November each year. The senior Douzenier is known as the Doyen (Dean). Two elected Constables (Connétables) carry out the decisions of the Douzaine, serving for between one and three years. The longest serving Constable is known as the Senior Constable and his or her colleague as the Junior Constable.[48] The Douzaines levy an Occupiers Rate on properties to provide funding for running of the administration.[49] Guernsey's Church of England
England
parishes fall under the See of Canterbury, having split from the Bishopric of Winchester
Bishopric of Winchester
in 2014.[50] The biggest parish is Castel, while the most populated is St Peter Port. Economy[edit] Financial services, such as banking, fund management, and insurance, account for about 37% of GDP.[51] Tourism, manufacturing, and horticulture, mainly tomatoes and cut flowers, especially freesias, have been declining.[30] Light tax and death duties make Guernsey
Guernsey
a popular offshore finance centre for private equity funds. Guernsey
Guernsey
does not have a Central Bank and it issues its own sterling coinage and banknotes. UK coinage and (English, Scottish and Northern Irish-faced) banknotes also circulate freely and interchangeably.[52] Total island investment funds, used to fund pensions and future island costs, amount to £2.7billion as at June 2016.[53] The island issued a 30-year bond in December 2015 for £330m, its first bond in 80 years.[54] The island has been given a credit rating of AA-/A-1+ with a stable outlook from Standard & Poor's.[55] Guernsey
Guernsey
has the official ISO 3166-1 alpha-2
ISO 3166-1 alpha-2
code GG and the official ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 code GGY; market data vendors, such as Reuters, will report products related to Guernsey
Guernsey
using the alpha-3 code. In March 2016 there were over 32,291 people employed in Guernsey
Guernsey
with 4,864 being self-employed. 2,453 employing businesses. 19.6% work in the finance industry and median earnings were £31,215.[56] Infrastructure[edit]

A Guernsey Post
Guernsey Post
pillar box.

Public services, such as water, wastewater, the two main harbours and the airport are still owned and controlled by the States of Guernsey. The electricity, and postal services have been commercialised by the States and are now operated by companies wholly owned by the States of Guernsey. Gas is supplied by an independent private company. In 1998, Guernsey
Guernsey
and Jersey
Jersey
jointly formed the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
Electricity Grid to operate and manage the submarine cables between Europe and the Channel Islands.[57] The installation of these cables provided the island with a secure form of backup power, having previously only had access to diesel generators.[58] Guernsey
Guernsey
Telecoms, which provided telecommunications, was sold by the States to Cable & Wireless plc, rebranded as Sure and was sold to Batelco
Batelco
in April 2013. Newtel was the first alternative telecommunications company on the island and was acquired by Wave Telecom in 2010[59] and subsequently rebranded as Jersey
Jersey
Telecom.[60] Airtel-Vodafone also provide a mobile network.[61] Both the Guernsey Post
Guernsey Post
postal boxes (since 1969) and the telephone boxes (since 2002) are painted blue, but otherwise are identical to their British counterparts, the red pillar box and red telephone box. In 2009 the telephone boxes at the bus station were painted yellow just like they used to be when Guernsey Telecoms
Guernsey Telecoms
was state-owned. The oldest pillar box still in use in the British Isles
British Isles
can be found in Union Street, St Peter Port
St Peter Port
and dates back to 1853.[62] Transport[edit] See also: Transport in Guernsey Ports and harbours exist at St Peter Port
St Peter Port
and St Sampson. There is a single paved airport, Guernsey
Guernsey
Airport. The States of Guernsey
States of Guernsey
wholly own their own airline, Aurigny. The decision to purchase the airline was made to protect important air links to and from the island and the sale was completed on 15 May 2003. The Guernsey
Guernsey
Railway, effectively an electric tramway, began working on 20 February 1892 and was abandoned on 9 June 1934. It replaced an earlier transport system which was worked by steam, the Guernsey
Guernsey
Steam Tramway, which had operated from 6 June 1879 with six locomotives. Alderney
Alderney
is now the only Channel Island
Channel Island
with a working railway.[63] Guernsey
Guernsey
has a public bus service, operated by CT Plus on behalf of the States of Guernsey
States of Guernsey
Environment and Infrastructure Department.[64] Business[edit] As of 2014, the finance industry forms the largest economic sector in Guernsey, generating around 40% of Guernsey's GDP and directly employing around 21% of its workforce.[65] Banks began setting up operations in the island from the early 1960s onwards in order to avoid high onshore taxes and restrictive regulation.[32] The industry regulator is the Guernsey
Guernsey
Financial Services Commission, which was established in 1987.[66] Prior to the growth of the finance industry, the island's main industries were quarrying and horticulture. The latter particularly decline as a result of the oil price shocks of the 1970s and the introduction of cheap North Sea
North Sea
gas that benefited Dutch growers.[32] Guernsey
Guernsey
is home to Specsavers
Specsavers
Optical Group and Healthspan
Healthspan
also has its headquarters in Guernsey.[67] Tourism[edit]

Towers in Guernsey

Guernsey
Guernsey
has been a tourist destination since at least the Victorian days, with the first tourist guide published in 1834. In the 19th Century, two rail companies ( London and South Western Railway
London and South Western Railway
and Great Western Railway[68]) ran competing boats from the UK mainland to St Peter Port, with a race to the only convenient berth. This was halted with the sinking of the SS Stella in 1899.[69] Guernsey
Guernsey
enters Britain in Bloom
Britain in Bloom
with St Martin Parish winning the small town category twice in 2006 and 2011,[70] Saint Peter Port winning the large coastal category in 2014 and St Peter's winning the small coastal prize in 2015.[71] Herm
Herm
has won Britain in Bloom categories several times:[72] in 2002, 2008, and 2012, Herm
Herm
won the Britain in Bloom
Britain in Bloom
Gold Award.[73] The military history of the island has left a number of fortifications, including Castle Cornet, Fort Grey. Guernsey
Guernsey
loophole towers and a large collection of German fortifications with a number of museums. The use of the roadstead in front of St Peter Port
St Peter Port
by over 100 cruise ships a year is bringing over 100,000 day trip passengers to the island each year.[74] Taxation[edit] Guernsey, Alderney
Alderney
and Sark
Sark
each raise their own taxation,[75] although in 1949 Alderney
Alderney
(but not Sark) transferred its fiscal rights to Guernsey.[76] Personal tax liability differs according to whether an individual is resident in the island or not. Individuals resident in the Jurisdiction of Guernsey
Guernsey
(which does not include Sark) pay income tax at the rate of 20% on their worldwide income, whereas non-residents are only liable on income arising from activity or ownership within Guernsey. Unlike in the UK, the income tax year in Guernsey
Guernsey
aligns to the calendar year.[77] Since 2008, Guernsey
Guernsey
has operated three levels of corporation tax, depending on the source of the income.

A 0% corporation tax rate on most companies. A 10% rate (income from banking business and, with effect from 1 January 2013, extended to domestic insurance business, fiduciary business, insurance intermediary business and insurance manager business). A 20% rate (income from trading activities regulated by the Office of the Director General of Utility Regulation, and income from the ownership of lands and buildings).[78]

Guernsey
Guernsey
levies no capital gains, inheritance, capital transfer, value added (VAT / TVA) or general withholding taxes.[79] In the 2011 Budget, the UK announced that it would be ending Low Value Consignment Relief that was being used to sell goods VAT free to customers across the UK, with this legislation coming into force on 1 April 2012.[80] Tax revenues represent 22.4% of GDP.[81] Society[edit] Demographics[edit] The population is 63,026 (July 2016 est.).[1] The median age for males is 40 years and for females is 42 years. The population growth rate is 0.775% with 9.62 births/1,000 population, 8 deaths/1,000 population, and annual net migration of 6.07/1,000 population. The life expectancy is 80.1 years for males and 84.5 years for females.[82] The Bailiwick ranked 10th in the world in 2015 with an average life expectancy of 82.47 years.[83] Border control[edit] The whole jurisdiction of Guernsey
Guernsey
is part of the Common Travel Area.[84] For immigration and nationality purposes it is UK law, and not Guernsey
Guernsey
law, which applies (technically the Immigration Act 1971,[85] extended to Guernsey
Guernsey
by Order-in-Council). Guernsey
Guernsey
may not apply different immigration controls to the UK. Housing restrictions[edit] Guernsey
Guernsey
undertakes a population management mechanism using restrictions over who may work in the island through control of which properties people may live in. The housing market is split between local market properties and a set number of open market properties.[86] Anyone may live in an open market property, but local market properties can only be lived in by those who qualify – either through being born in Guernsey
Guernsey
(to at least one local parent), by obtaining a housing licence, or by virtue of sharing a property with someone who does qualify (living en famille). Consequently, open market properties are much more expensive both to buy and to rent. Housing licences are for fixed periods, often only valid for 4 years and only as long as the individual remains employed by a specified Guernsey
Guernsey
employer. The licence will specify the type of accommodation and be specific to the address the person lives in,[87] and is often subject to a police record check. These restrictions apply equally regardless of whether the property is owned or rented, and only apply to occupation of the property. Thus a person whose housing licence expires may continue to own a Guernsey
Guernsey
property, but will no longer be able to live in it. There are no restrictions on who may own a property. There are a number of routes to qualifying as a "local" for housing purposes. Generally, it is sufficient to be born to at least one Guernsey
Guernsey
parent and to live in the island for ten years in a twenty-year period. In a similar way a partner (married or otherwise) of a local can acquire local status. Multiple problems arise following early separation of couples, especially if they have young children or if a local partner dies, in these situations personal circumstances and compassion can add weight to requests for local status. Once "local" status has been achieved it remains in place for life. Even a lengthy period of residence outside Guernsey
Guernsey
does not invalidate "local" housing status.[88] Although Guernsey's inhabitants are full British citizens,[89] an endorsement restricting the right of establishment in other European Union states is placed in the passport of British citizens connected solely with the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and Isle of Man. If classified with "Islander Status", the British passport will be endorsed as follows: 'The holder is not entitled to benefit from EU provisions relating to employment or establishment'. Those who have a parent or grandparent born in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
itself (England, Scotland, Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland), or who have lived in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
for 5 years, are not subject to this restriction.[90] Education[edit] See also: List of schools in Guernsey

Elizabeth College, in St Peter Port, Guernsey

Teaching in Guernsey
Guernsey
is based on the English National Curriculum. There are 10 primary schools, plus two junior schools and three infant schools. As of 2017, the island still has the 11-plus exam and pupils then transfer to one of four 11-16 secondary schools, or a co-educational grammar school.[91] There are also three fee-paying colleges with lower schools, for which pupils over 11 receive grant support from the States of Guernsey. In 2016, the States of Guernsey voted to end the use of the 11-plus exams from 2019 onwards.[92] It is also responsible for education on the neighbouring islands.[93] The Education Department is part way through a programme of re-building its secondary schools. The Department has completed the building of La Rondin special needs school, the Sixth Form Centre at the Grammar School and the first phase of the new College of Further Education – a performing arts centre. The construction of St Sampsons High was completed summer 2008 and admitted its first pupils in September 2008. In 2008, the school leaving age was raised so the earliest date is the last Friday in June in the year a pupil turns 16, in line with England, Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland. This means pupils will be between 15 and 10 months and 16 and 10 months before being able to leave. Prior to this, pupils could leave school at the end of the term in which they turned 14, if they so wished: a letter was required to be sent to the Education department to confirm this. However, this option was undertaken by relatively few pupils, the majority choosing to complete their GCSEs and then either begin employment or continue their education. Post- GCSE
GCSE
pupils have a choice of transferring to the state run Grammar School & Sixth Form Centre, or to the independent colleges for academic AS/A Levels/International Baccalureate Diploma Programme. They also have the option to study vocational subjects at the island's Guernsey
Guernsey
College of Further Education. There are no universities in the island. Students who attend university in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
receive state support towards both maintenance and tuition fees. In 2007, the Education Department received the approval of the States Assembly to introduce student contributions to the costs of higher education, in the form of student loans, as apply in the UK. However, immediately after the general election of 2008, the States Assembly voted in favour of a Requête which proposed abolishing the student loans scheme on the grounds that it was expensive to run and would potentially discourage students from going to, and then returning to the island from, university. In 2012, the Education Department reported to the States Assembly that it had no need to re-examine the basis of higher education funding at the present time. Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Guernsey

George Métivier

English is the language in general use by the majority of the population, while Guernésiais, the Norman language
Norman language
of the island, is spoken fluently by only about 2% of the population (according to 2001 census). However, 14% of the population claim some understanding of the language. Until the early 20th-century French was the only official language of the Bailiwick, and all deeds for the sale and purchase of real estate in Guernsey
Guernsey
were written in French until 1971. Family and place names reflect this linguistic heritage. George Métivier, a poet, wrote in Guernesiais. The loss of the island's language and the Anglicisation of its culture, which began in the 19th century and proceeded inexorably for a century, accelerated sharply when the majority of the island's school children were evacuated to the UK for five years during the German occupation of 1940–45.

Children on the Beach of Guernsey
Guernsey
(1883) by Pierre-Auguste Renoir.

The French impressionist painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
visited the island in late summer 1883. While on the island, he painted fifteen pictures of the views on the island, all featuring the bay and beach of Moulin Huet on the south coast.[94]

A Guernsey
Guernsey
cow

The Guernsey
Guernsey
cow is an internationally famous icon of the island. As well as being prized for its rich creamy milk, which is claimed to hold health benefits over milk from other breeds,[95] Guernsey
Guernsey
cattle are increasingly being raised for their distinctively flavoured and rich yellowy-fatted beef, with butter made from the milk of Guernsey cows also has a distinctive yellow colour.[96] Since the 1960s the number of individual islanders raising these cattle for private supply has diminished significantly, Guernsey
Guernsey
steers can still be occasionally seen grazing on L'Ancresse
L'Ancresse
common.[97] Guernsey
Guernsey
also hosts a breed of goat known as the Golden Guernsey, distinguished by its golden-coloured coat. At the end of the Second World War, the Golden Guernsey
Golden Guernsey
had almost been rendered extinct due to interbreeding on the island. The survival of this breed is largely credited to the work of a single woman, Miriam Milbourne, who successfully hid her herd from the Germans during the occupation.[98] Although no longer considered to be critically endangered, the breed remains on the watchlist of the Rare Breeds Survival Trust.[99] The traditional explanation for the donkey (âne in French and Guernésiais) is the steepness of St Peter Port
St Peter Port
streets that necessitated beasts of burden for transport (in contrast to the flat terrain of the rival capital of St Helier in Jersey), although it is also used in reference to Guernsey
Guernsey
inhabitants' stubbornness. In turn, Guernseymen traditionally refer to Jerseymen as crapauds ("toads").[100] The so-called Guernsey
Guernsey
Lily, Nerine sarniensis, is also used as a symbol of the island, although this species was introduced to the island from South Africa.[101] A local delicacy is the ormer (Haliotis tuberculata), a variety of abalone harvested under strict laws from beaches at low spring tides.[102] Traditional Guernsey
Guernsey
recipes include a stew called Guernsey
Guernsey
Bean Jar, that is particularly served at the annual Viaer Marchi festival.[103] Chief ingredients include haricot and butter beans, pork and shin beef. Guernsey Gâche
Guernsey Gâche
is a special bread made with raisins, sultanas and mixed peel.[104] Literature[edit] Victor Hugo, having arrived on Halloween 1855,[105] wrote some of his best-known works while in exile in Guernsey, including Les Misérables. His home in St Peter Port, Hauteville House, is now a museum administered by the city of Paris. In 1866, he published a novel set on Guernsey, Travailleurs de la Mer (Toilers of the Sea), which he dedicated to the island. Guernsey
Guernsey
was his home for fifteen years.[105] Guernseyman G. B. Edwards wrote a critically acclaimed novel, The Book of Ebenezer Le Page that was published in 1981, including insights into Guernsey
Guernsey
life during the 20th century.[106][107] In September 2008, a blue plaque was affixed to the house on the Braye Road where Edwards was raised.[108] Henry Watson Fowler
Henry Watson Fowler
moved to Guernsey
Guernsey
in 1903. He and his brother Francis George Fowler composed The King's English, the Concise Oxford Dictionary and much of Modern English Usage
Modern English Usage
on the island.[109] Sport[edit] Main article: Sport in Guernsey

Joshua Gosselin racing for the Guernsey
Guernsey
Velo Club

Guernsey
Guernsey
participates in the biennial Island Games, which it hosted in 1987 and 2003 at Footes Lane.[110] Guernsey
Guernsey
has also participated as a country in its own right in Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
since 1970. Its first medals came in 1982 with its first gold in 1990.[111] In those sporting events where Guernsey
Guernsey
does not have international representation, but the British Home Nations
Home Nations
are competing separately, highly skilled islanders may choose to compete for any of the Home Nations. There are, however, restrictions on subsequent transfers to represent other Home Nations. The football player Matt Le Tissier, for example, could have played for the Scottish or Welsh football teams, but opted to play for England
England
instead. Football in Guernsey
Guernsey
is run by the Guernsey
Guernsey
Football Association. The top tier of Guernsey
Guernsey
football is the FNB Priaulx League
Priaulx League
where there are seven teams (Belgrave Wanderers, Northerners, Sylvans, St Martin's, Rovers, Rangers and Vale Recreation). The second tier is the Jackson League. In the 2011–12 season, Guernsey F.C.
Guernsey F.C.
was formed and entered the Combined Counties League Division 1, becoming the first Channel Island
Channel Island
club ever to compete in the English leagues. Guernsey
Guernsey
became division champions comfortably on 24 March 2012,[112] they won the Combined Counties Premier Challenge Cup on 4 May 2012.[113] Their second season saw them promoted again on the final day in front of 1,754 'Green Lions' fans, this time to Division One South of the Isthmian League,[114][115] despite their fixtures being heavily affected not only by poor winter weather, but by their notable progression to the semi-finals of the FA Vase cup competition.[116] They play in level 8 of the English football pyramid. The Corbet Football Field, donated by Jurat Wilfred Corbet OBE
OBE
in 1932, has fostered the sport greatly over the years. Recently, the island upgraded to a larger, better-quality stadium, in Footes Lane.[117] Guernsey
Guernsey
has the second oldest tennis club in the world, at Kings[118] (founded in 1857[119]), with courts built in 1875. The island has produced a world class tennis player in Heather Watson
Heather Watson
as well as professional squash players in Martine Le Moignan, Lisa Opie and Chris Simpson.[118] Guernsey
Guernsey
was declared an affiliate member by the International Cricket Council (ICC) in 2005 and an associate member in 2008.[120] The Guernsey cricket team
Guernsey cricket team
plays in the World Cricket League
World Cricket League
and European Cricket Championship as well as the Sussex Cricket League. Various forms of motorsport take place on the island, including races on the sands on Vazon beach as well as a quarter-mile "sprint" along the Vazon coast road. Le Val des Terres, a steeply winding road rising south from St Peter Port
St Peter Port
to Fort George, is often the focus of both local and international hill-climb races. In addition, the 2005, 2006 and 2007 World Touring Car Champion Andy Priaulx
Andy Priaulx
is a Guernseyman.[121] The racecourse on L'Ancresse
L'Ancresse
Common was re-established in 2004 after a gap of 13 years, with the first new race occurring on 2 May 2005.[122] Races are held on most May day bank holidays, with competitors from Guernsey
Guernsey
as well as Jersey, France and the UK participating. Sea angling around Guernsey
Guernsey
and the other islands in the Bailiwick from shore or boat is a popular pastime for both locals and visitors with the Bailiwick boasting multiple UK records.[123] See also[edit]

Outline of Guernsey Index of Guernsey-related articles Bibliography of Guernsey List of people from Guernsey

Notes[edit]

^ a b "Largest population increase since 2011". Guernsey
Guernsey
Press. 29 April 2017.  ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
Gross Domestic Product 2015 Estimates". 25 August 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2017.  ^ F. Le Maistre, The Language of Auregny, Jersey/ Alderney
Alderney
1982. ^ a b Ogier, Daryl Mark (22 March 2005). The Government and Law of Guernsey. The States of Guernsey. ISBN 978-0954977504.  ^ " Old Norse
Old Norse
Words in the Norman Dialect". Viking Network.  ^ Hocart, Richard (2 October 2010). Guernsey's Countryside: An Introduction to the History of the Rural Landscape. Guernsey: Societé Guernesiaise. ISBN 978-0953254798.  ^ "Guernsey, Channel Islands, UK". BBC. Retrieved 10 October 2007.  ^ "La Cotte Cave, St Brelade". Société Jersiaise. Retrieved 10 October 2007.  ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
Attractions - Ancient Monuments". Island Life. Retrieved 24 November 2017.  ^ Sebire 2005, p. 107 ^ Sebire 2005, p. 110 ^ "Gallo-Roman Ship". Guernsey
Guernsey
Museums & Galleries. Retrieved 22 November 2017.  ^ a b c d Marr, James (2001). The History of Guernsey
History of Guernsey
- The Bailiwick's Story. The Guernsey
Guernsey
Press. ISBN 978-0953916610.  ^ Crossan 2015, p. 7 ^ " Royal Guernsey Militia
Royal Guernsey Militia
Regimental Museum". Guernsey
Guernsey
Museums & Galleries. Retrieved 24 September 2017.  ^ de Garis, Marie (1986). Folklore of Guernsey. OCLC 19840362.  ^ Cooper 2006, p. 13 ^ Wimbush, Henry (1924). The Channel Islands. A&C Black. p. 89.  ^ Ogier, Daryl Mark (23 January 1997). Reformation and Society in Guernsey. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 978-0851156033.  ^ The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 65. p. 621.  ^ "History of the Castle". Guernsey
Guernsey
Museums & Galleries. Retrieved 19 September 2017.  ^ "Guernsey's emigrant children". BBC Legacies. Retrieved 22 November 2017.  ^ Jamieson 1986, p. 281 ^ "18th & 19th Century Defences". Guernsey
Guernsey
Museums & Galleries. Retrieved 18 September 2017.  ^ Jamieson 1986, p. 291 ^ Crossan 2015, p. 241 ^ Parks, Edwin (1992). Diex Aix: God Help Us – The Guernseymen who marched away 1914–1918. Guernsey: States of Guernsey. ISBN 1-871560-85-3.  ^ "Evacuees from Guernsey
Guernsey
recall life in Scotland". BBC News. 12 November 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010.  ^ "Learn more about Liberation Day". Visit Guernsey. Retrieved 22 November 2017.  ^ a b "The tomato growing industry". Local History Guernsey. BBC. Retrieved 23 November 2017.  ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
Tourism Strategic Plan 2015-2025" (PDF). VisitGuernsey Trade and Media. Retrieved 23 November 2017.  ^ a b c Crossan 2015, p. 17 ^ "Inside Brexit
Brexit
- Guernsey's Response" (PDF). We are Guernsey. Retrieved 23 November 2017.  ^ "Nature Reserves". www.gov.gg. Retrieved 2 June 2017.  ^ "Met Observatory Weather and Climate Info". Guernsey
Guernsey
Airport. Retrieved 16 September 2008.  ^ a b "2014 Weather Report" (PDF). Guernsey
Guernsey
Met Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.  ^ "Météo climat stats Records for Guernsey". Météo Climat. Retrieved 27 March 2017.  ^ Renouf, John (May 1985). "Geological excursion guide 1: Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey, Channel Islands". Geology Today. 1 (3): 90. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2451.1985.tb00293.x. Retrieved 17 November 2017.  ^ "Geology and Geography". La Société Guernesiaise. Retrieved 17 November 2017.  ^ "Review of the Roles of the Jersey
Jersey
Crown officers" (PDF). 30 March 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ "Guernsey's Lieutenant Governor: Vice Admiral
Vice Admiral
Ian Corder
Ian Corder
sworn in". BBC News. 14 March 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2017.  ^ Crossan 2015, p. 8 ^ Dawes, Gordon (1 May 2003). Laws of Guernsey. Oxford: Hart Publishing. ISBN 9781847311856.  ^ "Policy & Resources". States of Guernsey.  ^ Hotchkiss v. Channel Islands
Channel Islands
Knitwear Company Limited, 207 (2001). ^ "Jurats". Guernsey
Guernsey
Royal Court.  ^ "Consulate of France in Guernsey, United Kingdom". Embassypages.com. Retrieved 19 September 2017.  ^ "Parochial Officers". St Peter Port
St Peter Port
Parish. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ "Parishes and Douzaines". The Royal Court of Guernsey. Retrieved 22 September 2017.  ^ "Channel Islands' Anglican churches pay Parish Shares to Canterbury". BBC News. 13 April 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2017.  ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
Gross Domestic Product First Release 2010". States of Guernsey. Retrieved 11 September 2012.  ^ "About Guernsey". Visitguernsey.com. Archived from the original on 29 May 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ "Total States Funds = £2.7 Billion". Island FM. 28 September 2016.  ^ "Guernsey's Debt Draws Strong Demand". Wall Street Journal.  ^ "Island Credit Rating Remains The Same". Island fm. 30 January 2017.  ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
Quarterly Population, Employment and Earnings Bulletin" (PDF). Island FM. Retrieved 29 October 2016.  ^ "The CIEG Ltd". Guernsey
Guernsey
Electric. Retrieved 1 December 2017.  ^ " Channel Islands
Channel Islands
Electricity Grid Project" (PDF). ABB. Retrieved 1 December 2017.  ^ "Wave buys Newtel". Guernsey
Guernsey
Press. 25 August 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2017.  ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
- A fresh look to mark the tenth birthday of Wave Telecom". JT Global. Retrieved 30 November 2017.  ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
Airtel Launches Services". Airtel. Retrieved 30 November 2017.  ^ "Well adapted for the purpose..." The British Postal Museum & Archive blog.  ^ Notes on the Railway taken from The Railway Magazine, September 1934 edition. ^ "Using the bus service". buses.gg. Retrieved 21 September 2017.  ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
Financial Services - A Strategy for the Future". Gov.GG. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ "Locations - Guernsey". Blenheim Group. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ "About Healthspan". Healthspan.co.uk. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ "The Wreck of the Stella - Titanic of the Channel Islands". Guernsey Museums and Galleries. Retrieved 20 November 2017.  ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
History Timeline for Schools". Guernsey
Guernsey
Museums and Galleries. Retrieved 20 November 2017.  ^ "Where is the greenest, cleanest, prettiest place in Britain?". RHS.  ^ "St Peter's wins class in national Britain in Bloom". Guernsey press.  ^ " Herm
Herm
aims for fourth gold medal in Britain in Bloom". BBC. 27 January 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.  ^ " Herm
Herm
Garden Tour". Herm
Herm
Island. Retrieved 1 January 2014.  ^ "Record year for cruise ship passengers in Guernsey". BBC. 10 October 2015.  ^ "Background briefing on the Crown Dependencies: Jersey, Guernsey
Guernsey
and the Isle of Man" (PDF). Ministry of Justice.  ^ "The Alderney
Alderney
(Application of Legislation) Law, 1948, 22 December 1948. Retrieved on 30 November 2017. ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
Income Tax". States of Guernsey. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ "Tax for businesses, companies and employers". Gov.GG. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
Tax". Locate Guernsey. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ "Government ends exploitation of Channel Islands
Channel Islands
VAT rules". UK Government. Retrieved 24 November 2017.  ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
Facts and Figures". States of Guernsey. Retrieved 28 February 2016.  ^ "Health Profile for Guernsey
Guernsey
and Alderney". States of Guernsey Public Health Services. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ "LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH". CIA.  ^ "Guidance - Common travel area (CTA)". UK Visas and Immigration. Retrieved 14 November 2017.  ^ UK Parliament. Immigration Act 1971 as amended (see also enacted form), from legislation.gov.uk. ^ "Guernsey's Two Tier Housing Market". States of Guernsey. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015.  ^ "Where can licence holders live". States of Guernsey. Archived from the original on 1 May 2015.  ^ "What is a Qualified Resident?". States of Guernsey. Archived from the original on 14 April 2015.  ^ UK Parliament. British Nationality Act 1981 as amended (see also enacted form), from legislation.gov.uk. ^ "What is Islander status?". States of Guernsey. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013.  ^ "Selection at 11 (the 11+ process)". Gov.GG. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
11-plus vote: End of selection confirmed by States vote". BBC News. 2 December 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ "Teaching in the Channel Islands". Times Educational Supplement. Retrieved 23 November 2017.  ^ House, John (1988). Renoir in Guernsey. Guernsey
Guernsey
Museum & Art Gallery. p. 3. ISBN 1 871560 81 0. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ "HEALTH Milk protein blamed for heart disease". BBC News. 9 April 2001. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ Lewis, Samuel (1831). A Topographical Dictionary of England. London: S Lewis and Co.  ^ "Grazing returns to L'Ancresse
L'Ancresse
Common". Birds on the Edge. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ Watson, Angus (4 May 2007). "Alive and kicking". Financial Times. Retrieved 20 November 2017.  ^ "A Brief History of the Golden Guernsey
Golden Guernsey
Goat". Golden Guernsey
Golden Guernsey
Goat Society. Retrieved 19 September 2017.  ^ " Jersey
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toad is unique species, say experts". BBC News. 9 October 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ "Nerine sarniensis". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ "Ormers". Visit Guernsey. Retrieved 19 September 2017.  ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
Bean Jar". BBC. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
Gâche". BBC. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ a b Cooper 2006, p. 19 ^ "A Novel of Life In a Small World". New York Times. 19 April 1981. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ Chaney, Edward, GB Edwards and Ebenezer Le Page, Review of the Guernsey
Guernsey
Society, Parts 1–3, 1994–95. ^ "A plaque for G.B. Edwards". BBC. Retrieved 20 November 2017.  ^ "H.W. Fowler, the King of English". New York Times. 10 December 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ "Games Reports & Results". International Island Games Association. Retrieved 10 November 2017.  ^ " Guernsey
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- Introduction". Commonwealth Games
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Federation. Retrieved 14 November 2017.  ^ " Guernsey
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FC secure Combined Counties Division One title,". BBC Sport. 24 March 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2012.  ^ Guernsey
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Press (7 May 2012). "'Dom'-inating Green Lions finally get just rewards". www.thisisguernsey. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ " Guernsey
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FC: Fourth Win in Four Days Earns Promotion,". BBC Sport. 6 May 2013.  ^ "Ryman here we come". Guernsey
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Press. 8 May 2013.  ^ " Guernsey
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FC lose FA Vase semi-final first leg to Spennymoor". BBC Sport. 23 March 2013.  ^ "BBC photo of Guernsey
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Stadium". Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ a b "The Kings Story". Kings Premier Health Club. Retrieved 14 November 2017.  ^ "Island Archives acquires Guernsey
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References[edit]

Cooper, Glynis (31 October 2006). Foul deeds & suspicious deaths in Guernsey. Wharncliffe Books. ISBN 978-1845630089.  Crossan, Rose-Marie (24 September 2015). Poverty and Welfare in Guernsey, 1560-2015. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 978-1783270408.  Jamieson, A.G. (1986). A people of the sea. Methuen. ISBN 0-416-40540-1.  Sebire, Heather (1 November 2005). The Archaeology and Early history of the Channel Islands. The History Press. ISBN 978-0752434490. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Guernsey.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Guernsey.

Look up guernsey in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

States of Guernsey Government House Guernsey VisitGuernsey/ Guernsey
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European Union

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States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Kosovo Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria

Dependencies and other entities

Åland Faroe Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Svalbard

Other entities

European Union

Coordinates: 49°28′22″N 2°32′59″W / 49.4728°N 2.5498°W / 49.4728; -2.5498

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 245626480 GND: 4022467-3

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