HOME
The Info List - El Camino Real De Tierra Adentro


--- Advertisement ---



Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (Mexico) National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Land Management
(United States)

Website El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
National Historic Trail

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage
World Heritage
Site

Criteria Cultural: (ii), (iv)

Reference 1351

Inscription 2010 (34th Session)

[edit on Wikidata]

The Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
(Spanish for "Royal Road of the Interior Land") was a 2560 kilometer (1,600 mile) long trade route between Mexico City
Mexico City
and San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico, from 1598 to 1882.[1] In 2010, 55 sites and 5 existing World Heritage
World Heritage
Sites along the Mexican section of the route became an entry on the Unesco
Unesco
World Heritage List.[2] Those sites include historic cities, towns, bridges, haciendas and other monuments along the 1,400 km route between the Historic Center of Mexico City
Mexico City
(independent World Heritage
World Heritage
Site) and the town of Valle de Allende, Chihuahua. The 404 mile (646 kilometer) section of the route within the United States was proclaimed as a part of the National Historic Trail system on 13 October 2000. El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
National Historic Trail is overseen by both the National Park Service
National Park Service
and the U.S. Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Land Management
with aid from El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Trail Assoc. also known as CARTA. A portion of the trail near San Acacia, New Mexico
San Acacia, New Mexico
was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2014.[3]

Contents

1 History 2 Uses of the name and controversies 3 World Heritage
World Heritage
Site

3.1 Declared Sites 3.2 Location

4 United States
United States
Historic Trail 5 CARTA 6 Chihuahua Trail 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit]

Mexico
Mexico
City

The Spanish Mission of San Miguel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, it is the oldest church in the United States
United States
of America.

Before the arrival of the Spaniards, nomadic tribes lived by hunting and fishing. Then agriculture took root. Over time, "great civilizations" emerged and flourished. And long before the Europeans arrived, they already had established the trade network that would later become the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro. In those years, trade connected the peoples of the valley of Mexico
Mexico
with those of the north through the exchange of products such as turquoise, obsidian, salt and feathers, so that by the year 1000, trade spread from Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
to Rocky Mountains.[4] Once the great Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan
was subdued, the conquistadors began a series of expeditions with the purpose of expanding their domains and obtaining greater wealth for the Spanish Crown. At first they followed the trails with the "fragile footprints" of the natives who exchanged goods between the north and the south. Researchers Enrique Lamadrid, Jack Loeffer and Tomás Saldaña tell the story of the Camino Real as the oldest in North America:

The royal roads were the main transport routes for communication, cultural change and commerce. The viceroyal army, organized in light cavalry flying companies, protected travelers, livestock and merchandise"

In April 1598 -the investigators point out- "an advanced group of soldiers is lost in the desert south of Paso del Norte, seeking the best route to the Rio Grande. A captive Indian named Mompil drew in the sand a map of the only safe passage, which would soon be part of the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro". It is in this year, when this group, mainly led by the New-Spanish Juan de Oñate,[5] consolidated and extended the journey to what is now Santa Fe, capital of the then province of New Mexico, at that time, part of the New Spain. It should be noted that there were four main roads, or main routes, of Camino Real, which linked Mexico City
Mexico City
with Acapulco, Veracruz, Audiencia (Guatemala) and Santa Fe: "They formed a quadruple route full of walkers, carts and mule trains". From these is derived the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, which was the one that went to the north. The Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
followed a path marked by the terrain: "The volcanic activity and an inclement climate worked a land rich in deposits of silver, copper, gold, opals, turquoises and salt. The displacements of the tectonic plates opened in the center of New Mexico
Mexico
a crack more than a kilometer and a half deep, the second longest in the world. The melting waters that flowed into the valley formed the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
and it filled the deep gap with sediment". Initially when the Spanish Crown
Spanish Crown
decided not to abandon the province of New Mexico, ruinous in all respects, but to maintain it so as not to leave the Indigenous already Christianized, the Viceroyalty of New Spain
Spain
organized a system to supply the missions, presidios and nortern ranchos. It is in the so-called conducta, that they decide to organize themselves in wagon caravans that depart every three years from Mexico City to the border. It began a long and difficult journey of six months, including 2–3 weeks of rest throughout the trip. Many were the uncertainties that travelers faced. The floods of the rivers could force weeks of waiting on the banks until they could wade through. At the other extreme appeared prolonged droughts, which made men and animals suffer. The most feared was the crossing of the so-called Jornada del Muerto, beyond El Paso del Norte: a hundred kilometers without water to stock up. The greatest danger was that of assaults. There were specialized bands that from the current states of Mexico
Mexico
to the state of Querétaro
Querétaro
lurked the caravan (full of valuable articles). And, above all, from the southern Zacatecas, the greatest threat was the attacks of Natives Chichimecas, more frequent as it progressed towards the north. Their main objective was horses, sometimes even women and children. The troops of the presidios made relays to endow the convoy of additional protection, and when the caravan entered the most committed areas, to spend the night the cars formed a circle with the people and animals inside.

Bridge of Ojuelos in the state of Jalisco, part of the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, declared World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
along with 59 other sites on the route.

Plaza
Plaza
de San Francisco square where you can see the Templo de la Tercera Orden, and the Templo y Convento de San Francisco, whose construction began in 1567; in the city of Sombrerete, Zacatecas. You can see the Spanish influence mixed with local elements, such as the management of the pink quarry or the Tlaxcaltec
Tlaxcaltec
elements at the entrance of the temple.

Hacienda
Hacienda
de San Blas, in the town of Pabellón de Hidalgo, it is a 16th century hacienda, now made a Museum of the Insurgency. It is a good example of the agricultural haciendas that fed the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro.

The route was actively used as a commercial route for 300 years, from the middle of the 16th century to the 19th century, mainly for the transport of silver extracted from mines. For this reason, the road was improving, and over time the risks became smaller as hospitals and haciendas emerged. During the 18th century the sites along the Camino Real increased significantly. The villa of San Felipe el Real (today city of Chihuahua) surrounded by its mines became a commercial center and important financial area between Durango
Durango
and Santa Fe, this area would be called "the Chihuahua Trail". The villa of San Felipe Neri de Alburquerque was in turn founded in 1706 (today Albuquerque, New Mexico, the "r" is lost in the 19th century) and soon it became an important terminal along the "Chihuahua Trail". The Villa de Alburquerque was very important because of its defensive position on the Camino Real which gave it the chance to grow as a center of commercial exchange during the 18th century. The state of New Mexico traded mainly with cattle, wool, textiles, animal skins, salt, and nuts. This exchange occurred mainly with the mining cities of Chihuahua, Santa Bárbara and Parral. For the year of 1765 the population of the Paso del Norte was 2,635 inhabitants, which created that it was the largest urban center on the northern border of New Spain. El Paso became an important center of agriculture and rancheria and was known for its wines, brandy, vinegar and raisins. In the 18th century the Spanish Crown
Spanish Crown
authorized the celebration of the fairs, however they existed since the beginning of the Colony. Some of the most important fairs along the Camino Real included the Fair
Fair
of San Juan de los Lagos
San Juan de los Lagos
in Jalisco, the Fair
Fair
of Saltillo, and the Fair
Fair
of Chihuahua, which was of great importance to New Mexico merchants. The Fair
Fair
of the town of Taos was also an important annual event where the comanches and the utes exchanged weapons, ammunition, horses, agricultural products, furs, and meats with the New-Spanish. Spain
Spain
at the same time maintained a monopoly with the products of its northern provinces, thus it was not allowed to trade with the French colony in Louisiana. For the second half of the 18th century, the northern frontier of New Spain
Spain
represented a fundamental interest for the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
and its reformist policy, with the aim of ensuring Spanish sovereignty over such important territories, highly coveted geopolitically by other European powers:[6] a conciliatory policy was pertinent, above all because of the dangerous presence in the area of English and French, and a reconsideration of the role assigned to the Natives, since not only was it wanted not to hostile the Spaniards, become and be linked to economic processes, but also participate in the defense of the border.[6] Thus, the captain Nicolás de Lafora (assigned by the then marquis of Rubí) gives a description of the frontier of New Spain
New Spain
in his "Viaje a los presidios internos de la América septentrional" and that is the product of the expedition that took place between 1766 and 1768. This expedition was only part of a larger commission on the defensive issues and military reorganization entrusted by the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
to the Marquis of Rubí, to find out the bad tactical placement of the presidios, inspected the troops, recognized the regulations and proposed what was convenient for a better government and defensive state. The Marquis of Rubí thus militarily inspected the prisons in the internal provinces and proposed a line of presidios in the New Spain
Spain
border in 1766 which was raised from the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
to protect itself from the utes, apaches, comanches, and navajos.[7] Don José de Gálvez, special commissioner to New Spain
New Spain
for Charles III, promoted a "Comandancia General de las Provincias Internas" to the northern New Spain
New Spain
and recognized that a long war with the natives would be impossible due to lack of resources. On the contrary, he himself incited the establishment of peace and a greater commercial increase in 1779. In 1786 the nephew of José de Gálvez, Bernardo de Gálvez, viceroy of New Spain
New Spain
published his "Instructions" which included three strategies for deal with the Natives: continue the military pressure, the formation of alliances, and create a state of dependence on the part of the Natives, who had entered into peace treaties with the Spanish Crown. During the last decade of 18th century peace was achieved between the Spaniards and the Apache
Apache
tribes as a result of the aforementioned administrative and strategic changes. As a result, the commercial exchange of several products and of several regions of New Spain
New Spain
(land products), European products of the Spanish fleet and also those that came from the Manila galleon
Manila galleon
that arrived annually at Acapulco. As an example, for this time, the most typical products sold by the merchants of the city of Parral in the northern of the road, included: platoncillos of Michoacán, jarrillos of Cuautitlán
Cuautitlán
of the State of Mexico, majolica of the State of Puebla, porcelain junks of China, and mud products of Guadalajara. The 19th century brought many changes for both Mexico
Mexico
and its northern border. In 1821 after 11 years of struggle, Mexico
Mexico
became independent from Spain. The Camino Real maintained an important role in this period, since the travelers maintained the communication about the events that took place in the center of the country in the towns and villages in the internal provinces. During the Independence the Camino Real was used by both forces, rebels and royal forces. An example of this is that after the rebellion started by the liberator Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, he used the road to go to the city of Chihuahua where he was captured and executed

Templo de Nuestra Señora del Refugio located in Hacienda
Hacienda
La Pedriceña, in the now community of Los Cuatillos, in the municipality of Cuencamé, Durango. In this hacienda you can find Baroque paintings, and multiple mansions that served to manage the property. The chapel of the hacienda was built in the 18th century. The "Cry of Dolores" that is celebrated every year in Mexico
Mexico
on 15 September to remember the call of Independence given by Miguel Hidalgo, was organized from this hacienda by the president Benito Juárez
Benito Juárez
in 1864.

During and after independence, the government was unstable and the struggle continued, the resources sent to the northern provinces were continuously reduced, which led to the creation of alternate routes. For 1807, American merchants and other border military like Zebulon Pike tried to find trails to give to New Mexico
New Mexico
and Chihuahua. Zebulon Pike was captured on 26 February 1807 by the Spanish authorities in northern New Mexico, who sent him on the Camino Real to the city of Chihuahua. While Zebulon Pike
Zebulon Pike
was in this city, he had access to several maps of Mexico
Mexico
and learned of the discontent with Spanish domination. Between 1821 and 1822, after the end of the war for the Independence of Mexico, it begins to consolidate as a route the Santa Fe Trail
Santa Fe Trail
that connected Missouri
Missouri
(US territory) and Santa Fe (Mexican territory). At first, US merchants were imprisoned for infiltrating contraband into Mexican territory, however the economic crisis in northern Mexico, gave rise to more and more acceptance of this type of trade. In fact, the Santa Fe Trail
Santa Fe Trail
(Sendero de Santa Fe) increased trade for local products (such as cotton) and manufactured products from New Mexico, so Mexicans in this area looked favorably on this new trade route, in turn that they did not stop visiting the cities of the south. For 1827, there was already a lucrative and commercial connection between Missouri, New Mexico
New Mexico
and Chihuahua. In 1846, the dispute over the Texas- Mexico
Mexico
border with the United States gave rise to the subsequent US invasion by US military forces and the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
began. One of these forces was commanded by the general Stephen Kearny, who traveled by the Santa Fe Trail to seize the capital of New Mexico. Another of the forces commanded by Colonel Alexander William Doniphan
Alexander William Doniphan
defeated a small group of Mexican contingents on the Camino Real, in the Los Brazitos area the south of what is now Las Cruces, New Mexico
New Mexico
which was described in the diary of Susan Shelby Magoffin
Susan Shelby Magoffin
the wife of a merchant. As a result, Doniphan's American forces captured El Paso del Norte and later the city of Chihuahua. During 1846 - 1847, the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro became a path of continuous use, with American forces using it to travel into the interior of Mexico
Mexico
. On their journey, many American travelers kept journals and wrote to their homes about what they saw as they left. One of the soldiers provided an estimate of the population of several cities along the Camino. These included, Algodones with 1000 inhabitants, Bernalillo with 500, Sandía Pueblo of 300 to 400, Albuquerque without an estimated number but extended by seven or eight miles along the Rio Grande, rancho de los Placeres with 200 or 300, Tomé with 2,000, and Socorro was described as a "considerable city", Paso del Norte with 5,000 to 6,000, and the Carrizal with 400 inhabitants. The soldiers even kept notes of the products, prices, and animals that were on their journeys. In 1848 with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the war was officially ended with the requisition that Mexico
Mexico
cede most of its northern territory including what are now the states of New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. The Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
was divided forever between two countries, and over time their stories lasted while many others were lost; however, its cultural legacy is still tangible in our days. Uses of the name and controversies[edit]

The section of the road that runs through US territory, a total of 646 kilometers, was declared "National Historic Trail" in October of 2000.

The name lends itself to discussion or confusion, since during the Viceroyalty of New Spain
Viceroyalty of New Spain
was called "Camino Real" all roads passable in cart, which existed in a significant number throughout the viceroyalty. In the same way, it was called "Tierra Adentro" to the unexplored territories, particularly towards the north of the viceroyalty, which is why it was first called to Querétaro
Querétaro
City, and later to Saltillo
Saltillo
"La Puerta de Tierra Adentro" ("The Door of Tierra Adentro". For this reason, historically there were several "Caminos Reales de Tierra Adentro". In addition to the road to Santa Fe, another important road is the one that led to Texas. The "Camino Real de Tierra Adentro", which led to New Mexico, apparently adopted its name recently in United States
United States
to have legal protection, regardless of the fact that, when making legal use of it, the other Caminos Reales, such as Texas, were demerited, so that the use of such a name for the latter is not legally permitted (at least in the United States), although historically this was called. World Heritage
World Heritage
Site[edit]

Plate awarded by UNESCO
UNESCO
to the recognized sites of the section of the road that runs through Mexican territory.

The section of the road that runs through Mexican territory was inscribed in the World Heritage
World Heritage
List in November 2001, under the cultural criteria (i) and (ii), which refer to: i) Represent a masterpiece of the creative genius of man; and, ii) Be the manifestation of a considerable exchange of influences, during a specific period or in a specific cultural area, in the development of architecture or technology, monumental arts, urban planning or landscape design. Finally, on August 1, 2010, the United Nations World Heritage Committee for Education, Science and Culture (UNESCO) added this tour as World Heritage, together with another 24 new sites from various countries of the world. In 2010, UNESCO
UNESCO
included a portion of the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro as cultural heritage of humanity, under the criteria (ii): "to witness an important exchange of human values over a period of time or within of a cultural area of the world, in the development of architecture or technology, monumental arts, urbanism or landscape design" and (iv): "offer an eminent example of a type of building, architectural, technological or landscape , that illustrates a significant stage of human history". The designation thus, gave as a core zone to 3,102 hectares, with a buffer zone of 268,057 hectares; distributed among multiple sites. There are 60 places that were included in the list as World Heritage, 5 of which had already been recognized under their own name in the past ( Mexico
Mexico
City, Querétaro
Querétaro
City, Guanajuato
Guanajuato
City, San Miguel de Allende and Zacatecas).[8] It should be mentioned that the original historical route should not be confused with the one named by Unesco, since it has excluded sites of great importance for the route such as the Chihuahua City
Chihuahua City
or the famous Hacienda
Hacienda
de San Diego del Jaral de Berrio in the State of Guanajuato,[9] a key point for the route, to cite 2 samples. For this reason, a possible expansion of the denomination has been proposed in the future; currently the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia performs the search to find original stretches of the road in context, such as bridges, pavements, haciendas, etc. Declared Sites[edit]

Mexico City
Mexico City
and State of Mexico

Old College of San Francisco Javier in Tepotzotlán, February 2018.

1351-000: Historic center of Mexico
Mexico
City. 1351-001: Old College of San Francisco Javier in Tepotzotlán. 1351-002: Aculco
Aculco
town. 1351-003: Bridge of Atongo. 1351-004: Section of the Camino Real between Aculco
Aculco
and San Juan del Río.

Panorama of Plaza
Plaza
del Zócalo
Zócalo
with Palacio Nacional at front and flanked by the Metropolitan Cathedral, the Former City Hall and its twin building.

State of Hidalgo

1351-005: Templo and exconvento de San Francisco in Tepeji del Río de Ocampo and bridge. 1351-006: Section of the Camino Real between the bridge of La Colmena and the Hacienda
Hacienda
de La Cañada.

Templo and exconvento de San Francisco in Tepeji del Río de Ocampo

Bridge of La Colmena.

State of Querétaro

1351-007: Historic center of San Juan del Río. 1351-008: Hacienda
Hacienda
de Chichimequillas. 1351-009: Chapel of the hacienda de Buenavista. 1351-010: Historic center of Querétaro
Querétaro
City.

Querétaro
Querétaro
City Cathedral.

Templo y exconvento de San Agustín in Querétaro
Querétaro
City.

Templo y exconvento de San Francisco de Asís in Querétaro
Querétaro
City.

Casa de la Corregidora in Querétaro
Querétaro
City.

Querétaro
Querétaro
City Aqueduct.

Capilla de Nuestra señora de Guadalupe in San Juan del Río.

State of Guanajuato

1351-011: Bridge of El Fraile. 1351-012: Antiguo Real Hospital de San Juan de Dios in San Miguel de Allende. 1351-013: Bridge of San Rafael in Guanajuato
Guanajuato
City. 1351-014: Bridge La Quemada. 1351-015: City of San Miguel de Allende
San Miguel de Allende
and Sanctuario de Jesús Nazareno de Atotonilco. 1351-016: Historic center of Guanajuato City
Guanajuato City
and its adjacent mines.

Antiguo Real Hospital de San Juan de Dios in Guanajuato
Guanajuato
City.

Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Salud in San Miguel Allende.

Parroquia de San Miguel Arcángel in San Miguel Allende.

Sanctuario de Jesús Nazareno de Atotonilco.

Guanaguato City panorama.

Juárez Theatre in Guanajuato
Guanajuato
City.

State of Jalisco

1351-017: Historic center of Lagos de Moreno
Lagos de Moreno
and bridge. 1351-018: Historic set of Ojuelos de Jalisco. 1351-019: Bridge of Ojuelos de Jalisco. 1351-020: Hacienda
Hacienda
de Ciénega de Mata. 1351-021: Old Cemetery of Encarnación de Díaz.

Parroquia de la Asunción de María in Lagos de Moreno.

Parroquia de Nuestra Señora del Refugio in Lagos de Moreno.

Bridge of Lagos de Moreno.

Bridge of Ojuelos de Jalisco.

Mummy in Lagos de Moreno.

Church in Encarnación de Díaz.

Old Cemetery in Encarnación de Díaz.

State of Aguascalientes

1351-022: Hacienda
Hacienda
de Peñuelas. 1351-023: Hacienda
Hacienda
de Cieneguilla. 1351-024: Historic center of the Aguascalientes City. 1351-025: Hacienda
Hacienda
de Pabellón de Hidalgo.

Aguascalientes City
Aguascalientes City
Cathedral.

Templo de San Blas in Pabellón de Hidalgo.

State of Zacatecas

1351-026: Chapel of San Nicolás Tolentino of the Hacienda
Hacienda
de San Nicolás de Quijas. 1351-027: Town of Pinos. 1351-028: Templo de Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles of the town of Noria de Ángeles. 1351-029: Templo de Nuestra Señora de los Dolores in Villa González Ortega. 1351-030: Colegio de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de Propaganda Fide. 1351-031: Historic center of Sombrerete. 1351-032: Templo de San Pantaleón Mártir in the town of Noria de San Pantaleón. 1351-033: Sierra de Órganos. 1351-034: Architectural set of the town of Chalchihuites. 1351-035: Section of the Camino Real between Ojocaliente and Zacatecas. 1351-036: Cave of Ávalos. 1351-037: Historic center of Zacatecas
Zacatecas
City. 1351-038: Sanctuary of Plateros.

Iglesia Principal of the town of Pinos.

Colegio de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de Propaganda Fide.

El Laberinto of Altavista archaelogical zone in Chalchihuites.

Zacatecas
Zacatecas
Cathedral.

Plaza
Plaza
de San Agustin in Zacatecas
Zacatecas
City.

Cajas Reales in Sombrerete.

Iglesia de Santo Domingo in Sombrerete.

Sanctuary of Plateros.

State of San Luis Potosí

1351-039: Historic center of San Luis Potosí.

San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosí
Cathedral.

Chapel of San Pedro in Hacienda
Hacienda
de Gongorron.

Calle Universidad street

State of Durango

1351-040: Chapel of San Antonio of the Hacienda
Hacienda
de Juana Guerra. 1351-041: Churches in the town of Nombre de Dios. 1351-042: Hacienda
Hacienda
de San Diego de Navacoyán and Bridge del Diablo. 1351-043: Historic center of the Durango
Durango
City. 1351-044: Churches in the town of Cuencamé
Cuencamé
and Cristo de Mapimí. 1351-045: Chapel of the Refuge in the Hacienda
Hacienda
de Cuatillos. 1351-046: Iglesia Principal of the town of San José de Avino. 1351-047: Chapel of the Hacienda
Hacienda
de la Inmaculada Concepción of Palmitos de Arriba. 1351-048: Chapel of the Hacienda
Hacienda
de la Limpia Concepción of Palmitos de Abajo. 1351-049: Architectural set of Nazas. 1351-050: Town of San Pedro del Gallo. 1351-051: Architectural set of the town of Mapimí. 1351-052: Town of Indé. 1351-053: Chapel of San Mateo of the Hacienda
Hacienda
de San Mateo de la Zarca. 1351-054: Hacienda
Hacienda
de la Limpia Concepción of Canutillo. 1351-055: Templo de San Miguel in the town of Villa Ocampo. 1351-056: Section of the Camino Real between Nazas
Nazas
and San Pedro del Gallo. 1351-057: Ojuela Mine. 1351-058: Cave of Las Mulas de Molino.

Plaza
Plaza
de Armas in the Historic centre of Durango
Durango
City.

Templo de Cuencamé.

Town of Mapimí.

Town of Nazas.

Ojuela Mine.

State of Chihuahua

1351-059: Town of Valle de Allende Location[edit]

Mexico
Mexico
City

Santiago de Querétaro

Guanajuato
Guanajuato
City

Aguascalientes

Zacatecas

San Luis Potosí

Victoria de Durango

Valle de Allende

Location of the Mexican sixty declared sites belonging to the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro declared World Heritage
World Heritage
Site

United States
United States
Historic Trail[edit] From the Texas- New Mexico
New Mexico
border to San Juan Pueblo north of Española, a drivable route, mostly part of former U.S. Route 85, has been designated as a National Scenic Byway
National Scenic Byway
called El Camino Real. Portions of the trade route corridor also contain pedestrian, bicycle, and equestrian trails. These include the existing Paseo del Bosque Trail in Albuquerque and portions of the proposed Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Trail. Its northern terminus, Santa Fe, is a terminus also of the Old Spanish Trail and the Santa Fe Trail. Along the trail, parajes (stop overs) that have been preserved today include El Rancho de las Golondrinas. Fort Craig
Fort Craig
and Fort Selden
Fort Selden
are also located along the trail. CARTA[edit] El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
Trail Association (CARTA) is a non-profit trail organization that aims to help promote, educate, and preserve the cultural and historic trail in collaboration with the National Park Service, the Bureau of Land Management, the New Mexico Department of Cultural Affairs and various Mexican organizations. CARTA publishes an informative journal, Chronicles of the Trail, quarterly that provides people with further history and current affairs of the trail and what CARTA, as an organization, is doing to help the trail. Chihuahua Trail[edit] The Chihuahua Trail describes this route as it passed from New Mexico through the state of Chihuahua to central Mexico. In the late 16th century Spanish exploration and colonization had advanced from Mexico City
Mexico City
northward by the great central plateau to its ultimate goal in Santa Fe. Until Mexican independence (1821) all communications of New Mexico
New Mexico
with the outer world was restricted to this 1,500-mile (2,400 km) trail. Over it came ox carts and mule trains, missionaries and governors, soldiers and colonists. When the Santa Fe Trail
Santa Fe Trail
sprang up, traders from the United States
United States
extended their operations southward over the Chihuahua Trail and beyond to Durango
Durango
and Zacatecas. Superseded by railroads, the ancient Mexico City-Santa Fe road was revived as a great automobile highway of Mexico. The part in New Mexico, State Highway
Highway
85, pioneered by Franciscan
Franciscan
missionaries in 1581, may be the oldest highway in the United States. See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro.

El Camino Real (California)
El Camino Real (California)
– The California
California
Mission Trail El Camino Real de Los Tejas
El Camino Real de Los Tejas
– El Camino Real from Texas
Texas
east to Louisiana Old San Antonio Road
Old San Antonio Road
– A section of El Camino Real de Los Tejas Scenic byways in the United States National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
listings in Socorro County, New Mexico

References[edit]

^ Snyder, Rachel Louise. "Camino Real" American Heritage, April/May 2004. ^ " Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
World Heritage
World Heritage
List". UNESCO. Retrieved 5 August 2010.  ^ "Weekly list of actions 11/03/14 through 11/07/14". National Park Service. Retrieved 23 November 2014.  ^ http://www.colpos.mx/asyd/volumen8/numero2/res-11-001.pdf ^ http://www.educacion.gob.es/exterior/centros/albuquerque/es/newmexico/CaminoReal.pdf ^ a b http://www.saber.ula.ve/bitstream/123456789/28985/1/articulo1.pdf ^ "Linea de Presidios de la Frontera Novohispana: 1770 - 1780". cachanilla69.blogspot.mx.  ^ UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage
World Heritage
Convention (2010). "List of sites of the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro".  ^ http://vamonosalbable.blogspot.mx/search/label/Unesco

Further reading[edit]

Dictionary of American History by James Truslow Adams, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1940 Boyle, Susan Calafate. Los Capitalistas: Hispano Merchants and the Santa Fe Trade. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico
New Mexico
Press, 1997. Moorhead, Max L. New Mexico’s Royal Road. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958. Palmer, Gabrielle G., et al.. El Camino Real de Tierra Dentro. Santa Fe: Bureau of Land Management, 1993. Palmer, Gabrielle G. and Stephen L. Fosberg. El Camino Real de Tierra Dentro. Santa Fe: Bureau of Land Management, 1999. Preston, Douglas and José Antonio Esquibel. The Royal Road. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico
New Mexico
Press, 1998.

External links[edit]

National Park Service: official El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail website El Camino Real International Heritage Center El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
– Integrated education curriculum CARTA – El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
Trail Association: website N.M.-Monuments.org – "A Road Over Time"

v t e

World Heritage
World Heritage
Sites in Mexico

North West

Archaeological Zone of Paquimé, Casas Grandes El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve Islands and Protected Areas of the Gulf of California1 Rock Paintings of Sierra de San Francisco Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino

North Central

Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Franciscan
Franciscan
Missions in the Sierra Gorda of Querétaro Historic Centre of Zacatecas Historic Monuments Zone of Querétaro Historic Town of Guanajuato
Guanajuato
and Adjacent Mines Protected town of San Miguel and the Sanctuary of Jesús Nazareno de Atotonilco

West

Agave Landscape and Ancient Industrial Facilities of Tequila Archipiélago de Revillagigedo Historic Centre of Morelia Hospicio Cabañas, Guadalajara Islands and Protected Areas of the Gulf of California1 Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve1

East

Earliest 16th-century Monasteries on the slopes of Popocatépetl1 Pre-Hispanic City of El Tajín Historic Centre of Puebla Historic Monuments Zone of Tlacotalpan

South West

Historic Centre of Oaxaca and Archaeological Site of Monte Albán Prehistoric Caves of Yagul
Yagul
and Mitla
Mitla
in the Central Valley of Oaxaca Pre-Hispanic City and National Park of Palenque

South Central

Archaeological Monuments Zone of Xochicalco Aqueduct of Padre Tembleque
Aqueduct of Padre Tembleque
Hydraulic System Central University City Campus of the UNAM Earliest 16th-century Monasteries on the slopes of Popocatépetl1 Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Historic Centres of Mexico City
Mexico City
and Xochimilco Luis Barragán House and Studio Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve1 Pre-Hispanic City of Teotihuacán

South East

Ancient Maya City of Calakmul, Campeche Historic Fortified Town of Campeche Pre-Hispanic City of Chichén Itzá Sian Ka'an Pre-Hispanic Town of Uxmal

1 Shared by more than one region

v t e

Protected areas of New Mexico

National Parks

Carlsbad Caverns

National Historical Parks

Chaco Culture Manhattan Project Pecos

National Monuments

Aztec Ruins Bandelier Capulin Volcano El Malpais El Morro Fort Union Gila Cliff Dwellings Petroglyph Salinas Pueblo Missions White Sands

National Trails

El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Old Spanish Trail Santa Fe Trail

National Forests

Apache-Sitgreaves Carson Cibola Coronado Gila Lincoln Santa Fe

National Grasslands

Kiowa

National Wildlife Refuges

Bitter Lake Bosque del Apache Grulla Las Vegas Maxwell San Andres Sevilleta

National Conservation Areas

El Malpais Fort Stanton – Snowy River Cave

BLM National Monuments

Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks Organ Mountains-Desert Peaks Prehistoric Trackways Rio Grande
Rio Grande
del Norte

National Natural Landmarks

See List of National Natural Landmarks in New Mexico

National Preserves

Valles Caldera

Wilderness

Aldo Leopold Apache
Apache
Kid Bandelier Bisti/De-Na-Zin Blue Range Bosque del Apache Capitan Mountains Carlsbad Caverns Cebolla Chama River Canyon Columbine-Hondo Cruces Basin Dome Gila Latir Peak Manzano Mountain Ojito Pecos Sabinoso Salt
Salt
Creek San Pedro Parks Sandia Mountain West Malpais Wheeler Peak White Mountain Withington

State Parks

Bluewater Lake Bottomless Lakes Brantley Lake Caballo Lake Cerrillos Hills Cimarron Canyon City of Rocks Clayton Lake Conchas Lake Coyote Creek Eagle Nest Lake El Vado Lake Elephant Butte Lake Fenton Lake Heron Lake Hyde Memorial Leasburg Dam Living Desert Zoo and Gardens Manzano Mountains Mesilla Valley Bosque Morphy Lake Navajo
Navajo
Lake Oasis Oliver Lee Memorial Pancho Villa Percha Dam Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Nature Center Rockhound Santa Rosa Lake Storrie Lake Sugarite Canyon Sumner Lake Ute Lake Vietnam Veterans Memorial Villanueva

v t e

Spanish / Hispanic Colonial architecture

Bigger Historic Centers

Antigua Guatemala Bogotá Buenos Aires Campeche Cartagena de Indias Cienfuegos Coro Cuernavaca Cusco Granada Guanajuato Havana León Los Angeles Lima Manila Mexico
Mexico
City Mompox Montevideo Morelia Oaxaca Old Panama Panama City Puebla Quito San Diego San Juan San Miguel de Allende Santo Domingo St. Augustine Trujillo Vigan

Spanish Missions concentrations

List of Spanish missions

Cathedrals

Argentina Bolivia Chile Costa Rica Colombia Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador Guam Guatemala Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay The Philippines Peru Puerto Rico United States

Arizona California Louisiana San Antonio

Uruguay Venezuela

Churches and monasteries

Baroque Churches of the Philippines Bohol Chiloé Popocatépetl

Fortifications

Presidio Caribbean coast of Panama Santo Domingo

Bridges and roads

Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Tayabas

Other buildings types

Hacienda

Haciendas in the Valley of Ameca

Cabildo Colonial universities in Hispanic America Colonial universities in the Philippines Plaza

Architecture types

Baroque

Andean Churrigueresque Earthquake Mexican Sicilian1

Chilotan Monterey Colonial Renaissance Rococo Neoclassical

Modern Revival Style

Spanish Colonial Revival architecture Mission Revival architecture

1It occured when it was part of the Spanish kingdom Category

v t e

Spanish Empire

Timeline

Catholic Monarchs Habsburgs Golden Age Encomiendas New Laws
New Laws
in favour of the indigenous Expulsion of the Moriscos Ottoman–Habsburg wars French Wars of Religion Eighty Years' War Portuguese Restoration War Piracy in the Caribbean Bourbons Napoleonic invasion Independence of Spanish continental Americas Liberal constitution Carlist Wars Spanish–American War German–Spanish Treaty (1899) Spanish Civil War Independence of Morocco (Western Sahara conflict)

Territories

Kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia Milan Union with Holy Roman Empire Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France Franche-Comté Union with Portugal Philippines East Pacific (Guam, Mariana, Caroline, Palau, Marshall, Micronesia, Moluccas) Northern Taiwan Tidore Florida New Spain
New Spain
(Western United States, Mexico, Central America, Spanish Caribbean) Spanish Louisiana
Louisiana
(Central United States) Coastal Alaska Haiti Belize Jamaica Trinidad and Tobago Venezuela, Western Guyana New Granada (Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, a northernmost portion of Brazilian Amazon) Peru (Peru, Acre) Río de la Plata (Argentina, Paraguay, Charcas (Bolivia), Banda Oriental (Uruguay), Falkland Islands) Chile Equatorial Guinea North Africa (Oran, Tunis, Béjaïa, Peñón of Algiers, Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco, Ifni
Ifni
and Cape Juby)

Administration

Archivo de Indias Council of the Indies Cabildo Trial of residence Laws of the Indies Royal Decree of Graces School of Salamanca Exequatur Papal bull

Administrative subdivisions

Viceroyalties

New Spain New Granada Perú Río de la Plata

Audiencias

Bogotá Buenos Aires Caracas Charcas Concepción Cusco Guadalajara Guatemala Lima Manila Mexico Panamá Quito Santiago Santo Domingo

Captaincies General

Chile Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Venezuela Yucatán Provincias Internas

Governorates

Castilla de Oro Cuba Luisiana New Andalusia (1501–1513) New Andalusia New Castile New Navarre New Toledo Paraguay Río de la Plata

Economy

Currencies

Dollar Real Maravedí Escudo Columnario

Trade

Manila galleon Spanish treasure fleet Casa de Contratación Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas Barcelona Trading Company Camino Real de Tierra Adentro

Military

Armies

Tercio Army of Flanders Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia Indian auxiliaries Spanish Armada Legión

Strategists

Duke of Alba Antonio de Leyva Martín de Goiti Alfonso d'Avalos García de Toledo Osorio Duke of Savoy Álvaro de Bazán the Elder John of Austria Charles Bonaventure de Longueval Pedro de Zubiaur Ambrosio Spinola Bernardo de Gálvez

Sailors

Christopher Columbus Pinzón brothers Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Juan de la Cosa Juan Ponce de León Miguel López de Legazpi Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Sebastián de Ocampo Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Alonso de Ojeda Vasco Núñez de Balboa Alonso de Salazar Andrés de Urdaneta Antonio de Ulloa Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Columbus Alonso de Ercilla Nicolás de Ovando Juan de Ayala Sebastián Vizcaíno Juan Fernández Felipe González de Ahedo

Conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Francisco Pizarro Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada Hernán Pérez de Quesada Francisco Vázquez de Coronado Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Pedro de Valdivia Gaspar de Portolà Pere Fages i Beleta Joan Orpí Pedro de Alvarado Martín de Ursúa Diego de Almagro Pánfilo de Narváez Diego de Mazariegos Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera Pere d'Alberní i Teixidor

Battles

Old World

Won

Bicocca Landriano Pavia Tunis Mühlberg St. Quentin Gravelines Malta Lepanto Antwerp Azores Mons Gembloux Ostend English Armada Cape Celidonia White Mountain Breda Nördlingen Valenciennes Ceuta Bitonto Bailén Vitoria Tetouan Alhucemas

Lost

Capo d'Orso Preveza Siege of Castelnuovo Algiers Ceresole Djerba Tunis Spanish Armada Leiden Rocroi Downs Montes Claros Passaro Trafalgar Somosierra Annual

New World

Won

Tenochtitlan Cajamarca Cusco Bogotá
Bogotá
savanna Reynogüelén Penco Guadalupe Island San Juan Cartagena de Indias Cuerno Verde Pensacola

Lost

La Noche Triste Tucapel Chacabuco Carabobo Ayacucho Guam Santiago de Cuba Manila Bay Asomante

Spanish colonizations

Canary Islands Aztec Maya

Chiapas Yucatán Guatemala Petén

El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Chibchan Nations Colombia Peru Chile

Other civil topics

Spanish missions in the Americas Architecture Mesoamerican codices Cusco
Cusco
painting tradition Indochristian painting in New Spain Quito painting tradition Colonial universities in Latin America Colonial universities in the Philippines General Archive of the Indies Colonial Spanish Horse Castas Old inquisition Slavery in Spanish Empire British and American slaves granted their freedom by Spain

Coordinates: 22°36′29″N 102°22′45″W / 22.60806°N 102.37917°W / 22

.