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The Gateway of India
India
is an arch monument built during the 20th century in Bombay, India.[2] The monument was erected to commemorate the landing of King George V
George V
and Queen Mary at Apollo Bunder
Apollo Bunder
on their visit to India
India
in 1911. Built in Indo-Saracenic
Indo-Saracenic
style, the foundation stone for the Gateway of India
India
was laid on 31 March 1911. The structure is an arch made of basalt, 26 metres (85 feet) high. The final design of George Wittet was sanctioned in 1914 and the construction of the monument was completed in 1924. The Gateway was later used as a symbolic ceremonial entrance to India
India
for Viceroys and the new Governors of Bombay.[3] It served to allow entry and access to India.[4] The Gateway of India
India
is located on the waterfront at Apollo Bunder area at the end of Chhatrapati Shivaji Marg in South Mumbai
Mumbai
and overlooks the Arabian Sea.[5][6][7] The monument has also been referred to as the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
of Mumbai,[8] and is the city's top tourist attraction.[9]

Contents

1 History 2 Architectural Layout 3 Design and architecture 4 Location and significance 5 Tourism 6 Events and incidents 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit]

Gateway of India, Bombay, 1924

The inscription atop on the Gateway of India
India
reads, "Erected to commemorate the landing in India
India
of their Imperial Majesties King George V
George V
and Queen Mary on the Second of December MCMXI"

The Gateway of India
India
was built to commemorate the visit of King George V and Queen Mary to Mumbai, prior to the Delhi Durbar
Delhi Durbar
in December 1911. However, they only got to see a cardboard model of the monument, since the construction did not begin till 1915.[citation needed] The foundation stone was laid on March 31, 1913 by the governor of Bombay, Sir George Sydenham Clarke
Sir George Sydenham Clarke
with the final design of George Wittet sanctioned on March 31, 1914. The land on which the Gateway was built on was previously a crude jetty, used by the fishing community which was later renovated and used as a landing place for British governors and other prominent people. In earlier times, it would have been the first structure that visitors arriving by boat in Mumbai
Mumbai
would have seen.[10][11] Between 1915 and 1919, work proceeded at Apollo Bundar (Port) to reclaim the land on which the gateway and the new sea wall would be built. The foundations were completed in 1920 and construction was finished in 1924.[12] The gateway was opened on December 4, 1924 by the Viceroy, the Earl of Reading.[10] The last British troops to leave India
India
following the country's independence, the First Battalion of the Somerset Light Infantry, passed through the Gateway on their way out in a ceremony on February 28, 1948, signalling the end of British rule.[10][13] Architectural Layout[edit] The structural design of the Gateway of India
India
is constituted of a large arch, with a height of 26m. The monument is built in yellow basalt and indissoluble concrete. The structural plan of Gateway of India
India
is designed in the Indo-Saracenic
Indo-Saracenic
style. One can also find traces of Muslim
Muslim
architectural styles incorporated in the structure of the grandiose edifice. The central dome of the monument is about 48 feet in diameter, with a total height of 83 feet. Designed with intricate latticework, the 4 turrets are the prominent features of the entire structure of the Gateway of India. There are steps constructed behind the arch of the Gateway that leads to the Arabian Sea. . Design and architecture[edit]

The halls inside the Gateway of India

The Scottish architect George Wittet
George Wittet
combined the elements of the Roman triumphal arch
Roman triumphal arch
and the 16th-century architecture of Gujarat.[14] The monument's design is a combination of Hindu
Hindu
and Muslim architectural styles. The arch is of Muslim
Muslim
style while the decorations are of Hindu
Hindu
style.[15] The Gateway of India
India
is built from yellow basalt and reinforced concrete.[16] The stone was locally obtained, and the perforated screens were brought from Gwalior.[17] The gateway faces out to Mumbai
Mumbai
Harbour from the tip of Apollo Bunder.[18]

Internal View of the Dome

The central dome is 48 feet (15 metres) in diameter and 83 feet (25 metres) above the ground at its highest point.[19] The whole harbour front was realigned in order to come in line with a planned esplanade which would sweep down to the centre of the town. On each side of the arch, there are large halls with the capacity to hold 600 people.[16] The cost of the construction was ₹2 million (US$31,000), borne mainly by the Imperial Government of India. Due to a paucity of funds, the approach road was never built and so the gateway stands at an angle to the road leading up to it.[10][19] Location and significance[edit]

The Gateway of India
India
is considered as a "symbolic monument" that represents the city of Mumbai, India.

The Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
Hotel located opposite the Gateway of India

Located opposite the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
Palace & Tower hotel,[20] For the British arriving to India, the gateway was a symbol of the "power and majesty" of the British empire.[5] Though built as a welcome to King George V
George V
for his visit of 1911, then an event of grand significance for British India
India
and the British empire, today serves as a "monumental memento" of British colonial rule over India.[4]

The Monument of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
in the vicinity of The Gateway

Opposite the gateway, stands the statue of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, the Maratha
Maratha
king who used guerilla warfare to establish the Maratha
Maratha
empire in the Sahyadri
Sahyadri
mountain range in the 17th century,[21] as a symbol of Maratha
Maratha
"pride and courage".[22] The statue was unveiled on 26 January 1961 on the occasion of India's Republic Day.[23][24]

Swami Vivekanda's Monument in the vicinity of The Gateway

The other statue in vicinity of the monument is that of Swami Vivekananda, made by an Indian sculptor, Sitaram S. Arte.[25] There are five jetties located around the gateway monument.[26] The first jetty is exclusive to the Atomic Research Centre while the second and third are used for commercial ferry operations, the fourth one is closed and the fifth is exclusive to the Royal Bombay Yacht Club. The second and third jetties are the starting point for tours of Elephanta Caves, which is a 50-minute boat ride away by ferry.[20][27] Other routes from the Gateway include ferry rides to Alibaug
Alibaug
and Mandwa. These ferries are said to carry passengers above their certified capacity due to their popularity.[28] Tourism[edit] The Gateway of India
India
is a major tourist destination in Mumbai
Mumbai
and a popular gathering spot for locals, street vendors and photographers.[18] In 2012, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Tourism Development Corporation moved the "Elephanta Festival of music and dance" from its original location at Elephanta Caves
Elephanta Caves
(where it had been celebrated for 23 years) to the Gateway due to the increased capacity offered by the venue. The Gateway can host 2,000 to 2,500 people, whereas Elephanta Caves
Elephanta Caves
could host only 700 to 800 people.[29][30] Events and incidents[edit]

The monument witnessed a terrorist attack on August 25, 2003, when a bomb blast left trails of blood in front of the Gateway. The taxi containing the bomb was parked outside the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
Hotel, one of the city's oldest luxury hotels, where windows were shattered and cars damaged. The force of the explosion is reported to have thrown several people into the sea.[9] A mentally disturbed man stabbed two young girls from Manipur at the Gateway of India
India
on August 13, 2005.[31] A woman gets groped on New Year Eve 2007 by a rowdy mob at the Gateway of India[32] After the 2008 Mumbai
Mumbai
attacks, there had been a proposal to close all the jetties and replace them with two newer ones to be built near the Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
Radio Club.[33] Following the 26/11 terror attack on the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
Hotel, public access to the area around the Gateway was restricted.[34]

Gallery[edit]

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

See also[edit]

List of tourist attractions in Mumbai India
India
Gate Tourist attractions in Aurangabad, Maharashtra Make In Maharashtra Royal Bombay Yacht Club
Royal Bombay Yacht Club
– the building directly opposite the Gateway to India

References[edit]

^ "Which company built the Gateway of India?". Rediff.com. 4 May 2007. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 30 April 2012.  ^ National Portal
Portal
Content Management Team. "National Portal
Portal
of India, Monuments". National Informatics Centre (NIC). Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.  ^ Chapman, Kenneth. Peace, War and Friendships. Roxana Chapman. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-9551881-0-7. Archived from the original on 3 January 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2012.  ^ a b Simon, Sherry; St-Pierre, Paul (27 November 2000). Changing the Terms: Translating in the Postcolonial Era. University of Ottawa Press. p. 245. ISBN 978-0-7766-0524-1. Archived from the original on 3 January 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2012.  ^ a b William J. Duiker; Jackson J. Spielvogel (3 January 2006). World History: From 1500. Cengage Learning. p. 582. ISBN 978-0-495-05054-4. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2012.  ^ DNA (24 April 2012). "Walk amid a wealth of heritage in Mumbai". DNA India. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2012.  ^ Holloway, James (29 November 1964). "Gateway of India; Colorful, Crowded Bombay Provides An Introduction to Subcontinent". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2012. (subscription required) ^ Duncan Forbes (1968). The heart of India. Hale. p. 76. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2012.  ^ a b "2003: Bombay rocked by twin car bombs". BBC. 25 August 2003. Archived from the original on 10 April 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2012.  ^ a b c d Dwivedi, Sharada; Rahul Mehotra (1995). Bombay – The Cities Within. Mumbai: India
India
Book House. ISBN 81-85028-80-X.  ^ Arnett, Robert (15 July 2006). India
India
Unveiled. Atman Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-9652900-4-3. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2012.  ^ Dwivedi, Sharada; Mehrotra, Rahul (1995). Bombay: the cities within. India
India
Book House. ISBN 978-81-85028-80-4. Archived from the original on 17 June 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2012.  ^ Bradnock, Robert; Bradnock, Roma; Ballard, Sebastian (1993). South Asian handbook. Trade & Travel. ISBN 978-0-8442-9980-8. Archived from the original on 17 June 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2012.  ^ Shobhna Gupta (2003). Monuments of India. Har-Anand Publications. p. 111. ISBN 978-81-241-0926-7. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2012.  ^ Sigh, Kirpal; Mathew, Annie. Middle School Social Sciences. Frank Brothers. p. 8. ISBN 978-81-8409-103-8. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2012.  ^ a b Mis, Melody S. (1 August 2005). How to Draw India's Sights and Symbols. Rosen Publishing. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-4042-2732-3. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2012.  ^ Bajwa, Jagir Singh; Kaur, Ravinder (1 January 2007). Tourism Management. APH Publishing. p. 240. ISBN 978-81-313-0047-3. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2012.  ^ a b Singh, Sarina (1 September 2009). Lonely Planet India. Lonely Planet. pp. 783–784. ISBN 978-1-74179-151-8. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2012.  ^ a b Kapoor, Subodh (1 July 2002). The Indian Encyclopaedia. Cosmo Publications. p. 2554. ISBN 978-81-7755-257-7. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2012.  ^ a b Pippa De Bruyn; Keith Bain; David Allardice; Shonar Joshi (12 February 2010). Frommer's India. John Wiley & Sons. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-470-60264-5. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2012.  ^ "300-feet Shivaji statue in Mumbai's Arabian Sea!". 3 June 2008. Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2012.  ^ B.K. Chaturvedi. Tourist Centers of India. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. p. 146. ISBN 978-81-7182-137-2. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2012.  ^ Prasad, Rajendra (1984). Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Correspondence and Select Documents. Allied Publishers. p. 205. ISBN 978-81-7023-002-1. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2012.  ^ University of Michigan
University of Michigan
(1965). The Illustrated weekly of India. Bennett, Coleman & Co., Ltd. p. 152. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2012.  ^ Kottis, George C. (30 October 2006). Follow the Wind of Your Soul. AuthorHouse. p. 101. ISBN 978-1-4259-5505-2. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ Thakkar, Dharmesh (27 January 2009). "Gateway of India
India
jetties to move location". NDTV. Archived from the original on 12 February 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2012.  ^ DNA (18 April 2012). " Mumbai
Mumbai
heritage week: Revisiting a lost culture in the city of caves". Daily News and Analysis. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2012.  ^ "Disaster floats at gateway". Mid Day. 2 October 2011. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.  ^ Tembhekar, Chittaranjan; Jaisinghani, Bella (5 March 2012). "Elephanta festival 'moves' to Gateway of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 30 April 2012.  ^ "Festival weaves magic". The Indian Express. Mumbai. Express news service. 27 March 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.  ^ "Maniac stabs girl to death at Gateway". The Times of India. 14 August 2005. Archived from the original on 18 January 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2005.  ^ "Gateway groping shocks Mumbai". The Times of India. 3 January 2007. Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2007.  ^ "5 jetties may be shut". Daily News and Analysis. 29 January 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2012.  ^ Clara Lewis, Times News Network
Times News Network
(18 March 2012). "Gateway not quite a getaway". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 April 2012. 

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Coordinates: 18°55′19″N 72°50′05″E / 18.9219°N 72.8346°E / 18.9

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