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This article is part of a series on the politics and governmentof the Eurasian Economic Union

Inter-Parliamentary Assembly

Supreme Council

Vladimir Putin Nursultan Nazabayev Alexander Lukashenko Armen Sarkissian Sooronbay Jeenbekov

Commission

Chairman Tigran Sargsyan Commissioners Tatiana Valovaya Valery Koreshkov Timur Suleimenov Vladimir Goshin Andrey Slepnev Sergey Sidorsky Daniyal Akhmetov Nurlan Aldabergenov

Court

Intergovernmental Council

Single Currency

Other bodies

Federal Assembly of Russia Parliament of Kazakhstan National Assembly of Belarus National Assembly of Armenia Supreme Council of Kyrgyzstan

Economy

Policies and issues

Budget Four Freedoms Economic area Single market Customs Union Policies Agricultural Energy Integration

Foreign relations

Pivot to Asia CSTO Enlargement

Law

Treaties Membership

The Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
(EAEU) [note 1] is an economic union of states located in central and northern Asia
Asia
and Eastern Europe. The Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
was signed on 29 May 2014 by the leaders of Belarus, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia, and came into force on 1 January 2015.[5] Treaties aiming for Armenia's and Kyrgyzstan's accession to the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
were signed on 9 October and 23 December 2014, respectively. Armenia's accession treaty came into force on 2 January 2015.[6] Kyrgyzstan's accession treaty came into effect on 6 August 2015.[7] It participated in the EAEU from the day of its establishment as an acceding state.[8][9] The Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
has an integrated single market of 183 million people and a gross domestic product of over 4 trillion U.S. dollars (PPP).[10] The EAEU introduces the free movement of goods, capital, services and people and provides for common policies in the macroeconomic sphere, transport, industry and agriculture, energy, foreign trade and investment, customs, technical regulation, competition and antitrust regulation. Provisions for a single currency and greater integration are envisioned in future.[11][12][13] The union operates through supranational and intergovernmental institutions. The Supreme Eurasian Economic Council is the supreme body of the Union, consisting of the Heads of the Member States. The second level of intergovernmental institutions is represented by the Eurasian Intergovernmental Council (consisting of the Heads of the governments of member states). The day-to-day work of the EAEU is done through the Eurasian Economic Commission, the executive body of the Union. There is also a judicial body – the Court of the EAEU.[14]

.mw-parser-output .toclimit-2 .toclevel-1 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-3 .toclevel-2 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-4 .toclevel-3 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-5 .toclevel-4 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-6 .toclevel-5 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-7 .toclevel-6 ul display:none Contents

1 History

1.1 Proposal 1.2 Founding treaties (1990s) 1.3 Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
(2000–2014) 1.4 Establishing the customs union and single market (2010–2014) 1.5 Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union 1.6 Structural evolution

2 Geography 3 Membership

3.1 Presidency 3.2 Enlargement

4 Politics and governance

4.1 Supreme Eurasian Economic Council 4.2 Eurasian Economic Commission

4.2.1 Council 4.2.2 Board

4.3 Parliament 4.4 Court of the Eurasian Economic Union 4.5 Budget

5 Economy

5.1 Formation and overview 5.2 Internal market 5.3 Competition 5.4 Monetary union 5.5 Energy 5.6 Infrastructure

5.6.1 Single Eurasian Sky

5.7 Agriculture 5.8 Projected economic impact 5.9 Free trade
Free trade
agreements 5.10 Pivot to Asia

5.10.1 Russia 5.10.2 Kazakhstan

6 Demographics

6.1 Languages

7 Foreign affairs

7.1 Economic partners 7.2 Armenia
Armenia
and Nagorno-Karabakh 7.3 Uzbekistan, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Kyrgyzstan 7.4 International response

8 Existing integration projects 9 See also 10 Notes and references

10.1 Footnotes 10.2 Journal articles and studies 10.3 Online sources

11 External links

History[edit] Proposal[edit] At the end of the Cold War
Cold War
with the United States
United States
which was followed by the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia
Russia
and the Central Asian republics were weakened economically and faced declines in GDP. Post-Soviet states
Post-Soviet states
underwent economic reforms and privatisation.[journal 1][15] The process of Eurasian integration began immediately after the break-up of the Soviet Union to salvage economic ties with Post-Soviet states
Post-Soviet states
through the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
on 8 December 1991 by the presidents of Belarus, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia.[journal 2] In 1994, during a speech at Moscow
Moscow
State University, the first President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, suggested the idea of creating a "common defense" space[16] and regional trading bloc in order to connect to and profit from the growing economies of Europe
Europe
and East Asia.[17][18] The idea was quickly seen as a way to bolster trade, boost investments in the region, and serve as a counterweight to Western integration unions.[17][19]

Founding treaties (1990s)[edit] Meeting of the leaders of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in Bishkek, 2008. The CIS initiated the lengthy process of Eurasian integration. During the 1990s, the Eurasian integration process was slow, possibly due to the economic crisis experienced after the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the size of the countries involved (Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
cover an area of about 20 million km²). As a result, numerous treaties have been signed by member states to establish the regional trading bloc gradually.[journal 3][journal 2] In 1995, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and later acceding states Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
signed the first agreements on the establishment of a Customs Union. Its purpose was to gradually lead the way toward the creation of open borders without passport controls between member states.[20] In 1996, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia
Russia
and Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
signed the Treaty on Increased Integration in the Economic and Humanitarian Fields to begin economic integration between countries to allow for the creation of common markets for goods, services, capital, labour, and developing single transport, energy and information systems.[journal 2][21] In 1999, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
signed the Treaty on the Customs Union
Customs Union
and the Single Economic Space
Single Economic Space
by clarifying the goals and policies the states would undertake in order to form the Eurasian Customs Union
Eurasian Customs Union
and the Single Economic Space.[22][23]

Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
(2000–2014)[edit] Main article: Eurasian Economic Community To promote further economic integration and more cooperation, in 2000 Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
established the Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
(EurAsEC) which Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
joined in 2006.

The treaty established a common market for its member states. The Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
was modelled on the European Economic Community.[24] The two had a comparable population size of 171 million and 169 million, respectively. A Treaty on a Single Economic Space
Single Economic Space
by Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia
Russia
and Ukraine
Ukraine
was signed in 2003 and ratified in 2004, but the process was stalled after the Orange revolution.[25][26] In 2007, Belarus, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia
Russia
signed an agreement to create a Customs Union
Customs Union
between the three countries.[27]

Establishing the customs union and single market (2010–2014)[edit] Main articles: Eurasian Customs Union
Eurasian Customs Union
and Eurasian Economic Space A session of the Supreme Eurasian Economic Council
Supreme Eurasian Economic Council
(composed of the union's heads of state) is held at least once every year. The Customs Union
Customs Union
of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia
Russia
(now the Eurasian Customs Union) came into existence on 1 January 2010.[28] The Customs Union's priorities were the elimination of intra-bloc tariffs, establishing a common external tariff policy and the elimination of non-tariff barriers. It was launched as a first step towards forming a broader single market inspired by the European Union, with the objective of forming an alliance between former Soviet states.[29] The member states planned to continue with economic integration and were set to remove all customs borders between each other after July 2011. On January 1, 2012, the three states established the Eurasian Economic Space which ensures the effective functioning of a single market for goods, services, capital and labour, and to establish coherent industrial, transport, energy and agricultural policies.[30][31] The agreement included a roadmap for future integration and established the Eurasian Economic Commission (modelled on the European Commission).[32][33] The Eurasian Economic Commission
Eurasian Economic Commission
serves as the regulatory agency for the Eurasian Customs Union, the Single Economic Space
Single Economic Space
and the Eurasian Economic Union.[30]

Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union[edit] Play media The signing ceremony of the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (in Astana, Kazakhstan, on 29 May 2014) In 2011, the then-Prime Minister of Russia, Vladimir Putin, announced his support for Nursultan Nazarbayev's idea for the creation of a Eurasian Economic Union.[34][35] On 18 November 2011, the presidents of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia
Russia
signed an agreement setting a target of establishing the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
by 2015.[32] The member states put together a joint commission on fostering closer economic ties.[30][36] On 29 May 2014, the presidents of Kazakhstan, Belarus
Belarus
and Russia signed the treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union, which came into effect on 1 January 2015. The presidents of Armenia
Armenia
and Kyrgyzstan were also present at the signing ceremony. Russian president Vladimir Putin stated, "Today we have created a powerful, attractive centre of economic development, a big regional market that unites more than 170 million people"."[37] Kazakh politicians emphasized the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
was not intended to be a political bloc, but a purely economic union.[37] Bakytzhan Sagintayev, the first deputy prime minister of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and lead negotiator, said, "We are not creating a political organisation; we are forming a purely economic union." He further stated "it is a pragmatic means to get benefits. We don't meddle into what Russia
Russia
is doing politically, and they cannot tell us what foreign policy to pursue."[37] By October, the treaty had received parliamentary approval from all three states.[38] On 9 October 2014, a Treaty to enlarge the EEU to Armenia
Armenia
was signed.[39][40] Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
signed the Treaty on 23 December 2014 and became a member of the Eurasian Union on 6 August 2015.[41][42]

Structural evolution[edit]

SignedIn forceDocument

19911991Treaty on the Commonwealth of Independent States

19961996Treaty on Increased Integration in the Economic and Humanitarian Fields

20002001Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Community

1995–20072010Treaties on the Eurasian Customs Union

2007 & 20112012Treaties on the Eurasian Economic Space

20142015Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
(EAEU)

Eurasian Economic Space

Eurasian Customs Union
Eurasian Customs Union
(EACU)

Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
(EAEC)

Increased Integration in the Economic and Humanitarian Fields

Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS)

vte

vteTreaties and development stages of Eurasian Economic Union

SignedDocument

1995Treaty on the Customs Union
Customs Union
between Belarus
Belarus
and Russia Treaty on the Customs Union
Customs Union
between Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia

1996Agreement on Increased Integration in the Economic and Humanitarian FieldsBelarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan

1999Treaty on the Customs Union
Customs Union
and the Single Economic SpaceBelarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan (Agreement to complete the formation of the Customs Union
Customs Union
and the Single Economic Space)

2000Treaty on the establishment of the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC)Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan

2003Treaty on forming the Single Economic SpaceBelarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine

2007Treaty on the Commission of the Customs Union
Customs Union
Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia Treaty on the Establishment of the Integrated Customs Territory and Сreation of the Customs UnionBelarus, Kazakhstan, Russia

2010Establishment of the Customs Union
Customs Union
Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia

2011Treaty on the Eurasian Economic CommissionBelarus, Kazakhstan, Russia The decision of the Supreme Eurasian Economic Council
Supreme Eurasian Economic Council
on the entry of international agreements into force forming the legal base of the Customs Union
Customs Union
and Single Economic SpaceBelarus, Kazakhstan, Russia Declaration on Eurasian Economic IntegrationBelarus, Kazakhstan, Russia

2012Establishment of the Single Economic SpaceBelarus, Kazakhstan, Russia Eurasian Economic Commission
Eurasian Economic Commission
started functioning

2015Establishment of the Eurasian Economic Union The agreement on the Eurasian Economic Union

Geography[edit] .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner display:flex;flex-direction:column .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow display:flex;flex-direction:row;clear:left;flex-wrap:wrap;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle margin:1px;float:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader clear:both;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;align-self:center;background-color:transparent;width:100% .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:left;background-color:transparent .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-left text-align:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-right text-align:right .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-center text-align:center @media all and (max-width:720px) .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;max-width:none!important;align-items:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow justify-content:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle float:none!important;max-width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;text-align:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:center Strusta Lake in the Vitebsk Region, Belarus, is the sixteenth largest lake in Belarus
Belarus
and the third largest among the Braslau Lakes.The Khan Tengri Peak above North Engilchek Glacier, Kazakhstan The Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
is located at the eastern end of Europe, bounded by the Arctic
Arctic
in the north, the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the east and East Asia, the Middle East
Middle East
and part of Central Asia
Asia
to the south. It lies between latitudes 39° and 82°N and longitudes 19°E
19°E
and 169°W. The union extends across much of northern Eurasia. Its member states cover an area of over 20,000,000 square kilometers, which is approximately 15% of the world's land surface.[43] The Eastern European Plain
Eastern European Plain
encompasses Belarus
Belarus
and most of European Russia. The plain is mostly mountain-free and comprises several plateaus. Russia's northernmost regions are tundra. The Russian Tundra is located on the coastline with the Arctic
Arctic
and is known for its total darkness in the winter. Taiga
Taiga
reaches Russia's southern borders in Siberia
Siberia
and accounts for 60% of the country.[44] Towards the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
and in northern Kazakhstan, the climate is mostly temperate. Southwestern Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
are mostly steppe. The Kazakh steppe
Kazakh steppe
covers one-third of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and is the world's largest dry steppe region.[45] Armenia
Armenia
is mostly mountainous and its climate is continental. The landlocked country shares no direct border with other members states. It is located in the southwestern part of Asia, occupying the northeastern part of the Armenian Plateau, and is located between the Caucasus
Caucasus
and the Near East.[46] A large amount of lakes and rivers are found in the Eurasian Economic Union.[47] Major lakes include Ladoga and Onega, two of the largest lakes in Europe. The largest and most prominent of the union's bodies of fresh water is Lake Baikal, the world's deepest, purest, oldest and most capacious fresh water lake.[48] The Baikal lake alone contains over one-fifth of the world's fresh surface water. Russia
Russia
is second only to Brazil in volume of the total renewable water resources. Of the union's numerous rivers,[49] the Volga
Volga
is the most famous, not only because it is the longest in Europe, but also because of its major role in history. In Siberia
Siberia
the Ob, Yenisey, Lena and Amur are among the longest rivers in the world. The Eurasian Economic Union's highest peak is the Khan Tengri
Khan Tengri
in the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
mountains, Kazakhstan, 7,010 m above sea level. The lowest point in the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
is the Karagiye Depression in Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan's Caspian shore includes some of the lowest elevations on Earth. According to a 2005 estimate by the United Nations, forests cover 40% of Belarus. 11,000 lakes and many water streams are found in the country.[50] Russia
Russia
is known for its extensive mineral and energy resources, the largest reserves in the world, making it the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas.[51] According to estimates, the Eurasian Economic Union's population of 176 million people is mostly urbanized, with Russia
Russia
and Belarus
Belarus
having over 70% of their population living in urban areas. In Armenia
Armenia
over 64% of the population lives in urban areas. Kazakhstan's urban population comprises 54% of the country's total population.[52]

Mount Elbrus
Mount Elbrus
– Russia

Mountain range – Armenia

Lama River
Lama River
– in the Moscow
Moscow
region of Russia

Sharyn Canyon
Sharyn Canyon
– Kazakhstan

On the southern shore of Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
lake, Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
Region – Kyrgyzstan

Winter – Belarus

A view of Mount Aragats
Mount Aragats
from Aragatsotn – Armenia

A view of Mount Mönkh Saridag
Mönkh Saridag
– Okinsky District, Russia

Lake Ayger
Lake Ayger
– Armenia

Lake Servech – Belarus

Winter in the Altai Krai
Altai Krai
– Russia

Tian Shan
Tian Shan
mountain range – Kyrgyzstan

Membership[edit] Main article: Member states of the Eurasian Economic Union   Member States of the Eurasian Economic Union   Observer states   Other candidate states

Country

Accession date

Date of signature

 Armenia

2 January 2015[53]

10 October 2014[53]

 Belarus

1 January 2015[53]

29 May 2014[53]

 Kazakhstan

1 January 2015[53]

29 May 2014[53]

 Kyrgyzstan

12 August 2015[54]

23 December 2014[53]

 Russia

1 January 2015[53]

29 May 2014[53]

The treaty establishing the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
was formally signed by three states which were part of the former Soviet Union: Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia.[55][56] Agreements to enlarge the EEU to the other post-Soviet states of Armenia
Armenia
and Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
were signed on 9 October and 23 December 2014, respectively.[40][41][42][57][58] For Kyrgyzstan, facilitation of labour migration regulations with Russia
Russia
was seen as the main benefit of joining the Eurasian Economic Union. Armenia
Armenia
announced its decision to join the Eurasian Customs Union
Eurasian Customs Union
in September 2013. President Serj Sargsyan
Serj Sargsyan
announced the decision after talks with his Russian counterpart President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
in Moscow.[59] The treaty enlarging the EEU to Armenia
Armenia
was signed on 9 October 2014.[39] Armenia
Armenia
is the only country of the EEU that has no common border with the other member states of the union. Georgia guaranteed a free transit corridor for exporting its goods to the Eurasian Economic Union, Armenian deputy economy minister Emil Tarasyan said.[60] Moldova
Moldova
was granted Observer Status in April 2017.[61]

Presidency[edit] Each year, the chairman of the union elects a Member State to head the Union. Currently, Armenia
Armenia
presides the Union until December 31, 2019.

Year

#

Country

Head of state or government

Major Trade Agreements

2015

1st

 Belarus[62]

Alexander Lukashenko

 Vietnam

2016

2nd

 Kazakhstan[63]

Nursultan Nazarbayev

none

2017

3rd

 Kyrgyzstan[64][65]

Almazbek Atambayev
Almazbek Atambayev
(until 1 December); Sooronbay Jeenbekov
Sooronbay Jeenbekov
(from 1 December)

2018

4th

 Russia[66]

Vladimir Putin

 China,  Iran

2019

5th

 Armenia[67]

Nikol Pashinyan

2020

6th

 Belarus

Alexander Lukashenko
Alexander Lukashenko
(at least until 2020 election)

2021

7th

 Kazakhstan

Kassym-Jomart Tokayev

2022

8th

 Kyrgyzstan

Sooronbay Jeenbekov

2023

9th

 Russia

Vladimir Putin

Enlargement[edit] Main article: Enlargement of the Eurasian Economic Union Russian President
Russian President
Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
has stated that his goal was to enlarge the Customs Union
Customs Union
to all post-Soviet states, excluding the three Baltic EU member states.[68] According to The Guardian newspaper, Putin's plan is for the Eurasian Union to grow into a "powerful, supra-national union" of sovereign states like the European Union, uniting economies, legal systems, customs services, and military capabilities to form a bridge between Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
to balance the EU and the U.S.[69] In May 2015 an integration agreement was signed between the Russian Federation and South Ossetia, if South Ossetia
South Ossetia
were to join it would be by acceding to the Russian Federation. Tajikistan
Tajikistan
was formally invited to join the union and has expressed its interest in acceding.[70][71][72][73] It is recognized as a potential candidate and membership negotiations are underway.[72][73][74][75] In 2015, further efforts were made to integrate Tajikistan
Tajikistan
into the EAEU.[76][77]

.mw-parser-output .quotebox background-color:#F9F9F9;border:1px solid #aaa;box-sizing:border-box;padding:10px;font-size:88%;max-width:100% .mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatleft margin:0.5em 1.4em 0.8em 0 .mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatright margin:0.5em 0 0.8em 1.4em .mw-parser-output .quotebox.centered margin:0.5em auto 0.8em auto .mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatleft p,.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatright p font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .quotebox-title background-color:#F9F9F9;text-align:center;font-size:larger;font-weight:bold .mw-parser-output .quotebox-quote.quoted:before font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;font-weight:bold;font-size:large;color:gray;content:" “ ";vertical-align:-45%;line-height:0 .mw-parser-output .quotebox-quote.quoted:after font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;font-weight:bold;font-size:large;color:gray;content:" ” ";line-height:0 .mw-parser-output .quotebox .left-aligned text-align:left .mw-parser-output .quotebox .right-aligned text-align:right .mw-parser-output .quotebox .center-aligned text-align:center .mw-parser-output .quotebox cite display:block;font-style:normal @media screen and (max-width:360px) .mw-parser-output .quotebox min-width:100%;margin:0 0 0.8em!important;float:none!important It took Europe
Europe
40 years to move from the European Coal
Coal
and Steel Community to the full European Union. The establishment of the Customs Union and the Common Economic Space is proceeding at a much faster pace because we could draw on the experience of the EU and other regional associations. We see their strengths and weaknesses. And this is our obvious advantage since it means we are in a position to avoid mistakes and unnecessary bureaucratic superstructures. — Vladimir Putin, "A new integration project for Eurasia: The future in the making", Izvestia, 3 October 2011[78]

Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
remains hesitant to join the Economic Union, with Uzbek officials making opposing claims on the prospect of integration.[79][80] The country prefers not to pursue economic and political integration as of now.[81][82][83] Russian officials have stated that integration with the country would be slow and analysts state that as Russian influence and trade increases in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
it may persuade Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
to join in the future.[84][85][86] Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
began its integration process when Russia
Russia
announced it would write off USD$865 million off debt owed by the country. Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
joined the CIS Free Trade Area in 2014, meaning it has free trade with EAEU member states.[87][88][89] Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and Georgia have been offered by both the European Union and the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
to join their integration unions. All three countries signed association agreements with the EU on 21 March 2014.[90] However, break-away regions of Moldova (Transnistria),[91] Ukraine
Ukraine
(Donetsk and Luhansk)[92] and Georgia ( South Ossetia
South Ossetia
and Abkhazia)[93] have expressed a desire to join the Eurasian Customs Union
Eurasian Customs Union
and integrate into the Eurasian Economic Union. Association agreements with the EU are exclusionary to EAEU observer status, as in 2017 Moldova
Moldova
became the EAEU's first observer state and have attended EAEU forums in years since. Ukraine
Ukraine
submitted an application to participate in the Eurasian Economic Union as an observer in August 2013.[94] Viktor Yanukovych's decision to abandon an association agreement with the European Union
European Union
and exclusively pursue integration with the EAEU was a key factor in the Euromaidan
Euromaidan
protests that ended his term as president of Ukraine
Ukraine
and led to the Crimean Crisis. The country's membership in the EAEU was seen by some analysts as the key to the success of the union as Ukraine
Ukraine
has the second largest economy of any of the 15 former republics of the Soviet Union. With high tensions between Russia
Russia
and Ukraine
Ukraine
in the wake of the crisis, Ukraine
Ukraine
decided to pursue integration with the EU.[95] Turkey
Turkey
was extended an invitation to join the EAEU by Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbayev
Nursultan Nazarbayev
on 6 June 2014 but the country prefers to join the EU.[96] Georgia's Prime Minister Bidzina Ivanishvili
Bidzina Ivanishvili
said in September 2013 he was studying the possibility of acceding to the Union, although he later clarified that Georgia's main strategy was still to integrate into the European Union.[97][98] Russia's Prime Minister Dmitri Medvedev
Dmitri Medvedev
included Georgia as a prospective member in statements made in August 2013.[99]

Politics and governance[edit] Current decision making process of the Eurasian Customs Union
Eurasian Customs Union
and the Single Economic Space[100] The Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
has sought to base its model on the European Union. All institutions carry out their work in compliance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Commission
Eurasian Economic Commission
(EEC) and the international agreements that provide the legal and regulatory framework of the Customs Union
Customs Union
and the Single Economic Space.

Supreme Eurasian Economic Council[edit] Main article: Supreme Eurasian Economic Council The Supreme Council, which is composed by the heads of state of the member states, makes important decisions for the union. It approves the budget and the distribution of the contribution of the Member States. The Supreme Council also determines the strategy, direction and prospects of integration and takes decisions aimed at achieving the goals of the union.[101][102][103][104]

Eurasian Economic Commission[edit] Main article: Eurasian Economic Commission The Eurasian Commission was established as the supranational governing body of the Eurasian Economic Space
Eurasian Economic Space
on 1 January 2012.[33] The Commission was modelled on the European Commission.[32] Its headquarters are in Moscow.[journal 2] The commission monitors subordinate branches and advisory bodies. Its departments were greatly expanded on 1 January 2015, and the number of international employees increased from 150 to 1,200. The Eurasian Commission can take decisions on not only the customs policy of the union, but also on the macro-economy, the competition regulations, the energy policy and the fiscal policy of the Eurasian Economic Union. It has strict anti-corruption laws.[105] The Eurasian Economic Commission
Eurasian Economic Commission
consists of two bodies: the Council and the Collegium.

Council[edit] The council is composed of the Vice Prime Ministers of the member states. The council of the Commission oversees the integration processes in the Union, and is responsible for the overall management of the Eurasian Commission. It monitors the commission by approving the draft budget of the union, the maximum number of personnel, and the qualification requirements for the commission's employees. The council convenes once every quarter.[101][102][103][104] It also considers issues of customs cooperation, trade and development of Eurasian integration. The council regularly holds discussions on the important aspects of the EEU and meets with business representatives of the member states.[106]

Board[edit] The Board is composed of twelve commissioners, one of which is the Chairman of the Board.[journal 4] Each member state provides two commissioners to the Board of the Eurasian Commission who carry out the operational management and oversee the everyday work of the Eurasian Commission.[32] All ten commissioners are appointed by the Supreme Eurasian Council for a four-year renewable term. The commissioners also receive the status of federal ministers in their respective countries.[33] The Board of the Commission is the executive body of the Commission. It convenes once every week at least, and is responsible for the day-to-day running of the Eurasian Economic Union. It has a wide range of activities, including monitoring the implementation of treaties, submitting annual progress reports and making recommendations. The Board also assists member states in the settlement of disputes, and carries out the draft of the union's budget. Part of its activities include being the intermediary between the departments of the commission and the heads of state of the member states.[101][102][103][104] A number of departments are headed by the commissioners. The lower rank staff is composed of 84% Russian officials, 10% Kazakhs and 6% Belarusians, proportional to the populations of the member states.[32] The departments enable the Board of the Eurasian Commission to make decisions not only with regard to customs policies, but in such areas as macroeconomics, regulation of economic competition, energy policy and financial policy. The Commission departments are also involved in government procurement and labour migration control.[33]

Parliament[edit] As of 2015, the EEU has no directly or indirectly elected body. In 2012, the creation of a Eurasian parliament was under consideration.[107][108] However, it was considered too premature, and member states have instead begun harmonising national laws and legal codes.[109] Russian president Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
has upheld the idea of creating a parliament for the union.[110]

Court of the Eurasian Economic Union[edit] The Court of the Eurasian Economic Union
Court of the Eurasian Economic Union
replaced the Court of the Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
(EurAsEC Court) in 2015. It is in charge of dispute resolution and the interpretation of the legal order within the Eurasian Economic Union. Its headquarters is in Minsk.[111] The court is composed of two judges from each member state, appointed by the heads of government of the member states. Their term of office is nine years.[101][102][103][104]

Budget[edit] The approved budget of the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
for 2015 exceeds 6.6 billion Russian Rubles.[112][113][114] The budget is formed from contributions by the union's member states. In 2015, 6 billion Rubles will be allocated for the activity of the Eurasian Economic Commission, 463 million Rubles will be set aside for financing the operation and further development of the EEU integrated information system designed to promote and inform consumers of the EEU's activities, and over 290 millions Rubles will finance the activities of the Court of the EEU.[note 2][113] Extra expenses of infrastructure and accommodation of commission workers are financed by Russia.[33] In addition, Russia
Russia
allocated USD$1 billion to accelerate Kyrgyzstan's entry into the union.[115][116] Another US$177 million was provided by Kazakhstan.[117]

Economy[edit] Selection of GDP
GDP
PPP data (top 10 countries and blocs) in no particular order Formation and overview[edit] The Moscow
Moscow
International Business Center is a commercial district in Moscow
Moscow
that is currently under construction. The complex includes Europe's tallest towers. The Treaty on Increased Integration in the Economic and Humanitarian Fields signed in 1996 laid the first foundation for economic convergence. The treaty ensured the creation of a permanent executive organ to oversee integration of states that later would be part of the EEU. It served as the blueprint for the future common market for goods, services, capital and labour.[journal 2][21] The Single Economic Space
Single Economic Space
established a single market across the territory of Belarus, Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan. In 2015 with the entry into force of the EEU Agreement, the single market was expanded to include Armenia
Armenia
and Kyrgyzstan. The countries represent a market of some 183 million people and a combined GDP
GDP
PPP of around US$5 trillion. Russia
Russia
has the 12th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP
GDP
and the 6th largest by purchasing power parity. Since the turn of the century, member states have experienced economic growth with GDP
GDP
averaging 6% to 8% growth between 2000 and 2007, rising again in 2010 after the Financial crisis of 2007–08. Since the establishment of the Eurasian Customs Union
Eurasian Customs Union
in 2010, trade between member states rose sharply. In 2011 mutual trade was USD 63.1 billion, 33.9% more than in 2010. In 2012, mutual trade was USD 67.9 billion and combined exports reached USD 593.7 billion, while imports were USD 340.9 billion.[journal 2] The first integration stage primarily enhanced trade among member states, bolstered economies and created a legal and institutional foundation for the member states. The second stage includes the free movements of goods, people, services and capital. The Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
is designed to reach a number of macroeconomic objectives such as reducing commodity prices by reducing the cost of transportation of raw materials, increasing return on new technologies and products due to the increased market volume, and promoting "healthy" competition in the common market. It is also designed to lower food prices, increase employment in industries and increase production capacity. EEU members like Belarus and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(by its Nurly Zhol economic policy) seek to leverage the EEU as a bridge between the European Union
European Union
and the New Silk Road economic belt.[118] The Eurasian Union is considered as a major player in the world's energy sector, raw materials, arms industry and agricultural production. In 2013 Russia
Russia
was the 3rd most successful country in the world in attracting capital from abroad.[119][120] The significant potential for developing infrastructure has led the member states and its partners to create links by constructing roads, railways, electric power grids and fibre-optic cables.

Yerevan, the capital and financial hub of Armenia

World Trade Centre in Moscow

Business Centre - Central Downtown Nur-Sultan

Almaty, the major commercial and cultural centre of Kazakhstan

Mercury City Tower
Mercury City Tower
- Moscow

Bishkek, the capital and financial hub of Kyrgyzstan

Internal market[edit] Main article: Eurasian Economic Space The core objective of the Single Economic Space
Single Economic Space
is the development of a single market and achieving the "four freedoms", namely the free movements of goods, capital, services and people within the single market. The four freedoms came into effect on 1 January 2015 (the day the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
was officially established). The free movement of people means that citizens can move freely among member states to live, work, study or retire.[11] Citizens of the member states of the union may travel to other member states on an internal passport. Although Russia
Russia
also admits access to citizens of other CIS states without a passport, it is expected that after 2015 only citizens of the Customs Union
Customs Union
will have this privilege.[121] Member states have a common external tariff on all goods entering the market and unified methods of valuing imported goods since the creation of the Eurasian Customs Union
Eurasian Customs Union
on 1 January 2010. Objectives include joint coordination in the area of energy, industry, agriculture and transport. Roughly 75% of Belarusian goods are exported, about half of which go to other member states.[122] Trade within the union primarily consists of Belarusian machinery and agricultural products which are exported to Russia. Low gas prices from Russian energy producers are guaranteed to member states or countries wishing to join the union.[123][124]

Competition[edit] The Eurasian Economic Commission
Eurasian Economic Commission
operates a competition policy to ensure equal competitive conditions in the commodity markets of the Single Economic Space. It also aims at harmonisation and improvement of legislation of each of the three countries in regard to competition policy. The commission serves as the competition regulator for the single market and is also responsible for antitrust issues. Special regulations limit state intervention in the economy.[journal 2][125]

Monetary union[edit]

The increased use of the national currencies of Russia, Belarus
Belarus
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and the creation of a single payment system can raise about a transition to a single currency for the union. — Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Director of Financial Policy Department of the Eurasian Economic Commission, August 3, 2014[126]

Kazakhstani President Nursultan Nazarbayev
Nursultan Nazarbayev
had first proposed, in 2009, the creation of a common noncash currency called "yevraz" for the Eurasian Economic Community. It would have reportedly helped insulate the countries from the global economic crisis.[127] In 2012, the idea of the new joint currency found support from Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
and by 2014 proposals were drafted in Eurasian Commission documents for the establishment of a Eurasian Central Bank and a common currency to be called the altyn which is to be introduced by 2025.[128]

A silver altyn minted in 1711 during the reign of Peter the Great When discussing the Eurasian Economic Union, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
said the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
would include closer coordination of economic and monetary policy, including the use of a common currency in the future.[129] Although the creation of a monetary union was not envisaged in the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
Treaty, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
called for the introduction of a common currency for the Eurasian Economic Union. Leonid Slutsky, head of the State Duma's CIS committee, backed Medvedev's proposal to start discussions on the creation of a monetary union. Slutsky said it could be introduced shortly after 2015, when the union's structure becomes clear.[130][131] Belarusian president, Alexander Lukashenko, circulated the idea of creating a "new euro" for the Eurasian economic bloc. In April 2014, discussions to introduce a single currency resumed. Russia's First Deputy Prime Minister, Igor Shuvalov, stated on 24 July 2014 that the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
will have a common currency unit in a span of five to ten years.[13]

Energy[edit] View of headquarters of Gazprom, Moscow, the world's largest extractor of gas The Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
is seen as an energy superpower, producing about 20.7% of the world's natural gas, and 14.6% of the world's oil and gas condensate in 2012, making it the world's top producer in both domains. It is worth mentioning that these figures are mainly due to Russian Membership of EAEU, with Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
contributing 1.9% and 0.6% in gas and oil production respectively. Considerably small oil and gas reserved were discovered in Belarus
Belarus
while there are no such resources in Armenia.[132] It also produces 9% of the world's electrical energy and 5.9% of the world's coal, making it the third and fourth producer in the world, respectively. In Kazakhstan, energy is the leading economic sector. The country holds about 4 billion tons of proven recoverable oil reserves and 2,000 cubic kilometers (480 cu mi) of gas. Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is the world's 17th largest oil exporter and the world's 23rd largest natural gas exporter. Russia
Russia
has the world's largest natural gas reserves,[133] the 8th largest oil reserves,[134] and the second largest coal reserves.[135] Russia
Russia
is also the world's leading natural gas exporter[136] and the second largest natural gas producer,[137] while also the largest oil exporter and the largest oil producer. While trade in oil and gas between resource-rich Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is relatively low, the Belarus
Belarus
economy is heavily dependent on the access to the Russian hydrocarbons and - unlike the case with Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and Armenia, Russia
Russia
is Belarus's main trade partner accounting for 47% of all the trade. Belarus
Belarus
imports Russian crude oil (of which 45-50% were used for production of oil products to export) and natural gas (which were not directly re-exported) for the prices below the market ones, paying $173 for 1000 cubic meters of gas (for comparison - $250 for Armenia, $430 for Ukraine).[132] By 2019, Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus
Belarus
and Armenia
Armenia
intend to create a common electricity market as well as a single hydrocarbons market by 2025. "With the creation of a single hydrocarbons market, we will have a deeper coordination that will allow us to be more competitive both in terms of pricing and in terms of getting high value added products in this very interesting and important market", stated Eurasian Commissioner Daniyal Akhmetov.[138][139]

Infrastructure[edit] The Trans-Siberian Railway
Trans-Siberian Railway
is a vital link between the Russian Far East and the rest of Eurasia. The major economic centres are Moscow, Minsk
Minsk
and Astana. The distance between Moscow
Moscow
and Minsk
Minsk
is 717 kilometers, and the distance between Moscow
Moscow
and Astana
Astana
is 2700 kilometers, making infrastructure a key challenge for the integration of member states. Major infrastructure projects began during the 2000s in order to modernise and connect the regional bloc to other markets, facilitating both integration and trade in the region. In 2007 Moscow
Moscow
announced it will invest 1 trillion USD by 2020 to modernise the country's infrastructure.[140][141] Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
ranks favorably in terms of miles of road per inhabitant as other developed countries in the world have much less roadway per inhabitant.[142][143] Railways have been the primary way of linking countries in the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
since the 19th century. It has always been the main way of transport in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
up until today. The union ranks 2nd in the world in terms of railway trackage (about 7.8% of the world's share). However it is still looking to improve cross-border trade within the union. The Eurasian Development Bank has pledged to help in the construction of facilities to produce new generation freight cars and freight containers in Tikhvin, Russia
Russia
and in Osipovichi, Belarus
Belarus
to respond to the increasing demand for rail transport. Projects have also been launched in Kazakhstan, as the landlocked country is highly dependent on railways for trade. The most renowned railway in the union is the Trans-Siberian Railway which links the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
to Moscow. The Southern route also travels via Kazakhstan.[144][145]

The Turkestan– Siberia
Siberia
Railway connects the Central Asian republics to Siberia. The Trans-Asian Railway and the Asian Highway Network
Asian Highway Network
are cooperative projects among countries in Asia
Asia
and Europe
Europe
which have helped to improve highway and railway systems across the region. Six of the eight major Asian highways go through the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
(the AH3, AH4, AH5, AH6, AH7
AH7
and the AH8). The highways connect the EEU to many countries including Finland, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, India, Laos, Thailand, Burma
Burma
and China. AH6
AH6
goes through Russia's Trans-Siberian Highway which is over 11,000 kilometers long. The Trans-Siberian Highway is one of the longest national highways in the world along with the Trans-Canada Highway
Trans-Canada Highway
and Australia's Highway 1. A major railway, known as the Eurasian Land Bridge
Eurasian Land Bridge
allows goods to be transported from China
China
and the EEU to Europe. An expansion of the original railway line named the New Eurasian Land Bridge
Eurasian Land Bridge
provides an uninterrupted rail link between China
China
and the EEU. Talks with China, India
India
and Burma
Burma
are ongoing to expand the railway network. In June 2014, it was announced that Russia, North Korea
North Korea
and South Korea
South Korea
would cooperate to expand the Eurasian Land Bridge
Eurasian Land Bridge
to connect the peninsula. Advantages of exporting products by rail through the EEU are reduced shipping times and reduced costs. The railways also have the potential for expansion, with the future creation of high-speed railway lines being considered.[146]

Single Eurasian Sky[edit] The Single Eurasian Sky programme, administered by the Eurasian Economic Commission, outlines the creation of a single market for air services and a single air traffic zone. The single air traffic zone would make it easier for airlines to draw up new flight paths, thereby increasing the number of flights flying through the region. Eurasian Commissioner, Daniyal Akhmetov, said that it would be created on a step-by-step basis.[147] In June 2014, Belarusian Airline Belavia
Belavia
stated that it was ready to move towards the development of the Single Eurasian Sky. The terms and conditions of operation in the common aviation market have not yet been agreed on. However, the project is likely to be modelled on the European Union's Single European Sky.[148] The project will reportedly help turn the airspace of the Eurasian Union into a popular transit hub between Europe
Europe
and Southeast Asia. "We should understand that currently, the aviation companies of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Belarus
Belarus
are not able to compete with Russia's aviation companies. Therefore, the programme will envisage a phasing, creating a competitive environment and so on", Eurasian Commissioner Akhmetov said.[149]

Agriculture[edit] A Rye
Rye
Field by Ivan Shishkin The Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
is the top producer of sugar beet and sunflower, producing 18.6% of the world's sugar beet and 22.7% of the world's sunflowers in 2012, as well as a top producer of rye, barley, buckwheat, oats and sunflower seed. It is also a large producer of potatoes, wheat and grain (and grain legumes).[journal 2] Part of the competences of the Eurasian Economic Commission
Eurasian Economic Commission
are agriculture subsidies. It is responsible for the coordination of agricultural policy-making between member states and ensuring collective food security. The Eurasian Development Bank finances projects to further integration and develop agriculture. It has disbursed approximately US$470 million for projects between 2008 and 2013.

Projected economic impact[edit] Past and projected GDP
GDP
(nominal) per Capita in EEU countries. Member states remain optimistic of the union and key partners in the region, namely China, Iran, Turkey
Turkey
remain interested in it. A common belief is that the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
has significant potential over the next two decades, with experts predicting a 25 percent growth in the member states' GDP
GDP
by 2030, which equates to over US$600 billion.[150] The agreement will give member state citizens access to employment and education across the union. It will also entail collaborative policies in many sectors, including agriculture, energy, technology and transportation.[12] These collaborative policies are particularly interesting for countries in Asia
Asia
seeking access to energy, trade routes in Central Asia
Asia
and Siberia, and agricultural goods. Former president Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
of Russia
Russia
stated that both the positive and negative experiences of the European Union
European Union
will be taken into account and argued that the Eurasian Union will avoid the problems of economic gaps and disparity between countries,[105] such as those found in the eurozone, since the member countries have a comparable level of economic development, as well as common history and values.[151] The European Union
European Union
and the United States
United States
as well as other western countries remain critical of the Eurasian Economic Union, with analysts stating that without modernisation and real economic reforms, the union will have little impact.[12] The popular magazine The Economist
The Economist
stated that the advantages of joining the union remain unclear[95] and further remarked "The agreement was vague, with technical details left unresolved, making it a political show rather than an economic one".[152] Outlets have also stated that without Ukraine, the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
has lost a key member state necessary to the success of the union. Bloomberg's business magazine, Businessweek
Businessweek
has affirmed that joining Putin's Eurasian Union looks like a bad deal, including for Russia. The union "won't really register on the radar of the global economy," said an analyst at the EU's Institute for Security Studies in Paris.[153] Moreover, one research states that so far EAEU was not able to contribute to economic growth in Armenia
Armenia
- quite the contrary, it significantly slowed the economic performance of the country.

Free trade
Free trade
agreements[edit]

State Date of entry into force Signature Relations

Treaty text

 Ukraine

20 September 2012[note 3][note 4]

18 October 2011

CISFTA
CISFTA
negotiations

CISFTA

 Moldova

1 January 2013[note 3]

18 October 2011

CISFTA
CISFTA
negotiations

CISFTA

 Uzbekistan

9 January 2014[note 3]

18 October 2011

CISFTA
CISFTA
negotiations

CISFTA

 Egypt

5 October 2015

10 February 2015

Free Trade Agreement[154]

 Tajikistan

19 March 2016[note 3]

18 October 2011

CISFTA
CISFTA
negotiations

CISFTA

 Vietnam

5 October 2016[155]

29 May 2015

EAEU- Vietnam
Vietnam
FTA

 China

beginning 2019

17 May 2018

Free Trade Agreement[156]

 Iran

beginning 2021

17 May 2018[157]

Free Trade Agreement[158]

 Serbia

beginning 1 October 2019

6 June 2016

Free Trade Agreement

In force since 2012, the multilateral CIS Free Trade Zone Agreement establishes a free trade area between Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia
Russia
(now all EAEU member states), as well as Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Moldova
Moldova
and Tajikistan. Russia
Russia
has suspended the Agreement with respect to Ukraine
Ukraine
from 1 January 2016, following the provisional application of the DCFTA
DCFTA
between the European Union
European Union
and Ukraine.[159] The Union has signed a first free trade agreement[160][161] with Vietnam, which is planned to enter into force in October 2016 following the ratification by all the parties.[162][163] Having completed a free trade agreement (FTA) feasibility study for Vietnam
Vietnam
in November 2012[164] the then Customs Union, which later became the EAEU, decided to proceed with negotiations. The negotiations over the FTA began in early 2013 and lasted approximately two years – on 29 May 2015 the agreement was signed by Prime Ministers of all the parties to be later ratified by the parties. Trade between Vietnam
Vietnam
and the Customs Union
Customs Union
in 2011 was 2.24 billion USD.[165] Russia's economic development minister stated that the Turkish economic minister, Nihat Zeybekci, put forward an initiative for closer cooperation with the Eurasian Economic Union, including the formation of a free trade zone between the union and Turkey.[166] As announced by Russian Deputy Prime Minister Arkady Dvorkovich
Arkady Dvorkovich
on 9 December 2013, Israel
Israel
is considering starting free trade negotiations with the Eurasian Economic Union.[167] The feasibility study was conducted between the two parties and the decision was made to proceed with free trade negotiations, which are expected to start before the end of 2016. Experts believe the negotiations will take around 2 to 3 years to finish.[168] Russian President
Russian President
Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
stated at a July 2014 meeting of ambassadors and permanent representatives of the Russian Federation that he was ready to discuss a free trade area between the European Union and the Eurasian Economic Union.[169] In February 2015, Egyptian president Abdel Fattah al-Sisi
Abdel Fattah al-Sisi
announced his country would sign a free trade agreement with the Eurasian Union.[170] The preliminary feasibility study has been conducted and the decision to launch negotiation process is expected to be made before the end of 2016.[171] There have been discussions on free trade negotiations with over 30 different countries, some of them resulting in the preliminary feasibility studies. Such feasibility studies have been conducted with India, the Republic of Korea In May 2015, the Union gave the initial go-ahead to signing a free trade agreement with Iran. Described as the EAEU's "key partner in the Middle East" by Andrey Slepnev, Minister for trade on the Eurasian Economic Commission board in an expert-level EAEU meeting in Yerevan,[172] Viktor Khristenko
Viktor Khristenko
furthermore noted that Iran
Iran
is an important partner for all the EAEU member states. He stated that "Cooperation between the EAEU and Iran
Iran
is an important area of our work in strengthening the economic stability of the region".[173] In December 2015 a "temporary Agreement" was signed between Iran
Iran
and the EAEU, which Commissioner Andrey Slepnev characterized as the "first step toward the materialization of free trade between Iran
Iran
and the Union".[174] One of the key initiatives in the field of free trade and economic cooperation is the proposal on "linking" the Eurasian economic integration and China's strategic " Silk Road
Silk Road
Economic Belt" project. The relevant communique was signed by Russia's Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and China's Xi Jinping
Xi Jinping
on 8 March 2015.[175] While the "linking" mostly is understood as support for infrastructure investments, there are ongoing negotiations between the EAEU and China
China
on a "trade and economic agreement" in order to build "an open economic architecture without a political component, oriented on business and reducing barriers".[176]

Pivot to Asia[edit] The union is actively seeking to increase trade with East Asia. It commenced talks for official trade cooperation with ASEAN. Officials of both unions discussed opportunities for developing cooperation between them.[177] The South Korean president launched a "Eurasian Initiative", which seeks to connect transportation, electrical, gas and oil links from Western Europe
Europe
to East Asia.[178][179] The initiative echoes China's long-standing "New Silk Road" project.[180] The members of the union agreed to step up talks with Vietnam
Vietnam
on creating a free trade zone, to strengthen cooperation with China, including in information exchange on goods and services, and to set up expert groups to develop preferential trade regimes with Israel
Israel
and India.[181]

Russia[edit] On 21 May 2014, Russia
Russia
and China
China
signed a $400 billion gas deal. Starting 2019, Russia
Russia
plans to provide natural gas to China
China
for the next 30 years. The European Council on Foreign Relations
European Council on Foreign Relations
and analysts suggest the Eurasian Union includes strategic interests as well as economic interests for its member states, especially Russia. In order to link both Europe
Europe
and East Asia, Russia
Russia
seeks to develop its eastern regions to increase its access to Asian markets. Russia's Far East has gained even more importance due to its proximity to alternative markets since the European Union
European Union
and United States
United States
imposed sanctions on Russia following the crisis in Ukraine.[journal 5] China's rise as a major trading partner has been cited as a potential reason for Russia's loss of control over Central Asian economies. The union is seen as a way to counterbalance China's growing trade in Central Asia
Asia
and the European Union's Eastern Partnership.[journal 6] As the trading bloc seeks to profit from the growing economies of East Asia, Russia
Russia
has made steps to develop its eastern territories, Siberia
Siberia
and the Russian Far East.[journal 5] However, the development of the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
may face difficulties due to Russia's traditional orientation towards Europe
Europe
and the region's backward infrastructure and underdeveloped economy.[journal 7] In 2012 Russian President
Russian President
Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
called for Russia
Russia
to "catch the Chinese wind in the sails of the Russian economy".[182] During the same year, a Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East was established and the country hosted a summit of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
forum (APEC) in its eastern city of Vladivostok. The country also began striking deals and undertook massive efforts to improve infrastructure in its eastern territories.[journal 7] Russia's pivot to Asia
Asia
included the important task of creating a Eurasian trading bloc. The countries seek to increase their competitiveness by sustaining domestic development and defending their interests in the region.[journal 8] An estimated 76% of Russia's exports depend on resources extracted (or manufactured) in Siberia. In order to transport goods from East Asia to Europe, they must be transported through Siberia
Siberia
by rail. Hence, the region plays an important role in trade. However, it remains less developed than Russia's western regions and modernisation plans are ongoing. In 2013 the Russian government announced it would spend 450 billion Rubles (USD$14 billion) for the modernisation of the Trans-Siberian and Baikal-Amur railways. Russian President
Russian President
Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
called the Trans-Siberian railway the country's "strategically vital transport artery". In July 2013 he stated "Rail freight traffic to our Far East ports has increased by 55 percent over the last 5 years and now comes to around 110 million tons a year". Projects to upgrade stations at the border with Mongolia, China
China
and North Korea
North Korea
were also undertaken the same year.[journal 9]

In 2013, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and China
China
signed 22 deals worth $30 billion, including several deals enhancing the countries' cooperation in the oil and gas sector. Some experts also see the union as a way to curtail the loss of Russian influence in Central Asia.[journal 6] Russian politicians have voiced their concerns over Russia's long southern borders and the challenges it may pose. By creating a regional trading bloc to keep its neighbours in Central Asia
Asia
stable, Russia
Russia
hopes to find securing its own borders easier.[183]

Kazakhstan[edit] Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev
Nursultan Nazarbayev
meets Xi Jinping, the Chairman of the People's Republic of China
China
on 6 April 2013. Neighbouring Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
has replicated Russia's attempt to access East Asian markets. In September 2013, the presidents of China
China
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
signed commercial deals and launched China's "New Silk Road". On 20 May 2014, both presidents announced they would link Kazakhstan's railways to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
by opening a new terminal in the Chinese port city of Lianyungang. China
China
also signed agreements to make further investments in Kazakhstan's energy sector. Both countries announced they would put aside US$1 billion to modernise an oil refinery in Shymkent
Shymkent
and a further USD$150 million to open a new oil and gas plant near Almaty. The president of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
also held talks with the heads of Chinese corporations and agreed to cooperate in the areas of aircraft production, telecommunication and mining.[journal 10]

Demographics[edit] The combined population of all member states is 183,319,693 as of 2015.

 vte Largest cities or towns in Eurasian UnionRosstat (2009),[184][185] Belstat.gov[186] UCI.edu[187]

Rank

Member state

Pop.

MoscowSaint Petersburg

1 Moscow Russia 11,514,300

MinskAlmaty

2 Saint Petersburg Russia 5,227,567

3 Minsk Belarus 1,834,200

4 Almaty Kazakhstan 1,507,737

5 Novosibirsk Russia 1,473,737

6 Yekaterinburg Russia 1,350,136

7 Nizhny Novgorod Russia 1,250,252

8 Samara Russia 1,164,900

9 Omsk Russia 1,153,971

10 Kazan Russia 1,143,600

Countries with population larger than Eurasian Economic Union The Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
has 17 cities with more than 1 million inhabitants, the largest being Moscow. The most densely populated areas are the capital cities of member states and European Russia. Siberia
Siberia
is the region with the least inhabitants. In Russia
Russia
about 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples live within the country's borders.[188] Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Belarus
Belarus
are home to sizable ethnic Russian minorities. Though the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union's populations are comparatively large, its density is low because of the enormous size of Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan. The Eurasian Economic Union's average birth rate in 2010 was roughly 12.5 births per 1000 people, higher than the European Union, which has an average of 9.90 births per 1000 people.

Languages[edit] According to Article 110 of the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (2014) the Russian language
Russian language
is the working language of the 'Bodies of the Union'.[189]

Foreign affairs[edit] The Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
mainly uses its arms industry,[190] raw materials,[191][192] gas and oil reserves,[193] and railways[194][195] as its key assets for trade with foreign countries.

Economic partners[edit] The Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
must negotiate as a whole to sign free trade agreements with other countries. Key players for the Eurasian Economic Union are the European Union, Turkey, Iran, China
China
and the Korean peninsula. The EEU has sought to increase its trade with partners in the Middle East
Middle East
and East Asia
Asia
in order to profit from the growing trade between Europe
Europe
and Asia. Tensions with the European Union
European Union
in 2014 have increased both unions to pressure post-Soviet states to join their integration unions. Both sides have accused each other of carving spheres of influence.[196][197] Members of the union, especially Russia
Russia
have tried to diversify their trade by signing economic agreements with China,[198] Iran[199] and Turkey.[200] Trade with North and South Korea
South Korea
has also risen.[201][202][203] A rising China
China
has been increasingly interested in Central Asia
Asia
and the Eurasian Economic Union.[204] Analysts see the union as a potential way China
China
could facilitate its investments in the region.[205] Historically, China
China
held close economic ties with many countries throughout Eurasia. Under the Han Dynasty, its trade routes extended to the Roman Empire. The Economy of the Han Dynasty and other subsequent dynasties exchanged numerous goods with countries throughout Europe
Europe
and Asia. Both China
China
and the union have stated they would benefit from recreating trade routes modelled on the historic Silk Road.[206] Railways transport goods from China
China
to the European Union
European Union
through Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia. The country has pushed for the construction of more railway lines to connect Berlin
Berlin
to east China
China
to reduce shipping time. It proposed major high-speed railway lines going towards Europe via Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and another through the Middle East
Middle East
via Tajikistan, a potential future member for the union.[207][208] China
China
has signed numerous energy deals with Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan, as it tries to move from coal to less pollutant alternatives.[209][210] Iran
Iran
has sought to diversify its economy as well, seeing the EEU and China
China
as key economic partners. Relations between Russia
Russia
and Iran
Iran
have increased as both countries are under U.S. sanctions and are seeking new trade partners. The two countries signed a historic US$20 billion energy deal.[211][212] Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
seeks to enhance its ties with Turkey, a key player in the region. In July 2014, Turkey
Turkey
announced closer economic ties with the EEU, including a possible free trade agreement in the near future.[213]

Armenia
Armenia
and Nagorno-Karabakh[edit] Ilham Aliyev, Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
and Serzh Sarkisian
Serzh Sarkisian
hold peace talks in Moscow
Moscow
on 2 November 2008. In September 2013 Armenia
Armenia
announced its intentions of joining the Customs Union
Customs Union
of Belarus, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia. At the time of joining the Union, the Republic of Armenia
Armenia
already had preferential treatment within the framework of the CIS as a party to the Free Trade Zone Agreement of October 18, 2011, and therefore enjoyed significant tariff benefits. According to an IMF representative in Armenia, Armenia’s membership to the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
resulted in about $250 million a year in customs revenue. Armenia
Armenia
also benefited in the form of secured privileges for 752 products until 2020, which implies no EAEU tariffs due to Union membership.[214] Joining the Union allowed the country to get even more tangible economic effects due to the functioning of the Common Economic Space, the use of common technical regulation, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, non-tariff regulation. Such results confirm that for the implementation of full-scale freedom of movement of goods, liberalization of tariff regulation alone is not enough.[215]

The region of Nagorno-Karabakh, however, is disputed between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Tensions rose further in the Caucasus
Caucasus
region on 30 July 2014 due to clashes between Armenian and Azerbaijani soldiers.[216]

Experts estimate that with the accession of Armenia, the internationally unrecognised Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Republic would not be integrated into the Eurasian Union.[215] Armenia
Armenia
is a permanent political, military and economic ally of Russia, whereas Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
holds close ties with the west.[citation needed] The Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev
Nursultan Nazarbayev
expressed concern in 2013 that no reliable customs border between Armenia
Armenia
and Nagorno-Karabakh could be drawn. However, Nazarbayev expressed that he holds all the existing disagreements preventing Armenia's integration into Eurasian Economic Union are surmountable.[217] The Chairman of the Foreign Policy Committee in the Armenian Parliament, Artak Zakarian, announced on 14 May 2014 that Armenia
Armenia
will build no customs border including the region of Nagorno-Karabakh.[218]

Uzbekistan, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Kyrgyzstan[edit] When Russia's Gazprom
Gazprom
bought the gas network of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
in April 2014 pledging "a stable gas supply", Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
subsequently cut off its gas exports to Kyrgyzstan's south stating that it had no contracts to sell gas to Gazprom. The cut off happened as Uzbek president, Islam Karimov protested Russia's growing presence in the region.[219] The shut-off left hundreds of thousands in south Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
without gas. The president of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
has since promised to build a new gas pipeline to the country's south, bypassing Uzbekistan. He also announced the country would pursue integration and continue on its path to join the Eurasian Economic Union.[220] Gazprom
Gazprom
later announced it had struck a deal to restore gas supplies to southern Kyrgyzstan.[221] Previously, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
was on track to become a potential member of the union, having signed the treaty on the Eurasian Customs Union
Eurasian Customs Union
and the Single Economic Space. However, due to border disputes between Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and Tajikistan, the integration process in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
has stalled.[72][73][222] Both countries exchanged fire in December 2013 and August 2014, which resulted in casualties.[222][223][224] Both countries have since announced they would resolve conflicts and improve border cooperation. Officials hope to make significant progress by the end of 2015.[225][226]

International response[edit]

The emphasis of the Eurasian Union is on economic integration, but this extends into the political and even security realms. For instance, the use of a single currency and a bureaucracy to manage the economic space would by design translate into Russian domination. — Stratfor, published by Wikileaks, Eurasian Union Proposal Key Aspect of Putin's Expected Presidency, 19 March 2013[227]

Former European commissioner, José Manuel Barroso
José Manuel Barroso
stated at the World Economic Forum that the EU supports the regional integration, including the Eurasian Union. He also praised Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
for joining the bloc. He criticized the post-Soviet space, saying "the integration in the region is not sufficient". However, he warned that the Ukrainian crisis
Ukrainian crisis
is a major obstacle to good cooperation between the EU and the Eurasian Union.[228][229] Tensions between the EEU and the European Union
European Union
(EU) occurred as both have sought to deepen their ties with several former Soviet republics. The EU has signed free trade agreements with Ukraine, Moldova
Moldova
and Georgia. However, separatists in all three countries back closer ties with Russia. Russia
Russia
and the EU both pressured Ukraine
Ukraine
to join their respective economic blocs to the exclusion of the other, which ultimately led to Ukraine
Ukraine
being torn in two,[230] with the EU supporting the unwilling departure of the elected president,[231] and Russia
Russia
then annexing the Crimean peninsula (following a referendum) and supporting separatists in Eastern Ukraine.[232][233] In response, some member states of the European Union
European Union
have sought to find alternatives to Russian gas, while others have voiced their support for the construction of the South Stream
South Stream
pipeline which circumvents Ukraine. Later the already started construction of the pipeline, under US sanctions on Russia
Russia
and pressure on EU, the project was abandoned. Analysts believe Russia backs the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
in order to limit western influence in the region.[219] Western analysts generally see the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
as a way to reunite many of the former Soviet republics. For example, Washington Post author Abigail Hauslohner wrote the treaty was intended "to further bolster [Russia]'s ties to former Soviet republics."[12] The United States
United States
expressed its opposition to the Eurasian Union, claiming it is "an attempt" to re-establish a USSR-type union among the former Soviet republics.[234] In December 2012, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
claimed "It's not going to be called that [Soviet Union]. It's going to be called customs union, it will be called the Eurasian Union and all of that, but let's make no mistake about it. We know what the goal is and we are trying to figure out effective ways to slow down or prevent it".[234] Kazakhstan's president Nursultan Nazarbayev
Nursultan Nazarbayev
called it "a hard-won achievement" and "a blessing for our people."[12] Public support in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
for the country's accession to the EEU stood at 68% in June 2014, with 5.5% opposed.[235] Thailand, Iran, New Zealand, Tunisia,[236] Turkey, and Vietnam are among the countries that expressed a desire to conclude trade agreements with the new Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
after the treaty was signed.[237]

Existing integration projects[edit] Euler diagram
Euler diagram
showing the relationships among various supranational organisations in the territory of the former Soviet Unionv • d • e The Eurasian Customs Union
Eurasian Customs Union
has already brought partial economic integration between the three states, and the Eurasian Economic Union is said to be a continuation of this customs union.[24] However, the impact or legacy of that agreement is unclear[238] – trade between the three states actually fell 13% during the agreement's first year.[95] A number of other regional organisations also provide the basis for further integration: the Union State
Union State
of Russia
Russia
and Belarus; the Collective Security Treaty Organisation, consisting of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia
Russia
and Tajikistan; and the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
comprising most of the post-Soviet countries.[journal 11][239][240]

See also[edit] .mw-parser-output div.columns-2 div.column float:left;width:50%;min-width:300px .mw-parser-output div.columns-3 div.column float:left;width:33.3%;min-width:200px .mw-parser-output div.columns-4 div.column float:left;width:25%;min-width:150px .mw-parser-output div.columns-5 div.column float:left;width:20%;min-width:120px

Central Asian Union Collective Security Treaty Organisation Commonwealth of Independent States Collective Security Treaty Organization Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations Comecon Eastern Bloc Enlargement of the Eurasian Economic Union Eurasian Development Bank Eurasian Economic Community Eurasian Patent Convention Eurasian Patent Organisation

Eurasianism EU NATO Russian Empire Soviet Union Union of Sovereign States Union State Warsaw Pact Trade bloc List of country groupings List of multilateral free-trade agreements

Notes and references[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ EAEU is the acronym is used in the organisation’s website. However, many media outlets use the acronym EEU.

^ These numbers only reflect the official budget (direct money) allocated for the functioning of the union. Vast amounts of additional funds come from national governments and other institutions to ease, promote or facilitate Eurasian integration.

^ a b c d This is the date on which the FTA came into force for the non-EEU member concerned. CISFTA
CISFTA
was negotiated before the establishment of the EEU on 1 January 2015. The CISFTA
CISFTA
treaty came into force at different dates for every state. The treaty came into force in Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia
Russia
at different dates between September and December 2012. Meanwhile, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
applied the treaty starting 13 December 2013. See Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area for detailed information of the FTA.

^ Suspended with regard to Russia
Russia
from 1 January 2016

Journal articles and studies[edit]

^ "Russian Federation" (PDF). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 7 July 2014..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ a b c d e f g h "Eurasian economic integration: figures and facts" (PDF). Retrieved 7 July 2014.

^ Steven Blockmans; Hrant Kostanyan; Ievgen Vorobiov (December 2012). "Towards a Eurasian Economic Union: The challenge of integration and unity" (PDF). 75 (CEPS Special
Special
Report). CEPS: 4–5. Given the distances between major economic centres, the transportation costs appear to be much higher in the case of trade within the CU than within the EEC. Besides, there is significant asymmetry in the distance between Russia's and Belarus' economic centres and those of Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan, which affects intra-bloc trade flows. This factor might significantly impede the envisaged positive effects of removing tariff barriers to trade and increasing labour mobility, and will therefore require greater efforts to ease cross-border trade, such as improving transport infrastructure.

^ Eurasian Union Brochure 2014 – English (PDF). pp. 26–27. Retrieved 8 July 2014.

^ a b Alexander Gabuev (May 2014). Liik, Kadri (ed.). Russia's Pivot to Asia: The development of the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
(PDF). 35 Old Queen Street, London, SW1H 9JA, United Kingdom: European Council on Foreign Relations. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-910118-03-0. Retrieved 4 September 2014. This Asian vector of Russian domestic and foreign policy is now becoming even more important as the European Union
European Union
and the United States
United States
impose sanctions on Russia. The Russian Far East, with its proximity to Asia, could become the new backbone of the Russian economy

^ a b Yesdauletova, Ardak; Yesdauletov, Aitmukhanbet (1 March 2014). "The Eurasian Union: Dynamics and Difficulties of the Post-Soviet Integration" (pdf). Trames (1): 12–13. Retrieved 4 September 2014. The Single Economic Space, which in the near future will be transformed into the Eurasian Union, has strategic aims as well as economic ones. Marlene Laruelle and Sebastien Peyrouse, both share this opinion about the diminution of Russia's influence on Central Asian countries. However, the Kremlin continues to conduct an active policy aimed at maintaining effective tools to influence the Central Asia
Asia
region.

^ a b Timofei Bordachev (May 2014). Liik, Kadri (ed.). Russia's Pivot to Asia: Eurasian Russia
Russia
in the twenty-first century (PDF). 35 Old Queen Street, London, SW1H 9JA, United Kingdom: European Council on Foreign Relations. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-910118-03-0. Retrieved 4 September 2014. In the first months of 2014 the work of the recently created Ministry for the Development of the Far East was significantly reinvigorated. Some governmental agencies were relocated from Moscow to Vladivostok
Vladivostok
and some major companies have been advised to follow with their main offices. But Russia's "pivot" is still held back by its backward infrastructure, its corruption, its underdeveloped economy, its demographic problems, and above all its archaic Eurocentric economic thinking.

^ Vladislav Inozemtsev (May 2014). Liik, Kadri (ed.). Russia's Pivot to Asia: Russia
Russia
turns east: Eurasian integration, regional development, and the West as East (PDF). 35 Old Queen Street, London, SW1H 9JA, United Kingdom: European Council on Foreign Relations. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-910118-03-0. Retrieved 4 September 2014. He said the creation by 2015 of a Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
was the most important task facing Russia
Russia
in its "near abroad.

^ Alexander Gabuev (May 2014). Liik, Kadri (ed.). Russia's Pivot to Asia: The development of the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
(PDF). 35 Old Queen Street, London, SW1H 9JA, United Kingdom: European Council on Foreign Relations. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-910118-03-0. Retrieved 4 September 2014. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) summit held in Vladivostok
Vladivostok
in September 2012 cost the state 680 billion roubles (over $22 billion) – one-third of which came from the federal budget, with the rest put up by state companies such as Gazprom. In 2012 the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East was created and in 2013 long-time Putin ally Yury Trutnev was appointed to oversee the development of the region in the joint role of deputy prime minister and presidential envoy to the region. In 2013 the government also allocated 300 billion roubles ($10 billion)[...]

^ Ernesto, Gallo (4 June 2014). "Kazakhstan's "Pivot to China"?" (PDF). Policy Brief (154). Retrieved 4 September 2014.

^ Brusis, Martin. "A Eurasian European Union? Relaunching Post-Soviet Economic Integration" (PDF): 8 & 13.

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vteEurasian integrationInstitutions Eurasian Development Bank Eurasian Economic Commission Eurasian Economic Community Eurasian Patent Convention Eurasian Patent Organization Eurasian Economic Union Enlargement Eurasian Customs Union Infrastructure Eurasian Land Bridge New Eurasian Land Bridge EU– Russia
Russia
Common Space History Russian Empire All-Russian nation Pan-Slavism Soviet Union Comecon Common European Home Post-Soviet states

vtePower in international relationsTypes Economic Energy Food Hard National Power politics Realpolitik Smart Soft Sharp Status Small Middle Regional Emerging Great Potential Super Hyper Geopolitics American (Pax) Asian British Chinese Indian Pacific History List of ancient great powers List of medieval great powers List of modern great powers International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) Theory Balance of power European Center of power Hegemonic stability theory Philosophy of power Polarity Power projection Power transition theory Second Superpower Sphere of influence Superpower
Superpower
collapse Superpower
Superpower
disengagement Studies Composite Index of National Capability Comprehensive National Power Organizations and groups by region or regions affectedAfrica African Union Union for the Mediterranean Africa–Asia Arab League Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
(GCC) Organization of Islamic Cooperation
Organization of Islamic Cooperation
(OIC) Americas Community of Latin American and Caribbean States Mercosur North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Organization of American States
Organization of American States
(OAS) Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(Unasur) Asia Asia
Asia
Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) China–Japan– South Korea
South Korea
trilateral summits Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
(SAARC) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
(SCO) Europe Council of Europe
Europe
(CE) European Union
European Union
(EU) Nordic Council Visegrád Group Eurasia Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) Collective Security Treaty Organization
Collective Security Treaty Organization
(CSTO) Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
(EaEU) Turkic Council North America–Europe North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Arctic
Arctic
Council Africa–Asia–Europe Union for the Mediterranean Africa–South America South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone Oceania–Pacific Australia–New Zealand– United States
United States
Security Treaty (ANZUS) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) Melanesian Spearhead Group
Melanesian Spearhead Group
(MSG) Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
(PIF) Polynesian Leaders Group
Polynesian Leaders Group
(PLG) Non–regional Brazil–Russia–India–China–South Africa (BRICS) Commonwealth of Nations Organisation internationale de la Francophonie Colombia–Indonesia–Vietnam–Egypt–Turkey–South Africa (CIVETS) E7 E9 G4 G7 G8 G8+5 G20 G24 G77 India–Brazil–South Africa Dialogue Forum (IBSA) Mexico–Indonesia–Nigeria– Turkey
Turkey
(MINT) Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Uniting for Consensus Global United Nations
United Nations
(UN)

vteInternational tradeTerminology Absolute advantage Balance of payments Balance of trade Capital account Comparative advantage Current account Export-oriented industrialization Fair trade Foreign exchange reserves Globalization Import substitution industrialization Net capital outflow Outsourcing Tariff Trade justice Trade war Trading nation Organizationsand policies International Monetary Fund UN Conference on Trade and Development World Bank Group World Trade Organization International Trade Centre International Chamber of Commerce Bilateral investment treaty Economic integration Incoterms ATA Carnet Free-trade zone Special
Special
economic zone Trade agreement Trade barrier Trade bloc Political economy Free trade
Free trade
(Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, Repeal of the Corn Laws) Mercantilism Protectionism
Protectionism
(Economic nationalism, Autarky) Regional organizationsAmericas Andean Community of Nations Caribbean Community Central American Integration System Mercosur Asia-Pacific Association of Southeast Asian Nations Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Europe, Central Asia, and North Asia Customs Union
Customs Union
of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia Eurasian Economic Union European Union
European Union
Customs Union Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa Arab Customs Union Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf Subsaharan Africa East African Community Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa Southern African Customs Union West African Economic and Monetary Union Exports by product Aircraft & Spacecraft Aircraft parts Aluminium Cars Car parts Coal Coffee Computers Copper Corn Cotton Diamonds Electricity Engines Gas
Gas
turbines Gold Integrated circuits Iron ore Natural gas Oil Petrol Pharmaceuticals Ships Steel Telecommunications equipment Telephones Trucks Wheat Wine

Category Commons

vteRegional organizationsBodies African Union Arab League Asia
Asia
Cooperation Dialogue APEC OCS ASEAN BBIN BIMSTEC Caribbean Community Central American Integration System Commonwealth of Independent States Commonwealth of Nations Community of Latin American and Caribbean States Council of Europe East African Community ECOWAS Economic Cooperation Organization Eurasian Economic Union EU GUAM Gulf Cooperation Council IORA Latin American Parliament Melanesian Spearhead Group Mercosur NATO Nordic Council OAS PIF Polynesian Leaders Group RCEP SCO SAARC TAKM Trilateral Cooperation Secretariat Turkic Council Union of South American Nations V4 West Nordic Council Topics Regional integration Regional organizations by population Regionalism (international relations)

Authority control GND: 1069952745 LCCN: n2012030654 WorldCat Identities
WorldCat Identities
(via LCC

.