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Mostly Irreligion[13] Historically Christian Roman Catholic, Hussite, Lutheran and other Moravians, Slovaks, Silesians, Sorbs, Germans[14], Austrians[14], Bavarians, Poles
Poles
& other West Slavs

The Czechs
Czechs
(Czech: Češi, pronounced [ˈtʃɛʃɪ]; singular masculine: Čech [ˈtʃɛx], singular feminine: Češka [ˈtʃɛʃka]) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Czech language. Ethnic Czechs
Czechs
were called Bohemians in English until the early 20th century, referring to the medieval land of Bohemia
Bohemia
which in turn was adapted from late Iron Age
Iron Age
tribe of Celtic Boii. During the Migration Period, West Slavic tribes of Bohemians settled in the area, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations", and formed a principality in the 9th century, which was part of great Moravia, in form of Duchy of Bohemia
Bohemia
and later Kingdom of Bohemia, the predecessors of the modern republic. The Czech diaspora
Czech diaspora
is found in notable numbers in the United States, Canada, Israel, Austria, Germany, Slovakia, Switzerland, Italy, the United Kingdom, Australia, Argentina
Argentina
and Brazil
Brazil
among others.

Contents

1 Ethnology

1.1 Genetics

2 History 3 Notable people

3.1 Historical figures 3.2 Modern politicians 3.3 Science 3.4 Sports 3.5 The arts

3.5.1 Music 3.5.2 Literature 3.5.3 Visual Arts 3.5.4 Film 3.5.5 Modeling

3.6 Saints 3.7 Natives 3.8 Czech ancestry

4 Geography 5 Czech language 6 Religion 7 Demographics 8 See also 9 References

9.1 Notes 9.2 Citations

10 Sources 11 Further reading 12 External links

Ethnology[edit]

Part of a series on the

Culture of Czech Republic

History

History Kingdom of Bohemia Czech National Revival

People

Languages

Mythology
Mythology
and folklore

Mythology folklore

Cuisine

Festivals

Religion

Art

Literature

Music and performing arts

Music Performing arts

Media

Television Cinema Telecommunications

Sport

Monuments

World Heritage Sites

Symbols

Flag Coat of arms

Czech Republic
Czech Republic
portal

v t e

The Czech ethnic group is part of the West Slavic subgroup of the larger Slavic ethno-linguistical group. The West Slavs
West Slavs
have origin in early Slavic tribes which settled in Central Europe
Central Europe
after East Germanic tribes had left this area during the migration period.[15] The West Slavic tribe of Bohemians settled in the area of Bohemia during the migration period, and assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations.[16] They formed a principality in the 9th century, the Duchy of Bohemia, under the Přemyslid dynasty
Přemyslid dynasty
which was part of the Great Moravia
Moravia
under Svatopluk I. According to mythology, the founding father of the Czech people were Forefather Čech, who according to legend brought the tribe of Czechs
Czechs
into its land. The Czech are closely related to the neighbouring Slovaks
Slovaks
(with whom they constituted Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
1918–1993). The Czech–Slovak languages form a dialect continuum rather than being two clearly distinct languages.[17] Czech cultural influence in Slovak culture is noted as having been much higher than the other way around.[18] Czech (Slavic) people have a long history of coexistence with Germanic people. In the 17th century, German replaced Czech in central and local administration; upper classes in Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia
Moravia
were Germanized, and espoused a political identity (landespatriotismus), while Czech ethnic identity survived among the lower and lower-middle classes.[19] The Czech National Revival
Czech National Revival
took place in the 18th and 19th centuries aiming to revive Czech language, culture and national identity. The Czech were the initiators of Pan-Slavism.[20] The Czech ethnonym (archaic Čechové) was the name of a Slavic tribe in central Bohemia
Bohemia
that subdued the surrounding tribes in the late 9th century and created the Czech/Bohemian state. The origin of the name of the tribe itself is unknown. According to legend, it comes from their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia. Research regards Čech as a derivative of the root čel- (member of the people, kinsman).[21] The Czech ethnonym was adopted by the Moravians
Moravians
in the 19th century.[22] The name "Bohemia" (and "Bohemians") is Germanic; English used that name until after the establishment of Czechoslovakia. Genetics[edit] Further information: Genetic history of Europe

Distribution of populations in selected nations according to their Haplogroup frequencies, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2007[14]   Czech samples   German samples   Polish samples   Italian samples   Balkan samples

The population of the Czech lands
Czech lands
has been influenced by different human migrations that wide-crossed Europe
Europe
over time. In their Y-DNA haplogroups, which are inherited along the male line, Czechs
Czechs
have shown a mix of Eastern and Western European traits. 34.2% of Czech males belong to R1a, which is particularly common in a large region extending from South Asia
South Asia
and Southern Siberia
Siberia
to Central Europe
Central Europe
and Scandinavia. Within the Czech Republic, the proportion of R1a seems to gradually increase from west to east [23] According to a 2000 study, 35.6% of Czech males have haplogroup R1b, which is very common in Western Europe
Europe
among Germanic and Celtic nations, but rare among Slavic nations.[24] A mtDNA study of 179 individuals from Western Bohemia
Bohemia
showed that 3% had East Eurasian lineages that perhaps entered the gene pool through admixture with Central Asian nomadic tribes in the early Middle Ages.[25] A group of scientists suggested that the high frequency of a gene mutation causing cystic fibrosis in Central European (including Czech R.) and Celtic populations proves a proto-Celtic population origin, besides the Slavic, in the Czech population.[26]

Y-DNA studies

Population n R1b R1a I  E1b1b J G N T Others Reference

Czech R. 257 — 7001342000000000000♠34.2 7001183000000000000♠18.3 7000580000000000000♠5.8 7000470000000000000♠4.7 7000510000000099999♠5.1 7000160000000000000♠1.6 — — Luca et al. 2007[14]

Czech R. ? 7001356000000000000♠35.6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Semino et al. 2000[24]

History[edit]

Slavic tribes in Europe
Europe
in the 7th to 9th Century

Duchy of Bohemia, the early form of the Czech state pictured in the 11th century within the Holy Roman Empire

Forefather Čech
Forefather Čech
on the Říp Mountain

The population of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
descends from diverse peoples of Slavic, Celtic and Germanic origin.[16][27][28] Presence of West Slavs in the 6th century during the Migration Period
Migration Period
has been documented on the Czech territory.[16] Slavs
Slavs
settled in Bohemia, Moravia
Moravia
and Austria sometime during the 6th or 7th centuries,[29] and "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations".[16][30] According to a popular myth, the Slavs
Slavs
came with Forefather Čech
Forefather Čech
who settled at the Říp Mountain. During the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs
Slavs
fighting against nearby settled Avars, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe, the Samo's Empire. The principality Great Moravia, controlled by the Moymir dynasty, arose in the 8th century and reached its zenith in the 9th (during the reign of Svatopluk I of Moravia) when it held off the influence of the Franks. Great Moravia
Moravia
was Christianized, the crucial role played Byzantine mission of Cyril and Methodius. The Duchy of Bohemia
Bohemia
emerged in the late 9th century. In 880, Prague Castle
Prague Castle
was constructed by Prince Bořivoj, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty
Přemyslid dynasty
and the city of Prague
Prague
was established. Vratislav II was the first Czech king in 1085 and the duchy was raised to a hereditary kingdom under Ottokar I in 1198. The second half of the 13th century was a period of advancing German immigration into the Czech lands. The number of Czechs
Czechs
who have at least partly German ancestry today probably runs into hundreds of thousands.[31] The Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy
Monarchy
focused much of its power on religious wars against the Protestants. While these religious wars were taking place, the Czech estates revolted against Habsburg
Habsburg
from 1546 to 1547 but were ultimately defeated.[32]

Part of a series on

Czechs

Diaspora

Europe

Vienna
Vienna
(Austria) Bulgaria Croatia France Poland Romania Serbia United Kingdom

North America

United States
United States
(Baltimore, Nebraska, South Dakota, Texas) Mexico Canada

South America

Argentina Brazil Venezuela

Oceania

Australia

Subgroups

Moravians Silesians

Culture

Literature Music Art Cinema Cuisine Dress Sport Religion

History

History of the Czech lands Rulers

Language

Czech Moravian

Related nations

Austrians
Austrians
* Germans
Germans
* Poles
Poles
* Silesians
Silesians
* Slovaks
Slovaks
* West Slavs

v t e

Czech traditional costumes

Defenestrations of Prague
Prague
in 1618, signaled an open revolt by the Bohemian estates against the Habsburgs
Habsburgs
and started the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of White Mountain
Battle of White Mountain
in 1620, all Czech lands
Czech lands
were declared hereditary property of the Habsburg
Habsburg
family. The German language was made equal to the Czech language. Czech patriotic authors tend to call the following period, from 1620 to 1648 until the late 18th century, the "Dark Age". It is characterized by devastation by foreign troops; Germanization; and economic and political decline. It is estimated that the population of the Czech lands
Czech lands
declined by a third.[33] The 18th and 19th century is characterized by the Czech National Revival, focusing to revive Czech culture and national identity. Since the turn of the 20th century, Chicago is the city with the third largest Czech population, after Prague
Prague
and Vienna.[34][35] During World War I, Czechoslovak Legions
Czechoslovak Legions
fought in France, Italy
Italy
and Russia
Russia
against the Central Powers
Central Powers
and in 1918 was proclaimed independent Czechoslovakia. Czechs
Czechs
formed the leading class in the new state from the remnants of the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy. After 1933, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
remained the only democracy in central and eastern Europe. However, in 1938 the Munich Agreement
Munich Agreement
severed the Sudetenland, with a considerable Czech minority, from Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 the German Nazi regime established the Protectorate of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia
Moravia
for Resttschechei
Resttschechei
(the rump Czech state[36][37][38]). Emil Hácha
Emil Hácha
became president of the protectorate under Nazi domination, which only allowed pro-Nazi Czech associations and tended to stress ties of the Czechs
Czechs
with the Bohemian Germans
Germans
and other parts of the German people, in order to facilitate assimilation by Germanization. In Lidice, Ležáky
Ležáky
and Javoříčko the Nazi authorities committed war crimes against the local Czech population. On May 2, 1945, the Prague
Prague
Uprising reached its peak, supported by the Russian Liberation Army. The post-war expulsion of Germans
Germans
from Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and the immediate reprisals against Germans
Germans
and Nazi collaborators by Czech resistance
Czech resistance
and the Czechoslovak state authorities, made Czechs—especially in the early 1950s—settle alongside Slovaks
Slovaks
and Romani people
Romani people
in the former lands of the Sudeten Germans, who had been deported to East Germany, West Germany
Germany
and Austria
Austria
according to the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
and Yalta Conference. The Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in 1968 was followed by a wave of emigration, unseen before and stopped shortly after (estimate: 70,000 immediately, 300,000 in total),[39] typically of highly qualified people. Tens of thousands of Czechs
Czechs
had repatriated from Volhynia
Volhynia
and Banat after World War II. Since the 1990s, the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
has been working to repatriate Romania
Romania
and Kazakhstan's ethnic Czechs.[40][41] Following the Czech Republic's entry into the European Union in May 2004, Czechs
Czechs
gradually gained the right to work in EU countries without a work permit.[42] Notable people[edit] See also: List of Czechs Historical figures[edit] The last five Přemyslids were kings: Ottokar I of Bohemia, Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, Ottokar II of Bohemia, Wenceslaus II of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Wenceslaus III of Bohemia. The most successful and influential of all Czech kings was Charles IV, who also became the Holy Roman Emperor.[43] The Luxembourg dynasty
Luxembourg dynasty
represents the heights of Czech (Bohemian) statehood territorial and influence as well as advancement in many areas of human endeavors.[44] Many people are considered national heroes and cultural icons, many national stories concern their lives. Jan Hus
Jan Hus
was a religious reformist from the 15th century and spiritual father of the Hussite Movement.[45] Jan Žižka
Jan Žižka
and Prokop the Great
Prokop the Great
were leaders of hussite army, George of Poděbrady
George of Poděbrady
was a hussite king. Albrecht von Wallenstein was a notable military leader during the Thirty Years' War. The teacher of nations Jan Amos Komenský
Jan Amos Komenský
is also considered a notable figure in Czech history.[46] Joseph Radetzky von Radetz
Joseph Radetzky von Radetz
was an Austrian general staff during the later period of the Napoleonic Wars. Josef Jungmann
Josef Jungmann
is often credited for expanding the modern Czech language, and preventing its extinction.[47] The first modern Czech politician was František Palacký, often called "father of nation". Modern politicians[edit] One of the most notable figures are founders of Czechoslovakia, modern state of independence of Czech and Slovak nations, Presidents Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and Edvard Beneš, who was also leader of exile government in World War II. Ludvík Svoboda
Ludvík Svoboda
was a head of the Czechoslovak military units on the Eastern Front during the World War II (later president of Czechoslovakia). The key figures of the Communist regime were Klement Gottwald, Antonín Zápotocký, Antonín Novotný (and Slovak Gustáv Husák), the most famous victims of this regime were Milada Horáková
Milada Horáková
and Rudolf Slánský. Jan Palach committed self-immolation as a political protest against the end of the Prague
Prague
Spring resulting from the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
armies. Another notable politician after the fall of the communist regime is Václav Havel, last President of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and first President of the Czech Republic.[48] The current first directly elected president is Miloš Zeman.[49] The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
has had multiple Prime Ministers the first of which was latter Presidents Václav Klaus
Václav Klaus
and Miloš Zeman.[50] Another Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
were conservative politicians such as Mirek Topolánek, Petr Nečas
Petr Nečas
and social democratic such as Vladimír Špidla, Jiří Paroubek, Bohuslav Sobotka.[51] Diplomat Madeleine Albright
Madeleine Albright
is of Czech origin and fluent in Czech. Other well-known Czech diplomats were Jan Masaryk
Jan Masaryk
or Jiří Dienstbier. Science[edit] Czechs
Czechs
established themselves mainly in Biology, Chemistry, Philology or Egyptology.

Chemistry – Jaroslav Heyrovský
Jaroslav Heyrovský
(Nobel Prize 1959), Zdenko Hans Skraup Biology – Jan Evangelista Purkyně, Carl Borivoj Presl, Jan Svatopluk Presl, Karel Domin, Kaspar Maria von Sternberg, Friedrich von Berchtold, Ferdinand Stoliczka, Wenceslas Bojer, Jan Janský, Alberto Vojtěch Frič, August Carl Joseph Corda Mathematics – Eduard Čech, Miroslav Katětov, Petr Vopěnka Physics and Engineering – Ignaz von Born, Otto Wichterle, František Běhounek, Jan Marek Marci, Josef Ressel, František Křižík, Vincenc Strouhal, Prokop Diviš, František Josef Gerstner Astronomy – Antonín Mrkos, Antonín Bečvář Astronautics – Vladimír Remek Philology – Bedřich Hrozný, Josef Dobrovský, Josef Jungmann, Vilém Mathesius, Julius Pokorny, René Wellek, Jan Mukařovský Medicine – Carl von Rokitansky, Joseph Škoda Archeology – Pavel Pavel, Lubor Niederle, Karel Absolon, Miroslav Verner Anthropology and Ethnography – Aleš Hrdlička, Emil Holub, Alois Musil History – František Palacký, Bohuslav Balbín, Konstantin Jireček, Max Dvořák, Miroslav Hroch Philosophy – Jan Patočka, Karel Kosík, Egon Bondy, Ladislav Klíma Psychology – Stanislav Grof Theology – Jan Hus, Jerome of Prague, Petr Chelčický, Jan Rokycana, Tomáš Špidlík, Tomáš Halík Modern occultism – Franz Bardon Pedagogy – Jan Amos Komenský Folklorists – František Ladislav Čelakovský, Karel Jaromír Erben Literary theory – Karel Teige, Pavel Janáček

Sports[edit] Sports have also been a contributor to famous Czechs
Czechs
especially tennis, football, hockey, and athletics:

Tennis
Tennis
– Jaroslav Drobný, Jan Kodeš, Martina Navrátilová, Ivan Lendl, Hana Mandlíková, Jana Novotná, Helena Suková, Petr Korda, Petra Kvitová,[52] Tomáš Berdych, Karolína Plíšková Football – Oldřich Nejedlý, Antonín Puč, František Plánička, Josef Bican, Josef Masopust, Ivo Viktor, Antonín Panenka, Zdeněk Nehoda, Tomáš Skuhravý, Pavel Nedvěd, Karel Poborský, Jan Koller, Milan Baroš, Marek Jankulovski, Vladimír Šmicer, Tomáš Rosický,[53][54] Petr Čech Hockey – Jaromír Jágr, Dominik Hašek, Vladimír Růžička, Jiří Šlégr, Ivan Hlinka, Jiří Holeček, Jaroslav Pouzar, Jiří Hrdina, Petr Sýkora, Patrik Eliáš, Bobby Holík, Michal Rozsíval, Milan Hejduk, Petr Nedvěd, Martin Straka, Václav Prospal, Jakub Voráček, Tomáš Plekanec, František Kaberle, David Výborný, Pavel Patera, Martin Procházka, David Krejci Athletics – Emil Zátopek, Dana Zátopková, Jarmila Kratochvílová, Roman Šebrle, Jan Železný, Barbora Špotáková Chess – Wilhelm Steinitz, Věra Menčíková, Richard Réti, Salo Flohr, David Navara Others – Věra Čáslavská, Martina Sáblíková, Martin Doktor, Štěpánka Hilgertová, Josef Holeček, Kateřina Neumannová, Filip Jícha, Jiří Zídek Sr., Jan Veselý

The arts[edit] Music[edit]

Bedřich Smetana
Bedřich Smetana
Among his Friends, 1865; oil painting by František Dvořák

Czech music had its first significant pieces created in the 11th century.[55] The great progress of Czech artificial music began with the end of the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the early Baroque era, concretely in works of Adam Václav Michna z Otradovic, where the specific character of Czech music was rising up by using the influence of genuine folk music. This tradition determined the development of Czech music and has remained the main sign in the works of great Czech composers of almost all eras – Jan Dismas Zelenka
Jan Dismas Zelenka
and Josef Mysliveček
Josef Mysliveček
in Baroque, Bedřich Smetana
Bedřich Smetana
and Antonín Dvořák
Antonín Dvořák
in Romanticism, Leoš Janáček, Bohuslav Martinů
Bohuslav Martinů
and Josef Suk in modern classical or Petr Eben and Miloslav Kabeláč in contemporary classical music. Czech musicians also played an important role in the development of European music. Jan Václav Antonín Stamic in 18th-century contributed to the creation of Classicism
Classicism
in music[56] by innovations of compositional forms and the founding of the Mannheim school. Similarly, Antonín Rejcha's experiments prefigured new compositional techniques in the 19th century.[57] The influence of Czech musicians expanded beyond the borders of the European continent, when Antonín Dvořák created a new American classical music style, using the richness of ethnic music of that country during his mission in the US. The contribution of Alois Hába
Alois Hába
to microtonal music in the 20th century must be also mentioned. Czech music reached as far as Qing China. Karel Slavíček
Karel Slavíček
was a Jesuit
Jesuit
missionary, scientist and sinologist who was introduced to the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
on February 3, 1717, in Beijing. The emperor favored him and employed him as court musician. (Slavíček was a Spinet player).[58] Some notable modern Czech musicians are US-based composer and guitarist Ivan Král, musician and composer Jan Hammer
Jan Hammer
and the rock band The Plastic People of the Universe
The Plastic People of the Universe
which played an important part in the underground movement during the communist regime. The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
first entered the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
in 2007. Czech performer qualified for the grand final for the first time in 2016 when singer Gabriela Gunčíková
Gabriela Gunčíková
finished in 25th place. Other important names: Franz Benda, Rafael Kubelík, Jan Ladislav Dussek, Vítězslav Novák, Zdeněk Fibich, Jan Kubelík, Jiří Antonín Benda, Julius Fučík, Karel Svoboda, Karel Kryl, Václav Neumann, Václav Talich, František Xaver Richter, Jan Křtitel Vaňhal, Vojtěch Živný, Josef Bohuslav Foerster, Magdalena Kožená, Karel Ančerl, Ema Destinnová, Maria Jeritza, František Xaver Brixi, Jiří Bělohlávek, Oskar Nedbal, Karel Gott.[59] Literature[edit] Jaroslav Seifert
Jaroslav Seifert
was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
for his poetry.[52] Božena Němcová
Božena Němcová
has become a cultural icon and gained much fame for her book Babička.[60] Other important Czech writers include Milan Kundera, Karel Čapek, Jaroslav Hašek, Jan Neruda, Franz Kafka, Bohumil Hrabal, Viktor Dyk, Kosmas, Pavel Kohout, Alois Jirásek, Josef Škvorecký, Karel Jaromír Erben, Jiří Wolker, Karel Hynek Mácha, Vítězslav Nezval, Arnošt Lustig, Jaroslav Vrchlický, Karel Havlíček Borovský, Ivan Klíma, Egon Erwin Kisch, Vladimír Holan, Julius Zeyer
Julius Zeyer
or Svatopluk Čech. From contemporary Czech writers can be mentioned Jáchym Topol, Patrik Ouředník, Michal Viewegh
Michal Viewegh
or Daniela Hodrová. Important playwrights were Karel Čapek, František Langer
František Langer
or Josef Kajetán Tyl. Strong was also the theatrical avant-garde (Jan Werich, Jiří Voskovec, Emil František Burian). Known journalists were Julius Fučík, Milena Jesenská
Milena Jesenská
or Ferdinand Peroutka. Visual Arts[edit]

The Slav Epic
The Slav Epic
by Alfons Mucha

Mikoláš Aleš
Mikoláš Aleš
was a painter, known for redesigning the Prague National Theatre.[61] Alphonse Mucha
Alphonse Mucha
was an influential artist in the Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
movement of the Edwardian period. František Kupka
František Kupka
was a pioneer and co-founder of the abstract art movement. Other well-known painters are Josef Čapek, Josef Lada, Theodoric of Prague, Wenceslaus Hollar, Toyen, Jan Kupecký, Petr Brandl, Vladimír Vašíček, Václav Brožík, Josef Mánes, Karel Škréta
Karel Škréta
or Max Švabinský. Renowned sculptors were Josef Václav Myslbek
Josef Václav Myslbek
or Matyáš Bernard Braun, photographers Jan Saudek, Josef Sudek, František Drtikol
František Drtikol
or Josef Koudelka, illustrators Zdeněk Burian
Zdeněk Burian
or Adolf Born, architects Jan Kotěra
Jan Kotěra
or Josef Gočár. Jiří Kylián
Jiří Kylián
was an important ballet choreographer. Film[edit]

Film director Miloš Forman

Film director Miloš Forman, known best for his movie, One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest is of Czech origin and started his career in Czechoslovakia.[62] Forman was a member of the so-called Czech New Wave. Other members included Jiří Menzel
Jiří Menzel
(Oscar 1967), Věra Chytilová and Elmar Klos
Elmar Klos
(Oscar 1965). Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film has also Jan Svěrák
Jan Svěrák
(1996). The influential surrealist filmmaker and animator Jan Švankmajer
Jan Švankmajer
was born in Prague
Prague
and has resided in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
throughout his life. In the field of animation and puppet film made famous Zdeněk Miler, Karel Zeman
Karel Zeman
and Jiří Trnka. Actors Zdeněk Svěrák, Vlastimil Brodský,[63] Vladimír Menšík,[64] Libuše Šafránková
Libuše Šafránková
or Karel Roden
Karel Roden
have also made a mark in modern Czech history. The most successful Czech erotic actress is Silvia Saint. Modeling[edit] The first Czech models have made a breakthrough in the international modeling were Paulina Porizkova
Paulina Porizkova
or Ivana Trump. After the fall of communism in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
many other models succeeded: Karolína Kurková, Eva Herzigová, Taťána Kuchařová, Petra Němcová
Petra Němcová
and Daniela Peštová. Saints[edit]

St. John of Nepomuk
John of Nepomuk
(Jan Nepomucký)

Czech culture involves many saints,[65] most notably St. Wenceslaus (Václav), patron of the Czech nation,[66] St. John of Nepomuk
John of Nepomuk
(Jan Nepomucký),[67] St. Adalbert (Vojtěch),[68] Saint Procopius or St. Agnes of Bohemia
Bohemia
(Anežka Česká).[69] Although not a Christian, rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel
Judah Loew ben Bezalel
of Prague, a 16th Century scholar and one of the most influential figures of Jewish history, is considered to be part of the country's religious legacy as well.[70][71] Natives[edit] Modern Czech nation was formed in process of Czech national revival. In it, he pushed linguistic concept of the nation (particularly promoted by Jungmann), i.e. "Czech = one who has Czech language
Czech language
as their first language - naturally or by choice." (That is why they are often considered the Czechs, Slovaks
Slovaks
who have chosen the Czech language as their literary language, such as Ján Kollár
Ján Kollár
or Pavel Jozef Šafařík). Like other nations, the Czechs
Czechs
also discuss two alternative concepts - land concept (Czech is one who is born in the historic Czech territory), which in times of Jungmann success primarily nobility, and ethnic concept. Definition by the territory is still discussed alternative,[72][73] from time to time is indicated for Czechs
Czechs
number of natives (speaking mostly German, English or otherwise) - these include US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, film director Karel Reisz, actor Herbert Lom, the founder of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud, the founder of genetics Gregor Mendel, logician and mathematician Kurt Gödel, the philosopher Edmund Husserl, scientists Gerty Cori, Carl Cori
Carl Cori
and Peter Grünberg
Peter Grünberg
(all Nobel Prize winners) and Ernst Mach, economists Joseph Schumpeter
Joseph Schumpeter
and Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, philosophers Bernard Bolzano, Ernest Gellner, Vilém Flusser
Vilém Flusser
and Herbert Feigl, Marxist theoretician Karl Kautsky, astronomer Johann Palisa, legal theorist Hans Kelsen, inventors Alois Senefelder and Viktor Kaplan, automotive designer Ferdinand Porsche, psychologist Max Wertheimer, a geologist Karl von Terzaghi, musicologists Eduard Hanslick
Eduard Hanslick
and Guido Adler, chemist Johann Josef Loschmidt, biologists Heinrich Wilhelm Schott and Georg Joseph Kamel, the founder of the dermatology Ferdinand Ritter von Hebra, peace activist Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
(Nobel Peace Prize), the composers Gustav Mahler, Heinrich Biber, Viktor Ullmann, Ervin Schulhoff, Pavel Haas, Erich Wolfgang Korngold
Erich Wolfgang Korngold
and Ralph Benatzky, writers Franz Kafka, Reiner Maria Rilke, Max Brod, Karl Kraus, Franz Werfel, Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach, Leo Perutz, Tom Stoppard
Tom Stoppard
and Egon Erwin Kisch, painters Anton Raphael Mengs
Anton Raphael Mengs
and Emil Orlik, architects Adolf Loos, Peter Parler, Josef Hoffmann, Jan Santini Aichel
Jan Santini Aichel
and Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer, cellist David Popper, violist Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst, pianists Alice Herz-Sommer and Rudolf Serkin, president of Austria Karl Renner, Prime Minister of Poland
Poland
Jerzy Buzek, industrialist Oskar Schindler, or chess player Wilhelm Steinitz. Czech ancestry[edit] People with Czech ancestry include the astronauts Eugene Cernan
Eugene Cernan
and Jim Lovell, film directors Chris Columbus and Jim Jarmusch, swimmer Katie Ledecky, politicians John Forbes Kerry
John Forbes Kerry
and Caspar Weinberger, chemist and Nobel Prize laureate Thomas Cech, physicist Karl Guthe Jansky, economist Friedrich Hayek, painters Jan Matejko, Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele
Egon Schiele
and Oskar Kokoschka, actors Ashton Kutcher, Sissy Spacek and Kim Novak, tennis players Richard Krajicek, Jakob Hlasek and Stan Wawrinka, singer Jason Mraz, Brazil
Brazil
president Juscelino Kubitschek, founder of McDonald's
McDonald's
company Ray Kroc, writers Georg Trakl
Georg Trakl
and Robert Musil, mayor of Chicago Anton Cermak
Anton Cermak
and Ivanka Trump
Ivanka Trump
and her brother Donald Trump Jr. Geography[edit]

Greater coat of arms of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
shows symbols of historical lands Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia

The Czechs
Czechs
live in three historical lands: Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia;[74] these regions make up the modern Czech Republic. However, the country is now divided into 14 administrative regions.[75] The local culture varies somewhat in each of the historical regions.[76] Moravians
Moravians
are usually more nationalistic regional patriots of Moravia, but they also speak Czech. Local dialects (such as Central Bohemian, the Chod dialect, Moravian, Cieszyn Silesian, etc.) are found in various parts of the country.[77] Czech language[edit] Main article: Czech Language See also: History of the Czech language The Czech language
Czech language
is spoken by approximately 12 million people around the world, but the vast majority are in the Czech Republic.[78] It developed from the Proto-Slavic language in the 10th century[78][79] and is mutually intelligible with the Slovak language.[80] Religion[edit]

Predecessor to Protestantism, Jan Hus

See also: Religion in the Czech Republic Richard Felix Staar described Czechs
Czechs
as "tolerant and even indifferent towards religion as a rule".[81] After the Bohemian Reformation, most Czechs
Czechs
(about 85%) became followers of Jan Hus, Petr Chelcicky
Petr Chelcicky
and other regional Protestant Reformers. Bohemian Estates' defeat in the Battle of White Mountain brought radical religious changes and started a series of intense actions taken by the Habsburgs
Habsburgs
in order to bring the Czech population back to the Roman Catholic Church. After the Habsburgs
Habsburgs
regained control of Bohemia, Czech people were forcibly converted to Roman Catholicism. All kinds of Protestant communities including the various branches of Hussites, Lutherans
Lutherans
and Reformed
Reformed
were either expelled, killed, or converted to Catholicism. The Catholic Church lost the bulk of its adherents during the Communist era and continues to lose in the modern, ongoing secularization. As of 2015, Pew Research Center found in that 72% of the population of Czech Republic
Czech Republic
declared to be irreligious, a category which includes atheists, agnostics and those who describe their religion as "nothing in particular", 26% were Christians, while 2% belonged to other faiths. Demographics[edit] See also: Demographics of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Czech diaspora In the Czech Republic, the nation state of the Czech people, 6,732,104 (63.7%) declared as ethnic Czech according to the 2011 census. Notably, another 2,742,669 (26%) were undeclared, and 522,474 (4.9%) declared as Moravians.[1] There is a large Czech diaspora, which includes 1,703,930 Americans of Czech/Czechoslovak ancestry,[82] 94,805 Canadians of Czech ancestry,[83] an estimated 45,000 Czech-born residents in the United Kingdom,[5] and ca. 31,000 in Australia.[84] There are smaller communities throughout Europe. See also[edit]

List of Czechs The Greatest Czech List of Bohemian monarchs List of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic List of Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia List of Presidents of Czechoslovakia List of Presidents of the Czech Republic

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ This number is a lower estimate, as 2,742,669 people opted out declaring ethnicity in 2011.

Citations[edit]

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Sources[edit]

Agnew, Hugh (2004). The Czechs
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and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown. Hoover Press. ISBN 978-0-8179-4492-6.  Berger, Tilman (July 2003). " Slovaks
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in Slovakia". International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 2003 (162). doi:10.1515/ijsl.2003.035.  Pánek, Jaroslav (2009). A History of the Czech Lands. Charles University. ISBN 978-80-246-1645-2.  King, Jeremy (2005). Budweisers Into Czechs
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and Germans: A Local History of Bohemian Politics, 1848-1948. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12234-2.  Wiskemann, Elizabeth (1967). Czechs
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and Moravia. Royal Institute of International Affairs; Macmillan.  Mastny, Vojtech (1971). The Czechs
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Further reading[edit]

Hroch, Miroslav (2004). "From ethnic group toward the modern nation: the Czech case". Nations and Nationalism. Wiley-Blackwell. 10 (1–2): 95–107. doi:10.1111/j.1354-5078.2004.00157.x.  Holy, Ladislav (1996). The Little Czech and the Great Czech Nation: National Identity and the Post-Communist Social Transformation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-55469-5. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Czechs.

Official Czech website, links to multiple articles regarding the Czech people.

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