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Cusco
Cusco
(Spanish: Cuzco, [ˈkusko]; Quechua: Qusqu or Quechua: Qosqo, IPA: [ˈqɔsqɔ]), often spelled Cuzco (/ˈkuːskoʊ/), is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes
Andes
mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region
Cusco Region
as well as the Cusco Province. In 2013, the city had a population of 435,114. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft). The site was the historic capital of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
from the 13th until the 16th-century Spanish conquest. In 1983 Cusco
Cusco
was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO. It has become a major tourist destination, hosting nearly 2 million visitors a year. The Constitution of Peru
Peru
designates it as the Historical Capital of Peru.[2]

Contents

1 Spelling and etymology 2 History

2.1 Killke culture 2.2 Inca
Inca
history 2.3 After the Spanish invasion 2.4 Republican era 2.5 Present 2.6 Honors

3 Geography and climate 4 Tourism 5 Main sights

5.1 Architectural heritage

5.1.1 Barrio de San Blas 5.1.2 Hatun Rumiyuq 5.1.3 Convent
Convent
and Church of la Merced 5.1.4 Cathedral 5.1.5 Plaza
Plaza
de Armas cusco 5.1.6 Iglesia de la Compañía de Jesús 5.1.7 Qurikancha
Qurikancha
and Convent
Convent
of Santo Domingo

5.2 Museums

6 Population 7 Cuisine 8 Industry 9 International relations

9.1 Twin towns and sister cities 9.2 Partnerships

10 Gallery 11 In modern culture 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Spelling and etymology[edit] The indigenous name of this city is Qusqu. Although the name was used in Quechua, its origin is found in the Aymara language. The word is derived from the phrase qusqu wanka ('Rock of the owl'), related to the city's foundation myth of the Ayar Siblings. According to this legend, Ayar Awqa (Ayar Auca) acquired wings and flew to the site of the future city; there he was transformed into a rock to mark the possession of the land by his ayllu ("lineage"):[3]

Then Ayar Oche stood up, displayed a pair of large wings, and said he should be the one to stay at Guanacaure
Guanacaure
as an idol in order to speak with their father the Sun. Then they went up on top of the hill. Now at the site where he was to remain as an idol, Ayar Oche raised up in flight toward the heavens so high that they could not see him. He returned and told Ayar Manco that from then on he was to be named Manco Capac. Ayar Oche came from where the Sun was and the Sun had ordered that Ayar Manco take that name and go to the town that they had seen. After this had been stated by the idol, Ayar Oche turned into a stone, just as he was, with his wings. Later Manco Capac
Manco Capac
went down with Ayar Auca to their settlement...he liked the place now occupied in this city Cuzco. Manco Capac
Manco Capac
and his companion, with the help of the four women, made a house. Having done this, Manco Capac and his companion, with the four women, planted some land with maize. It is said that they took the maize from the cave, which this lord Manco Capac
Manco Capac
named Pacaritambo, which means those of origin because...they came out of that cave.[4]:15–16

The Spanish conquistadors adopted the local name, transliterating it into Spanish phonetics as Cuzco or, less often, Cozco. Cuzco was the standard spelling on official documents and chronicles in colonial times,[5] though Cusco
Cusco
was also used. Cuzco, pronounced as in 16th-century Spanish, seems to have been a close approximation to the Cusco
Cusco
Quechua pronunciation of the name at the time.[6] As both Spanish and Quechuan pronunciation have evolved since then, the Spanish pronunciation of 'z' is no longer close to the Quechuan pronunciation of the consonant represented by 'z' in "Cuzco". In 1976, the city mayor signed an ordinance banning the traditional spelling and ordering the use of a new one, Cusco, in municipality publications. Nineteen years later, on 23 June 1990, the local authorities formalized a new spelling related more closely to Quechan: Qosqo. There is no international, official spelling of the city's name. In English language publications both "s"[7][8] and "z"[9][10] can be found. However, the Oxford Dictionary of English recognizes "Cuzco" but not "Cusco";[11] the Merriam-Webster Dictionary has "Cuzco", with "Cusco" only as a "variant";[12] and in scholarly writings "Cuzco" is employed more often than "Cusco".[13] The city's international airport code is still CUZ, reflecting the earlier Spanish spelling. History[edit] Killke culture[edit] The Killke people occupied the region from 900 to 1200, prior to the arrival of the Inca
Inca
in the 13th century. Carbon-14 dating of Saksaywaman, the walled complex outside Cusco, established that Killke constructed the fortress about 1100. The Inca
Inca
later expanded and occupied the complex in the 13th century. In March 2008, archaeologists discovered the ruins of an ancient temple, roadway and aqueduct system at Saksaywaman.[14] The temple covers some 2,700 square feet (250 square metres) and contains 11 rooms thought to have held idols and mummies,[14] establishing its religious purpose. Together with the results of excavations in 2007, when another temple was found at the edge of the fortress, this indicates a longtime religious as well as military use of the facility.[15] Inca
Inca
history[edit] See also: Kingdom of Cusco
Kingdom of Cusco
and Inca
Inca
Empire Cusco
Cusco
was long an important center of indigenous people. It was the capital of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
(13th century–1532). Many believe that the city was planned as an effigy in the shape of a puma, a sacred animal.[16] How Cusco
Cusco
was specifically built, or how its large stones were quarried and transported to the site remain undetermined. Under the Inca, the city had two sectors: the urin and hanan. Each was divided to encompass two of the four provinces, Chinchasuyu
Chinchasuyu
(NW), Antisuyu
Antisuyu
(NE), Kuntisuyu
Kuntisuyu
(SW) and Qullasuyu
Qullasuyu
(SE). A road led from each of quarter to the corresponding quarter of the empire. Each local leader was required to build a house in the city and live part of the year in Cusco, restricted to the quarter that corresponded to the quarter in which he held territory. After the rule of Pachacuti, when an Inca
Inca
died, his title went to one son and his property was given to a corporation controlled by his other relatives (split inheritance). Each title holder had to build a new house and add new lands to the empire, in order to own land for his family to keep after his death. According to Inca
Inca
legend, the city was rebuilt by Sapa Inca
Inca
Pachacuti, the man who transformed the Kingdom of Cuzco from a sleepy city-state into the vast empire of Tawantinsuyu.[17]:66–69 Archaeological evidence, however, points to a slower, more organic growth of the city beginning before Pachacuti. The city was constructed according to a definite plan in which two rivers were channeled around the city. Archaeologists have suggested that this city plan was replicated at other sites. The city fell to the sphere of Huáscar
Huáscar
during the Inca
Inca
Civil War after the death of Huayna Capac
Huayna Capac
in 1527. It was captured by the generals of Atahualpa
Atahualpa
in April 1532 in the Battle of Quipaipan. Nineteen months later, Spanish explorers invaded the city (see battle of Cuzco) and gained control because of their arms and horses, employing superior military technology. After the Spanish invasion[edit]

The first image of Cusco
Cusco
in Europe. Pedro Cieza de León. Crónica del Perú, 1553.

The first three Spaniards arrived in the city in May 1533, after the Battle of Cajamarca, collecting for Atahualpa's Ransom Room. On 15 November 1533 Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
officially arrived in Cusco. "The capital of the Incas...astonished the Spaniards by the beauty of its edifices, the length and regularity of its streets." The great square was surrounded by several palaces, since "each sovereign built a new palace for himself." "The delicacy of the stone work excelled" that of the Spaniards'. The fortress had three parapets and was composed of "heavy masses of rock." "Through the heart of the capital ran a river...faced with stone." "The most sumptuous edifice in Cuzco...was undoubtedly the great temple dedicated to the Sun...studded with gold plates...surrounded by convents and dormitories for the priests." "The palaces were numerous and the troops lost no time in plundering them of their contents, as well as despoiling the religious edifices," including the royal mummies in the Coricancha.[18]:186–187, 192–193, 216–219 Pizarro ceremoniously gave Manco Inca
Inca
the Incan fringe as the new Peruvian leader.[18]:221 Pizarro encouraged some of his men to stay and settle in the city, giving out repartimientos to do so.[19]:46 Alcaldes were established and regidores on 24 March 1534, which included his brothers Gonzalo Pizarro
Gonzalo Pizarro
and Juan Pizarro. Pizarro left a garrison of 90 men and then departed for Jauja
Jauja
with Manco Inca.[18]:222, 227 Pizarro renamed it the "Very noble and great city of Cuzco". Buildings constructed after the Spanish invasion have a mixture of Spanish influence with Inca
Inca
indigenous architecture, including the Santa Clara and San Blas neighborhoods. The Spanish destroyed many Inca
Inca
buildings, temples and palaces. They used the remaining walls as bases for the construction of a new city. Father Vincente de Valverde
Vincente de Valverde
became the Bishop of Cusco
Cusco
and built his cathedral facing the plaza. He placed a St. Dominic
St. Dominic
monastery on the ruins of the House of the Sun and a nunnery where the House of the Virgins of the Sun was stood.[18]:222 The city was retaken from the Spanish during the Siege of Cuzco
Siege of Cuzco
of 1536 by Manco Inca
Inca
Yupanqui, a leader of the Sapa Inca. Although the siege lasted 10 months, it was ultimately unsuccessful. Manco's forces were able to reclaim the city for only a few days. He eventually retreated to Vilcabamba, the capital of the newly established small Neo- Inca
Inca
State, which lasted for another 36 years but he was never able to return to Cuzco. Throughout the conflict and years of the Spanish colonization of the Americas, many Incas died of smallpox. Cusco
Cusco
stands on layers of cultures, with the Tawantinsuyu
Tawantinsuyu
(old Inca Empire) built on Killke structures and the Spanish replacing indigenous temples with Catholic churches and palaces with mansions for the invaders. Cusco
Cusco
was the center for the Spanish colonization and spread of Christianity in the Andean world. It became very prosperous thanks to agriculture, cattle raising and mining, as well as its trade with Spain. The Spanish colonists constructed many churches and convents, as well as a cathedral, university and Archbishopric.

Cristo Blanco in the surrounding mountains of Cusco

Night view of Plaza
Plaza
Regocijo, Cusco

Night view of the Qurikancha
Qurikancha
and Convento de Santo Domingo

Republican era[edit] After Peru
Peru
declared its independence in 1821, Cusco
Cusco
maintained its importance within Peru's administrative structure. Upon independence, the government created the Department of Cuzco, maintaining authority over territory extending to the Brazilian border. Cusco
Cusco
was made capital of the department; subsequently it became the most important city in the south-eastern Andean region. At the beginning of the 20th century, the city's urban sprawl spread to the neighboring districts of Santiago
Santiago
and Wanchaq. In 1911, explorer Hiram Bingham used the city as a base for the expedition in which he rediscovered the ruins of Machu Picchu. Present[edit] A major earthquake on 21 May 1950 caused the destruction of more than one third of the city's structures. The Dominican Priory and Church of Santo Domingo, which were built on top of the impressive Qurikancha (Temple of the Sun), were among the affected colonial era buildings. Inca
Inca
architecture withstood the earthquake. Many of the old Inca
Inca
walls were at first thought to have been lost after the earthquake, but the granite retaining walls of the Qurikancha
Qurikancha
were exposed, as well as those of other ancient structures throughout the city. Restoration work at the Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
complex exposed the Inca
Inca
masonry formerly obscured by the superstructure without compromising the integrity of the colonial heritage.[20] Many of the buildings damaged in 1950 had been impacted by an earthquake only nine years previously.[21] Since the 1990s, tourism has increased. Currently, Cusco
Cusco
is the most important tourist destination in Peru. Under the administration of mayor Daniel Estrada Pérez, a staunch supporter of the Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua, between 1983 and 1995 the Quechua name Qosqo was officially adopted for the city. Honors[edit]

In 1933, the Congress of Americanists met in La Plata, Argentina and declared the city as the Archeological Capital of the Americas. In 1978, the 7th Convention of Mayors of Great World Cities met in Milan, Italy and declared Cusco
Cusco
a Cultural Heritage of the World. In 1983, UNESCO, in Paris, France
France
declared the city a World Heritage Site. The Peruvian government declared it the Tourism Capital of Peru and Cultural Heritage of the Nation. In 2007, the New7Wonders Foundation designated Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
one of the New Seven Wonders of the World, following a worldwide poll.[22]

Geography and climate[edit] Cusco
Cusco
extends throughout the Huatanay (or Watanay) river valley. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cusco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft). To its north is the Vilcabamba mountain range with 4,000–6,000-metre-high (13,000–20,000-foot) mountains. The highest peak is Salcantay
Salcantay
(6,271 metres or 20,574 feet) about 60 kilometres (37 miles) northwest of Cusco.[23] Cusco
Cusco
has a subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb). It is generally dry and temperate, with two defined seasons. The dry season lasts from May to August, with abundant sunshine and occasional nighttime freezes; July is the coolest month with an average of 9.7 °C (49.5 °F). The wet season lasts from December to March, with night frost less common; November averages 13.3 °C (55.9 °F). Although frost and hail are common, the only snowfall ever recorded was in June 1911. Temperatures usually range from 0.2 to 20.9 °C (32.4 to 69.6 °F), but the all-time temperature range is between −8.9 and 30 °C (16.0 and 86.0 °F). Sunshine hours peak in July; the equivalent of January in the northern hemisphere. In contrast, February, the equivalent of August in the northern hemisphere, has the least amount of sunshine. Cusco
Cusco
was found in 2006 to be the spot on Earth with the highest average ultraviolet light level.[24]

Climate data for Cusco
Cusco
(Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport) 1961–1990, extremes 1931–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 27.8 (82) 26.7 (80.1) 25.3 (77.5) 26.9 (80.4) 27.0 (80.6) 24.2 (75.6) 24.2 (75.6) 25.8 (78.4) 25.9 (78.6) 27.2 (81) 26.6 (79.9) 29.9 (85.8) 29.9 (85.8)

Average high °C (°F) 18.8 (65.8) 18.8 (65.8) 19.1 (66.4) 19.7 (67.5) 19.7 (67.5) 19.4 (66.9) 19.2 (66.6) 19.9 (67.8) 20.1 (68.2) 20.9 (69.6) 20.6 (69.1) 20.8 (69.4) 19.8 (67.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) 12.9 (55.2) 12.7 (54.9) 12.8 (55) 12.7 (54.9) 12.0 (53.6) 11.4 (52.5) 10.8 (51.4) 11.5 (52.7) 12.7 (54.9) 13.6 (56.5) 13.6 (56.5) 13.2 (55.8) 12.5 (54.5)

Average low °C (°F) 6.6 (43.9) 6.6 (43.9) 6.3 (43.3) 5.1 (41.2) 2.7 (36.9) 0.5 (32.9) 0.2 (32.4) 1.7 (35.1) 4.0 (39.2) 5.5 (41.9) 6.0 (42.8) 6.5 (43.7) 4.3 (39.7)

Record low °C (°F) 0.0 (32) 0.0 (32) 0.0 (32) −2.0 (28.4) −7.0 (19.4) −4.5 (23.9) −7.0 (19.4) −6.0 (21.2) −6.0 (21.2) 0.0 (32) 0.0 (32) 0.5 (32.9) −7.0 (19.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 160.0 (6.299) 132.9 (5.232) 108.4 (4.268) 44.4 (1.748) 8.6 (0.339) 2.4 (0.094) 3.9 (0.154) 8.0 (0.315) 22.4 (0.882) 47.3 (1.862) 78.6 (3.094) 120.1 (4.728) 737.0 (29.016)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 19 15 13 9 2 1 1 2 5 9 13 16 106

Average relative humidity (%) 66 67 66 63 59 55 54 54 56 56 58 62 60

Mean monthly sunshine hours 143 121 170 210 239 228 257 236 195 198 195 158 2,350

Source #1: NOAA,[25] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[26]

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(mean temperatures 1961–1990, precipitation days 1970–1990 and humidity 1954–1993)[27] Danish Meteorological Institute (sun 1931–1960)[28]

Tourism[edit] Tourism has been the backbone to the economy starting in the early 2000s, bringing in more than 1.2 million tourists per year.[29] In 2002, the income Cusco
Cusco
received from tourism was $837 million USD. In 2009, that number increased to $2.47 billion USD.[citation needed] Main sights[edit]

Ruins
Ruins
of Saksaywaman

The indigenous Killke culture built the walled complex of Saksaywaman about 1100. The Killke built a major temple near Saksaywaman, as well as an aqueduct (Pukyus) and roadway connecting prehistoric structures. Saksaywaman
Saksaywaman
was expanded by the Inca. The Spanish explorer Pizarro sacked much of the Inca
Inca
city in 1535. Remains of the palace of the Incas, Qurikancha
Qurikancha
(the Temple of the Sun) and the Temple of the Virgins of the Sun still stand. Inca
Inca
buildings and foundations in some cases proved to be stronger than the foundations built in present-day Peru. Among the most noteworthy Spanish colonial buildings of the city is the Cathedral of Santo Domingo, Cusco. The major nearby Inca
Inca
sites are Pachacuti's presumed winter home, Machu Picchu, which can be reached on foot by the Inca
Inca
Trail to Machu Picchu or by train; and the "fortress" at Ollantaytambo.

Qurikancha, Convento de Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
and Intipanpa

Less-visited ruins include: Incahuasi, the highest of all Inca
Inca
sites at 3,980 m (13,060 ft);[30] Vilcabamba, the capital of the Inca
Inca
after the capture of Cusco; the sculpture garden at Ñusta Hisp'ana (aka Chuqip'allta, Yuraq Rumi); Tipón
Tipón
with working water channels in wide terraces; as well as Willkaraqay, Patallaqta, Chuqik'iraw, Moray, Vitos and many others. The surrounding area, located in the Watanay Valley, is strong in gold mining and agriculture, including corn, barley, quinoa, tea and coffee. Cusco's main stadium Estadio Garcilaso de la Vega
Estadio Garcilaso de la Vega
was one of seven stadiums used when Peru
Peru
hosted South America's continental soccer championship, the Copa América, in 2004. The stadium is home to one of the country's most successful soccer clubs, Cienciano. The city is served by Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport.

Arc of Barrio de Santa Ana, Cusco

Architectural heritage[edit]

View of the city from Saksaywaman. Roofs of Colonial architecture.

Because of its antiquity and importance, the city center retains many buildings, plazas, streets and churches from colonial times, and even some pre-Columbian structures, which led to its declaration as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1983. Among the main sights of the city are: Barrio de San Blas[edit] This neighborhood houses artisans, workshops and craft shops. It is one of the most picturesque sites in the city. Its streets are steep and narrow with old houses built by the Spanish over important Inca foundations. It has an attractive square and the oldest parish church in Cusco, built in 1563, which has a carved wooden pulpit considered the epitome of Colonial era woodwork in Cusco. The Quechua name of this neighborhood is Tuq'ukachi, which means the opening of the salt. Hatun Rumiyuq[edit] This street is the most visited by tourists. On the street Hatun Rumiyoq ("the one with the big stone") was the palace of Inca
Inca
Roca, which was converted to the Archbishop's residence. Along this street that runs from the Plaza
Plaza
de Armas to the Barrio de San Blas, one can see the Stone of Twelve Angles, which is viewed as marvel of ancient stonework and has become emblematic of the city's history. Convent
Convent
and Church of la Merced[edit]

Calle Mantas to the right is the belltower of the Iglesia y Convento de La Merced

Its foundation dates from 1536. The first complex was destroyed by the earthquake of 1650. Its rebuilding was completed in 1675. Its cloisters of Baroque Renaissance
Renaissance
style, choir stalls, colonial paintings and wood carvings are highlights, now a popular museum. Also on view is an elaborate monstrance made of gold and gemstones that weighs 22 kg (49 lb) and is 130 cm (51.18 in) in height. Cathedral[edit] Main article: Cathedral of Santo Domingo, Cusco The first cathedral built in Cusco
Cusco
is the Iglesia del Triunfo, built in 1539 on the foundations of the Palace of Viracocha Inca. Today, this church is an auxiliary chapel of the Cathedral. The main basilica cathedral of the city was built between 1560 and 1664. The main material used was stone, which was extracted from nearby quarries, although some blocks of red granite were taken from the fortress of Saksaywaman. This great cathedral presents late-Gothic, Baroque and plateresque interiors and has one of the most outstanding examples of colonial goldwork. Its carved wooden altars are also important. The city developed a distinctive style of painting known as the "Cuzco School" and the cathedral houses a major collection of local artists of the time. The cathedral is known for a Cusco School
Cusco School
painting of the Last Supper
Last Supper
depicting Jesus
Jesus
and the twelve apostles feasting on guinea pig, a traditional Andean delicacy. The cathedral is the seat of the Archdiocese of Cuzco. Plaza
Plaza
de Armas cusco[edit]

Plaza
Plaza
de Armas of the city of Cuzco, Peru, at night

Plaza
Plaza
de Armas of Cusco

Known as the "Square of the warrior" in the Inca
Inca
era, this plaza has been the scene of several important events, such as the proclamation by Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
in the conquest of Cuzco. Similarly, the Plaza
Plaza
de Armas was the scene of the death of Túpac Amaru II, considered the indigenous leader of the resistance. The Spanish built stone arcades around the plaza which endure to this day. The main cathedral and the Church of La Compañía both open directly onto the plaza. Iglesia de la Compañía de Jesús[edit]

Iglesia de la Compañía de Jesús

This church (Church of the Society of Jesus), whose construction was initiated by the Jesuits in 1576 on the foundations of the Amarucancha or the palace of the Inca
Inca
ruler Wayna Qhapaq, is considered one of the best examples of colonial baroque style in the Americas. Its façade is carved in stone and its main altar is made of carved wood covered with gold leaf. It was built over an underground chapel and has a valuable collection of colonial paintings of the Cusco School. Qurikancha
Qurikancha
and Convent
Convent
of Santo Domingo[edit] Main article: Qurikancha The Qurikancha
Qurikancha
("golden place") was the most important sanctuary dedicated to the Sun God (Inti) at the time of the Inca Empire.According to ancient chronicles written by Garcilaso de la Vega (chronicler), Qurikancha
Qurikancha
was said to have featured a large solid golden disc that was studded with precious stones and represented the Inca
Inca
Sun God – Inti. Spanish chroniclers describe the Sacred
Sacred
Garden in front of the temple as a garden of golden plants with leaves of beaten gold, stems of silver, solid gold corn-cobs and 20 life-size llamas and their herders all in solid gold.[31] The temple was destroyed by its Spanish invaders who, as they plundered, were determined to rid the city of its wealth, idolaters and shrines. Nowadays, only a curved outer wall and partial ruins of the inner temple remain at the site. With this structure as a foundation, colonists built the Convent
Convent
of Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
(St. Dominic) in the Renaissance
Renaissance
style. The building, with one baroque tower, exceeds the height of many other buildings in this city. Inside is a large collection of paintings from the Cuzco School. Museums[edit] Cusco
Cusco
has the following important museums:[32]

Museo de Arte Precolombino (Peru) Casa Concha Museum ( Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
Museum) Museo Inka Museo Histórico Regional de Cuzco Centro de Textiles Tradicionales del Cuzco or Center of the Traditional Textiles of Cusco
Cusco
in English Museum of Sacred, Magical and Medicinal Plants (Museo de plantas sagradas, mágicas y medicinales)[33] ChocoMuseo (The Cacao and Chocolate Museum)[34]

There are also some museums located at churches. Population[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1500 300,000[35][36] —    

1614 5,000 −98.3%

1761 6,600 +32.0%

1812 6,900 +4.5%

1820 9,000 +30.4%

1827 15,000 +66.7%

1850 16,000 +6.7%

1861 15,000 −6.2%

1877 17,000 +13.3%

1890 18,900 +11.2%

1896 20,000 +5.8%

1900 25,000 +25.0%

1908 33,900 +35.6%

1920 30,500 −10.0%

1925 32,000 +4.9%

1927 33,000 +3.1%

1931 35,900 +8.8%

1940 40,600 +13.1%

1945 45,600 +12.3%

1951 50,000 +9.6%

1953 54,000 +8.0%

1961 80,100 +48.3%

1969 115,300 +43.9%

1981 180,227 +56.3%

1993 250,270 +38.9%

1997 275,318 +10.0%

2000 295,530 +7.3%

2005 375,066 +26.9%

2006 382,577 +2.0%

2007 390,059 +2.0%

2008 397,526 +1.9%

2009 405,000 +1.9%

2010 412,495 +1.9%

2011 420,030 +1.8%

2012 427,580 +1.8%

2013 435,114 +1.8%

2015 434,654 −0.1%

The city had a population of about 434,114 people in 2013 and 434,654 people in 2015 according to INEI.

Financial Center of the City, Av. de la Cultura, Cusco

Population by district

City district Area (km²) Population 2007 census (hab) Housing (2007) Density (hab/km²) Elevation (amsl)

Cuzco 116.22 108,798* 28,476 936.1 3,399

San Jerónimo 103.34 28,856* 8,942 279.2 3,244

San Sebastián 89.44 85,472* 18,109 955.6 3,244

Santiago 69.72 66,277* 21,168 950.6 3,400

Wanchaq 6.38 54,524* 14,690 8,546.1 3,366

Total 385.1 358,052* 91,385 929.76 —

*Census data conducted by INEI[37]

Cuisine[edit] As capital to the Inca
Inca
Empire, Cusco
Cusco
was an important agricultural region. It was a natural reserve for thousands of native Peruvian species, including around 3,000 varieties of potato cultivated by the people.[38] Fusion and neo-Andean restaurants developed in Cusco, in which the cuisine is prepared with modern techniques and incorporates a blend of traditional Andean and international ingredients.[39] Industry[edit]

Cusqueña
Cusqueña
brewery

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Peru Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

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Cusco
Cusco
is twinned with:[40]

Bethlehem, Palestine[41] La Paz, Bolivia Baguio, Philippines Samarkand, Uzbekistan Mexico
Mexico
City, Mexico Kyoto, Japan Jersey City, New Jersey, United States

Lima, Peru Chartres, France Kaesong, North Korea Athens, Greece Moscow, Russia La Habana, Cuba

Copán, Honduras Xi'an, China Potosí, Bolivia Cuenca, Ecuador Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Madison, Wisconsin, United States Istanbul, Turkey

Tempe, Arizona, United States

Partnerships[edit]

Kraków
Kraków
in Poland[42]

Gallery[edit]

12-sided stone

Chapel of the Holy Family / Capilla de la Sagrada Familia

Old streets in the city center

Panorama

Cristo Blanco (White Christ)

Statue to Pachacuti, Sapa Inca

Street in old city

In modern culture[edit]

In the film The Emperor's New Groove and its spin-off animated television series The Emperor's New School, the main protagonist is "Kuzco", the young, often immature fictional emperor of the Incas. "Cuzco" was the name of a song on E.S. Posthumus' 2001 album Unearthed. Each song on the album was named after an ancient city. The Anthony Horowitz
Anthony Horowitz
novel Evil Star takes place partly in Cusco. BBC radio 1
BBC radio 1
DJ John Peel
John Peel
died in Cusco
Cusco
on a working holiday in 2004.

See also[edit]

Peru
Peru
portal

Cusco
Cusco
School Governorate of New Castile Inca
Inca
religion in Cusco Inca
Inca
road system Iperu, tourist information and assistance List of archaeoastronomical sites sorted by country PeruRail Pikillaqta Santurantikuy Tampukancha, Inca
Inca
religious site Tourism in Peru Wanakawri New7Wonders of the World

References[edit]

^ Perú: Población estimada al 30 de junio y tasa de crecimiento de las ciudades capitales, por departamento, 2011 y 2015. Perú: Estimaciónes y proyecciones de población total por sexo de las principales ciudades, 2012–2015 (Report). Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. March 2012. Retrieved 2015-06-03.  ^ "Constitución del Perъ de 1993". Pdba.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  ^ Cerrón-Palomino, Rodolfo (2007). "Cuzco: La piedra donde se posó la lechuza. Historia de un nombre". Andina. Lima. 44: 143–174. ISSN 0259-9600.  ^ Betanzos, J., 1996, Narrative of the Incas, Austin: University of Texas Press, ISBN 978-0292755598 ^ Carrión Ordóñez, Enrique (1990). "Cuzco, con Z". Histórica. Lima. XVII: 267–270.  ^ Cerrón-, Rodolfo. "Cuzco: la piedra donde se posó la lechuza. Historia de un nombre". Lexis. Año 2006, número XXX, volumen 1, pp. 151–52. Consulta: 24 de mayo de 2011. <http://revistas.pucp.edu.pe/lexis/sites/revistas.pucp.edu.pe.lexis/files/images/Lexis-XXX-1-2006-5-Cerron-Palomino.pdf> ^ " Cusco
Cusco
Cusco
Cusco
and around Guide". roughguides.com.  ^ "The World Factbook". cia.gov.  ^ "City of Cuzco – UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. 21 August 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  ^ "Cuzco Travel Information and Travel Guide – Peru". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  ^ Oxford Dictionary of English, 2nd ed, revised, 2009, Oxford University Press, eBook edition, accessed 30 August 2017. ^ Merriam-Webster Online[1], accessed 30 August 2017. ^ JSTOR (cuzco) AND la:(eng OR en) has 5,671 articles vs. only 1,124 articles for (cusco) AND la:(eng OR en); JSTOR accessed 30 August 2017. ^ a b Kelly Hearn, "Ancient Temple Discovered Among Inca
Inca
Ruins", National Geographic News, 31 March 2008, accessed 12 January 2010 ^ "News". Comcast.net<!. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  ^ "The history of Cusco". cusco.net<!. Retrieved 25 July 2009.  ^ de Gamboa, P.S., 2015, History of the Incas, Lexington, ISBN 9781463688653 ^ a b c d Prescott, W.H., 2011, The History of the Conquest of Peru, Digireads.com Publishing, ISBN 9781420941142 ^ Pizzaro, P., 1571, Relation of the Discovery and Conquest of the Kingdoms of Peru, Vol. 1–2, New York: Cortes Society, RareBooksClub.com, ISBN 9781235937859 ^ "Koricancha Temple and Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
Convent
Convent
– Cusco, Peru". Sacred-destinations.com. Retrieved 15 September 2011.  ^ Erickson; et al. "The Cusco, Peru, Earthquake of May 21, 1950". Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. Bssa.geoscienceworld.org. p. 97. Retrieved 15 September 2011. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ "Opera House snubbed as new Wonders unveiled". abc.net.au. 8 July 2007.  ^ "Map Of The Andes". zoom-maps.com.  ^ Liley, J. Ben and McKenzie, Richard L. (April 2006) "Where on Earth has the highest UV?" UV Radiation and its Effects: an update NIWA Science, Hamilton, NZ; ^ " Cusco
Cusco
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 July 2017.  ^ "Station Alejandro Velasco" (in French). Météo Climat. Retrieved 4 July 2017.  ^ "Klimatafel von Cuzco, Prov. Cuzco / Peru" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 4 July 2017.  ^ Cappelen, John; Jensen, Jens. " Peru
Peru
– Cuzco" (PDF). Climate Data for Selected Stations (1931–1960) (in Danish). Danish Meteorological Institute. p. 209. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2012.  ^ PERU: New cusco airport will help boost tourism. (2010, Aug 10). Oxford Analytica Daily Brief Service Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/741070699 ^ "Photo map of the sites in Upper Puncuyoc – Inca
Inca
Wasi, cave group, reflection pond and abandoned pegs". bylandwaterandair.com. Retrieved May 20, 2016.  ^ "The Inca
Inca
City of Cusco: A Fascinating Look at the Most Important City in the Inca
Inca
Empire". totallylatinamerica.com. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013.  ^ Museums in Cusco
Cusco
theonlyperuguide.com ^ Museum of Sacred, Magical and Medicinal Plants, Cusco ^ Cacao and Chocolate Museum, Cusco ^ "Political Division, Population, Language, Religion, Orography – Cusco
Cusco
Peru
Peru
– Cuzco". Cusco-peru.org. Retrieved 2015-06-20.  ^ " Cusco
Cusco
Culture – ISA". Studiesabroad.com. Retrieved 2015-06-20.  ^ Censo 2005 INEI Archived 23 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Cusco, Peru
Peru
Bans GM Products To Protect Diversity Of Native Potatoes". scidev.net. Retrieved 21 Feb 2012.  ^ "Restaurantes". archive.org. 20 November 2007. Archived from the original on 20 November 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Ciudades Hermanas (Sister Cities)" (in Spanish). Municipalidad del Cusco. Archived from the original on 3 August 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009.  ^ ":: Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Municipality::". bethlehem-city.org. Archived from the original on 24 July 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2009.  ^ " Kraków
Kraków
– Miasta Partnerskie" [ Kraków
Kraków
-Partnership Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków
Kraków
(in Polish). Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cusco.

Cusco
Cusco
travel guide from Wikivoyage

Cusco
Cusco
official website

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World Heritage Sites in Peru

Chan Chan
Chan Chan
Archaeological Zone Chavín Archaeological Site City of Cuzco Historic Centre of Lima Historical Centre of the City of Arequipa Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu Huascarán National Park Manú National Park Lines and Geoglyphs of Nasca and Pampas de Jumana Rio Abiseo National Park Sacred
Sacred
City of Caral-Supe

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Archaeological sites in Peru

Acaray Amaru Marka Wasi Arhuaturo Asana Asiru Phat'jata Aspero Awila Qhincha Mach'ay Awkin Punta Awkillu Waqra Awkimarka (Apurímac) Awkimarka (Huánuco) Awqa Punta Aya Muqu Ayamachay Ayawayq'u Azángaro Baths of Boza Bandurria Buena Vista Cahuachi Cajamarquilla Cao Viejo Carajía Caral Caves of Sumbay Cerro Baúl Cerro Pátapo Cerro Trinidad Chacamarca Chan Chan Chanquillo Chauchilla Cemetery Chavín de Huantar Chawaytiri Chichakuri Chipaw Marka Choquepuquio Choquequirao Chuqik'iraw Pukyu Churajón Chuya Ch'iqullu Cochabamba Colcampata Cota Coca Coricancha Cumbe Mayo El Brujo El Cañoncillo El Ingenio El Paraíso Garagay Gran Pajatén Gran Vilaya Guitarrero Cave Hatun Mach'ay Hatun Misapata Hatun Rumiyoc Hatun Uchku Hatun Usnu Hatunmarka Honcopampa Huaca de la Luna Huaca del Dragón Huaca del Sol Huaca Huallamarca Huaca Prieta Huaca Pucllana Huaca San Marcos Huaca Santa Ana Huacramarca Huamanmarca, La Convención Huamboy Huánuco
Huánuco
Pampa Huari Huayna Picchu Huayrapongo Huiñao Incahuasi, Lima Inka Mach'ay Inka Raqay, Apurímac Inka Raqay, Ayacucho Inka Tampu, Cajamarca Inka Tampu, Huayopata Inka Tampu, Vilcabamba Inka Tunuwiri Inka Uyu Inka Wasi, Ayacucho Inka Wasi, Huancavelica Inkapintay Inkill Tampu Inti
Inti
Punku Inti
Inti
Watana, Ayacucho Inti
Inti
Watana, Calca Inti
Inti
Watana, Urubamba Intikancha Intini Uyu Pata Intipa Ñawin Intiyuq K'uchu Iskuqucha Isog Jinkiori Jisk'a Iru Muqu Kanamarka Kanichi Kenko Killa Mach'ay Killa Rumi Killarumiyuq Kiswar Kotosh Kuelap Kukuli Kuntur Wasi Kunturmarka, Ayacucho Kunturmarka, Pasco Kuntur Qaqa Kuntuyuq Kusichaka valley Kutimpu Khichuqaqa Khuchi Mach'ay K'allapayuq Urqu K'ipakhara Laguna de las Momias Lauricocha Caves Layzón Llamachayuq Llamachayuq Qaqa Llamayuq Llamuqa Llaqta Qulluy, Acoria Llaqta Qulluy, Conayca Llaqta Qulluy, Tayacaja Llaqta Qulluy, Vilca Llaqtan Llaqtapata Machu Picchu Machu Pirqa Machu Pitumarka Machu Q'inti Machu Qullqa Mameria Maray Qalla Marayniyuq Marcahuamachuco Markahirka Markansaya Markapukyu Marpa Mawk'allaqta, Castilla Mawk'allaqta, Espinar Mawk'allaqta, La Unión Mawk'allaqta, Melgar Mawk'allaqta, Paruro Mawk'allaqta, Sandia Mawk'ataray Mayqu Amaya Mazur Miculla Millka Miraflores Mirq'imarka Miyu Pampa Moray Mulinuyuq Mullu Q'awa Mulluq'u Muyu Muyu Muyu Urqu Muyuq Marka Nazca Lines Nina Kiru Ninamarca Ñawpallaqta, Huanca Sancos Ñawpallaqta, Fajardo Ñawpallaqta, Lucanas Ñusta Hispana Ollantaytambo Pacatnamu Pachacamac Pachatusan Paiján Pañamarca Paracas Candelabra Paraccra Patallaqta Phiruru Pikillaqta Pikimach'ay Pilluchu Pinkuylluna Pirca Pirca, La Libertad Pirca Pirca, Lima Pirhuaylla Pirwayuq Písac Puka Pukara Puka Tampu Puka Urqu Pukara, Coporaque Pukara, Fajardo Pukara, Puno Pukara, Vilcas Huamán Pukarani Pumamarka, San Sebastián Pumamarka, Urubamba Pumaq Hirka Pumawasi Punkuri Puqin Kancha Puruchuco Purunllacta, Cheto Purunllacta, Soloco Pusharo Pusuquy Pata Phuyupatamarka Qaqapatan Qenko Qillqatani Quchapata Qillqa Qillqay Mach'ay Quiaca Qullqapampa Qulu Qulu Qunchamarka Qunchupata Quri Winchus Qurimarka, Apurímac Qurimarka, Cusco Quriwayrachina, Anta Quriwayrachina, Ayacucho Quriwayrachina, La Convención Quyllur Q'arachupa Qasa Pata Qhapaq Kancha Q'illaywasin Raqch'i Revash Rumicolca Rumiwasi Runayuq Runkuraqay Saksaywaman Sara Sara Sayacmarca Sayhuite Sechín Sillustani Sipán Sóndor Susupillu Tambo Totem Tambomachay Tampu Mach'ay, Huancavelica Tampukancha Tanqa Tanqa Tantarica Taqrachullu Tarahuasi Tarmatambo Templo del Zorro The Toads of Wiraqucha Tikra Tinyaq Tipón Titiqaqa Toquepala Caves Toro Muerto Trinchera Túcume Tunanmarca Tunay Q'asa Tupu Inka T'akaq T'uqu T'uquyuq Uchkus Inkañan Urpish Uskallaqta Usnu, Ayacucho Usnu, Huánuco Usnu Muqu Usqunta Uyu Uyu Venado cautivo Ventanillas de Otuzco Ventarron Vilcabamba Vilcashuamán Viracochapampa Vitcos Wallpayunka Waman Pirqa Wamanilla Wamanmarka, Chumbivilcas Wamanmarka, Lima Wanakawri, Cusco Wanakawri, Huánuco Wanqaran Waqlamarka Waqra Pukara Waqutu Warahirka Waraqayuq Waraqu Urqu Warawtampu Wari Willka Waruq Wat'a, Cusco Wat'a, Huánuco Wayna Q'inti Wayna Tawqaray Wichama Wichqana Wich'un Wila Wilani Wilca Willkaraqay Willkawayin Wiñay Wayna Wiraqucha Pirqa Yanaca Yanaqi - Qillqamarka Yaynu Yuraq Mach'ay

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Peruvian cities with a population of over 100,000

Arequipa Ayacucho Cajamarca Callao Chiclayo Chimbote Chincha Cusco Huacho Huancayo Huaraz Ica Iquitos Juliaca Lima Pisco Piura Pucallpa Puno Sullana Tacna Talara Tarapoto Trujillo

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American Capitals of Culture

2000 Mérida 2001 Iquique 2002 Maceió 2003 Panama City Curitiba 2004 Santiago 2005 Guadalajara 2006 Córdoba 2007 Cusco 2008 Brasília 2009 Asunción 2010 Santo Domingo 2011 Quito 2012 São Luís 2013 Barranquilla 2014 Colima 2015 Mayagüez 2016 Valdivia 2017 Mérida

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Spanish / Hispanic Colonial architecture

Bigger Historic Centers

Antigua Guatemala Bogotá Buenos Aires Campeche Cartagena de Indias Cienfuegos Coro Cuernavaca Cusco Granada Guanajuato Havana León Los Angeles Lima Manila Mexico
Mexico
City Mompox Montevideo Morelia Oaxaca Old Panama Panama City Puebla Quito San Diego San Juan San Miguel de Allende Santo Domingo St. Augustine Trujillo Vigan

Spanish Missions concentrations

List of Spanish missions

Cathedrals

Argentina Bolivia Chile Costa Rica Colombia Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador Guam Guatemala Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay The Philippines Peru Puerto Rico United States

Arizona California Louisiana San Antonio

Uruguay Venezuela

Churches and monasteries

Baroque Churches of the Philippines Bohol Chiloé Popocatépetl

Fortifications

Presidio Caribbean coast of Panama Santo Domingo

Bridges and roads

Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Tayabas

Other buildings types

Hacienda

Haciendas in the Valley of Ameca

Cabildo Colonial universities in Hispanic America Colonial universities in the Philippines Plaza

Architecture types

Baroque

Andean Churrigueresque Earthquake Mexican Sicilian1

Chilotan Monterey Colonial Renaissance Rococo Neoclassical

Modern Revival Style

Spanish Colonial Revival architecture Mission Revival architecture

1It occured when it was part of the Spanish kingdom Category

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Regional capitals of Peru

Abancay Arequipa Ayacucho Cajamarca Callao Cerro de Pasco Chachapoyas Chiclayo Cusco Huacho Huancavelica Huancayo Huánuco Huaraz Ica Iquitos Moquegua Moyobamba Piura Pucallpa Puerto Maldonado Puno Tacna Trujillo Tumbes

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 153610071 GND: 4090652-8 BNF:

.