HOME
The Info List - First Sino-Japanese War


--- Advertisement ---



Japanese victory

A significant loss of prestige for the Qing Empire Joseon
Joseon
removed from the Qing Empire's vassalage Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
transferred to Japanese sphere of influence Treaty of Shimonoseki

Territorial changes Qing Empire
Qing Empire
cedes Taiwan, Penghu, and the Liaodong Peninsula
Liaodong Peninsula
to the Empire of Japan

Belligerents

 China  Japan

Commanders and leaders

Guangxu Emperor         Empress Dowager Cixi         Li Hongzhang         Liu Kunyi         Song Qing         Ding Ruchang †         Liu Buchan †         Ye Zhichao         Zuo Baogui †

Meiji Emperor         Itō Hirobumi Yamagata Aritomo         Nozu Michitsura         Ōyama Iwao   Itō Sukeyuki

Strength

630,000 men 240,616 men

Casualties and losses

35,000 dead or wounded 1,132 dead 3,758 wounded 285 died of wounds 11,894 died of disease

v t e

First Sino-Japanese War

Pungdo Seonghwan Pyongyang Yalu River Jiuliancheng Lushunkou Weihaiwei Yingkou Pescadores

v t e

Japanese colonial campaigns

Meiji period

Korea
Korea
(1894–95) Liaodong Peninsula
Liaodong Peninsula
(1895) China (1899–1901) Manchuria/ Korea
Korea
(1904–05) Korea
Korea
(1910)

Taishō period

Tsingtao (1914) Siberia (1918–22)

Shōwa period

Manchuria
Manchuria
(1931–32) Soviet Union (1932–39) China (1937–45) Vietnam (1940) Thailand (1941) Asia-Pacific (1941-1945)

First Sino-Japanese War

War of Jiawu – referring to the year 1894 under the traditional sexagenary system

Traditional Chinese 甲午戰爭

Simplified Chinese 甲午战争

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Jiǎwǔ Zhànzhēng

Japan–Qing War

Kanji 日清戦争

Kyūjitai 日清戰爭

Transcriptions

Romanization Nisshin sensō

Qing- Japan
Japan
War

Hangul 청일전쟁

Hanja 淸日戰爭

The First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
(25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between the Qing Empire
Qing Empire
and the Empire of Japan, primarily over influence of Korea. After more than six months of unbroken successes by Japanese land and naval forces and the loss of the port of Weihaiwei, the Qing government sued for peace in February 1895. The war demonstrated the failure of the Qing Empire's attempts to modernize its military and fend off threats to its sovereignty, especially when compared with Japan's successful Meiji Restoration. For the first time, regional dominance in East Asia
East Asia
shifted from China to Japan;[1] the prestige of the Qing Empire, along with the classical tradition in China, suffered a major blow. The humiliating loss of Korea
Korea
as a tributary state sparked an unprecedented public outcry. Within China, the defeat was a catalyst for a series of political upheavals led by Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
and Kang Youwei, culminating in the 1911 Xinhai Revolution. The war is commonly known in China as the War of Jiawu (Chinese: 甲午戰爭; pinyin: Jiǎwǔ Zhànzhēng), referring to the year (1894) as named under the traditional sexagenary system of years. In Japan, it is called the Japan–Qing War (Japanese: 日清戦争, Hepburn: Nisshin sensō). In Korea, where much of the war took place, it is called the Qing– Japan
Japan
War (Korean: 청일전쟁; Hanja: 淸日戰爭).

Contents

1 Background

1.1 Conflict over Korea 1.2 1882 crisis 1.3 Gapsin Coup 1.4 Nagasaki
Nagasaki
incident 1.5 Bean controversy 1.6 Kim Ok-gyun
Kim Ok-gyun
affair

2 Donghak Rebellion 3 Status of combatants

3.1 Japan

3.1.1 Imperial Japanese Navy 3.1.2 Imperial Japanese Army

3.2 China

3.2.1 Imperial Chinese Army 3.2.2 Beiyang Fleet

3.3 Contemporaneous wars fought by the Qing Empire

4 Early stages 5 Events during the war

5.1 Opening moves 5.2 Sinking of the Kow-shing 5.3 Conflict in Korea 5.4 Defeat of the Beiyang fleet 5.5 Invasion of Manchuria 5.6 Fall of Lüshunkou 5.7 Fall of Weihaiwei 5.8 Occupation of the Pescadores Islands

6 End of the war

6.1 Treaty of Shimonoseki 6.2 Japanese invasion of Taiwan

7 Aftermath 8 See also 9 References

9.1 Notes 9.2 Citations 9.3 Bibliography

10 Further reading 11 External links

Background[edit] After two centuries, the Japanese policy of seclusion under the shōguns of the Edo period
Edo period
came to an end when the country was opened to trade by American intervention in 1854. The years following the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
of 1868 and the fall of the shogunate had seen Japan transform itself from a feudal society into a modern industrial state. The Japanese had sent delegations and students around the world to learn and assimilate Western arts and sciences, with the intention of making Japan
Japan
an equal to the Western powers.[2] Korea
Korea
continued to try to exclude foreigners, refusing embassies from foreign countries and firing on ships near its shores. At the start of the war, Japan
Japan
had the benefit of three decades of reform, leaving Korea
Korea
outdated and vulnerable. Conflict over Korea[edit]

Satirical drawing in the magazine Punch[3] (29 September 1894), showing the victory of "small" Japan
Japan
over "large" China

As a newly risen power, Japan
Japan
turned its attention toward its neighbor, Korea. Japan
Japan
wanted to block any other power from annexing or dominating Korea, resolving to end the centuries-old Chinese suzerainty. As Prussian advisor Major Klemens Meckel put it to the Japanese, Korea
Korea
was "a dagger pointed at the heart of Japan".[4] Moreover, Japan
Japan
realized the potential economic benefits of Korea's coal and iron ore deposits for Japan's growing industrial base, and of Korea's agricultural exports to feed the growing Japanese population. On February 27, 1876, after several confrontations between Korean isolationists and Japanese, Japan
Japan
imposed the Japan– Korea
Korea
Treaty of 1876, forcing Korea
Korea
open to Japanese trade. Similar treaties were signed between Korea
Korea
and other nations. Korea
Korea
had traditionally been a tributary state of China's Qing Empire, which exerted large influence over the conservative Korean officials who gathered around the royal family of the Joseon
Joseon
kingdom. Opinion in Korea
Korea
itself was split: conservatives wanted to retain the traditional relationship under China, while reformists wanted to approach Japan and Western nations. After fighting two Opium Wars
Opium Wars
against the British in 1839 and 1856, and another war against the French in 1885, China was unable to resist the encroachment of Western powers (see Unequal Treaties). Japan
Japan
saw the opportunity to take China's place in the strategically vital Korea. 1882 crisis[edit] Main article: Imo Incident

The flight of the Japanese legation in 1882

In 1882, the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
experienced a severe drought which led to food shortages, causing much hardship and discord among the population. Korea
Korea
was on the verge of bankruptcy, even falling months behind on military pay, causing deep resentment among the soldiers. On July 23, a military mutiny and riot broke out in Seoul
Seoul
in which troops, assisted by the population, sacked the rice granaries. The next morning, the crowd attacked the royal palace and barracks, and then the Japanese legation. The Japanese legation staff managed to escape to Chemulpo
Chemulpo
and then to Nagasaki
Nagasaki
aboard the British survey ship HMS Flying Fish. In response, Japan
Japan
sent four warships and a battalion of troops to Seoul
Seoul
to safeguard Japanese interests and demand reparations. The Chinese then deployed 4,500 troops to counter the Japanese. However, tensions subsided with the Treaty of Chemulpo, signed on the evening of August 30, 1882. The agreement specified that the Korean conspirators would be punished and 50,000 yen would be paid to the families of slain Japanese. The Japanese government would also receive 500,000 yen, a formal apology, and permission to station troops at their diplomatic legation in Seoul. Gapsin Coup[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main article: Gapsin Coup In 1884, a group of pro-Japanese reformers briefly overthrew the pro-Chinese conservative Korean government in a bloody coup d'état. However, the pro-Chinese faction, with assistance from Qing forces led by the general Yuan Shikai, succeeded in regaining control in an equally bloody counter-coup. These coups resulted not only in the deaths of a number of reformers, but also in the burning of the Japanese legation and the deaths of several legation guards and citizens. This caused a crisis between Japan
Japan
and China, which was eventually settled by the Sino-Japanese Convention of Tientsin of 1885, in which the two sides agreed to pull their expeditionary forces out of Korea
Korea
simultaneously, not send military trainers to the Korean military, and give warning to the other side should one decide to send troops to Korea. Chinese and Japanese troops then left, and diplomatic relations were restored between Japan
Japan
and Korea. However, the Japanese were frustrated by repeated Chinese attempts to undermine their influence in Korea. Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
remained as "Chinese Resident", in what the Chinese intended as a sort of viceroy role directing Korean affairs. He attempted to encourage Chinese and hinder Japanese trade, though Japan
Japan
remained Korea's largest trading partner, and his government provided Korea
Korea
with loans. The Chinese built telegraphs linking Korea
Korea
to the Chinese network. Nagasaki
Nagasaki
incident[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main article: Nagasaki
Nagasaki
incident The Nagasaki
Nagasaki
incident was a riot that took place in the Japanese port city of Nagasaki
Nagasaki
in 1886. Four warships from the Qing Empire's navy, the Beiyang Fleet, stopped at Nagasaki, apparently to carry out repairs. Some Chinese sailors caused trouble in the city and started the riot. Several Japanese policemen confronting the rioters were killed. The Qing government did not apologize after the incident, which resulted in a wave of anti-Chinese sentiment in Japan. Bean controversy[edit] A poor harvest in 1889 led the governor of Korea's Hamgyong Province to prohibit soybean exports to Japan. Japan
Japan
requested and received compensation in 1893 for their importers. The incident highlighted the growing dependence Japan
Japan
felt on Korean food imports.[5] Kim Ok-gyun
Kim Ok-gyun
affair[edit]

Kim Ok-gyun
Kim Ok-gyun
photographed in Nagasaki
Nagasaki
in 1882. His assassination in China would contribute to tensions leading to the First Sino-Japanese War.

On March 28, 1894, a pro-Japanese Korean revolutionary, Kim Ok-gyun, was assassinated in Shanghai. Kim had fled to Japan
Japan
after his involvement in the 1884 coup and the Japanese had turned down Korean demands that he be extradited. Ultimately, he was lured to Shanghai, where he was killed by a Korean, Hong Jong-u, at a Japanese inn in the international settlement. His body was then taken aboard a Chinese warship and sent back to Korea, where it was quartered and displayed as a warning to other rebels. The Japanese government took this as an outrageous affront.[6] Donghak Rebellion[edit] Main article: Donghak Peasant Revolution Tension ran high between China and Japan
Japan
by June 1894 but war was not yet inevitable. On June 4, the Korean king, Gojong, requested aid from the Qing government in suppressing the Donghak Rebellion. Although the rebellion was not as serious as it initially seemed and hence Qing reinforcements were not necessary, the Qing government still sent the general Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
as its plenipotentiary to lead 2,800 troops to Korea.[7] According to the Japanese, the Qing government had violated the Convention of Tientsin by not informing the Japanese government of its decision to send troops, but the Qing claimed that Japan
Japan
had approved this.[8] The Japanese countered by sending an 8,000-troop expeditionary force (the Oshima Composite Brigade) to Korea. The first 400 troops arrived on June 9 en route to Seoul, and 3,000 landed at Incheon
Incheon
on June 12.[9] However, Japanese officials denied any intention to intervene. As a result, the Qing viceroy Li Hongzhang
Li Hongzhang
"was lured into believing that Japan
Japan
would not wage war, but the Japanese were fully prepared to act".[attribution needed][10] The Qing government turned down Japan's suggestion for Japan
Japan
and China to cooperate to reform the Korean government. When Korea
Korea
demanded that Japan
Japan
withdraw its troops from Korea, the Japanese refused. In early June 1894, the 8,000 Japanese troops captured the Korean king Gojong, occupied the Royal Palace in Seoul
Seoul
and, by June 25, replaced the existing Korean government with members of the pro-Japanese faction.[9] Even though Qing forces were already leaving Korea
Korea
after finding themselves unneeded there, the new pro-Japanese Korean government granted Japan
Japan
the right to expel Qing forces while Japan dispatched more troops to Korea. The Qing Empire
Qing Empire
rejected the new Korean government as illegitimate. Status of combatants[edit] Japan[edit] Japanese reforms under the Meiji Emperor gave significant priority to the creation of an effective modern national army and navy, especially naval construction. Japan
Japan
sent numerous military officials abroad for training and evaluation of the relative strengths and tactics of Western armies and navies. Imperial Japanese Navy[edit]

Itō Sukeyuki
Itō Sukeyuki
was the Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet.

The French-built Matsushima, flagship of the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Sino-Japanese conflict

The Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
was modeled after the British Royal Navy,[11] at the time the foremost naval power. British advisors were sent to Japan
Japan
to train the naval establishment, while Japanese students were in turn sent to Britain to study and observe the Royal Navy. Through drilling and tuition by Royal Navy
Royal Navy
instructors, Japan developed naval officers expert in the arts of gunnery and seamanship.[12] At the start of hostilities, the Imperial Japanese Navy comprised a fleet of 12 modern warships, (the protected cruiser Izumi being added during the war), eight corvettes, one ironclad warship, 26 torpedo boats, and numerous auxiliary/armed merchant cruisers and converted liners. During peacetime, the warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
were divided among three main naval bases at Yokosuka, Kure
Kure
and Sasebo and following mobilization, the navy was composed of five divisions of seagoing warships and three flotillas of torpedo boats with a fourth being formed at the beginning of hostilities.[13] The Japanese also had a relatively large merchant navy, which at the beginning of 1894 consisted of 288 vessels. Of these, 66 belonged to the Nippon Yusen Kaisha
Nippon Yusen Kaisha
shipping company, which received national subsidies from the Japanese government to maintain the vessels for use by the navy in time of war. As a consequence, the navy could call on a sufficient number of auxiliaries and transports.[13] Japan
Japan
did not yet have the resources to acquire battleships and so planned to employ the Jeune École
Jeune École
doctrine, which favoured small, fast warships, especially cruisers and torpedo boats, with guns powerful enough to destroy larger craft. The Japanese naval leadership, on the eve of hostilities, was generally cautious and even apprehensive,[14] as the navy had not yet received the warships ordered in February 1893, particularly the battleships Fuji and Yashima and the protected cruiser Akashi.[15] Hence, initiating hostilities at the time was not ideal, and the navy was far less confident than the army about the outcome of a war with China.[14] Many of Japan's major warships were built in British and French shipyards (eight British, three French and two Japanese-built) and 16 of the torpedo boats were known to have been built in France and assembled in Japan.

v t e

Major Japanese Naval combatants of the First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War

Protected cruisers

Matsushima (flagship) Itsukushima Hashidate Naniwa Takachiho Yaeyama Akitsushima Yoshino Izumi Chiyoda Takao Tsukushi

Armored corvettes

Hiei Kongō Yamato Katsuragi Musashi Kaimon Tenryū Amagi

Ironclad warship

Fusō

Gunboats

Maya Chōkai Atago Akagi Banjō Ōshima

Imperial Japanese Army[edit]

Japanese troops during the Sino-Japanese War

The Meiji government at first modeled their army after the French Army. French advisers had been sent to Japan
Japan
with two military missions (in 1872–1880 and 1884), in addition to one mission under the shogunate. Nationwide conscription was enforced in 1873 and a Western-style conscript army[16] was established; military schools and arsenals were also built. In 1886, Japan
Japan
turned toward the German-Prussian model as the basis for its army,[16] adopting German doctrines and the German military system and organisation. In 1885 Klemens Meckel, a German adviser, implemented new measures, such as the reorganization of the command structure into divisions and regiments; the strengthening of army logistics, transportation, and structures (thereby increasing mobility); and the establishment of artillery and engineering regiments as independent commands. It was also an army that was equal to European armed forces in every respect.[16] On the eve of the outbreak of the war with China all men between the ages of 17 and 40 years were eligible for conscription, but only those who turned 20 were to be drafted while those who had turned 17 could volunteer.[16] All men between the ages of 17 and 40, even those who had not received military training or were physically unfit, were considered part of the territorial militia or national guard (kokumin).[16] Following the period of active military service (gen-eki), which lasted for three years, the soldiers became part of the first Reserve (yōbi) and then the second Reserve (kōbi). All young and able-bodied men who did not receive basic military training due to exceptions and those conscripts who had not fully met the physical requirements of military service, became third Reserve (hojū).[16] In the time of war, the first Reserve (yōbi) were to be called up first and they were intended to fill in the ranks of the regular army units. Next to be called up were the kōbi reserve who were to be either used to further fill in the ranks of line units or to be formed into new ones. The hojū reserve members were to be called up only in exceptional circumstances, and the territorial militia or national guard would only be called up in case of an immediate enemy attack on or invasion of Japan.[16] The country was divided into six military districts, with each being a recruitment area for an square infantry division consisting of two brigades of two regiments.[16] Each of these divisions contained approximately 18,600 troops and 36 artillery pieces when mobilized.[17] There was also an Imperial Guard division which recruited nationally, from all around Japan. This division was also composed of two brigades but had instead two-battalion, not three-battalion, regiments, consequently its numerical strength after mobilization was 12,500 troops and 24 artillery guns.[17] In addition, there were fortress troops consisting of approximately six battalions, the Colonial Corps which was stationed on Hokkaido
Hokkaido
and the Ryukyu Islands containing about 4,000 troops, and a battalion of military police in each of the districts. In peacetime the regular army had a total of fewer than 70,000 men, while after mobilization the numbers rose to over 220,000.[17] Moreover, the army still had a trained reserve, which, following the mobilization of the first-line divisions, could be formed into reserve brigades. These reserve brigade each consisted of four battalions, a cavalry unit, a company of engineers, an artillery battery and rear-echelon units. They were to serve as recruiting bases for their front-line divisions and could also perform secondary combat operations, and if necessary they could be expanded into full divisions with a total of 24 territorial force regiments. However, formation of these units was hindered by a lack of sufficient amounts of equipment, mainly uniforms.[17] Japanese troops were equipped with the 8mm single-shot Murata Type 18 breech-loading rifle. The improved five-round-magazine Type 22 was just being introduced and consequently in 1894, on the eve of the war, only the Imperial Guard and 4th Division were equipped with these rifles. The division artillery consisted of 75mm field guns and mountain pieces manufactured in Osaka. The artillery was based on Krupp designs that was adapted by the Italians at the beginning of the 1880s although they could hardly be described as modern in 1894, in general it still matched contemporary battlefield requirements.[17] By the 1890s, Japan
Japan
had at its disposal a modern, professionally trained Western-style army which was relatively well equipped and supplied. Its officers had studied in Europe and were well educated in the latest tactics and strategy. By the start of the war, the Imperial Japanese Army could field a total force of 120,000 men in two armies and five divisions.

Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
composition (1894–1895)

Parent unit

Imperial General Headquarters

Components

First Army

3rd Provincial Division (Nagoya) 5th Provincial Division (Hiroshima)

Second Army

1st Provincial Division (Tokyo) 2nd Provincial Division (Sendai) 6th Provincial Division (Kumamoto)

In reserve

4th Provincial Division (Osaka)

Invasion of Formosa (Taiwan)

Imperial Guards Division

China[edit]

Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi
built the Chinese navy in 1888.

The prevailing view in many Western circles was that the modernized Chinese military would crush the Japanese. Observers commended Chinese units such as the Huai Army
Huai Army
and Beiyang Fleet.[nb 1] The German General Staff predicted a Japanese defeat and William Lang who was a British advisor to the Chinese military, praised Chinese training, ships, guns, and fortifications, stating that "in the end, there is no doubt that Japan
Japan
must be utterly crushed".[19] Imperial Chinese Army[edit] Main article: Imperial Chinese Army The Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
did not have a unified national army, but was made up of three main components, with the so-called Eight Banners
Eight Banners
forming the elite. The Eight Banners
Eight Banners
force were segregated along ethnic lines into separate Manchu, Han Chinese, Mongol, Hui (Muslim) and other ethnic formations.[20] Bannermen who made up the Eight Banners
Eight Banners
got higher pay than the rest of the army while the Manchu received further privileges. In total, there were 250,000 soldiers in the Eight Banners, with over 60 per cent kept in garrisons in Beijing, while the remaining 40 per cent served as garrison troops in other major Chinese cities.[21] The Green Standard Army was a 600,000-strong gendarmarie type force that was recruited from the majority Han Chinese population. Its soldiers were not given any peacetime basic military training, but were expected to fight in any conflict. The third component was an irregular force called the Braves, which were used as a kind of reserve force for the regular army, and which were usually recruited from the more distant or remote provinces of China. They were formed into very loosely organized units from the same province. The Braves were sometimes described as mercenaries, with its volunteers receiving as much military training as their commanders saw fit. With no fixed unit organization, it is impossible to know how many battle-ready Braves there actually were in 1894.[21] There were also other, smaller number of military formations, one of which was the Huai Army
Huai Army
which was under the personal authority of Li Hongzhang and were originally created to suppress the Taiping Rebellion. The Huai army had received limited training by Western military advisors,[21] numbering nearly 45,000 troops they were considered the best armed military unit in China.[22] Although the Chinese had established arsenals to produce firearms, and a large number of them had been imported from abroad, 40 per cent of Chinese troops at the outbreak of the war were not issued with rifles or even muskets.[23] Instead they were armed with a variety of swords, spears, pikes, halberds and bows and arrows.[23] Against well-trained, well armed and disciplined Japanese troops, they would have little chance. Those units that did have firearms were equipped with a heterogeneity of weapons, from a variety of modern rifles to old fashioned muskets; this lack of standardization led to a major problem with the proper supply of ammunition.[24] The Imperial Chinese Army in 1894 was a heterogeneous mixture of modernized, partly modernized and almost medieval units, which no commander could have led successfully, leading to poor leadership among Chinese officers.[25]Their officers did not know how to handle their troops and the older higher-ranking officers still believed that they could fight a war as they had during the Taiping Rebellion, in 1850-60s.[26] This was also the result of the Chinese military forces being divided into largely independent regional commands. The soldiers were drawn from diverse provinces that had no affinity with each other.[27] The Chinese troops also suffered from poor morale. This was generally very low due to lack of pay, which in most units was not helped by the fact that many of the troops had not been paid for a long time.[26] Low prestige and the use of opium were also another factor, the use of opium and other narcotics was rife throughout the army.[26] Low morale and poor leadership seriously affected the effectiveness of Chinese troops, and contributed to defeats such as the abandonment of the very well-fortified and defensible Weihaiwei. Additionally, military logistics were lacking, as construction of railroads in Manchuria
Manchuria
had been discouraged. At the outbreak of the war in 1894, the Huai troops, although they were a small minority in the overall Imperial Chinese Army, were to take part in the majority of the fighting in during the war.[21] Beiyang Fleet[edit] Main article: Beiyang Fleet The Beiyang Fleet
Beiyang Fleet
was one of the four modernised Chinese navies in the late Qing dynasty. The navies were heavily sponsored by Li Hongzhang, the Viceroy of Zhili
Viceroy of Zhili
who had also created the Huai army. The Beiyang Fleet was the dominant navy in East Asia
East Asia
before the first Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese, themselves, were apprehensive about facing the Chinese fleet especially the two German-built battleships — Dingyuan and Zhenyuan, to which the Japanese had no comparable counterparts.[14] However, China's advantages were more apparent than real as most of the Chinese warships were over-age and obsolescent,[14] the ships were also not maintained properly and indiscipline was common.[28] The greater armor and weight of a single Chinese salvo shell were more than offset by the number of quick-firing guns on most first line Japanese warships, these quick firing gave the Japanese the edge in any sustained exchange of salvos.[14] The worst feature of both Chinese battleships was actually in their main armament, each was armed with short barreled guns in twin barbettes, in echelon, which could fire only in restricted arcs. The short barrels of the main armament meant that the shells had a low muzzle velocity and poor penetration, and their accuracy was also poor at long ranges.[29] Tactically, Chinese naval vessels entered the war with only the crudest set of instructions — ships that were assigned to designated pairs were to keep together and all ships were to fight end-on, as far forward from the beam as possible, a tactic essentially as a result of the obsolescent arrangement of Chinese naval ordinance.[29] The only vague resemblance of a fleet tactic was that all ships were to follow the visible movements of the flagship, an arrangement made necessary because the signal book used by the Chinese was written in English, a language with which few officers in the Beiyang fleet had any familiarity.[29] When it was first developed by Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi
in 1888, the Beiyang Fleet
Beiyang Fleet
was said to be the strongest navy in Asia. Before her adopted son, Emperor Guangxu, took over the throne in 1889, Cixi wrote out explicit orders that the navy should continue to develop and expand gradually.[30] However, after Cixi went into retirement, all naval and military development came to a drastic halt. Japan’s victories over China has often been falsely rumored to be the fault of Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi
.[31] Many believed that Cixi was the cause of the navy’s defeat because Cixi embezzled funds from the navy in order to build the Summer Palace
Summer Palace
in Beijing. However, extensive research by Chinese historians revealed that Cixi was not the cause of the Chinese navy’s decline. In actuality, China’s defeat was caused by Emperor Guangxu’s lack of interest in developing and maintaining the military.[30] His close adviser, Grand Tutor Weng Tonghe, advised Guangxu to cut all funding to the navy and army, because they did not see Japan
Japan
as a true threat, and there were several natural disasters during the early 1890s which the Emperor thought to be more pressing.[30]

Dingyuan, the flagship of the Beiyang Fleet

Zhenyuan

Beiyang Fleet
Beiyang Fleet
Major combatants

Ironclad battleships Dingyuan (flagship), Zhenyuan

Armoured cruisers King Yuen, Laiyuan

Protected cruisers Chih Yuen, Ching Yuen

Cruisers Torpedo Cruisers – Tsi Yuen, Kuang Ping/Kwang Ping Chaoyong, Yangwei

Coastal warship Pingyuan

Corvette Kwan Chia

13 or so torpedo boats, numerous Gunboats and chartered merchant vessels Contemporaneous wars fought by the Qing Empire[edit] While the Qing Empire
Qing Empire
was fighting the First Sino-Japanese War, it was also simultaneously engaging rebels in the Dungan Revolt in northwestern China, where thousands lost their lives. The generals Dong Fuxiang, Ma Anliang
Ma Anliang
and Ma Haiyan were initially summoned by the Qing government to bring the Hui troops under their command to participate in the First Sino-Japanese War, but they were eventually sent to suppress the Dungan Revolt instead.[32] Early stages[edit] 1 June 1894: The Donghak Rebel Army moves toward Seoul. The Korean government requests help from the Qing government to suppress the revolt. 6 June 1894: About 2,465 Chinese soldiers are transported to Korea
Korea
to suppress the Donghak Rebellion. Japan
Japan
asserts that it was not notified and thus China has violated the Convention of Tientsin, which requires that China and Japan
Japan
must notify each other before intervening in Korea. China asserts that Japan
Japan
was notified and approved of Chinese intervention. 8 June 1894: First of about 4,000 Japanese soldiers and 500 marines land at Jemulpo
Jemulpo
(Incheon). 11 June 1894: End of the Donghak Rebellion. 13 June 1894: The Japanese government telegraphs the commander of the Japanese forces in Korea, Ōtori Keisuke, to remain in Korea
Korea
for as long as possible despite the end of the rebellion. 16 June 1894: Japanese foreign minister Mutsu Munemitsu
Mutsu Munemitsu
meets with Wang Fengzao, the Qing ambassador to Japan, to discuss the future status of Korea. Wang states that the Qing government intends to pull out of Korea
Korea
after the rebellion has been suppressed and expects Japan to do the same. However, China retains a resident to look after Chinese primacy in Korea. 22 June 1894: Additional Japanese troops arrive in Korea. Japanese prime minister Itō Hirobumi
Itō Hirobumi
tells Matsukata Masayoshi
Matsukata Masayoshi
that since the Qing Empire
Qing Empire
appear to be making military preparations, there is probably "no policy but to go to war". Mutsu tells Ōtori to press the Korean government on the Japanese demands. 26 June 1894: Ōtori presents a set of reform proposals to the Korean king Gojong. Gojong's government rejects the proposals and in insists on troop withdrawals. 7 July 1894: Failure of mediation between China and Japan
Japan
arranged by the British ambassador to China. 19 July 1894: Establishment of the Japanese Combined Fleet, consisting of almost all vessels in the Imperial Japanese Navy. Mutsu cables Ōtori to take any necessary steps to compel the Korean government to carry out a reform program. 23 July 1894: Japanese troops occupy Seoul, capture Gojong, and establish a new, pro-Japanese government, which terminates all Sino-Korean treaties and grants the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
the right to expel the Qing Empire's Beiyang Army
Beiyang Army
from Korea. 25 July 1894: First battle of the war: the Battle of Pungdo
Battle of Pungdo
/ Hoto-oki kaisen Events during the war[edit]

Play media

Footage of a naval battle during the First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
(1894)

Opening moves[edit] By July 1894, Qing forces in Korea
Korea
numbered 3,000–3,500 and were outnumbered by Japan. They could only be supplied by sea through Asan Bay. The Japanese objective was first to blockade the Chinese at Asan (south of Seoul, South Korea) and then encircle them with their land forces. Japan's initial strategy was to gain command of the sea, which was critical to its operations in Korea.[33] Command of the sea would allow Japan
Japan
to transport troops to the mainland. The army's Fifth Division would land at Chemulpo
Chemulpo
on the western coast of Korea, both to engage and push Chinese forces northwest up the peninsula and to draw the Beiyang Fleet
Beiyang Fleet
into the Yellow Sea, where it would be engaged in decisive battle. Depending on the outcome of this engagement, Japan would make one of three choices; If the Combined Fleet
Combined Fleet
were to win decisively, the larger part of the Japanese army would undertake immediate landings on the coast between Shan-hai-kuan and Tientsin in order to defeat the Chinese army and bring the war to a swift conclusion. If the engagement were to be a draw and neither side gained control of the sea, the army would concentrate on the occupation of Korea. Lastly, if the Combined Fleet
Combined Fleet
was defeated and consequently lost command of the sea, the bulk of the army would remain in Japan
Japan
and prepare to repel a Chinese invasion, while the Fifth Division in Korea
Korea
would be ordered to hang on and fight a rearguard action.[34] Sinking of the Kow-shing[edit] Main article: Battle of Pungdo

Depiction from the French periodical Le Petit Journal (1894) of the sinking of the Kow-shing and the rescue of some of its crew by the French gunboat Le Lion

On 25 July 1894, the cruisers Yoshino, Naniwa and Akitsushima of the Japanese flying squadron, which had been patrolling off Asan
Asan
Bay, encountered the Chinese cruiser Tsi-yuan and gunboat Kwang-yi.[34] These vessels had steamed out of Asan
Asan
to meet the transport Kow-shing, escorted by the Chinese gunboat Tsao-kiang. After an hour-long engagement, the Tsi-yuan escaped while the Kwang-yi grounded on rocks, where its powder-magazine exploded. The Kow-shing was a 2,134-ton British merchant vessel owned by the Indochina Steam Navigation Company of London, commanded by Captain T. R. Galsworthy and crewed by 64 men. The ship was chartered by the Qing government to ferry troops to Korea, and was on her way to reinforce Asan
Asan
with 1,100 troops plus supplies and equipment. A German artillery officer, Major von Hanneken, advisor to the Chinese, was also aboard. The ship was due to arrive on 25 July. The Japanese cruiser Naniwa, under Captain Tōgō Heihachirō, intercepted the Kow-shing and captured its escort. The Japanese then ordered the Kow-shing to follow Naniwa and directed that Europeans be transferred to Naniwa. However the 1,100 Chinese on board, desperate to return to Taku, threatened to kill the English captain, Galsworthy, and his crew. After four hours of negotiations, Captain Togo gave the order to fire upon the vessel. A torpedo missed, but a subsequent broadside hit the Kow Shing, which started to sink. In the confusion, some of the Europeans escaped overboard, only to be fired upon by the Chinese.[citation needed] The Japanese rescued three of the British crew (the captain, first officer and quartermaster) and 50 Chinese, and took them to Japan. The sinking of the Kow-shing almost caused a diplomatic incident between Japan
Japan
and Great Britain, but the action was ruled in conformity with international law regarding the treatment of mutineers (the Chinese troops). The German gunboat Iltis rescued 150 Chinese, the French gunboat Le Lion rescued 43, and the British cruiser HMS Porpoise rescued an unknown number.[35] Conflict in Korea[edit] Main articles: Battle of Seonghwan
Battle of Seonghwan
and Battle of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
(1894)

Japanese soldiers of the Sino-Japanese War, Japan, 1895

Korean soldiers and Chinese captives

Commissioned by the new pro-Japanese Korean government to forcibly expel Chinese forces, Major-General Ōshima Yoshimasa
Ōshima Yoshimasa
led mixed Japanese brigades numbering about 4,000 on a rapid forced march from Seoul
Seoul
south toward Asan Bay to face 3,500 Chinese troops garrisoned at Seonghwan Station east of Asan
Asan
and Kongju. On 28 July 1894, the two forces met just outside Asan
Asan
in an engagement that lasted till 07:30 the next morning. The Chinese gradually lost ground to the superior Japanese numbers, and finally broke and fled towards Pyongyang. Chinese casualties amounted to 500 killed and wounded, compared to 82 Japanese casualties. On 1 August, war was officially declared between China and Japan. By 4 August, the remaining Chinese forces in Korea
Korea
retreated to the northern city of Pyongyang, where they were met by troops sent from China. The 13,000–15,000 defenders made defensive repairs to the city, hoping to check the Japanese advance. On 15 September, the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
converged on the city of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
from several directions. The Japanese assaulted the city and eventually defeated the Chinese by an attack from the rear; the defenders surrendered. Taking advantage of heavy rainfall overnight, the remaining Chinese troops escaped Pyongyang
Pyongyang
and headed northeast toward the coastal city of Uiju. Casualties were 2,000 killed and around 4,000 wounded for the Chinese, while the Japanese casualties totaled 102 men killed, 433 wounded, and 33 missing. In the early morning of 16 September, the entire Japanese army entered Pyongyang. Qing Hui Muslim general Zuo Baogui, from Shandong
Shandong
province, died in action in Pyongyang
Pyongyang
from Japanese artillery in 1894 while securing the city. A memorial to him was constructed.[36] During the war against Japan
Japan
the Chinese army included soldiers and officers from the Hui Muslim minority.[37] Defeat of the Beiyang fleet[edit] Main article: Battle of the Yalu River (1894)

The Battle of the Yalu River

On September 17, 1894, Japanese warships encountered the larger Chinese Beiyang Fleet
Beiyang Fleet
off the mouth of the Yalu River.[38] The Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
destroyed eight of the ten Chinese warships, assuring Japan's command of the Yellow Sea. The Chinese were able to land 4,500 troops near the Yalu River. The Battle of the Yalu River was the largest naval engagement of the war and was a major propaganda victory for Japan.[39][38] Invasion of Manchuria[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2012)

Main article: Battle of Jiuliancheng

An illustration of Japanese soldiers beheading 38 Chinese POWs
POWs
as a warning to others by Utagawa Kokunimasa

With the defeat at Pyongyang, the Chinese abandoned northern Korea
Korea
and took up defensive positions in fortifications along their side of the Yalu River near Jiuliancheng. After receiving reinforcements by 10 October, the Japanese quickly pushed north toward Manchuria. On the night of 24 October 1894, the Japanese successfully crossed the Yalu River, undetected, by erecting a pontoon bridge. The following afternoon of 25 October at 17:00, they assaulted the outpost of Hushan, east of Jiuliancheng. At 20:30 the defenders deserted their positions and by the next day they were in full retreat from Jiuliancheng. With the capture of Jiuliancheng, General Yamagata's 1st Army Corps occupied the nearby city of Dandong, while to the north, elements of the retreating Beiyang Army
Beiyang Army
set fire to the city of Fengcheng. The Japanese had established a firm foothold on Chinese territory with the loss of only four killed and 140 wounded.[citation needed] The Japanese 1st Army Corps then split into two groups with General Nozu Michitsura's 5th Provincial Division advancing toward the city of Mukden
Mukden
(present-day Shenyang) and Lieutenant-General Katsura Tarō's 3rd Provincial Division pursuing fleeing Chinese forces west along toward the Liaodong Peninsula. By December, the 3rd Provincial Division had captured the towns of Tatungkau, Takushan, Xiuyan, Tomucheng, Haicheng and Kangwaseh. The 5th Provincial Division marched during a severe Manchurian winter towards Mukden. The Japanese 2nd Army Corps under Ōyama Iwao
Ōyama Iwao
landed on the south coast of Liaodong Peninsula
Liaodong Peninsula
on 24 October and quickly moved to capture Jinzhou
Jinzhou
and Dalian Bay
Dalian Bay
on 6–7 November. The Japanese laid siege to the strategic port of Lüshunkou
Lüshunkou
(Port Arthur). Fall of Lüshunkou[edit] Main articles: Battle of Lushunkou
Battle of Lushunkou
and Port Arthur massacre (China) By 21 November 1894, the Japanese had taken the city of Lüshunkou (Port Arthur) with minimal resistance and suffering minimal casualties. Describing their motives as having encountered a display of the mutilated remains of Japanese soldiers as they invaded the town, Japanese forces proceeded with the unrestrained killing of civilians during the Port Arthur Massacre with unconfirmed estimates in the thousands. An event which at the time was widely viewed with scepticism as the world at large was still in disbelief that the Japanese were capable of such deeds that seemed more likely to have been exaggerated propagandist fabrications of a Chinese government to discredit Japanese hegemony. In reality, the Chinese government itself was unsure of how to react and initially denied the occurrence of the loss of Port Arthur to the Japanese altogether.

As we entered the town of Port Arthur, we saw the head of a Japanese soldier displayed on a wooden stake. This filled us with rage and a desire to crush any Chinese soldier. Anyone we saw in the town, we killed. The streets were filled with corpses, so many they blocked our way. We killed people in their homes; by and large, there wasn't a single house without from three to six dead. Blood was flowing and the smell was awful. We sent out search parties. We shot some, hacked at others. The Chinese troops just dropped their arms and fled. Firing and slashing, it was unbounded joy. At this time, our artillery troops were at the rear, giving three cheers [banzai] for the emperor. — Makio Okabe, diary[40]

By 10 December 1894, Kaipeng (present-day Gaizhou) fell to the Japanese 1st Army Corps. Fall of Weihaiwei[edit] Main articles: Battle of Weihaiwei
Battle of Weihaiwei
and Battle of Yingkou The Chinese fleet subsequently retreated behind the Weihaiwei fortifications. However, they were then surprised by Japanese ground forces, who outflanked the harbour's defenses in coordination with the navy.[41] The Battle of Weihaiwei
Battle of Weihaiwei
was a 23-day siege with the major land and naval components taking place between 20 January and 12 February 1895. After Weihaiwei's fall on 12 February 1895, and an easing of harsh winter conditions, Japanese troops pressed further into southern Manchuria
Manchuria
and northern China. By March 1895 the Japanese had fortified posts that commanded the sea approaches to Beijing. Although this would be the last major battle fought; numerous skirmishes would follow. The Battle of Yinkou was fought outside the port town of Yingkou, Manchuria, on 5 March 1895. Occupation of the Pescadores Islands[edit] Main article: Pescadores Campaign (1895) On 23 March 1895, Japanese forces attacked the Pescadores Islands, off the west coast of Taiwan. In a brief and almost bloodless campaign, the Japanese defeated the islands' Chinese garrison and occupied the main town of Magong. This operation effectively prevented Chinese forces in Taiwan
Taiwan
from being reinforced, and allowed the Japanese to press their demand for the cession of Taiwan
Taiwan
in the peace negotiations. End of the war[edit]

Revisionist depiction of Chinese delegation, led by Admiral Ding Ruchang and their foreign advisors, boarding the Japanese vessel to negotiate the surrender with Admiral Itō Sukeyuki
Itō Sukeyuki
after the Battle of Weihaiwei. In reality, Ding had committed suicide after his defeat and never surrendered.

Treaty of Shimonoseki[edit] The Treaty of Shimonoseki
Treaty of Shimonoseki
was signed on 17 April 1895. The Qing Empire recognized the total independence of Korea
Korea
and ceded the Liaodong Peninsula, Taiwan
Taiwan
and Penghu
Penghu
Islands to Japan
Japan
"in perpetuity". The disputed islands known as "Senkaku/Diaoyu" islands were not named by this treaty, but Japan
Japan
annexed these uninhabited islands to Okinawa Prefecture in 1895. Japan
Japan
asserts this move was taken independently of the treaty ending the war, and China asserts that they were implied as part of the cession of Taiwan. Additionally, the Qing Empire
Qing Empire
was to pay Japan
Japan
200 million taels ( 8,000,000 kilograms/ 17,600,000 pounds ) of silver as war reparations. The Qing government also signed a commercial treaty permitting Japanese ships to operate on the Yangtze River, to operate manufacturing factories in treaty ports and to open four more ports to foreign trade. Russia, Germany and France in a few days made the Triple Intervention, however, and forced Japan
Japan
to give up the Liaodong Peninsula in exchange for another 30 million taels of silver (equivalent to about 450 million yen). After the war, according to the Chinese scholar Jin Xide, the Qing government paid a total of 340,000,000 taels (13,600 tons) of silver to Japan
Japan
in both war reparations and trophies. This was equivalent to about 510,000,000 Japanese yen at the time, about 6.4 times the Japanese government's revenue.[citation needed] Japanese invasion of Taiwan[edit] Main article: Japanese invasion of Taiwan
Taiwan
(1895)

"The cession of the island to Japan
Japan
was received with such disfavour by the Chinese inhabitants that a large military force was required to effect its occupation. For nearly two years afterwards, a bitter guerrilla resistance was offered to the Japanese troops, and large forces — over 100,000 men, it was stated at the time — were required for its suppression. This was not accomplished without much cruelty on the part of the conquerors, who, in their march through the island, perpetrated all the worst excesses of war. They had, undoubtedly, considerable provocation. They were constantly attacked by ambushed enemies, and their losses from battle and disease far exceeded the entire loss of the whole Japanese army throughout the Manchurian campaign. But their revenge was often taken on innocent villagers. Men, women, and children were ruthlessly slaughtered or became the victims of unrestrained lust and rapine. The result was to drive from their homes thousands of industrious and peaceful peasants, who, long after the main resistance had been completely crushed, continued to wage a vendetta war, and to generate feelings of hatred which the succeeding years of conciliation and good government have not wholly eradicated." – The Cambridge Modern History, Volume 12[42]

Several Qing officials in Taiwan
Taiwan
resolved to resist the cession of Taiwan
Taiwan
to Japan
Japan
under the Treaty of Shimonoseki, and on 23 May declared the island to be an independent Republic of Formosa. On 29 May, Japanese forces under Admiral Motonori Kabayama
Motonori Kabayama
landed in northern Taiwan, and in a five-month campaign defeated the Republican forces and occupied the island's main towns. The campaign effectively ended on 21 October 1895, with the flight of Liu Yongfu, the second Republican president, and the surrender of the Republican capital Tainan. Aftermath[edit]

Japan–China peace treaty, 17 April 1895

The Japanese success during the war was the result of the modernisation and industrialisation embarked upon two decades earlier.[43] The war demonstrated the superiority of Japanese tactics and training from the adoption of a Western-style military. The Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
and Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
were able to inflict a string of defeats on the Chinese through foresight, endurance, strategy and power of organisations. Japanese prestige rose in the eyes of the world. After this war, Japan
Japan
started to have the equal status with the West powers.[44]The victory established Japan
Japan
as the dominant power in Asia.</ref>[45][nb 2] For China, the war revealed the high level of corruption present in the government and policies of the Qing administration. Traditionally, China viewed Japan
Japan
as a subordinate part of the Chinese cultural sphere. Although China had been defeated by European powers in the 19th century, defeat at the hands of an Asian power and a former tributary state was a bitter psychological blow. Anti-foreign sentiment and agitation grew, which would later culminate in the form of the Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
five years later. The Manchu population was devastated by the fighting during the First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
and the Boxer Rebellion, with massive casualties sustained during the wars and subsequently being driven into extreme suffering and hardship in Beijing
Beijing
and northeast China.[46]

Convention of retrocession of the Liaodong Peninsula, 8 November 1895

Although Japan
Japan
had achieved what it had set out to accomplish and ended Chinese influence over Korea, Japan
Japan
had been forced to relinquish the Liaodong Peninsula, (Port Arthur), in exchange for an increased financial indemnity. The European powers (especially Russia) had no objection to the other clauses of the treaty but felt that Japan
Japan
should not gain Port Arthur, for they had their own ambitions in that part of the world. Russia persuaded Germany and France to join in applying diplomatic pressure on Japan, resulting in the Triple Intervention of 23 April 1895. Although Japan
Japan
had succeeded in eliminating Chinese influence over Korea, it was Russia who reaped the benefits. Korea
Korea
proclaimed itself the Korean Empire
Korean Empire
and announced its independence from the Qing Empire. The Japanese sponsored Gabo reforms
Gabo reforms
(Kabo reforms) of 1894–1896 transformed Korea: legal slavery was abolished in all forms; the yangban class lost all special privileges; outcastes were abolished; equality of law; equality of opportunity in the face of social background; child marriage was abolished, Hangul
Hangul
was to be used in government documents; Korean history was introduced in schools; the Chinese calendar
Chinese calendar
was replaced with the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
(Common Era); education was expanded and new textbooks written.[9] In 1895, a pro-Russian official tried to remove the King of Korea
Korea
to the Russian legation and failed, but a second attempt succeeded. Thus, for a year, the King reigned from the Russian legation in Seoul. The concession to build a Seoul-Inchon railway had been granted to Japan in 1894 was revoked and granted to Russia. Russian guards guarded the King in his palace even after he left the Russian legation. China's defeat precipitated an increase in railway construction in the country, as foreign powers demanded China to make railway concessions.[47][48] In 1898, Russia signed a 25-year lease on the Liaodong Peninsula
Liaodong Peninsula
and proceeded to set up a naval station at Port Arthur. Although that infuriated the Japanese, they were more concerned with the Russian encroachment in Korea
Korea
than that in Manchuria. Other powers, such as France, Germany and Britain, took advantage of the situation in China and gained land, port, and trade concessions at the expense of the decaying Qing Empire. Qingdao
Qingdao
and Jiaozhou were acquired by Germany, Guangzhouwan
Guangzhouwan
by France, and Weihaiwei and the New Territories
New Territories
by Britain. Tensions between Russia and Japan
Japan
would increase in the years after the First Sino-Japanese War. During the Boxer Rebellion, an eight-member international force was sent to suppress and quell the uprising; Russia sent troops into Manchuria
Manchuria
as part of this force. After the suppression of the Boxers, the Russian government agreed to vacate the area. However, by 1903, it had actually increased the size of its forces in Manchuria. Negotiations between the two nations (1901–1904) to establish mutual recognition of respective spheres of influence (Russia over Manchuria and Japan
Japan
over Korea) were repeatedly and intentionally stalled by the Russians. They felt that they were strong and confident enough not to accept any compromise and believed Japan
Japan
would not go to war against a European power. Russia also had intentions to use Manchuria
Manchuria
as a springboard for further expansion of its interests in the Far East. In 1903, Russian soldiers began construction of a fort at Yongnampo but stopped after Japanese protests.[9] In 1902, Japan
Japan
formed an alliance with Britain, the terms of which stated that if Japan
Japan
went to war in the Far East and that a third power entered the fight against Japan, then Britain would come to the aid of the Japanese.[49] This was a check to prevent Germany or France from intervening militarily in any future war with Russia. Japan sought to prevent a repetition of the Triple Intervention
Triple Intervention
that deprived it of Port Arthur. The British reasons for joining the alliance were to check the spread of Russian expansion into the Pacific area,[49] to strengthen Britain's focus on other areas, and to gain a powerful naval ally in the Pacific. Increasing tensions between Japan
Japan
and Russia were a result of Russia's unwillingness to compromise and the prospect of Korea
Korea
falling under Russia's domination, therefore coming into conflict with and undermining Japan's interests. Eventually, Japan
Japan
was forced to take action. This would be the deciding factor and catalyst that would lead to the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
of 1904–05. See also[edit]

China portal Japan
Japan
portal Military history portal

History of China History of Japan History of Korea History of Taiwan Military history of China Military history of Japan Sino-Japanese relations

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ "On the eve of the Sino-Japanese War, China appeared, to undiscerning observers, to possess respectable military and naval forces. Praise for Li Hung-chang's Anhwei Army and other Chinese forces was not uncommon, and the Peiyang Navy elicited considerable favourable comment. When war between China and Japan
Japan
appeared likely, most Westerners thought China had the advantage. Her army was vast, and her navy both outnumbered and outweight Japan's. The German general staff considered a Japanese victory improbable. In an interview with Reuters, William Lang predicted defeat for Japan. Lang thought that the Chinese navy was well-drilled, the ships were fit, the artillery was at least adequate, and the coastal forts were strong. Weihaiwei, he said, was impregnable. Although Lang emphasized that everything depended on how China's forces were led, he had faith that 'in the end, there is no doubt that Japan
Japan
must be utterly crushed'."[18] ^ ."A new balance of power had emerged. China's millennia-long regional dominance had abruptly ended. Japan
Japan
had become the dominant power of Asia, a position it would retain throughout the twentieth century". Paine, The Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895: Perception, Power, and Primacy.

Citations[edit]

^ Paine 2003, pp. 3. ^ Jansen 2002, p. 335. ^ www.ocu.mit.edu ^ Duus, P. (1976). The rise of modern Japan
Japan
(p. 125). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ^ Seth, p. 445 ^ Jansen 2002, p. 431. ^ James Z. Gao, "Historical Dictionary of Modern China (1800–1949)", 120 ^ James McClain, " Japan
Japan
a Modern History", 297 ^ a b c d Seth, Michael J (2010). A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 225. ISBN 978-0-7425-6716-0.  ^ Kwang-Ching 1978, p. 105. ^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 12. ^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 36. ^ a b Olender 2014, p. 39. ^ a b c d e Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 38. ^ Schencking 2005, p. 81. ^ a b c d e f g h Olender 2014, p. 30. ^ a b c d e Olender 2014, p. 31. ^ Kwang-Ching 1978, pp. 268–269. ^ Kwang-Ching 1978, p. 269. ^ Jowett 2013, p. 21. ^ a b c d Jowett 2013, p. 24. ^ Jowett 2013, p. 19. ^ a b Jowett 2013, p. 27. ^ Elleman 2001, p. 99. ^ Jowett 2013, pp. 24–25. ^ a b c Jowett 2013, p. 38. ^ Jowett 2013, p. 25. ^ Sondhaus 2001, pp. 169–170. ^ a b c Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 39. ^ a b c Chang 2013, pp. 182–184. ^ Chang 2013, pp. 160–161. ^ 董福祥与西北马家军阀的的故事 – 360Doc个人图书馆 ^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 40. ^ a b Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 41. ^ Sequence of events, and numbers of rescued and dead, taken from several articles from The Times of London from 2 August 1894 – 25 October 1894 ^ Aliya Ma Lynn (2007). Muslims in China. Volume 3 of Asian Studies. University Press. p. 44. ISBN 0-88093-861-7.  ^ Michael Dillon (16 December 2013). China's Muslim Hui Community: Migration, Settlement and Sects. Routledge. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-136-80933-0.  ^ a b Perry, John Curtis (1964). "The Battle off the Tayang, 17 September 1894". The Mariner's Mirror. Taylor & Francis. 50 (4): 243–259. doi:10.1080/00253359.1964.10657787.  ^ Paine 2003, pp. 179–189. ^ Lone 1994, p. 155. ^ Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 46. ^ Sir Adolphus William Ward; George Walter Prothero; Sir Stanley Mordaunt Leathes; Ernest Alfred Benians (1910). The Cambridge Modern History. Macmillan. p. 573.  ^ Schencking 2005, p. 78. ^ Hopper, Helen. Fukuzawa Yukichi.  ^ Paine 2003, pp. 293. ^ Rhoads, Edward J. M. (2011). Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928. University of Washington Press. p. 80. ISBN 0-295-80412-2.  ^ Davis, Clarence B.; Wilburn, Kenneth E., Jr; Robinson, Ronald E. (1991). "Railway Imperialism in China, 1895–1939". Railway Imperialism. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-313-25966-1. Retrieved 10 August 2015 – via Questia. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Rousseau, Jean-François (June 2014). "An Imperial Railway Failure: The Indochina-Yunnan Railway, 1898–1941". Journal of Transport History. 35 (1). Retrieved 10 August 2015 – via Questia. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ a b Evans & Peattie 1997, p. 65.

Bibliography[edit]

Chang, Jung (2013). The Concubine Who Launched Modern China: Empress Dowager Cixi. New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 9780307456700.  Duus, Peter (1998). The Abacus and the Sword: The Japanese Penetration of Korea. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-92090-2.  Schencking, J. Charles (2005). Making Waves: Politics, Propaganda, And The Emergence Of The Imperial Japanese Navy, 1868–1922. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4977-9.  Keene, Donald (2002). Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852–1912. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12341-8.  Evans, David C; Peattie, Mark R (1997). Kaigun: strategy, tactics, and technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1887–1941. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-192-7.  Jansen, Marius B. (2002). The Making of Modern Japan. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00334-9.  Jansen, Marius B. (1995). The Emergence of Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-48405-7.  Jowett, Philip (2013). China's Wars: Rousing the Dragon 1894-1949. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 1-47280-673-5.  Kwang-Ching, Liu (1978). John King Fairbank, ed. The Cambridge History of China. Volume 11, Late Ch'ing, 1800–1911 Part 2 (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22029-7.  Lone, Stewart (1994). Japan's First Modern War: Army and Society in the Conflict with China, 1894–1895. New York: St. Martin's Press.  Olender, Piotr (2014). Sino-Japanese Naval War 1894–1895. MMPBooks. ISBN 83-63678-30-9.  Paine, S.C.M (2003). The Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895: Perceptions, Power, and Primacy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81714-5.  Palais, James B. (1975). Politics and Policy in Traditional Korea. Harvard University Asia Center. ISBN 0-674-68770-1.  Sondhaus, Lawrence (2001). Naval Warfare, 1815–1914. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-21477-7.  Zachmann, Urs Matthias (2009). China and Japan
Japan
in the Late Meiji Period: China Policy and the Japanese Discourse on National Identity, 1895-1904. Routledge. ISBN 0415481910. 

Further reading[edit]

Kim, Chong Ik Eugene, and Han-kyo Kim. ;; Korea
Korea
and the Politics of Imperialism, 1876-1910 (Univ of California Press, 1967). Mutsu, Munemitsu. (1982). Kenkenroku (trans. Gordon Mark Berger). Tokyo: University of Tokyo
Tokyo
Press. ISBN 978-0-86008-306-1; OCLC 252084846 Morse, Hosea Ballou. (1918). The international relations of the Chinese empire vol 2 1861–1893 Morse, Hosea Ballou. (1918). The international relations of the Chinese empire vol 3 1894–1916

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to First Sino-Japanese War.

程映虹︰從"版畫事件"到《中國向西行進》Peter Perdue 濮德培和中國當代民族主義 (in Chinese) Detailed account of the naval Battle of the Yalu River by Philo Norton McGiffen

Under the Dragon Flag — My Experiences in the Chino-Japanese War by James Allan' at Project Gutenberg Print exhibition at MIT The Sinking of the Kowshing – Captain Galsworthy's Report SinoJapaneseWar.com A detailed account of the Sino-Japanese War The Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895: as seen in prints and archives (British Library/ Japan
Japan
Center for Asian Historical Records)

v t e

Empire of Japan

Overview

Agriculture Censorship Demographics Economy Economic history Education Eugenics Foreign commerce and shipping Industrial production Militarism Nationalism Statism Internal politics State Shinto Kazoku

Emperors

Meiji (Mutsuhito) Taishō (Yoshihito) Shōwa (Hirohito)

Symbols

Flag of Japan Rising Sun Flag Imperial Seal of Japan Government Seal of Japan State Seal of Japan Privy Seal of Japan Kimigayo

Policies

Constitution Charter Oath Foreign relations Imperial Rescript on Education Kokutai National Spiritual Mobilization
Mobilization
Movement Peace Preservation Law Political parties Supreme Court of Judicature Taisei Yokusankai Tokkō Tonarigumi Greater East Asia
East Asia
Conference

Government

Administration (Ministries)

Imperial Household Home Ministry War Army Navy Treasury Foreign Affairs Agriculture and Commerce Commerce and Industry Munitions Colonial Affairs Greater East Asia East Asia
East Asia
Development Board (Kōain)

Legislative & Deliberative Bodies

Daijō-kan Privy Council Gozen Kaigi Imperial Diet

Peers Representatives

Military

Armed Forces

Imperial General Headquarters Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors

Senjinkun military code

Nuclear weapons program Kamikaze War crimes Supreme War Council

Imperial Japanese Army

General Staff Air Service Railways and Shipping Imperial Guard Imperial Way Faction (Kōdōha) Japanese holdout Tōseiha

Imperial Japanese Navy

General Staff Air Service Land Forces Fleet Faction Treaty Faction

History

Meiji period

Meiji Restoration Boshin War Satsuma Rebellion First Sino-Japanese War Triple Intervention Boxer Rebellion Anglo-Japanese Alliance Russo-Japanese War

Taishō period

World War I Siberian Intervention General Election Law Washington Naval Treaty

Shōwa period

Shōwa financial crisis Pacification of Manchukuo Anti-Comintern Pact Second Sino-Japanese War Soviet–Japanese border conflicts Tripartite Pact Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact Pacific War Atomic bombings of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and Nagasaki Soviet–Japanese War Surrender (Potsdam Declaration, Gyokuon-hōsō) Occupation

Territories

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

Karafuto Korea Kwantung Manchukuo South Pacific Taiwan

Occupied territories

Borneo Burma Hong Kong Dutch East Indies Malaya Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam

Other topics

Sonnō jōi Fukoku kyōhei Hakkō ichiu Internment camps German pre–World War II industrial co-operation Racial Equality Proposal Shinmin no Michi Shōwa Modan Socialist thought Yasukuni Shrine International Military Tribunal for the Far East Japanese dissidence during the Shōwa period

v t e

Diplomacy of the Great Powers 1871–1913

Great powers

Austria–Hungary France Germany Italy Japan Russia United Kingdom United States

Alliances

Triple Alliance

Dual Alliance

Triple Entente

Franco-Russian Alliance Entente Cordiale Anglo-Russian Entente

Anglo-Japanese Alliance

Trends

Ottoman Decline

Eastern Question

Revanchism New Imperialism

Scramble for Africa

Pan-Slavism The Great Game The Great Rapprochement

Treaties and agreements

Treaty of Frankfurt League of the Three Emperors Treaty of Berlin Reinsurance Treaty Treaty of Paris Treaty of Björkö Taft–Katsura Agreement Japan– Korea
Korea
Treaty of 1905 Japan– Korea
Korea
Annexation Treaty Racconigi agreement

Events

Congress of Berlin Berlin Conference Weltpolitik German Naval Laws Anglo-German naval arms race

Dreadnought

Fashoda Incident Annexation of Hawaii First Moroccan Crisis Algeciras Conference Agadir Crisis Bosnian crisis

Wars

Russo-Turkish First Sino-Japanese Spanish–American Banana Wars Philippine–American Boxer Rebellion Second Boer Russo-Japanese Italo-Turkish Balkan Wars

v t e

Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
topics

History

Seven Grievances First Manchu invasion of Korea Second Manchu invasion of Korea Qing conquest of the Ming

Battle of Shanhai Pass

Great Clearance Revolt of the Three Feudatories High Qing era Sino-Russian border conflicts Dzungar–Qing War Chinese expedition to Tibet (1720) Chinese Rites controversy Ten Great Campaigns Miao Rebellion (1735–36) Lhasa riot of 1750 Sino-Burmese War (1765–69) Battle of Ngọc Hồi-Đống Đa Sino-Nepalese War Miao Rebellion (1795–1806) White Lotus Rebellion First Opium War Sino-Sikh War Taiping Rebellion Nian Rebellion Red Turban Rebellion (1854–1856) Miao Rebellion (1854–73) Nepalese–Tibetan War Panthay Rebellion Second Opium War Amur Acquisition Self-Strengthening Movement Tongzhi Restoration Dungan Revolt (1862–77) Mudan Incident (1871) Tianjin Massacre Margary Affair Northern Chinese Famine Qing reconquest of Xinjiang Sino-French War Sikkim Expedition Jindandao Incident First Sino-Japanese War Gongche Shangshu movement Dungan Revolt (1895–96) Hundred Days' Reform Boxer Rebellion

Red Lanterns

Eight-Nation Alliance New Policies British expedition to Tibet 1905 Tibetan Rebellion 1909 Provincial Assembly elections Chinese expedition to Tibet (1910) Railway Protection Movement Xinhai Revolution

Wuchang Uprising Xinhai Lhasa turmoil Mongolian Revolution of 1911 Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
in Xinjiang

Manchu Restoration

Government

Emperor

List Family tree

Amban Cup of Solid Gold Deliberative Council Flag of the Qing dynasty Grand Council Great Qing Legal Code Imperial Clan Court Imperial Commissioner Imperial Household Department Lifan Yuan Ministry of Posts and Communications Nine Gates Infantry Commander Provincial governor Provincial military commander Qinding Xianfa Dagang Royal and noble ranks of the Qing dynasty Viceroys

Zhili Shaan-Gan Liangjiang Huguang Sichuan Min-Zhe Liangguang Yun-Gui Three Northeast Provinces

Zongli Yamen

Military

Military of the Qing dynasty Beiyang Army Chu Army Eight Banners Ever Victorious Army Green Standard Army Huai Army Hushenying Imperial Guards Brigade New Army Peking Field Force Shuishiying Wuwei Corps Xiang Army

Special
Special
regions

Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in Inner Asia Manchuria
Manchuria
under Qing rule Mongolia under Qing rule

Administrative divisions

Tibet under Qing rule

Golden Urn List of imperial residents

Xinjiang under Qing rule

General of Ili

Taiwan
Taiwan
under Qing rule

Provincial Administration Hall

Palaces & mausoleums

Chengde Mountain Resort Forbidden City Mukden
Mukden
Palace Old Summer Palace Summer Palace Eastern Qing tombs Fuling Mausoleum Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties Western Qing tombs

Society & culture

Booi Aha Changzhou School of Thought Dibao Four Wangs Gujin Tushu Jicheng History of Ming Islam during the Qing dynasty Kangxi Dictionary Kaozheng Literary Inquisition Manchu Han Imperial Feast Peiwen Yunfu Pentaglot Dictionary Qing official headwear Qing poetry Quan Tangshi Queue Researches on Manchu Origins Sacred Edict of the Kangxi Emperor Shamanism in the Qing dynasty Siku Quanshu

Zongmu Tiyao

Treaties

Treaty of Kyakhta (1727) Treaty of Nerchinsk Unequal treaty

Boxer Protocol Burlingame Treaty Chefoo Convention Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory Convention of Peking Convention of Tientsin Li–Lobanov Treaty Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking Treaty of Aigun Treaty of the Bogue Treaty of Canton Treaty of Kulja Treaty of Nanking Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881) Treaty of Shimonoseki Treaty of Tarbagatai Treaty of Tientsin Treaty of Wanghia Treaty of Whampoa

Other topics

Aisin Gioro Anti-Qing sentiment Canton System Chuang Guandong Draft History of Qing Imperial hunt of the Qing dynasty Manchu people Names of the Qing dynasty New Qing History Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
coinage Qing conquest theory Timeline of late anti-Qing rebellions Treaty ports Willow Palisade

Authority control

.

Warning: Invalid argument supplied for foreach() in D:\Bitnami\wampstack-7.1.16-0\apache2\htdocs\php\PeriodicService.php on line 61