FRANZ LISZT (German pronunciation: ; Hungarian : Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc, pronounced ; October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer , virtuoso pianist , conductor , music teacher , arranger , organist , philanthropist , author , nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary .
Liszt gained renown in Europe during the early nineteenth century for
his prodigious virtuosic skill as a pianist. He was a friend, musical
promoter and benefactor to many composers of his time, including
Frédéric Chopin ,
As a composer, Liszt was one of the most prominent representatives of the New German School (Neudeutsche Schule). He left behind an extensive and diverse body of work in which he influenced his forward-looking contemporaries and anticipated many 20th-century ideas and trends. Some of his most notable musical contributions were the invention of the symphonic poem , developing the concept of thematic transformation as part of his experiments in musical form , and making radical departures in harmony .
* 1 Life
* 1.1 Early life
* 1.2 Adolescence in Paris
* 1.3 Paganini
* 1.4 With Countess Marie d\'Agoult
* 1.5 Touring Europe
* 1.6 Liszt in
* 2 Liszt as a pianist
* 2.1 Performing style * 2.2 Repertoire
* 3 Musical works
* 3.1 Piano music * 3.2 Transcriptions * 3.3 Organ music * 3.4 Original songs * 3.5 Programme music * 3.6 Symphonic poems * 3.7 Late works
* 4 Literary works
* 5 Legacy
* 5.1 Liszt\'s students
* 5.1.1 Early students * 5.1.2 Later students
* 5.2 Liszt\'s teaching approach
* 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links
Main article: Life of Franz Liszt
Anna Liszt, née Maria Anna Lager (portrait by Julius Ludwig Sebbers between 1826 and 1837)
There Liszt received piano lessons from
Carl Czerny , who in his own
youth had been a student of Beethoven and Hummel. He also received
lessons in composition from
Towards the end of 1823 or early 1824, Liszt's first composition to
be published, his Variation on a Waltz by Diabelli (now S. 147),
appeared as Variation 24 in Part II of Vaterländischer
Künstlerverein . This anthology, commissioned by
ADOLESCENCE IN PARIS
After his father's death in 1827, Liszt moved to Paris; for the next five years he was to live with his mother in a small apartment. He gave up touring. To earn money, Liszt gave lessons in piano playing and composition, often from early morning until late at night. His students were scattered across the city and he often had to cover long distances. Because of this, he kept uncertain hours and also took up smoking and drinking—all habits he would continue throughout his life.
The following year he fell in love with one of his pupils, Caroline de Saint-Cricq, the daughter of Charles X 's minister of commerce, Pierre de Saint-Cricq . Her father, however, insisted that the affair be broken off. Liszt fell very ill, to the extent that an obituary notice was printed in a Paris newspaper, and he underwent a long period of religious doubts and pessimism. He again stated a wish to join the Church but was dissuaded this time by his mother. He had many discussions with the Abbé de Lamennais , who acted as his spiritual father, and also with Chrétien Urhan , a German-born violinist who introduced him to the Saint-Simonists . Urhan also wrote music that was anti-classical and highly subjective, with titles such as Elle et moi, La Salvation angélique and Les Regrets, and may have whetted the young Liszt's taste for musical romanticism. Equally important for Liszt was Urhan's earnest championship of Schubert, which may have stimulated his own lifelong devotion to that composer's music.
During this period, Liszt read widely to overcome his lack of a
general education, and he soon came into contact with many of the
leading authors and artists of his day, including
After attending an April 20, 1832, charity concert , for the victims
of a Parisian cholera epidemic, organised by
In 1833 he made transcriptions of several works by Berlioz, including the Symphonie fantastique. His chief motive in doing so, especially with the Symphonie, was to help the poverty-stricken Berlioz, whose symphony remained unknown and unpublished. Liszt bore the expense of publishing the transcription himself and played it many times to help popularise the original score. He was also forming a friendship with a third composer who influenced him, Frédéric Chopin ; under his influence Liszt's poetic and romantic side began to develop.
WITH COUNTESS MARIE D\'AGOULT
In 1833, Liszt began his relationship with the Countess Marie d\'Agoult . In addition to this, at the end of April 1834 he made the acquaintance of Felicité de Lamennais . Under the influence of both, Liszt's creative output exploded.
In 1835 the countess left her husband and family to join Liszt in
Geneva; their daughter Blandine was born there on December 18. Liszt
taught at the newly founded
For the next four years, Liszt and the countess lived together,
mainly in Switzerland and Italy, where their daughter, Cosima , was
Earliest known photograph of Liszt (1843)
For the next eight years Liszt continued to tour Europe, spending holidays with the countess and their children on the island of Nonnenwerth on the Rhine in summers 1841 and 1843. In spring 1844 the couple finally separated. This was Liszt's most brilliant period as a concert pianist. Honours were showered on him and he met with adulation wherever he went. Franz wrote his 'Three Concert Études' between 1845 and 1849. Since he often appeared three or four times a week in concert, it could be safe to assume that he appeared in public well over a thousand times during this eight-year period. Moreover, his great fame as a pianist, which he would continue to enjoy long after he had officially retired from the concert stage, was based mainly on his accomplishments during this time.
During his virtuoso heyday, Liszt was described by the writer Hans
Christian Andersen as a "slim young man... dark hair hung around his
pale face". He was seen as handsome by many, with the German poet
On 14 March 1842 Liszt received an honorary doctorate from the
University of Königsberg
Adding to his reputation was the fact that Liszt gave away much of
his proceeds to charity and humanitarian causes. In fact, Liszt had
made so much money by his mid-forties that virtually all his
performing fees after 1857 went to charity. While his work for the
Beethoven monument and the Hungarian National School of Music are well
known, he also gave generously to the building fund of Cologne
Cathedral , the establishment of a Gymnasium at
LISZT IN WEIMAR
Franz Liszt, portrait by Hungarian painter Miklós Barabás , 1847
In February 1847, Liszt played in
The following year, Liszt took up a long-standing invitation of Grand
Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia to settle at
During those twelve years, he also helped raise the profile of the exiled Wagner by conducting the overtures of his operas in concert, Liszt and Wagner would have a profound friendship that lasted until Wagner's death in Venice in 1883. Wagner held strong value towards Liszt and his musicality, once rhetorically stating "Do you know a musician who is more musical than Liszt?", and in 1856 stating "I feel thoroughly contemptible as a musician, whereas you, as I have now convinced myself, are the greatest musician of all times."
Princess Carolyne lived with Liszt during his years in Weimar. She eventually wished to marry Liszt, but since she had been previously married and her husband, Russian military officer Prince Nikolaus zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg (1812–1864), was still alive, she had to convince the Roman Catholic authorities that her marriage to him had been invalid. After huge efforts and a monstrously intricate process, she was temporarily successful (September 1860). It was planned that the couple would marry in Rome, on October 22, 1861, Liszt's 50th birthday. Although Liszt arrived in Rome on October 21, the Princess declined to marry him that evening. It appears that both her husband and the Tsar of Russia had managed to quash permission for the marriage at the Vatican. The Russian government also impounded her several estates in the Polish Ukraine, which made her later marriage to anybody unfeasible.
ROME, WEIMAR, BUDAPEST
The 1860s were a period of great sadness in Liszt's private life. On December 13, 1859, he lost his 20-year-old son Daniel, and on September 11, 1862, his 26-year-old daughter Blandine also died. In letters to friends, Liszt afterwards announced that he would retreat to a solitary living. He found it at the monastery Madonna del Rosario, just outside Rome, where on June 20, 1863, he took up quarters in a small, Spartan apartment. He had on June 23, 1857, already joined the Third Order of Saint Francis .
On April 25, 1865, he received the tonsure at the hands of Cardinal Hohenlohe . On July 31, 1865, he received the four minor orders of porter , lector , exorcist , and acolyte . After this ordination he was often called Abbé Liszt. On August 14, 1879, he was made an honorary canon of Albano .
On some occasions, Liszt took part in Rome's musical life. On March
26, 1863, at a concert at the Palazzo Altieri, he directed a programme
of sacred music. The "Seligkeiten" of his Christus-Oratorio and his
"Cantico del Sol di Francesco d'Assisi", as well as Haydn\'s Die
Schöpfung and works by J. S. Bach , Beethoven , Jommelli ,
Mendelssohn and Palestrina were performed. On January 4, 1866, Liszt
directed the "Stabat mater" of his Christus-Oratorio, and on February
26, 1866, his
In 1866, Liszt composed the Hungarian coronation ceremony for Franz
Elisabeth of Bavaria (Latin: Missa coronationalis). The
Mass was first performed on June 8, 1867, at the coronation ceremony
Liszt was invited back to
ROYAL ACADEMY OF MUSIC AT BUDAPEST
Liszt Ferenc Academy of Music in
Since the early 1860s there were attempts of some of Liszt's
Hungarian contemporaries to have him settled with a position in
Hungary. In 1871 the Hungarian Prime Minister
Gyula Andrássy made a
new attempt. In a writing of June 4, 1871, to the Hungarian King (the
Franz Joseph I
The plan of the foundation of the Royal Academy was agreed by the
Hungarian Parliament in 1872. In March 1875 Liszt was nominated as
President. The Academy was officially opened on November 14, 1875
under Liszt's colleagues
Ferenc Erkel , the director, Kornél
Robert Volkmann and Liszt himself came in March 1876 to
give some lessons and a charity concert. One of Franz Liszt's
pianos from his apartment in
In spite of the conditions under which Liszt had been appointed as
"Königlicher Rat", he neither directed the orchestra of the National
Theatre, nor did he permanently settle in Hungary. Typically, he
arrived in mid-winter in Budapest. After one or two concerts of his
students by the beginning of spring he left. He never took part in the
final examinations, which were in summer of every year. Most of his
students were still matriculated as students of either Erkel or later
Henri Gobbi . Some of them joined the lessons which he gave in summer
in Weimar. In winter, when he was in Budapest, some students of his
In 1873, at the occasion of Liszt's 50th anniversary as performing
artist, the city
It was also Liszt's habit to declare all students who took part in his lessons as his private students. As consequence, almost none of them paid any charge at the Academy. Since the Academy needed the money, there was a ministerial order of February 13, 1884, according to which all those who took part in Liszt's lessons had to pay an annual charge of 30 Gulden. Liszt did not respect this, however, and in the end the Minister resigned. In fact, the Academy was still the winner, since Liszt gave much money from his taking part in charity concerts.
The lessons in specific matters of Hungarian music turned out to be a
problematic enterprise, since there were different opinions regarding
what exactly Hungarian music actually was. In 1881 a new edition of
Liszt's book about the Romanis and their music in
In 1886 there was still no class for sacral music, but there were
classes for solo and chorus singing, piano, violin, cello, organ and
composition. The number of students had grown to 91 and the number of
professors to 14. Since the winter of 1879–80, the Academy had its
own building. On the first floor there was an apartment where since
the winter of 1880–81 Liszt lived during his stays in Budapest. His
last stay was from January 30 to March 12, 1886. After Liszt's death
János Végh, since 1881 vice-president, became president. No earlier
than 40 years later the Academy was renamed to "
On June 24, 1872, the composer and conductor Karl Müller-Hartung
founded an "Orchesterschule" ("Orchestra School") at
Liszt fell down the stairs of a hotel in
On January 13, 1886, while Claude Debussy was staying at the Villa Medici in Rome, Liszt met him there with Paul Vidal and Victor Herbert . Liszt played Au bord d'une source from his Années de pèlerinage , as well as his arrangement of Schubert\'s Ave Maria for the musicians. Debussy in later years described Liszt's pedalling as "like a form of breathing." Debussy and Vidal performed their piano duet arrangement of Liszt's Faust Symphony ; allegedly, Liszt fell asleep during this.
Liszt died in Bayreuth, Germany, on July 31, 1886, at the age of 74, officially as a result of pneumonia , which he may have contracted during the Bayreuth Festival hosted by his daughter Cosima. Questions have been posed as to whether medical malpractice played a part in his death. He was buried on August 3, 1886, in the municipal cemetery of Bayreuth in accordance with his wishes.
LISZT AS A PIANIST
The critic Peter G. Davis has opined: "Perhaps was not the most transcendent virtuoso who ever lived, but his audiences thought he was."
There are few, if any, good sources that give an impression of how
Liszt really sounded from the 1820s.
Carl Czerny claimed Liszt was a
natural who played according to feeling, and reviews of his concerts
especially praise the brilliance, strength and precision in his
playing. At least one also mentions his ability to keep absolute
tempo, which may be due to his father's insistence that he practice
with a metronome. His repertoire at this time consisted primarily of
pieces in the style of the brilliant Viennese school, such as
concertos by Hummel and works by his former teacher Czerny, and his
concerts often included a chance for the boy to display his prowess in
improvisation. Liszt possessed notable sight-reading skills .
Following the death of Liszt's father in 1827 and his hiatus from the life as a touring virtuoso, it is likely Liszt's playing gradually developed a more personal style. One of the most detailed descriptions of his playing from this time comes from the winter of 1831/1832, during which he was earning a living primarily as a teacher in Paris. Among his pupils was Valerie Boissier, whose mother Caroline kept a careful diary of the lessons. From her we learn that:
M. Liszt's playing contains abandonment, a liberated feeling, but even when it becomes impetuous and energetic in his fortissimo, it is still without harshness and dryness. draws from the piano tones that are purer, mellower and stronger than anyone has been able to do; his touch has an indescribable charm. He is the enemy of affected, stilted, contorted expressions. Most of all, he wants truth in musical sentiment, and so he makes a psychological study of his emotions to convey them as they are. Thus, a strong expression is often followed by a sense of fatigue and dejection, a kind of coldness, because this is the way nature works.
Liszt was sometimes mocked in the press for facial expression and
gestures at the piano. Also noted were the extravagant liberties he
could take with the text of a score at this time. Berlioz tells us how
Liszt would add cadenzas, tremolos and trills when playing the first
movement of Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata, and created a dramatic scene
by changing the tempo between Largo and Presto. In his Baccalaureus
His performance commenced with Handel's Fugue in E minor, which was played by Liszt with an avoidance of everything approaching to meretricious ornament, and indeed scarcely any additions, except a multitude of ingeniously contrived and appropriate harmonies, casting a glow of colour over the beauties of the composition, and infusing into it a spirit which from no other hand it ever before received.
During his years as a travelling virtuoso, Liszt performed an
enormous amount of music throughout Europe, but his core repertoire
always centered around his own compositions, paraphrases and
transcriptions. Of Liszt's German concerts between 1840 and 1845, the
five most frequently played pieces were the
Grand galop chromatique ,
Schubert's Erlkönig (in Liszt's transcription), Réminiscences de Don
Juan , Réminiscences de Robert le Diable, and Réminiscences de Lucia
di Lammermoor. Among the works by other composers were Weber 's
Invitation to the Dance , Chopin mazurkas , études by composers like
Most of the concerts at this time were shared with other artists, and
as a result Liszt also often accompanied singers, participated in
chamber music, or performed works with an orchestra in addition to his
own solo part. Frequently played works include Weber's Konzertstück ,
Emperor Concerto and Choral Fantasy , and Liszt's
reworking of the Hexameron for piano and orchestra. His chamber music
Johann Nepomuk Hummel
Liszt was a prolific composer. He is best known for his piano music, but he also wrote for orchestra, and for other ensembles, virtually always including keyboard. His piano works are often marked by their difficulty. Some of his works are programmatic based on extra-musical inspirations such as a poetry or art. Liszt is credited with the creation of the symphonic poem .
Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 Performed by Martha Goldstein on an 1851 Erard piano -------------------------
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The largest and best-known portion of Liszt's music is his original
piano work. His thoroughly revised masterwork, "Années de pèlerinage
" ("Years of Pilgrimage") includes arguably his most provocative and
stirring pieces. This set of three suites ranges from the virtuosity
of the Suisse Orage (Storm) to the subtle and imaginative
visualisations of artworks by
Liszt's piano works are usually divided into two categories. On the one hand, there are "original works", and on the other hand "transcriptions", "paraphrases" or "fantasies" on works by other composers. Examples for the first category are works such as the piece Harmonies poétiques et religieuses of May 1833 and the Piano Sonata in B minor (1853). Liszt's transcriptions of Schubert songs, his fantasies on operatic melodies, and his piano arrangements of symphonies by Berlioz and Beethoven are examples from the second category. As special case, Liszt also made piano arrangements of his own instrumental and vocal works. Examples of this kind are the arrangement of the second movement "Gretchen" of his Faust Symphony and the first "Mephisto Waltz" as well as the " Liebesträume No. 3" and the two volumes of his "Buch der Lieder".
See also: Franz Liszt\'s treatments of the works of other composers
Liszt wrote transcriptions for piano of a wide variety of music. Indeed, about half of his composing work (approximately 400 out of 800 items) are arrangements of music by other composers. He played many of them himself in his celebrated performances. In the mid-19th century, orchestral performances were much less common than they are today, and were not available at all outside major cities, so Liszt's transcriptions played a major role in popularising a wide array of music such as the symphonies of Beethoven .
Liszt wrote his two largest organ works between 1850 and 1855 while
he was living in Weimar, a city with a long tradition of organ music,
most notably that of J.S. Bach.
Today, Liszt's songs are relatively obscure. As an exception, most frequently the song "Ich möchte hingehn" is cited. It is because of a single bar, most resembling the opening motif of Wagner's Tristan und Isolde . While it is commonly claimed that Liszt wrote that motif ten years before Wagner started work on his masterpiece, it has turned out that this is not true: the original version of "Ich möchte hingehn" was composed in 1844 or 1845. There are four manuscripts, and only a single one, a copy by August Conradi, contains the said bar with the Tristan motif. It is on a paste-over in Liszt's hand. Since in the second half of 1858 Liszt was preparing his songs for publication, and he just at that time received the first act of Wagner's Tristan, it is most likely that the version on the paste-over was a quotation from Wagner. This is not to say the motif was originally invented by Wagner. An earlier example can be found in bar 100 of Liszt's Ballade No. 2 in B minor for piano, composed in 1853.
Totentanz Written in 1838, Liszt's Dance of the Dead was noted for its highly-modernistic, even percussive piano part and evocative style, paving the way for horror-themed music. -------------------------
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Liszt, in some of his works, supported the relatively new idea of programme music – that is, music intended to evoke extra-musical ideas such as a depiction of a landscape, a poem, a particular character or personage. (By contrast, absolute music stands for itself and is intended to be appreciated without any particular reference to the outside world.)
Liszt's own point of view regarding programme music can for the time of his youth be taken from the preface of the Album d'un voyageur (1837). According to this, a landscape could evoke a certain kind of mood. Since a piece of music could also evoke a mood, a mysterious resemblance with the landscape could be imagined. In this sense the music would not paint the landscape, but it would match the landscape in a third category, the mood.
In July 1854 Liszt stated in his essay about Berlioz and Harold in Italy that not all music was programme music. If, in the heat of a debate, a person would go so far as to claim the contrary, it would be better to put all ideas of programme music aside. But it would be possible to take means like harmony, modulation, rhythm, instrumentation and others to let a musical motif endure a fate. In any case, a programme should be added to a piece of music only if it was necessarily needed for an adequate understanding of that piece.
Still later, in a letter to Marie d'Agoult of November 15, 1864, Liszt wrote:
Without any reserve I completely subscribe to the rule of which you so kindly want to remind me, that those musical works which are in a general sense following a programme must take effect on imagination and emotion, independent of any programme. In other words: All beautiful music must be first rate and always satisfy the absolute rules of music which are not to be violated or prescribed.
A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in one
movement in which some extramusical program provides a narrative or
illustrative element. This program may come from a poem, a story or
novel, a painting, or another source. The term was first applied by
Liszt to his 13 one-movement orchestral works in this vein. They were
not pure symphonic movements in the classical sense because they dealt
with descriptive subjects taken from mythology , Romantic literature,
recent history or imaginative fantasy. In other words, these works
were programmatic rather than abstract. The form was a direct product
The first 12 symphonic poems were composed in the decade 1848–58
(though some use material conceived earlier); one other, Von der Wiege
bis zum Grabe (From the Cradle to the Grave), followed in 1882.
Liszt's intent, according to Hugh MacDonald in the New Grove
Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980) , was for these
single-movement works "to display the traditional logic of symphonic
thought." That logic, embodied in sonata form as musical development
, was traditionally the unfolding of latent possibilities in given
themes in rhythm, melody and harmony , either in part or in their
entirety, as they were allowed to combine, separate and contrast with
one another. To the resulting sense of struggle, Beethoven had added
an intensity of feeling and the involvement of his audiences in that
feeling, beginning from the Eroica
Liszt attempted in the symphonic poem to extend this revitalisation of the nature of musical discourse and add to it the Romantic ideal of reconciling classical formal principles to external literary concepts. To this end, he combined elements of overture and symphony with descriptive elements, approaching symphonic first movements in form and scale. While showing extremely creative amendments to sonata form, Liszt used compositional devices such as cyclic form , motifs and thematic transformation to lend these works added coherence. Their composition proved daunting, requiring a continual process of creative experimentation that included many stages of composition, rehearsal and revision to reach a version where different parts of the musical form seemed balanced.
See also: Late works of Franz Liszt
With some works from the end of the
More examples can be found in the third volume of Liszt's Années de
Pélerinage. "Les Jeux d'Eaux à la Villa d'Este" ("The Fountains of
the Villa d\'Este "), composed in September 1877, foreshadows the
impressionism of pieces on similar subjects by
Claude Debussy and
At a later stage, Liszt experimented with "forbidden" things such as
parallel 5ths in the "Csárdás macabre" and atonality in the
Bagatelle sans tonalité ("Bagatelle without Tonality"). Pieces like
the "2nd Mephisto-Waltz" are unconventional because of their numerous
repetitions of short motives. Also showing experimental
characteristics are the "Via crucis" of 1878, as well as Unstern!,
Besides his musical works, Liszt wrote essays about many subjects.
Most important for an understanding of his development is the article
series "De la situation des artistes" ("On the situation of artists")
which was published in the Parisian Gazette musicale in 1835. In
winter 1835–36, during Liszt's stay in
While all of those literary works were published under Liszt's name,
it is not quite clear which parts of them he had written himself. It
is known from his letters that during the time of his youth there had
been collaboration with Marie d'Agoult. During the
Liszt also worked until at least 1885 on a treatise for modern
Although there was a period in which many considered Liszt's works
"flashy" or superficial, it is now held that many of Liszt's
compositions such as Nuages gris, Les jeux d'eaux à la villa d'Este,
etc., which contain parallel fifths, the whole-tone scale, parallel
diminished and augmented triads, and unresolved dissonances,
anticipated and influenced twentieth-century music like that of
Debussy, Ravel and
For Liszt's notable students, see List of music students by teacher:
K to M §
From 1827 onwards Liszt gave lessons in composition and piano
playing. He wrote on December 23, 1829 that his schedule was so full
of lessons that each day, from half-past eight in the morning till 10
at night, he had scarcely breathing time. Most of Liszt's students of
this period were amateurs, but there were also some who made a
professional career. An example of the former is Valérie Boissier ,
the later Comtesse de Gasparin. Examples of the latter are Julius
Eichberg , Pierre Wolff, and Hermann Cohen . During winter 1835–36
they were Liszt's colleagues at the Conservatoire at
During the years of his tours, Liszt gave only a few lessons, to students including Johann Nepumuk Dunkl and Wilhelm von Lenz. In spring 1844, in Dresden, Liszt met the young Hans von Bülow , his later son-in-law.
After Liszt settled in Weimar, his pupils steadily increased in number. By his death in 1886 there would have been several hundred people who in some sense could have been regarded as his students. August Göllerich published a voluminous catalogue of them. In a note he added the remark that he had taken the connotation "student" in its widest sense. As a consequence, his catalogue includes names of pianists, violinists, cellists, harpists, organists, composers, conductors, singers and even writers.
A catalogue by Ludwig Nohl, was approved and corrected by Liszt in
September 1881. This gave 48 names, including:
Hans von Bülow , Carl
Franz Bendel , Hans von Bronsart ,
By 1886 a similar catalogue would have been much longer, including names such as Eugen d\'Albert , Walter Bache , Carl Lachmund , Moriz Rosenthal , Emil Sauer , Alexander Siloti , Conrad Ansorge , William Dayas , August Göllerich, Bernhard Stavenhagen , August Stradal , José Vianna da Motta and István Thomán .
Some of Liszt's students were disappointed with him. An example is
Eugen d'Albert, who eventually was almost on hostile terms with Liszt.
Felix Draeseke who had joined the circle around Liszt at
LISZT\'S TEACHING APPROACH
Liszt offered his students little technical advice, expecting them to "wash their dirty linen at home," as he phrased it. Instead, he focused on musical interpretation with a combination of anecdote, metaphor and wit. He advised one student tapping out the opening chords of Beethoven's Waldstein Sonata , "Do not chop beefsteak for us." To another who blurred the rhythm in Liszt's Gnomenreigen (usually done by playing the piece too fast in the composer's presence): "There you go, mixing salad again." Liszt also wanted to avoid creating carbon copies of himself; rather, he believed in preserving artistic individuality.
Liszt did not charge for lessons. He was troubled when German
newspapers published details of pedagogue
Theodor Kullak 's will,
revealing that Kullak had generated more than one million marks from
teaching. "As an artist, you do not rake in a million marks without
performing some sacrifice on the altar of Art," Liszt told his
Lina Ramann .
Carl Czerny , however, charged an expensive
fee for lessons and even dismissed
Stephen Heller when he was unable
to afford to pay for his lessons. Interestingly, Liszt spoke very
fondly of his former teacher—who gave lessons to Liszt free of
charge—to whom Liszt dedicated his
* Biography portal * Classical music portal * Piano portal
* Cotton-top tamarin , a New World monkey which is called the Lisztaffe in German, or "Liszt Monkey", for its resemblance to Franz Liszt. * War of the Romantics * Cross motif * Franz Liszt\'s birthplace
* ^ Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz".
An orthographic reform of the
* ^ Searle , New Grove, 11:29.
* ^ Searle, New Grove, 11:28–29.
* ^ Genealogy of the Liszt family: Marriage of Maria Anna Lager and
Adam Liszt: pfarre-paudorf.com
* ^ A B C D E F G Searle, New Grove, 11:30.
* ^ Walker,
* Ed. Abraham, Gerald, Music of Tchaikovsky (New York, W. W. Norton font-size: 90%; color: #555">(subscription required) * Watson, Derek: Liszt, Schirmer Books, 1989, ISBN 0-02-872705-3
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