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Greece
Greece
is one of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world and among the first wine-producing territories in Europe. The earliest evidence of Greek wine
Greek wine
has been dated to 6,500 years ago[1][2] where wine was produced on a household or communal basis. In ancient times, as trade in wine became extensive, it was transported from end to end of the Mediterranean; Greek wine
Greek wine
had especially high prestige in Italy under the Roman Empire. In the medieval period, wines exported from Crete, Monemvasia
Monemvasia
and other Greek ports fetched high prices in northern Europe.

Contents

1 History 2 Wine
Wine
regions

2.1 Aegean Islands 2.2 Crete 2.3 Epirus 2.4 Ionian Islands 2.5 Macedonia 2.6 Peloponnese 2.7 Thessaly

3 Grape
Grape
varieties 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

History[edit]

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See also: Ancient Greece
Greece
and wine

Wine
Wine
boy at a symposium

The origins of wine-making in Greece
Greece
go back 6,500 years[3][4] and evidence suggesting wine production confirm that Greece
Greece
is home to the second oldest known grape wine remnants discovered in the world[2][3][5] and the world’s earliest evidence of crushed grapes.[3] The spread of Greek civilization and their worship of Dionysus, the god of wine, spread Dionysian cults throughout the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
areas during the period of 1600 BC to the year 1.[6] Hippocrates
Hippocrates
used wine for medicinal purposes and readily prescribed it.[6] Greek wines and their varieties were well known and traded throughout the Mediterranean.[6] The Ancient Greeks introduced vines such as Vitis vinifera[6] and made wine in their numerous colonies in Italy,[7] Sicily,[8] southern France,[9] and Spain.[6] The Vitis vinifera grape which thrives in temperate climates near coastal areas with mild winters and dry summers adapted well and flourished in the Northern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
areas.[6] The most reputable wines of ancient Greece
Greece
were Chian, Coan, Corcyraean, Cretan, Euboean, Lesbian, Leucadian, Mendaean, Peparethan wine, Rhodian and Thasian. Wine
Wine
was also important for ancient Macedonia. Two other names may or may not be regional: Bibline wine and Pramnian wine are named in the earliest Greek poetry, but without any reliable geographical details. In 1937, a Wine
Wine
Institute was established by the Ministry of Agriculture. During the 1960s, retsina suddenly became the national beverage. With rapidly growing tourism, retsina became associated worldwide with Greece
Greece
and Greek wine. Greece’s first Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard was planted in 1963. In 1971 and 1972, legislation established appellation laws.[citation needed] Wine
Wine
regions[edit] A system of appellations was implemented to assure consumers the origins of their wine purchases. The appellation system categorizes wines as:[10][11][12]

Protected Geographical Origins (P.D.O), i.e. an Appellation of Origin of Superior Quality Protected Geographical Identification (P.G.I.), i.e. a Quality wines of Origin Epitrapezios Oinos, i.e. a Vin de table Not certified wine in a region of greece (that does not reflect the real wine quality)

Epitrapezios Oinos, regular table wine which usually comes in screw-top containers Cava, more prestigious, aged "reserve" blends (minimum aging: 1 years for whites; 2 years for reds) Retsina, a traditional wine, flavored with pine resin

The main wine growing regions - so called appellations of Greece are:[11][12] Aegean Islands[edit]

Greek wine
Greek wine
regions

Lemnos Paros Rhodes Samos Santorini

Crete[edit]

Archanes Dafnes Peza Sitia

Epirus[edit]

Zitsa

Ionian Islands[edit]

Kefalonia Corfu zakynthos Lefkada

Macedonia[edit]

Amynteo (Amyndeon) Epanomi [13] Goumenissa Naoussa

Peloponnese[edit]

Mantineia Nemea Monemvassia-Malvasia Patras

Thessaly[edit]

Nea Anchialos Rapsani Messenikola

Grape
Grape
varieties[edit]

A Nemea
Nemea
wine made from 100% Agiorgitiko.

Red Wine

Agiorgitiko
Agiorgitiko
("St. George's [grape]") is a variety native to Nemea
Nemea
that grows mainly in the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
area, producing a soft, fruity red in many styles. Its sensory attributes are similar to Beaujolais Nouveau but, unlike its French counterpart, the St. George ages well for about 5 years. Xinomavro
Xinomavro
("sour black") is the predominant grape variety in Macedonia, centered on the town of Naousa. This variety has great aging potential with a palate reminiscent of tomatoes and olives, and a rich tannic character. It is often compared to Nebbiolo. Limnio, or Kalambaki is an important red grape variety that is indigenous to the Aegean island of Lemnos and has been used in red wine production for more than 2000 years. As a varietal wine Limnio
Limnio
is full-bodied, high in alcohol and very herbaceous, with a distinctive taste of bay leaves. Mandilaria, also known as amorgiano, is mainly cultivated on the islands of Rhodes
Rhodes
and Crete. Wine
Wine
from this grape is often very tannic and frequently blended with other grapes to soften the mouthfeel. Mavrodaphne, or "black laurel", is a variety that grows in the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
and the Ionian Islands. It is blended with the Black Corinth currant grape to produce a prized fortified dessert wine made in the Solera
Solera
style. Kotsifali
Kotsifali
is a variety mainly grown on Crete. It is blended with Mandilaria or Syrah
Syrah
to enhance its color. Vertzami is a thick, dark-skinned grape variety, best known for single-varietal wines produced on the Ionian island of Lefkada. It is also grown in central Greece
Greece
and Peloponnese, where it is often blended with other Greek wines, and Cyprus, where it is known as "Lefkas".[14] Negoska
Negoska
is found in Northern Greece
Greece
and also produces rose and red wines of carbonic maceration worth mentioning, with the expected aromas. blended into the PDO Goumenissa
Goumenissa
wine. Black Mesenikola is cultivated exclusively in the homonymous region of Central Greece, to a limited extent. It is typically part of the PDO Mesenikola.[15]

Assyrtiko
Assyrtiko
grapes

White Wine

Assyrtiko
Assyrtiko
is a multi-purpose variety which maintains its acidity as it ripens. It is similar in character to Riesling, and is mostly island-based, being a native variety of the island of Santorini, whose old vines have been resistant to Phylloxera. Athiri
Athiri
is a lower acid variety and one of the most ancient. Originally from Santorini, it is now planted in Macedonia, Attica, and Rhodes. Debina is a white Greek wine
Greek wine
grape primarily in the Zitsa
Zitsa
region of Epirus. The grape's high acidity lends itself to sparkling wine production. Lagorthi is a variety mainly cultivated on high slopes (850 meters) in the Peloponnese. The grape produces a very malic and fruity wine. Malagousia is a grape growing mainly in Macedonia, with a special aroma leading to elegant full bodied wines, with medium-plus acidity and exciting perfumed aromas. Moschofilero
Moschofilero
is a Blanc de gris variety from the AOC region of Mantineia, in Arcadia
Arcadia
in the Peloponnese. Its wines offer a crisp and floral character in both still and sparkling styles. Robola
Robola
is most grown in the mountainous vineyards of the Ionian Island of Cephalonia. It has a smokey mineral and lemony character, excellently complementing seafood. Roditis (the "pink" or "rose" grape) is a grape that is very popular in Attica, Macedonia, Thessaly, and the Peloponnese. This variety produces elegant, light white wines with citrus flavors. Savatiano (the "Saturday" grape) is the predominant white grape in the region of Attica, where it displays excellent heat resistance and shows a distinct floral and fruity aroma when cold fermentation is practised.[16] When fermented without cooling, it makes retsina or rustic unresinated wines that complement Mediterranean
Mediterranean
dishes well.

References[edit]

^ Ancient Mashed Grapes Found in Greece
Greece
Archived 2008-01-03 at the Wayback Machine. Discovery News. ^ a b Mashed grapes find re-write history of wine Zeenews ^ a b c 6,500-year-old Mashed Grapes Found in Greece
Greece
Archived 2012-10-08 at the Wayback Machine.. Discovery News. ^ 6,500-year-old Mashed grapes found World’s earliest evidence of crushed grapes ^ 6500-year-old Mashed grapes found Archived 2007-03-20 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d e f Introduction to Wine
Wine
Laboratory Practices and Procedures, Jean L. Jacobson, Springer, p. 84. ^ The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, Brian Murray Fagan, 1996 Oxford Univ Pr, p. 757. ^ Wine: A Scientific Exploration, Merton Sandler, Roger Pinder, CRC Press, p. 66. ^ Medieval France: an encyclopedia, William Westcott Kibler, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, p. 964. ^ THE GREEK WINE LAW symposio.com ^ a b Yachting paradise Greece, the yachting paradise planaco.gr ^ a b Greece
Greece
wein-plus.eu ^ Winemaking
Winemaking
region Macedonia. All about Greek wine. ^ "Vertzami". Wine
Wine
Searcher. 29 October 2014.  ^ "Greek Grape
Grape
Varieties Wine
Wine
Roads of Greece". www.wineroadsofgreece.com. Retrieved 2018-03-22.  ^ Shara Hall, Lisa, Guide to Greek Wine, Epikouria Magazine, Spring/Summer 2006, "

Further reading[edit]

Dalby, Andrew (2003), Food in the ancient world from A to Z, London, New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-23259-7  Dalby, Andrew (1996), Siren Feasts, London, New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-11620-1  (Paperback ISBN 0-415-15657-2) Lambert-Gócs, Miles (1990), The Wines of Greece, London: Faber, ISBN 0-571-15388-7 

External links[edit]

Greek Wine
Wine
News All about Greek wine The Greek Vineyard Greek Wine
Wine
Guide by Konstantinos Lazarakis MW [1]

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Wines and winemaking

General

Acids in wine Aging of wine Annual growth cycle of grapevines Aroma of wine Alternative wine closure Cork History Oak Oenology Screw cap Sommelier Terroir Vineyard Viticulture Wine
Wine
and food matching Wine
Wine
fault Wine
Wine
personalities Wine
Wine
tasting Wine
Wine
tasting descriptors

Styles and methods of production

Aromatized Biodynamic Dessert Fortified Ice Kosher Noble rot Orange Organic Red Rosé Sparkling Straw Table White

Grape
Grape
varieties

International

White

Chardonnay Chenin blanc Gewürztraminer Muscat Riesling Sauvignon blanc Sémillon

Red

Cabernet Sauvignon Merlot Pinot noir Syrah / Shiraz

Regional

White

Agh Shani Albariño Aligoté Arneis Assyrtiko Chinuri Furmint Garganega Glera Grüner Veltliner Kerner Khikhvi Krakhuna Krstač Malvasia Manata Marsanne Mtsvani Müller-Thurgau Pinot blanc Pinot gris / Pinot grigio Ribolla Gialla Rkatsiteli Roussanne Shesh i Bardhë Silvaner Smederevka Tamjanika Tetra Torrontés Ugni blanc / Trebbiano Tsitska Tsolikouri Verdejo Verdicchio Viognier

Red

Abbuoto Agiorgitiko Aglianico Aladasturi Aleksandrouli Alicante Bouschet Asuretuli Băbească neagră Barbera Blaufränkisch Bobal Cabernet Franc Caiño tinto Caladoc Calitor Çalkarası Camaraou Canaiolo Carignan Carménère Castelão Catanese Cesanese César Chatus Cienna Ciliegiolo Cinsaut Cornalin d'Aoste Corvina Dolcetto Dzvelshava Enfariné noir Espadeiro Étraire Fer Fetească neagră Forcallat tinta Fortana Frappato Freisa Frühroter Veltliner Fuella Gaglioppo Gamaret Gamay Garanoir Garró Gibrita Girò Gouget noir Graciano Grand Noir de la Calmette Grenache / Garnacha Grignolino Grisa nera Grolleau Groppello Gros Verdot Gueuche noir Helfensteiner Heroldrebe Hondarribi Beltza Hron Izabella Jaén tinto Joubertin Juan García Kadarka Kalecik Karası Kotsifali Krasnostop Kratosija Lacrima Lagrein Lambrusco Liatiko Limnio Listán negro Madrasa Magarach Ruby Magliocco Canino Magliocco Dolce Mammolo Mandilaria Manseng Manto negro Malbec Maratheftiko Marselan Marzemino Mauzac noir Mavro Mavrodafni Mavrud Mencía / Jaen Mission Montepulciano Mujuretuli Mourvèdre / Monastrell / Mataro Nebbiolo Negroamaro Nero d'Avola Ojaleshi Petit Verdot Petite sirah / Durif Piedirosso Pinot Meunier Pinotage Plavac Mali Poulsard Prokupac Sagrantino Sangiovese Saperavi Shesh i Zi Tannat Tavkveri Tempranillo Touriga Nacional Trollinger Usakhelauri Vermentino Vranac Xinomavro Žametovka Zinfandel / Primitivo Zweigelt

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